[16] **viXra:1309.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-30 23:28:54*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 3 charts

In our holographic and combinatorial universe, there actually are no discrete conventional particles. Particles are merely a convenient way of discussing combinatorial phenomena. Nor is there linear velocity or the physical transport of objects in the “black hole” Substratum form of matter. Instead, there is a transfer of vibratory ensembles. However, for those who find particles convenient, there are 18 orders of Quarks, not merely six. Quarks exist in the “dark hole” Substratum form of matter, where matter begins to form at the algorithm of 2.718… or the natural logarithm e.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1309.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-30 08:23:03*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 87 Pages. This revision further develops renormalization in sections 14 and 15 and shows how the infinite renormalization constants now become equal to unity.

We demonstrate how the application of Higgs field theory to spin ½ fermions in a manner analogous to its application to spin 0 scalars enables fermion masses to be constructed entirely from a self-energy arising from gauge fields and “revealed” in the Dirac Lagrangian in a fully renormalizable manner with no “bare” aspect. When the observed fermions are taken to be Higgs fields based on expansion about the vacuum, it is found that the Dirac Lagrangian naturally produces an “anomalous” aspect for their magnetic moments. This enables us to deduce the gauge fields which underlie the self-energies for the three charged leptons on an entirely empirical basis, and then use this data to predict the impact of a time-dependent magnetic field on the lepton g-factors. We predict that a time-dependent magnetic field impacts the g-factor of the heaver mu and especially tau leptons much more substantially than it does the g-factor of the electron, and quantify how this should be detectable well within experimental ranges. We also show how this construction of fermion masses out of gauge fields permits these masses to remain invariant at all renormalization scales, wherein the variability of a fermion mass under renormalization is entirely equivalent to, and may be fully absorbed by, a gauge transformation of the vector potentials from which the fermion self-energies arise. As a result, the infinite constants ordinarily used for renormalization become finite and equal to unity. Finally, the time and space dependencies of the electric and magnetic fields in Maxwell’s equations are revealed to be embedded into Dirac’s equation as a result of Heisenberg commutations. This develops multiple venues for further confirming Higgs Field Theory in the fermion sector, all of which appear to be new.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14] **viXra:1309.0178 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-29 08:04:31*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We discuss two theoretical arguments strongly suggesting that the continuum limit of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) leads to fractal geometry. The first argument stems from the Path Integral formulation of QFT, whereas the second one is an inevitable consequence of the Renormalization Group (RG).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:1309.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-25 14:52:44*

**Authors:** Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Keywords: Doppler Effect, Matter light duality, speed greater than light, Positron, Blind Pairs

In the paper with title “matter light duality and speed greater than light” we demonstrated that there exists a duality of matter and light. As per a of theorem in that paper, a photon can be represented by one particle going below the speed of light and another particle above the speed of light. In this article we conjecture that every photon is composed of an electron with speed less than light and an electron with speed greater than light (positron as per the matter-duality paper). We validate this prediction with the equations and further conjecture that all the frequency shifts of photons are due to Doppler Effect of the source. Then we take a case of zero energy vacuum where we show that the vacuum is composed of pair of electrons with first electron approaching speed of light from below c and the second electron from above c. We further demonstrate that the speed of an electron out of electron pair with respect to the other electron is infinite. We call them as "blind pairs" because one cannot see the other.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1309.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-25 14:54:33*

**Authors:** Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Keywords: Matter light duality, speed greater than light, Zero energy non-zero momentum

In the article with title “Matter-light duality and speed greater than light” [1], we formulated energy and momentum equations for particles with speed greater than light. In this article we see a special case of it where the energy becomes zero and momentum is non-zero for a particle (we named them as ZEN particles). These particles have infinite speed and thus exist only for an instance of time, being omnipresent at that time. These particles when present in any system can take away or add momentum without taking away or adding energy to the system. When these take away momentum, they lead to conversion of kinetic energy to mass. When these particles add momentum they lead to conversion of mass to kinetic energy. We conjecture that these particles form space component of space time and also the binding force in the atom nucleus.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1309.0167 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-17 17:13:36*

**Authors:** Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper we demonstrate duality between matter and light. Through mathematical derivation we show that every fundamental matter particle with non-zero rest mass can be represented by a pair of photons. The photons in the representation are not normal photons but a special kind of continuously generating and annihilating virtual photons, whose wave functions super impose to give the wave function of the non-zero rest mass particle and the representation is in agreement with the spin of the particle. We use this duality to derive De Broglie wavelength. We show that a moving matter wave has two frequency components, one of it is with De-Broglie wavelength h/P and the other one is with wavelength hc/E. We also correct the De-Broglie wavelength for v = 0 where we show that there is only one frequency component for v = 0 with wavelength hc/E. Later in the paper we derive that every photon can be represented by a non-zero rest mass particle pair, one going below the speed of light and the other going above the speed of light.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1309.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-24 15:32:36*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The mass of each up-type quark, like the mass of the electron, is simply related to the Planck Mass. Since the quarks of each generation are symmetrically arranged about prominent mass levels in the Planck Model, the mass of each down-type quark may be calculated. The quark masses of the model are 2.18 MeV (up), 4.89 MeV (down), 96.1 MeV (strange), 1.27 GeV (charm), 4.28 GeV (bottom) and 174 GeV (top). The model explains why in generations 2 and 3 the up-type quark is heavier than its down-type partner.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1309.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-23 20:43:15*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The vortex theory of electromagnetism shows that the concept of magnetic monopoles is inconsistent with the fundamental character of the magnetic field. This is because the magnetic field is a vortex-like field without any sources. Therefore, magnetic monopoles do not exist.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1309.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-16 02:47:13*

**Authors:** DING Jian, HU Xiuqin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In allusion to the high-speed electronic energy convergence phenomena, according to the relevant electromagnetic theory as well as the mass-energy and kinetic energy equation of Einstein's special relativity, the study concluded that a moving electronic charge would follow along with its static mass synchronously to be lost. Since an electron can be further broken down, then there should be a kind of more fundamental particles to compose, which can be referred to as "electro-base particles". It should be the electro-ultimate particles whose charge-mass ratio is equal to that of electronic physical constants. A corollary is that all photons radiating from the electrons in a storage ring are composed of the electro-base particles. Then based on de Broglie's matter wave concept, it is pointed out that the high-speed particles' energy convergence effect should be the primary factor in causing spectral redshift. Finally, using HLS 800MeV electron storage ring as an example, we have calculated the moving speed of electrons, and estimated the approximate ranges of the wavelength and static mass. And further, by the aid of a well known experimental fact in the industry but it seems to have been neglected, based on the Law of Energy Conservation, in allusion to the radiated photon whose characteristic wavelength is 2.427 (nm), we have calculated the moving speed and static mass, as well as the deflection radius in the magnetic field. Moreover, to verify whether the above arguments are set up, this paper introduces a method about measuring the wavelength value of electrons in a storage ring.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1309.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-15 11:36:27*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In arXiv 1307.3536 Buttazzo, Degrassi, Giardino, Giudice, Sala, Salvio, and Strumia assume a Standard Model Higgs with a single 125.66 GeV Mass State and a Standard Model Tquark with a single 173.35 GeV Mass State and conclude that Our Universe is MetaStable with a possibility that its current ElectroWeak Vacuum could decay at any time (although its probable lifetime is at least around 10^400 years). However, the LHC has seen possible indications of at least two other Higgs Mass States (around 200 GeV and 250 GeV, with small cross sections about 20% of that of single SM Higgs) that are NOT in the MetaStable Vacuum Region. For the LHC to produce enough data beyond the 25/fb now available in 2013 to show whether or not the 200 GeV and 250 GeV Higgs Mass States are real, the upgrade of the long shutdown and the 2016 run data are necessary. Only the LHC 2016 Data can answer the question: Is Our Universe MetaStable?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1309.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-12 10:02:25*

**Authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Constructive feedback is welcome.

Starting from three equal but unknown energy / mass fermions (Q), each carrying a unit positive or negative elementary charge, the electromagnetic potential energy of their attraction (Epot) has been utilized to forge them into proton: Q+, Q-, Q+ (Epot) → q+: q-: q+ (p). This study employs the equal assimilation of the attractive energy by the three Primary or the starting fermions to convert them by compression into the Forged fermions (q) which constitute the proton. The value of the mass / energy deduced for the Primary fermions (Q = 204 e), equivalent to the mass or energy of 204 electrons, strongly supports my earlier suggestion for the candidacy of the well-familiar Muons (207 e) for forging them into protons. The present report also examines the viability of a triangular structure for proton.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1309.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 22:46:39*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Max Abraham (as a prominent advocate of the concept in 1903) thought that the electron mass
was entirely of electromagnetic origin. This idea has since then been rejected in the framework of
the present understanding in particle physics, wherein, how the mass (the so called bare mass)
of electron arises, is still a mystery. As to the statement in the title of the paper
(if not in all the details of his model in 1903),
here we show that actually Abraham was right afterall!
This, we show through a consistent study of the Standard Model (SM), where the group
${SU(3)_{c}} \otimes {SU(2)_{L}} \otimes {U(1)_{Y}}$
is spontaniously broken through the Higgs mechanism to the
group ${SU(3)_{c}} \otimes {U(1)_{em}}$ .
It is shown that the electromagnetism obtained thereby in the SM, as a matter of self-consistency,
generates the mass of the electron ( and that of the other leptons and quarks )
through Yukawa coupling. Thus Yukawa coupling is induced by $U(1)_{em}$ in the SM.
Hence all the masses of the fermions (including the electron) in the SM,
are fully electromgnnetic in origin.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1309.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 20:07:53*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1309.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-07 09:13:05*

**Authors:** Jozef Kajfosz

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A phenomenological model developed independently of most of the recent theoretical concepts is presented, the process of its development is described, its affinity with the quark model is shown, and its properties and some of their consequences are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1309.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-04 11:54:54*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Physica A 165 (1990) 399-419

The full structure of the Standard Model may be recovered from the universal approach to chaos via period-doubling bifurcations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1309.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-01 03:46:28*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), as a part of the Standard Model of particle physics, is
the most successful theory of the strong interaction at present.
However, as shown by the author, it predicts a colour dependence of the electric charge
of the quarks. This colour dependence is consistent with all that we know of QCD for three
colours and for arbitrary number of colours; except that it brings about a direct conflict with the
experimentally well-known coulomb interaction of the electric charges of quarks and leptons.
This leads directly to QCD predicting "naked" colour interaction in electrodynamics
at large distances. This is completely unacceptable and is thus a major crisis for QCD.
Note that this crisis cannot be swept aside, as the issue of the "naked" colour
is as fundamenatal a prediction of QCD as that of the asymptotic freedom was.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics