[13] **viXra:1401.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-29 08:58:39*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is proposed that all radiative hyperon decays occur due to the variation of a new quantum number associated to quarks which for the transition s>d is always equal to +1.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1401.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-28 07:44:13*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 24 pages, 228 equations, 18 references

In an 18-dimensional gravidynamic unification model the spacetime and the internal symmetries of 4 generations of leptons and quarks are consolidated in a 256-component Majorana-Weyl-Dirac fermion. In such a framework, the dynamics of vector bosons as well as Higgs scalars would be generated at the quantum level through a unified coupling of an antisymmetric tensor of rank 3 to the fermions. We exhibit the complete U7 structure of the latter coupling. This extensive work begins by writing the Lorentz algebra of 18 dimensional spacetime in terms of its 4-dimensional Lorentz subalgebra and an internal O14 factor. The latter is expressed via its U7 subalgebra. The 256-component fermion is expressed in terms of 64 Weyl fermions, and their Dirac conjugates, in 4 dimensions. Likewise the 3rd rank antisymmetric tensor is expressed in terms of vectors and scalars in 4 dimensions. The emerging picture regarding the fundamental fermions, and their interactions, would lead to aspects that are well described by a complementing O14 and SU7 grand unification schemes.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1401.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-23 01:01:35*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 16 pages, 55 equations, 8 references

We construct the O14 algebra in terms of the tensorial representations of its SU7 subalgebra. Subsequently, we construct the gauge-invariant boson-fermion coupling, and decompose it completely into terms exhibiting color SU3 and family SU3 symmetries. A picture of the particle spectrum emerges where quarks and leptons, as well as vector bosons, would appear as singlets or triplets with respect to family SU3. Accordingly, we conjecture the possible existence of a 4th generation of fermions, as well as the imminent existence of other $W$-like vector bosons, in high-energy collider experiments.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1401.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-20 09:59:25*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the paper, it is argued that the gravitational field is some residual non-linear electromagnetic field.
The equations of gravitation can be perspicuously interpreted as a manifestation of the elasticity of “space-time”.
Thus, is derived the Gravity Constant as based on quantum mechanics (QCD), and is verified the theory on Earth Space-time curvature calculation.
Also, is established the nature of Dark matter based on the same vacuum (anti)monopole condensate particles into an weak interaction, that is verified on the calculation of light bending by the Earth.
Also, it is established that the dark web around objects (planets) not interacts gravitationally in order to curve the space-time, that, is happen, but only as weak interaction between anti-monopoles (WIMPS), that justifying the light deflection due of this dark energy concentration at the surface of a planet. This interaction push the vacuum, it realizing the expansion of Universe.
It was established that behind of the Higgs field, can stay the gravitational interaction of two monopoles (Planck particles) situated at Compton wave-length for bosons, and it was discovered that (Higgs field) is in fact the Schwinger critical field for a pair of production.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1401.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-19 14:54:50*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung, Ray Hefferlin

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013, pp. 21-26. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=30472

It is proposed that the observed Higgs Boson at the LHC is the Standard Model Higgs boson that adopts the existence of the hidden lepton condensate. The hidden lepton is in the forbidden lepton family, outside of the three lepton families of the Standard Model. Being forbidden, a single hidden lepton cannot exist alone; so it must exist in the lepton condensate as a composite of μ’ and μ’± hidden leptons and their corresponding antileptons. The calculated average mass of the hidden lepton condensate is 128.8 GeV in good agreements with the observed 125 or 126 GeV. The masses of the hidden lepton condensate and all elementary particles including leptons, quarks, and gauge bosons are derived from the periodic system of elementary particles. The calculated constituent masses are in good agreement with the observed values by using only four known constants: the number of the extra spatial dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the mass of Z boson, and the fine structure constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1401.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-18 20:48:13*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 4 pages. The sixth paper based on Reality. The proposed physical constants given in this paper have been modified. Please refer: http://vixra.org/abs/1407.0037 and http://vixra.org/abs/1505.0042

The Standard Model visualizes seventeen fundamental particles and nineteen independent parameters to explain the physical world, but still it is incomplete. An alternate model based on a single particle and just three independent parameters is proposed in this paper. The details of the particle including its proposed physical constants are also given. The new model has the least arbitrariness possible, and so may be closer to the real truth.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1401.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-17 07:08:48*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 12 pages, 47 equations, 15 references

We consider the construction of a simplified framework for constructing the manifestly gauge-invariant effective action of non-Abelian quantum gauge, and gravitational, fields. The new framework modifies the bilinear terms that are associated with virtual gauge fields. This is done in a manner that rectifies the singular kernel, simplifies loop computations, and maintains manifest effective gauge invariance. Starting with the invariant Lagrangian for a general non-Abelian gauge theory, we present analysis pertaining to the derivation of the effective propagator and the effective vertices. Similar analysis is extended to the Einstein invariant gravitational Lagrangian. We discuss the possibility of seeding the elements of symmetry breaking, and structuring the underlying gauge algebra, through a mechanism of giving masses to the components of the virtual fields. This mechanism could be a substitute to the Higgs scenario in non-Abelian gauge unification models, and an alternative to compactification in extra-dimensional gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1401.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-15 18:53:49*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Published: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013, pp. 27-31. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=30476

It is proposed that the digital space structure consists of attachment space (denoted as 1) for rest mass and detachment space (denoted as 0) for kinetic energy. Attachment space attaches to object permanently with zero speed, and detachment space detaches from the object at the speed of light. The combination of attachment space and detachment space brings about the three structures: binary lattice space, miscible space, and binary partition space. Binary lattice space, (1 0)n, consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space without separation. Binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, consists of separated continuous phases of attachment space and detachment space. Binary lattice space, miscible space, and binary partition space constitute quantum mechanics, special relativity, and the extreme force fields, respectively. Through the detachment space, a higher dimensional particle in attachment space is sliced into infinitely surrounding a lower dimensional core attachment space, resulting in a particle surrounding by gauge field in the form of binary lattice space. The 10d particle can be sliced into 9d, 8d, 7d, 6d, 5d, and 4d particles equally by mass, corresponding to baryonic particle as 4d and dark matter as other 5 particles, so the ratio between baryonic matter and dark matter is 1 to 5, in agreement with the observed ratio. At extreme conditions, such as extremely low temperature, the gauge force field in the form of binary lattice space is transformed into the extreme force field in the form of binary partition space to explain extreme phenomena, such as superconductivity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1401.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-13 06:02:55*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 14 pages, 41 equations, 6 references

We construct the E8 algebra in terms of the tensorial representations of its SU9 maximal subalgebra. We then construct the supersymmetric gauge-invariant boson-fermion coupling, and decompose it completely into terms exhibiting color SU3 and family SU5 symmetries. This work promotes a scheme of E8 super grand unification that is based on a perfect symmetry between particles and antiparticles, rather than a symmetry between quark-lepton generations
and their enigmatic mirror conjugates. Whereas the emergence of a definite chirality for low-energy weak interactions still depends on the yet unresolved problem of symmetry breaking, a picture of weak decays emerges, in which multiple W vector bosons, rather than a single one, are the fundamental weak mediators between multiple charged leptons and associated multiple neutrinos, or between multiple upquarks and their associated multiple downquarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1401.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-29 21:19:27*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Exotic R4 is relevant to physics as Carl Brans, Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga, and their co-workers have shown in increasing detail. This paper is an attempt to describe how the physics of Exotic R4 might be related to E8 Physics. V2 adds details including Figure-Eight Knot.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1401.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-29 18:05:22*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Faster than light is impossible according to the special relativity theory of Einstein SRT. In this paper I’ll propose a new concept in physics called “time contraction”. This concept will solve many problems in physics related to faster than light without violation Lorentz transformation or causality. According to this concept, it is possible measuring the speed of an electromagnetic wave or a particle which owns rest mass greater than zero to be faster than the speed of light in vacuum without violation of Lorentz transformation or causality. Time contraction is proposed by a new understanding to the Lorentz transformation equations depending on the concepts of quantum theory (Copenhagen School). It is a new formulation to the time dilation and the length contraction and the speed of light which are vacuum energy dependent. By this new formulation, I could rescue the special relativity from the Twin paradox, Ehrenfest paradox, Ladder paradox and Bell's spaceship paradox. Furthermore, I could reconcile and interpret the experimental results of quantum tunneling and entanglement (spooky action), —Casimir effect, Hartman effect— with the SRT in this paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1401.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-14 02:41:08*

**Authors:** Ashish Sirohi

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Space is discrete for a moving mass and continuous for an electromagnetic wave. We introduce velocity addition rules for such motion, and from these we derive the second postulate of special relativity — namely, that each observer measures the same value of the speed of light. Thus widely accepted derivations, showing that the two postulates of special relativity necessarily lead to the Lorentz transformations, cannot be correct. We contrast the distance-time implications of our velocity addition rules with the Lorentz transformations. Our theory leads to different time measurements by observers and to special relativity's momentum-energy formulas. However, in our theory length of an object remains invariant, and we do not have a time dilation formula that applies between inertial frames. Study of timescales of quasar variability has yielded observational data showing special relativity's time dilation to be inconsistent with the model of an expanding universe; gamma-ray bursts are giving similar results. These quasars and gamma-ray bursts results are consistent with our time formulas. We suggest other experiments where special relativity and our theory give different predictions, and these can further show special relativity to be wrong and our theory to be correct.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1401.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-02 06:53:58*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 14 pages, 74 equations, 6 references

We present a simple introduction to a manifestly gauge-invariant perturbative development for quantum electrodynamics in the effective action formalism, and in the divergence-free framework. The system involves the interaction of the photon field with a Dirac fermionic spinor field. Detailed computations are exhibited, and divergence-free expressions for one and two-loop contributions are provided.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics