[10] **viXra:0911.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-12-01 13:46:34*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We explore the hypothesis that there are 3 "families" or energy levels of the Higgs bosons and their associated Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs), analogously to the three families or energy levels of the quarks and leptons. With its origin in the "Multiverse", our Universe apparently devolved (rapidly) downward in an asymmetric "Higgs Cascade" to the electromagnetic ground state, and now evolves (slowly) upward again in a "rebound" driven by negentropic gravity and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), back to the Multiverse state (in a "Big Crunch" gravitational cosmic collapse) or to a state of pure electromagnetic radiation (light). CERN announced the discovery of a Higgs-like boson on 4 July, 2012 (energy level ~126 GEV).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:0911.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-14 14:44:34*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 15 Pages. adding new section

A table of elementary particles, including the weak force Intermediate Vector Bosons and Higgs particles is presented and discussed. The field vectors (force carriers) are discussed and examples of several types of particle decay are given. A list of technical terms is appended.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:0911.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 17 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 18 pages, Published in Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 13 (2008) 1397-1404.
Also published in "Hadron Models and New Energy Issues" InfoLearn Quest (2007), ISBN 978-1-59973-042-4.

Fractional dynamics is an attractive framework for understanding the complex phenomena that are likely to
emerge beyond the energy range of the Standard Model for particle physics (SM). using fractional
dynamics and complex-scalar field theory as a baseline, our work explores how physics on the high-energy
scale may help solve some of the open questions surrounding SM. Predictions are shown to be consistent
with experimental results.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:0911.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-02 16:24:26*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages. A summary of "identity" charge function is added.

The weak force is responsible for the creation of matter during the "Big Bang", apparently via the asymmetric decay of electrically neutral leptoquark-antileptoquark particle pairs; responsible also for the creation, transformation, and destruction of single elementary particles - particles that do not exist in matter-antimatter pairs (as seen in radioactivity, fission, single particle decays and transformations). Elementary particles created today must be interchangeable with those created during the "Big Bang" (or anywhere else) with respect to all conserved parameters - mass, spin, charge, etc. Creating absolutely invariant single elementary particles any time or place is the conservation challenge presented to and surmounted by the weak force, requiring the elaborate mechanism of the Higgs boson and the Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs). The great mass of the IVBs recreates the original energy density and unified-force symmetric energy state in which the elementary particle classes (leptons and quarks) were first created, while the Higgs boson "gauges" (scales and selects) the appropriate IVBs and unified-force symmetric energy state (there are several). It is the quantization of the Higgs boson and the IVBs (plus virtual particles drawn from the global "vacuum sea") that ensures the invariance of the weak force transformation mechanism. The weak force charge is "identity" charge (AKA "number" charge), and is carried implicitly by all massive leptons (including leptoquarks and their derivative baryons) and explicitly by neutrinos.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:0911.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-02 16:38:44*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Adding summary of "identity charge" functions.

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a continuous multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), where one finds a symmetry one will find an associated conservation law, and vice versa. In matter, light's symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, by inertial and gravitational forces. Neutrinos carry "identity" charge (aka "number" or "flavor" charge), the symmetry debt of light's "anonymity". The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:0911.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-22 23:01:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Currently, there seems to be (at least) two interpretations of the activity of the Higgs boson: 1) the older, original interpretation of the Higgs as the scalar or gauge boson which determines the rest masses of the IVBs and elementary particles (which I can understand and endorse); 2) a newer (additional? alternative?) interpretation consisting of a "Higgs ether" which acts as the source of particle mass in the sense of inertial resistance to acceleration. In this latter interpretation, all massive particles interact with a universal Higgs field in proportion to their bound energy content, and it is this interaction or "Higgs ether drag" which causes the inertial resistance to acceleration we characterize as mass. It is this latter interpretation which I cannot understand or endorse, as it seems to force a distinction between rest mass and inertial mass, and has no power at all to explain Einstein's relativistic mass. However, replacing the "Higgs ether drag" hypothesis (but retaining the Higgs scalar hypothesis) with a "gravitational field drag" hypothesis does allow us to understand the mechanism of relativistic variability in the metric and energetic parameters of mass, and crucially preserves the necessary equivalence between inertial and rest mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:0911.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2011-12-30 19:10:22*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The creation of matter during the "Big Bang" is apparently due to the asymmetric decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks and antileptoquarks, in which the antileptoquarks decay at a slightly faster rate than the leptoquarks. The leptoquarks in these decays (which are electrically neutral due to the fractionally charged quarks) are also colorless (in the limit of "asymptotic freedom"), due to the great compressive force exerted by the "X" IVB. A leptoquark antineutrino is produced in this decay, balancing the baryon "number" charge of the eventual proton. This neutrino is a "dark matter" candidate. The interaction is the initiating example of a general class of reactions between symmetric primary energy fields and asymmetric secondary or "alternative" information fields or charge carriers.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:0911.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 10 pages, This paper is a sequel to "Non-unitary evolution in particle physics – a brief overview",
Hadronics Mechanics Journal, 31(3), (2008), 571.

Unitarity and locality are fundamental postulates of Quantum Field Theory
(QFT). By construction, QFT is a replica of equilibrium thermodynamics,
where evolution settles down to a steady state after all transients have
vanished. Events unfolding in the TeV sector of particle physics are prone to
slide outside equilibrium under the combined action of new fields and unsuppressed
quantum corrections. In this region, the likely occurrence of critical
behavior and the approach to scale invariance blur the distinction between
"locality" and "non-locality". We argue that a correct description of this far from
equilibrium setting cannot be done outside nonlinear dynamics and
complexity theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:0911.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-14 14:53:14*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 16 Pages. adding new sectionn

Elementary particles created today must be the same in every respect as those created eons ago during the "Big Bang". The conservation requirement of elementary particle invariance constrains the mechanism of weak force particle creation and transformation. Weak force transformations recreate primordial symmetric energy states of the "Big Bang" force-unification eras (in the case of the "W", the electroweak force unification era) to accomplish the invariant creation and transformation of single elementary particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:0911.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 18 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

The hadrons of the SU(3) J^{P}= 0^{-}, ½^{+} and 1^{-} multiplets are shown to have partners of
the same spin or of spin difference ½. Partnerships occur between hadrons with some
quark content in common, there being no distinction between quarks and antiquarks.
The partnerships are centred upon particle mass levels that descend in geometric
progression from the Planck Mass. The mass differences characterising partnerships
are equal to the masses of levels. Isospin doublets behave as single particles,
represented by the geometric mean of the hadron masses. The K-meson isospin
doublets and the electron are arranged as partnerships, as are the π^{+} and π^{-} isospin
triplet states and the muon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics