[5] **viXra:1409.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 17:55:16*

**Authors:** John R. Springer

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Confirmation of HERA Experiments

Experiments performed at the HERA Ring Accelerator, Hamburg, Germany, have provided “A New View of the Proton as Seen by HERA”1 which shows that the “new” proton contains not just three quarks but a large number of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons. A model is presented here which confirms this. It shows that quarks exist only as triads and anti-triads, not as single isolated quark- antiquark pairs. The triads and anti-triads (TAT) are all paired together with exception of one uud, the valence triad.
The model confirms that precisely 8 gluons exist in each uud and u- u- d- structure. However, in the pairing process, 9 gluons of negative energy are required for each TAT pair.
The model shows that although precise mass cannot be assigned to either quarks or gluons, it can be assigned to each gluon/quark pair and to each (of many) quark triads and anti-triads, which ultimately add up accurately to the proton mass.
Finally, the model has been expanded to include the structure and mass of the neutron and stable mesons. It also proposes a quark (without gluons) structure for the lower leptons. Thus, all particles found in nature may have a quark structure in this model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1409.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 12:55:14*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 07pages, 08 references

We propose two kinds of least action principles. The first one is defined in a periodic time, and when applied to creation and annihilation of particle pairs, leads to the formula for the de Broglie frequency. The second one is defined in a double-time’s metric, namely: the longitudinal and transverse (related to the discreteness of the space) times. If applied to a problem dealing with the fluctuations of the metric, this second principle permit us to infer a coherence time. We interpret this as the neutron decay time, where we take the fluctuation in the kinetic energy as being the difference between the mass-energy of the neutron minus the sum of the mass-energies of the proton and electron. The neutron decay time evaluated in this way, does not make any explicit reference to the weak interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1409.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-20 21:39:58*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Work in progress.

This brief note points out that classical Maxwell equations on fractal distributions can accommodate fractional magnetic charges. Although these fractional objects are un-observable at energy scales significantly lower than the electroweak scale, their cumulative contribution may become relevant for charge quantization in Dirac’s theory of magnetic monopoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1409.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-15 07:31:22*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is most disconcerting that the Standard Model of particle physics defines, as fundamental a quantity as the electric charge, only conventionally and arbitrarily. We look into the nature of this conventionality
and try to find an underlying structure to it. This brings in the Higgs field in a non-trivial manner, which points as to how the above arbitrariness and conventionality may be avoided.
Next, the same is demonstrated as actually being part of the intrinsic mathematical structure of the Standard Model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1409.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 22:57:49*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Work in progress.

As of today, the mechanism underlying the generation of mass scales in field theory remains elusive. Here we show how the concept of fractal spacetime having minimal deviations from four-dimensionality (the so-called minimal fractal manifold) can naturally account for the onset of these scales. A counter-intuitive outcome of this analysis is the deep link between the minimal fractal manifold and the holographic principle.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics