High Energy Particle Physics

1705 Submissions

[18] viXra:1705.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 08:55:15

The Accurate Mass Formulas of Leptons, Quarks, Gauge Bosons, the Higgs Boson, and Cosmic Rays

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 16 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2016, 7, 1591-1606

One of the biggest unsolved problems in physics is the particle masses of all elementary particles which cannot be calculated accurately and predicted theoretically. In this paper, the unsolved problem of the particle masses is solved by the accurate mass formulas which calculate accurately and predict theoretically the particle masses of all leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, the Higgs boson, and cosmic rays (the knees-ankles-toe) by using only five known constants: the number (seven) of the extra spatial dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the masses of Z and W bosons, and the fine structure constant. The calculated masses are in excellent agreements with the observed masses. For examples, the calculated masses of muon, top quark, pion, neutron, and the Higgs boson are 105.55 MeV, 175.4 GeV, 139.54 MeV, 939.43 MeV, and 126 GeV, respectively, in excellent agreements with the observed 105.65 MeV, 173.3 GeV, 139.57 MeV, 939.27 MeV, and 126 GeV, respectively. The theoretical base of the accurate mass formulas is the periodic table of elementary particles. As the periodic table of elements is derived from atomic orbitals, the periodic table of elementary particles is derived from the seven principal mass dimensional orbitals and seven auxiliary mass dimensional orbitals. All elementary particles including leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, the Higgs boson, and cosmic rays can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles. The periodic table of elementary particles is based on the theory of everything as the computer simulation model of physical reality consisting of the mathematical computation, digital representation, and selective retention components. The computer simulation model of physical reality provides the seven principal mass dimensional orbitals and seven auxiliary mass dimensional orbitals for the periodic table of elementary particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[17] viXra:1705.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-29 09:42:18

The Scale-Symmetric Theory as the Origin of the Standard Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

Here we showed that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) gives rise to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. We calculated the SM gauge couplings - we obtained g’ = 0.35706, g = 0.65235 (these two gauge couplings lead to an illusion of electroweak unification), and g(s) = 1.21529 +- 0.00360. We as well described the mechanism that leads to the mass of muon. Calculated here mass of muon is 105.6576 MeV. The other SM parameters we calculated in earlier papers. SST is based on 7 parameters only which, contrary to SM, lead also to the 3 masses of neutrinos (they are beyond SM) and to the 4 basic physical constants (i.e. to the reduced Planck constant, to gravitational constant (gravity is beyond SM), to speed of light in “vacuum” and electric charge of electron). We can see that in SST there is 2.7 times less parameters, SST leads to the 19 initial parameters in SM, and SST describes phenomena beyond SM. It leads to conclusion that SST is a more fundamental theory than SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16] viXra:1705.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 06:18:46

Electro-Strong Interaction

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, I will use Higgs mechanism to unite gluons and photon to explain the origin of mass of gluons in strong interaction. This is the electro-strong unification which can explain the mass of neutron and proton.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1705.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 09:03:43

New Season at the LHC

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Last week, the detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) witnessed their first collisions of 2017. [8] As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14] viXra:1705.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 08:21:45

Searching for WIMP Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

"The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[13] viXra:1705.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 09:52:25

Electromagnetism Win Over the Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The atomic nucleus offers a unique opportunity to study the competition between three of the four fundamental forces known to exist in nature, the strong nuclear interaction, the electromagnetic interaction and the weak nuclear interaction. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12] viXra:1705.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 10:44:33

Weakly-Interacting Supersymmetric Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Weakly-interacting sparticles are produced at lower rates and lead to less striking signatures, making them more difficult to distinguish from Standard Model background processes. [18] Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most attractive theories extending the Standard Model of particle physics. [17] If researchers at Florida Institute of Technology, employing pioneering new methods, are able to determine the top quark's mass at a level of precision as yet unachieved, they will move science closer to understanding whether the universe is stable, as we have long believed to be the case, or unstable. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[11] viXra:1705.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-29 23:00:25

Should Consensus Suppress the Individual ?

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 36 Pages.

Consider three cases: First Case (pages 2-4): Does E8 represent Realistic Standard Model plus Gravity ? Consensus = NO Individual = YES Second Case (pages 5-29): Our Universe: Is it Stable ? Consensus = NO (only metastable) Individual = YES Third Case ( pages 30-36 ): Dark Energy and Dark Matter Consensus = Unknown Individual = Segal Conformal Structure This paper is a brief description of interactions between Consensus and Individual in each of those cases, where: Consensus = the Physics Establishment including: Organizers of 2010 Banff Workshop on Structure and Representations of Exceptional Groups (page 3-4); Moriond 2017 (page 4); the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study (page 4); and the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics (page 4); Fermilab, CDF, and D0 Collaborations (pages 9-17); the Cornell arXiv (pages 16; 30-31); CERN CDS (pages 17; 31); LHC, ATLAS, and CMS Collaborations (pages 18-29) and Individual = I, a Georgia lawyer with a 1963 AB in math from Princeton and some physics study at Georgia Tech with David Finkelstein as adviser, but, having at age 50 failed the Fall 1991 Georgia Tech Comprehensive Exam ( a 3-day closed book exam ), I have no physics degree. Version 2 (v2) adds correct viXra number and some details about Fermilab data. Version 3 (v3) adds the First Case, more details, and gives Thanks to ATLAS for ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 stating existence of a possible 240 GeV Higgs Mass State at 3.6 sigma local significance.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10] viXra:1705.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 14:58:18

Bosonization Causes Free Neutrons Halflife Capricious When Measuring by Different Methods

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26828.62084

Many country’s standards management departments have struggled for long time to accurately calibrate the halflife of free neutrons with different methods, unfortunately they are all obsessed by the mysterious unexplainable discrepancy: in-beam method longer than bottle method by 1%, so as to question whether there is undiscovered new physics therein. In this paper, I assert that nothing is new and the puzzle can be explained by the so-defined spontaneous Bosonization effect acting on dense colonized neutrons. At last, some inspired researches and possible applications are presented.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9] viXra:1705.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 01:47:51

As Spinor χ = a| ↑> +b| ↓> is Physical in SU (2) Spin Space, Then Why is Isospinor ψ = A|p > +b|n > Unphysical in SU (2) Isospin Space?

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 9 Pages.

A spin angular momentum state with a polarization orientation in any ar- bitrary direction can be constructed as a spinor in the SU(2)-spin space as χ = a| ↑> +b| ↓>. However the corresponding isospinor in the SU(2)-isospin space, ψ = a|p > +b|n > is discarded on empirical grounds. Still, we do not have any sound theoretcal understanding of this phenomenon. Here we provide a consistent explanation of this effect.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8] viXra:1705.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 07:36:10

Access to Metaspace And The Metamorphic Ratio

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

Access to metaspace and the metamorphic ratio.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7] viXra:1705.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 08:56:39

Superpartner of the Top Quark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most attractive theories extending the Standard Model of particle physics. [17] If researchers at Florida Institute of Technology, employing pioneering new methods, are able to determine the top quark's mass at a level of precision as yet unachieved, they will move science closer to understanding whether the universe is stable, as we have long believed to be the case, or unstable. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[6] viXra:1705.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-07 08:48:04

The Origin of the Z and W Bosons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the Z and W bosons can be created due to three different mechanisms. One mechanism is associated with a transition from electromagnetic interactions to weak interactions of protons with electrons in the presence of dark matter (DM) while the second one concerns a transition from weak interactions of protons to weak interactions of charges of protons, which mimic behaviour of electrons in absence of DM, with muons associated with protons. In the first mechanism, calculated mass of Z is 91.181 GeV whereas of W is 80.427 GeV while in the second mechanism we obtained respectively 91.205 GeV and 80.385 GeV. The third mechanism leads to masses of W bosons equal to 80.473 GeV and 80.380 GeV (mean value is 80.427 GeV). We showed that the recent cosmic-ray antiproton data from AMS-02 concern transitions between different interactions also so the results do not follow from dark-matter annihilation. Emphasize that in an earlier paper, we calculated lifetimes of the Z and W bosons which are very close to experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[5] viXra:1705.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 05:58:15

Collisions of Atomic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4] viXra:1705.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 00:59:01

Singlet Higgs Spontaneity in Considered Action: the Lie-Dependent Masses

Authors: Zheng-chen Liang
Comments: 12 Pages. This paper has been published by chinaXiv:201608.00018, but somehow deleted by chinaXiv on May 9, 2017.

We derived the Lie-dependent masses of certain particles gauged as TeVeS in considered Lie groups raised from gauge couplings with constant global sections of singlet Higgs under the algorithm on mass terms which comes out naturally from the kinetic part of our considered TaLie action, and also available on the gauge fields as connections in formed Y-M actions. With the only parameters, \textit{scaled mass} $M(H^{D})\in\mathbb{R^{+}}$ of each Higgs section introduced in this mechanism, we concretely computed the masses $m_{W^{\pm}}$, $m_{Z^{0}}$, $m_{X}$ and $m_{H}$ under the gauge selection $E_{8(-24)}$ in \textit{Lie Group Cosmology} (LGC), figuring out how the masses of every different singlet Higgs bosons all equal one real number $\sqrt{2}\cdot M(H^{\Sigma})$. When comparing the results with recent experiments at LHC, we find the singlet Higgs spontaneity with algorithms derived from our considered action under the gauge selection of LGC is consistent with current data including the diphoton excess at $750$ GeV, as well as stating some important implications from the derived Lie-dependent masses and our constructions on the mechanism.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[3] viXra:1705.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-14 09:56:23

Key Physics Equations and Experiments: Explained and Derived by Energy Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 30 pages

Three commonly used physics equations for energy are derived from a single equation that describes wave energy, linking the photon’s quantum energy (E=hf) with mass-energy (E=mc^2) and energy-momentum (E=pc) found in particles. Then, the energy equation for particles is further derived in this paper to describe the Coulomb force (F=kqq/r^2) and the universal gravitational force (F=Gmm/r^2). All of these equations are ultimately derived from one fundamental energy wave equation.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[2] viXra:1705.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 06:49:43

Exploring Universal Glue

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1] viXra:1705.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 15:21:32

Asymmetric Decays of Neutral Kaons and B Mesons as False Evidences of the Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is assumed that the asymmetric decays of neutral kaons and B mesons make an absolute distinction between matter and antimatter. Such asymmetric decays were observed in collisions of nucleons only. There are not experiments in which kaons and B mesons are produced in collisions of antinucleons only. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that internal helicity of created neutral kaons (according to SST, relativistic neutral kaon is a constituent of neutral B meson also) depend on internal helicity of colliding particles - nucleons are internally left-handed whereas antinucleons are right-handed. SST shows that there should not be some distinctions between decays of neutral kaons and B mesons created in collisions of matter only and in collisions of antimatter only. In reality, the matter-antimater asymmetry does not follow from different behaviour of matter and antimatter in weak interactions but from the external left-handedness of the initial inflation field. It caused that at the end of inflation there appeared more nucleons than antinucleons. Next, the return shock wave, carrying the additional nucleons, created the early Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics