[12] **viXra:1502.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-27 22:58:52*

**Authors:** J.X. Zheng-Johansson

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Presentation at the 30th Int Colloq on Group Theo. Meth in Phys, Ghent Univ, Belgium

A microscopic theory of the neutron, which consists in a neutron model constructed based on key relevant experimental observations, and the first principles solutions for the basic properties of the model neutron, is proposed within a framework consistent with the Standard Model. The neutron is composed of an electron e and a proton p that are separated at a distance r_1\sim 10^{-18} m, and are in relative orbital angular motion and Thomas precession highly relativistically, with their reduced mass moving along a quantised l=1th circular orbit of radius r_1 about their instantaneous mass centre. The associated rotational energy flux or vortex has an angular momentum (1/2)\hbar and is identifiable as a (confined) antineutrino. The particles e,p are attracted with one another predominantly by a central magnetic force produced as result of the particles' relative orbital, precessional and intrinsic angular motions. The interaction force (resembling the weak force), potential (resembling the Higgs' field), and a corresponding excitation Hamiltonian (H_I), among others, are derived based directly on first principles laws of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and relativistic mechanics within a unified framework. In particular, the equation for (4/3)\pi r_1^3 H_I, which is directly comparable with the Fermi constant G_F, is predicted as G_F=(4/3)\pi r_1^3 H_I =A_o C_{01} /\ammag_e \gamma_p, where A_o=e^2 \hbar^2/12\pi\epsilon_0 m_e^0 m_p^0 c^2, m_e^0, m_p^0 are the e,p rest masses, C_{01} is a geometric factor, and \gamma_e, \gamma_p are the Lorentz factors. Quantitative solution for a stationary meta-stable neutron is found to exist at the extremal point r_{1m}=2.513 \times 10^{-18} m, at which the G_F is a minimum (whence the neutron lifetime is a maximum) and is equal to the experimental value. Solutions for the neutron spin (1/2), apparent magnetic moment, and the intermediate vector boson masses are also given in this paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1502.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 15:34:16*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Work in progress. References not included.

As natural outcome of dimensional regularization, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes a space-time continuum equipped with arbitrarily small deviations from four-dimensions. This brief note suggests that the inner connection between MFM and local conformal field theory points to a surprising duality between the MFM and classical gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1502.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-23 00:37:59*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair Moshe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A method for testing the idea from a previous paper on Discrete Time Locations

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1502.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 14:05:08*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

There have been a spontaneous oscillations of elementary particles, called Neutrinos,
observed during the last few decades.
The results in the many types of research suggest the non-zero masses of the neutrinos.
The possibility of neutrino oscillations and transformation-stabilizations number in three or
four types of them, according to Italian scientist Bruno Pontecorvo’s (1946) research and
theory, has not been eliminated until these days.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1502.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-15 16:31:49*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The extremely precise extraction of the proton radius by Pohl et al. from the mea- sured energy diference between the 2P and 2S states of muonic hydrogen disagrees signiﬁcantly with that extracted from electronic hydrogen or elastic electron-proton scattering. This is the proton radius puzzle.
Randolf Pohl Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, 85748 Garching, Germany
Ronald Gilman Department of Physics & Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019, USA.
Gerald A. Miller Department of Physics, Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560, USA.
Krzysztof Pachucki Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoz˙a 69, 00-681 Warsaw, Poland
arXiv:1301.0905v2 [physics.atom-ph] 30 May 2013
In this paper, using the fundamental equation that equals the electromagnetic force and gravity; obtained in one of our previous work; and which is derived from gravity, both elementary electric charge, the mass of electron and gravitino; as a dependent equation canonical partition function of the imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function and the Planck mass. This equation directly implies the existence of a repulsive gravitational force at very short distances. The decay of gravitinos in a W boson and lepton (muon) would be the phenomenon responsible for this repulsive force that would make the radius of the proton in the muonic hydrogen atom, was that obtained experimentally 8.4087 x 10 ^ -16 m . Likewise, the long half-life, very massive gravitinos, would allow these, penetrate the proton where they finally decay in the W boson and the a lepton. The invariance of the proton, ie its non transformation into a neutron; would be the consequence of an effect of virtual particles: gravitinos, W boson, muon and even the X,Y bosons, of the theories SU(5) grand unification.
The same canonical partition function of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function; It is indeed a sum of Yukawa type potential; therefore repulsive by exchanging a vector boson.
The absence of singularities of black holes, surely, is an effect of this repulsive force. For this reason, increasing the area of a black hole can be interpreted physically as the action of this repulsive force.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1502.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-19 05:42:06*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There has been some confusion about the previous paper on this subject, so some basic calculations were included to allow for mathematically minded people to understand the concepts more fluidly.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1502.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 14:03:37*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The Dirac Quantization Condition (DQC) for magnetic charges and its elegant Dirac-Wu-Yang (DWY) derivation based on U(1)em gauge theory predicts an electric / magnetic duality which to the best of our knowledge simply has never been observed in nature, as well as a charge quantization which is observed. The fact that this predicted duality has never been observed to our knowledge means as a matter of elementary logic that this DWY derivation (and the DQC itself) is either elegant but physically wrong, or elegant and correct but physically incomplete. This paper pinpoints a flawed assumption deeply-hidden in the DWY derivation that the south gauge field patch of the posited monopole charge differs from the north patch merely by an unobservable gauge-transformation. By correcting this assumption by defining an observable difference between the north and south patches, the DQC is made fully compatible with the non-observation of magnetic charges and its correct prediction of electric charge quantization is maintained, while the incomplete DWY derivation is made complete. Some concurrences among the corrected DWY derivation and the FQHE and the electronic structure of electrons in atoms are reported without present claim, and several experiments designed to empirically arbitrate these concurrences are proposed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1502.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 17:31:50*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One can think of the IVBs as "wormholes" to a younger, hotter universe, connecting our ground-state cold electromagnetic universe with the universe as it existed a few micro-seconds after the "Big Bang". What comes through the "IVB wormhole" is a single elementary particle, newly minted in the original forge and mold of the electroweak era from long ago, and hence identical to every elementary particle (of its type) ever created, or that ever will be created. The "wormhole" connection effectively circumvents the enervating entropy of eons of cosmic expansion that would otherwise make the exact replication of single elementary particles impossible.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1502.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-05 01:16:28*

**Authors:** John Frederick Sweeney

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

The Papyrus of Ani illustrates the sub – atomic process of decay, symbolized by the Higgs Boson in western physics. This paper explains the Papyrus of Ani in terms of Vedic Particle Physics, and reveals the existence of four Dark Matter particles which are probably the Higgs Boson after its decay into two electrons and two muons. The relationship explained in this paper leads to the question of which came first – Vedic Literature or the Egyptian Books of the Dead – or were both derived from a common, earlier source? The two ancient traditions feature similar myths – the Four Sons of Horus, and the Four Sons of Brahma.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1502.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 11:50:50*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The cosmological constant lambda is derived from the radius of the observable universe. The corresponding value of vacuum energy density is equal to the value derived from zero-point energy on the boundary, at the scale of the Bohr Radius, of a six-dimensional AdS spacetime. The two length scales are related.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1502.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 06:34:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect ‘dark matter’, the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe’s mass. [14]
Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can’t even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today’s paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13]
If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11]
Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1502.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 03:03:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Classic thermodynamics studies and describes the thermal behavior of complex systems, in particular gaseous, reaching the definition of the three principles of thermodynamics and of the concept of entropy. In this paper we want to demonstrate also single charged massive elementary particles have a thermodynamic behavior that is related to the elementary structure and to the electrodynamic mass of particle. Thermodynamics of single elementary particles is defined by physical transformations and by energy exchanges that particles experience when the speed and the temperature change.
These transformations allow to define for elementary particles an intrinsic temperature and an intrinsic entropy that have a different behavior with respect to the same physical quantities of complex classic systems and with respect to the collective behavior of particles inside a plasma.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics