High Energy Particle Physics

1610 Submissions

[24] viXra:1610.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 13:33:03

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An international team of physicists has developed a pioneering approach to using Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs)—the highest energy particles in nature since the Big Bang—to study particle interactions far beyond the reach of human-made accelerators. [18] Physicists have come up with a new model that they say solves five of the biggest unanswered questions in modern physics, explaining the weirdness of dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, cosmic inflation, and the strong CP problem all at once. [17] The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23] viXra:1610.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 03:20:58

Smash Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have come up with a new model that they say solves five of the biggest unanswered questions in modern physics, explaining the weirdness of dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, cosmic inflation, and the strong CP problem all at once. [17] The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[22] viXra:1610.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 09:10:03

Nucleus Bubble Discovered

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21] viXra:1610.0325 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-28 13:49:59

Quantum Natural Selection as a Factor of Formation of the Order Described by the Standard Model in Elementary Particle Physics. Квантовый естественный отбор как фактор формирования порядка, описываемого стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц.

Authors: Sergey V. Vasiliev
Comments: 7 Pages. in Russian

Amid all the new negative results of experiments designed to confirm the role of gauge transformations in the creation of a hierarchy of elementary particles and interactions that appear frequently alternate assumptions and hypotheses, trying to find a solution to this problem. This hypothesis describes the evolution of the Universe from the primordial chaos to the order described by the standard model, and describes a possible mechanism for the order of chaos based on nonlocal quantum correlations. На фоне всё новых и новых отрицательных результатов экспериментов, предназначенных подтвердить роль калибровочных преобразований в создании иерархии элементарных частиц и взаимодействий, всё чаще появляются альтернативные предположения и гипотезы, пытающиеся найти иной путь решения этой проблемы. В данной гипотезе рассматривается эволюция Вселенной от начального "хаоса" к порядку, описываемому стандартной моделью, и предлагается возможный механизм упорядочивания "хаоса", основанный на нелокальных квантовых корреляциях.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20] viXra:1610.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-17 05:34:56

LHC 2016 Sees 3 Higgs Mass States

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 19 Pages. Version 2 (v2) corrects the viXra number of the paper.

The first 13 /fb or so of the 2016 p-p LHC run indicates 3 Higgs Mass States: 125, 200, and 240 GeV. If confirmed by all 40 /fb of 2016 data, 3 Tquark Mass States 130, 174, and 220 GeV of a composite Higgs-Tquark system would also be supported as would be an unconventional analysis of Fermilab Tquark data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19] viXra:1610.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 08:26:38

New 'God Particle'

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

As part of one of the most ambitious quests in science a senior physicist at The University of Manchester has helped to narrow the search to find a ghost-like neutrino particle – its discovery promising to be even bigger than locating the Higgs boson. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18] viXra:1610.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-28 08:41:47

An Estimation of Muons that are Produced on the Ground

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 12 Pages. Include Chinese Version

I find that some experiments can be used to estimate numbers of the muons that produced on the earth’s surface except of that come from cosmic ray particles in the atmosphere. However, calculation showed that the high energy muons on the ground mainly come from cosmic rays. The ground should lack of mechanisms to produce high-energy muons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[17] viXra:1610.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 04:20:07

Proca-Maxwell Equations for Dyons with Quaternion

Authors: B. C. Chanyal, S. K. Chanyal, Virendra Singh, A. S. Rawat
Comments: 07 Pages. Published By: Applied Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2016, pp 9-15. doi: 10.12691/amp-4-1-2

The quaternions are first hyper-complex numbers, having four-dimensional structure, which may be useful to express the 4 dimensional theory of dyons carrying both electric and magnetic charges. Keeping in mind t’Hooft’s monopole solutions and the fact that despite the potential importance of massive monopole, we discuss a connection between quaternionic complex field, to the generalized electromagnetic field equations of massive dyons. Starting with the Euclidean space-time structure and two four-components theory of dyons, we represent the generalized charge, potential, field and current source in quaternion form with real and imaginary part of electric and magnetic constituents of dyons. We have established the quaternionic formulation of generalized complex-electromagnetic fields equations, generalized Proca-Maxwell’s (GPM) equations and potential wave equations for massive dyons. Thus, the quaternion formulation be adopted in a better way to understand the explanation of complex-field equations as the candidate for the existence of massive monopoles and dyons where the complex parameters be described as the constituents of quaternion.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16] viXra:1610.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-30 07:37:33

Emergence of Standard Model Symmetries from Multifractal Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 21 Pages.

Despite being supported by overwhelming evidence, the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is challenged by many foundational questions. The root cause of its gauge structure and of discrete symmetry breaking continues to be unknown. Here we show how these questions may be approached using the multifractal geometry of the SM near the electroweak scale.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1610.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-29 01:03:05

Hard-core’s Physical Origin and Action Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving a new explanation for the physical origin and action mechanism of the nuclear force’s ‘hard-core’ repulsive.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14] viXra:1610.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 19:08:57

A New Formalism of Arbitrary Spin Particle Equations

Authors: S.R. Shi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, a new formalism of arbitrary spin particle equations is constructed. The physical meaning of the new equation is very clear. It's completely expressed by the amounts about spin. It's proved to describe correctly neutrino, photon and electron etc. Then a scalar field is introduced into the new equation. The new equation with the scalar field has an unique characteristic. The scalar field is like a switch. It can control generation and annihilation of particles. This provides a new dynamics mechanism about generation and annihilation of particles. This can also explain why the inflation period universe can be completely described by scalar fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[13] viXra:1610.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 21:01:16

Super Conformal Group in D=10 Space-time

Authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan, O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 15 Pages. Super Poincaré group and Conformal algebra

Abstract In this present discussion we discussed the super Poincaré group in D=10 dimensions in terms of the highest division algebra of octonions. We have construct the Poincaré group in D=8 dimension then it's extension to conformal algebra of D=10 has been discussed in terms of octonion algebra. Finally extension of the conformal algebras of D=10 dimensional space to super conformal algebra of Poincaré group have been done in a consistent manner.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12] viXra:1610.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 22:07:20

Graded Lie Algebra of Quaternions and Superalgebra of SO(3,1)

Authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan and O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 12 Pages. Quaternionic super Poincaré group and Conformal algebrain D=4 space-time

Abstract In the present discussion we study the grading of Quaternion algebra(\mathbb{H}) and Lorentz algebra of O(3,1) group. Then we have made an attempt to make the whole Poincaré algebra of SO(3,1)in terms of Quaternions. After this the supersymmetrization of this group has been done in a consistent manner. Finally the dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 has been studied.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[11] viXra:1610.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 07:53:04

Triaxial Atomic Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The nuclei of atoms of heavy elements are not necessarily spherical; they may be variously extended or flattened along one, two or even three axes. An international team of physicists, led by scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Krakow (IFJ PAN) and the Heavy Ion Laboratory at the University of Warsaw (HIL), has recently presented the results of experiments showing that complex superdeformed nuclei occur in much lighter elements, as well. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10] viXra:1610.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 09:46:13

Multifractal Geometry and Stochastic Quantization: A Brief Comparison

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

We suggest that the multifractal geometry of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale may be placed on equal footing with the stochastic quantization method. This analogy gives support to earlier attempts by Beck to derive the Standard Model parameters using the dynamics of coupled map lattices.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9] viXra:1610.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-26 23:27:01

Defining and Delimiting of the Elementary Particle

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving a new definition and boundary of the elementary particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8] viXra:1610.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 09:26:53

Superconducting Fusion Reactor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

In fusion reactor designs, superconductors (which suffer no resistive power loss) are used to generate the magnetic fields that confine the 100 million degree C plasma. [30] Hundreds of tiny samples of unconventional superconductors called heavy fermions had to be aligned and glued onto aluminum plates for imaging in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. [29] In a recent breakthrough, scientists at the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory got one step closer to understanding how to make that possible. The research, led by physicist Ivan Bozovic, involves a class of compounds called cuprates, which contain layers of copper and oxygen atoms. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7] viXra:1610.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 14:17:50

Weighting Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US $66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[6] viXra:1610.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 03:03:05

Sterile Neutrino Mystery Deepens

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[5] viXra:1610.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 21:33:05

Four Dimensional Quantum Hall Effect for Dyons

Authors: Pawan Kumar Joshi, O.P.S.Negi
Comments: 18 Pages.

Starting with division algebra based on quaternion, we have constructed the generalization of quantum Hall effect from two dimension to four dimension. We have constructed the required Hamiltonian operator and thus obtained its eigen values and eigen functions for four dimensional quantum Hall effect for dyons. The degeneracy of the four dimensional quantum Hall system has been discussed in terms of two integers (P\,and\,Q ) related together where as the integer Q plays the role of Landau level index and accordingly the lowest Landau level has been obtained for four dimensional quantum Hall effect associated with magnetic monopole(or dyons). It is shown that there exists the integer as well the fractional quantum Hall effect and so, the four dimensional quantum Hall system provides a macroscopic number of degenerate states and at appropriate integer or fractional filling factions this system forms an incompressible quantum liquid. Key Words: Quaternion, dyons, Hamiltonian operator, Landau level etc
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4] viXra:1610.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 04:14:48

Derivation of Photon Mass and Avogadro Constant from Planck units

Authors: B. Ravi Sankar
Comments: 5 Pages. The mass of the ultimate partcile in the zoo of particles is derived

Originally proposed in 1899 by German physicist Max Planck, Planck units are alsoknown as natural units because the origin of their definition comes only from properties of the fundamental physical theories and not from interchangeable experimental param- eters. It is widely accepted that Planck units are the most fundamental units. In this paper, few more fundamental constants are derived from Planck units. These constants are permutations and combinations of Planck units and hence by construct, they are also constants. The mass and radius of photon are derived. The Avogadro constant, Boltzmann constant and unified mass unit are also derived. The structure of the photon is explained. The meaning of Avogadro constant in terms of photon structure is also explained. The meaning of Planck mass is explained. As proof for the meaning of the Planck mass, the solar constant is derived. The solar constant is derived applying string theory as well. Finally revised Planck current, Planck voltage and Planck impedance are also derived. It is also proven that Planck mass is the energy emitted by any star per second per ray of proper length c. Apart from this, the energy emitted per second per ray of proper length c by a planet or communication antenna is not equal to Planck mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[3] viXra:1610.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 08:16:59

Secret Lives of Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[2] viXra:1610.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 03:47:34

The Quantum Field Theory Approximation

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

One states the quantum field theory [QFT] approximation [QFTA] for the Physicalist Program [PHPR]. An approximation that relates current PHPR knowledge to second quantization of relativistic point-particle interactions and QFT.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1] viXra:1610.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-02 03:40:56

Charming Asymmetries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics