High Energy Particle Physics

1906 Submissions

[24] viXra:1906.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 12:41:21

Speculations on Composite Quarks

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages. Scanned copy of the old preprint RITP 1-74.

We propose a simple field theoretic quark model in which the quarks are composite. This quark-hadron bootstrap is the new feature of the model. States like N*(1470) and p'(1600) are interpreted as containing quark excitations. The ratio sigma(e+e- -> hadrons)/sigma(e+e- -> mu+mu-) should grow with energy but not necessarily indefinitely. Remarks on proton-proton diffraction dissociation at the ISR energy range are made.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23] viXra:1906.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 12:41:29

Quark Model Without Scaling Property

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 19 Pages. Scanned copy of the old preprint RITP 12-74. [In title, 'without Scaling' should read 'with Approximate Scaling'.]

We propose a simple field theoretic quark model in which the quarks are composite. This quark bootstrap is the new feature of the model. Applications to spectroscopy and deep inelastic processes are considered. A number of testable predictions are given. In particular, the ratio R = sigma(e+e- -> hadrons)/sigma(e+e- -> mu+mu-) is predicted to grow linearly with Q^2 at least until Q^2 ~ 36 GeV^2, where R is about 7, and drop thereafter towards a value of about one.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[22] viXra:1906.0512 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 12:34:27

An Axiomatic Model of Science

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 48 Pages.

Here we present a mathematical model formalizing the practice of science in nature. Under the premise that science is the best methodology to understand the World, then presumably a formalization of such is its best mathematical framework. Axiomatic science is a significant improvement over the informal practice of science and it has numerous desirable properties. Axiomatic science is a model of science and of physics, and as such, it contains a 'science' part and a 'physics' part. Axiomatic science is able to derive the 'physics' part, including the laws of physics, using the 'science' part as the starting point. Axiomatic science thus explains the origins of the laws of physics as a theorem of the formal practice of science. Finally, axiomatic science is 'clarification tool par excellence' for the foundation of physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[21] viXra:1906.0440 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-12 04:41:58

A New Unified Electro-Gravity Theory for the Electron

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 13 Pages. Revised version, with some refinement and a new validation of the theory.

A rigorous model for the electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb's Law or Gauss's Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality referred to as the Unifield Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a ``static'' electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically found to be closely related to the the fine structure constant. This possible origin of the fine structure constant is further strengthened by applying the proposed theory to successfully model the Casimir effect, from which approximately the same above relationship between the UEG constant, electron's mass and classical radius, and the fine structure constant, emerges.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[20] viXra:1906.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:03:31

A Generalized Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Model Applicable to All Elementary Particles

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model an electron, is generalized to model a variety of composite charged as well as neutral particles, which may constitute all known elementary particles of particle physics. A direct extension of the UEG theory for the electron is possible by modifying the functional dependence between the electro-gravitational field and the energy density, which would lead to a general class of basic charged particles carrying different levels of mass/energy, with the electron mass at the lowest level. The basic theory may also be extended to model simple composite neutral particles, consisting of two layers of surface charges of equal magnitudes but opposite signs. The model may be similarly generalized to synthesize more complex structures of composite charged or neutral particles, consisting of increasing levels of charged layers. Depending upon its specific basic or composite structure, a particle could be highly stable like an electron or a proton, or relatively unstable in different degrees, which may be identified with other known particles of the standard model of particle physics. The generalized UEG model may provide a new unified paradigm for particle physics, as a substitute for the standard model currently used, making the weak and strong forces of the standard model redundant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[19] viXra:1906.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:13:56

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model a stable static charge, is extended to a spinning charge using a ``quasi-static'' UEG model. The results from the new theory, evaluated in comparison with concepts and parameters from basic quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum electrodynamics (QED), show that the QM and the QED trace their fundamental origins to the UEG theory. The fine structure constant and the electron g-factor, which are key QED parameters, can be directly related to the proportionality constant (referred to as the UEG constant) used in the UEG theory. A QM wave function is shown to be equivalent to a space-time ripple in the permittivity function of the free space, produced by the UEG fields surrounding a spinning charge, and the basic QM relationships between energy and frequency naturally emerge from the UEG model. Further extension and generalization of the theory may also explain all other quantum mechanical concepts including particle-wave duality, frequency shift in electrodynamic scattering, and charge quantization, leading to full unification of the electromagnetics and gravity with the quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[18] viXra:1906.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 04:16:00

A Molecular Structure of an Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work we extend our work on a quantum dynamics of beta decay to show that an atomic nucleus can be described as a molecule which is supposed to be formed by bonding atoms as described in molecular physics. However, there is only one type of atom in our formulation and that atom is the neutron which has been shown to possess the physical structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom under the influence of a generalised Yukawa MGESCP potential rather than the Coulomb potential as in the case of the normal hydrogen atom. We construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuteron as a molecular ion which has similar physical structure to the molecular ion of the hydrogen molecule. We also construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuterium and obtain the corresponding energy spectrum, by showing that the deuterium has a similar physical structure to that of a helium atom. As a further discussion, we suggest possible structures for nuclei with high numbers of protons and neutrons and show that these nuclei may form narrow lattices therefore they could fold to form three-dimensional spherical structures by layers of shells by bonding similar to hydrogen bonding.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[17] viXra:1906.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 02:00:39

Proton Radius Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[16] viXra:1906.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:52:01

The Mass vs Nothingness12

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as a hypothesis a mass takes more volume outside of itself than inside of itself and that this mass(an accumulation of photons) which have seperation between themselves inside a mass
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[15] viXra:1906.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 08:33:45

Supercomputers aid Gamma Ray Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

UC San Diego mechanical and aerospace engineering graduate student Tao Wang recently demonstrated how an extremely strong magnetic field, similar to that on the surface of a neutron star, can be not only generated but also detected using an X-ray laser inside a solid material. [33] Combining principles from computational fluid dynamics and acoustics, researchers at the TU Berlin have developed an analytical model that could simplify the process of designing Helmholtz resonators, a type of noise cancelling structure used in airplanes, ships, and ventilation systems. [32] During this run, from 2015 to 2018, LHC experiments produced unprecedented volumes of data with the machine's performance exceeding all expectations. [31] The proposal envisages a new 100km circumference tunnel that would be bored through the Earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside. [30] On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[14] viXra:1906.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:28:58

Walk Through CERN Corridors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Forty years ago, in 1979, experiments at the DESY laboratory in Germany provided the first direct proof of the existence of gluons—the carriers of the strong force that "glue" quarks into protons, neutrons and other particles known collectively as hadrons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[13] viXra:1906.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 13:30:48

An Attempt to Colour Confinement

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note is presented with a single aim; the aim is to deduce a mathematical method to simply interpret the phenomena of color confinement. The derivation is something that arises from profound theoretical mechanisms of strong interaction.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12] viXra:1906.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 01:57:34

Laser Produces Terahertz Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of scientists from DESY and the University of Hamburg has achieved an important milestone in the quest for a new type of compact particle accelerator. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[11] viXra:1906.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 02:12:16

Intense X-ray and Gamma-ray Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

International group of researchers including scientists from Skoltech have invented a new method for the generation of intense X-ray and gamma-ray radiation based on nonlinear Compton scattering. [37] This is where the concept of X-ray communications (XCOM) come into play, which offer even more in the way of advantages than lasers. For one, X-rays have much shorter wavelengths than both radio waves and lasers and can broadcast in tighter beams. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[10] viXra:1906.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-25 08:33:51

The Magnitude of Electromagnetic Time Dilation.

Authors: Howard A. Landman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Theories unifying gravity and electromagnetism naturally give rise to the question of whether there might be a time dilation associated with the electromagnetic 4-potential. We show here that the magnitude of EM time dilation can be computed from elementary considerations that are independent of specific unified theories. We further show that the electrostatic part of the effect is well within reach of experiment, while the magnetic part is not.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[9] viXra:1906.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 20:39:30

Core Issues in "Foundations of QFT: 2019 Annual Philosophy of Physics Conference"

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages.

This year's workshop is focused on three core issues. Paraphrasing and rearranging their order, we examine optimal mathematical formalisms for the wavefunction and its interactions (particularly in light of the problem of renormalization), phenomenological foundations, and relativistic extensions of quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[8] viXra:1906.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-02 03:56:17

A Quantum Dynamics of Heisenberg Model of the Neutron Associated with Beta Decay

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this work we re-examine a model of the nucleons that involve the weak interaction which was once considered by Heisenberg; that is a neutron may have the structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom. We formulate a quantum dynamics for the Heisenberg model of the neutron associated with interaction that involves the beta decay in terms of a mixed Coulomb-Yukawa potential and the More General Exponential Screened Coulomb Potential (MGESCP), which has been studied and applied to various fields of physics. We show that all the components that form the MGESCP potential can be derived from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations similar to Dirac relativistic equation in quantum mechanics. There are many interesting features that emerge from the MGESCP potential, such as the MGESCP potential can be reduced to the potential that has been proposed to describe the interaction between the quarks for strong force in particle physics, and the energy spectrum of the bound states of the dwarf hydrogen-like atom is continuous with respect to distance. This result leads to an unexpected implication that a proton and an electron may also interact strongly at short distances. We also show that the Yukawa potential when restrained can generate and determine the mathematical structures of fundamental particles associated with the strong and weak fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[7] viXra:1906.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 13:46:01

Derivation of the Sum-of-Squares Relationship

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.

The sum-of-squares relationship connects the square of elementary particle masses to the square of the Fermi scale. It constrains the spectrum of free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) and it suggests a straightforward resolution to the hierarchy problem. Here we show that this relationship follows from the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near the Fermi scale and supports the view that Dark Matter behaves as long-range multifractal replica of the SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[6] viXra:1906.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 05:03:24

Waltz of LHC Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Major endeavors are underway in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) over the past few weeks, with the extraction of magnets from the accelerator tunnel. [46] The energies of proton beams produced by laser-driven particle accelerators could be doubled, without any increase in laser intensity. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[5] viXra:1906.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 09:50:24

Pentaquark Molecule-Like Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team of researchers working on the LHCb collaboration has found evidence showing that a pentaquark they have observed has a molecule-like structure. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[4] viXra:1906.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 09:33:34

Laser Boost Proton-Beam Energies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

The energies of proton beams produced by laser-driven particle accelerators could be doubled, without any increase in laser intensity. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[3] viXra:1906.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 02:07:25

Plasma Using Nanowires

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Physicists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena have now managed to solve some of these problems, and they have reported on their results in the renowned research journal Physical Review X. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[2] viXra:1906.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 08:10:10

Model Heavy Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Modelling the properties of atomic nuclei is a demanding task. It requires a theory that we can apply to a large variety of nuclear species regardless of their masses. [31] A careful re-analysis of data taken at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has revealed a possible link between correlated protons and neutrons in the nucleus and a 35-year-old mystery. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1] viXra:1906.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 03:45:36

Magnetized Plasma Jet in Laboratory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

The team created the jets using the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics