[18] **viXra:1611.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-30 10:18:43*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is known that microcausality is a cornerstone principle of relativistic Quantum Field Theory (QFT). It requires commutativity of local fields defined at space-like separations and prohibits physical effects to propagate at superluminal speeds. However, it is also known that the exact localization of quantum fields fails to apply to quantum particles, which behave as non-local entities (the Reeh-Schlieder and Malamert theorems). Over the years, challenges associated with the point-wise description of quantum particles have inspired many attempts to revisit the particle interpretation of QFT. All these proposals suffer from specific limitations and have not gained universal acceptance. Here we suggest that a field theory approaching scale invariance near the fixed points of the Renormalization Group flow blurs the distinction between locality and non-locality. In particular, self-similarity resolves the issue of particle localization in QFT, while reinforcing microcausality by default.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[17] **viXra:1611.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-29 07:36:23*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In this paper it is shown that Einstein’s special relativity theory is a self-
contradictory theory. The contradiction between two Einstein’s postulates is eliminated
by refusal from the Einstein’s second postulate, basing upon the Occam’s advice to
decrease the quantity of basic postulates to a single one. From this single postulate a law
of dependence of the speed of light propagation in vacuum on the speed of light source
motion was derived. Then a new transformation without invariance of light speed and
without prohibition of superlight speeds is derived instead of Lorentz’s transformation
followed by discovery of particle electric charge dependence upon speed of a particle
motion. Dissimilarities between the new space-time theory and Einstein’s Special
Relativity theory are considered. They are the following: 1) speed of light in vacuum
dependence in a moving inertial reference frame on the speed of moving inertial
reference frame motion; 2|) absence of superlight speeds prohibition; 3|) absence of time
dilation; 4) availability of a particle electric charge dependence on the particle motion
speed. Then the formulas of new particle dynamics are derived from new theory
transformation. The experiment by Neddermeyer and Anderson in 1938 is interpreted as
a confirmation of superlight speeds and dependence of electric charge upon particles
speed existence in nature. It is shown that according to the NRSTT accelerated protons
in the Large Hadron Collider have the energy below 400 MeV.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[16] **viXra:1611.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-26 20:58:07*

**Authors:** Jason Robert Lewis Sentinella

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The files associated with this dataset are licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported licence.

•MRF – means, Magnetic Resonance Field (Dark Energy/Matter) created from previous resonance times by 2
•fg– means, an external MRF equal to the same base equations divided by 2 (resonance = 1,079,252,849)
•f – means, Forces’ and represents the MRF (resonance = 2,158,505,698)
•fh– means, an external MRF equal to the same base equations time by 2 (resonance = 4,317,011,395)
•b – means, Black holes
•c – means, the speed of light
•d – means, time
•da– means, Distance within light
•e – means, Energy
•r – means, rotation
•m – means, Matter
•g – means, Gravity
•u – means, universe equilibrium
•dm- means, Dark Matter
f = c2
b=c(e-f)c
c= f/2
d=(da/c)/2
da= dc2
e= f(dc2)
r= (ef)/(f(dc2)
m= r/((ef)( f(dc2))
g=r/m
u=c(b-e)/c
dm=(rg)/m
MRF=MRF2
As photons move at the speed of light(c) the Magnetic Resonance Fields’ (MRF also known as f in the equations) moves at the same rate times 2 but reduce by 2 equal (b/r)(f/2). Photons are created at the point of the beginning which is an inconsistent resonance to the MRF resonance created by the collision of two MRF mats which created a different resonance at the beginning which created the photon which is the first confused multiple resonance which can alternate between matter and resonance/MRF which produce the Higgs Boson when other photon collisions happen a very short time after the beginning. The MRF is the base foundation for non-rotational matter and light and consist of many multiple layers of 2 dimensional mats which stack 360o in all directions to create a 2-dimentional stack and within the 2-dimentional stack now exists a 3-dimentional universe. Therefore, the universe runs and is full of many, two dimensional MRF mats which is what we call as Zero Point Energy or the Higgs Field or Dark Energy or Dark Matter which is the first force created which is non-changing, every expanding and creating. Therefore, the MRF’s will remain constant with the speed of light from the force of fg consistent with (b/e)fg2. With multiple collisions between photons and MRF’s, the first component of the Higgs is created which is first creation of matter (m) from the change in the resonance which creates a domino effect for matter itself. As matter begins to form, mass is created therefore slows down at the rate of the mass created. e=mc2 is not correct as energy already exists from the MRF’s created from a singularity therefore, e=f(dc2) which is a result of the previous MRF2. mc2 is an atomic calculation consistent with the speed of light squared.
Matter/Mass is the incredible absorption of energy (e) captured and created at the point of slowing down from the speed of light at the time of transformation from a resonance to matter which in turn creates and draws in gravity. As matter cannot maintain the velocity of the speed of light, in which the force from the MRF is trying to push matter to the speed of light matter absorbs the energy trying to push it to the speed of light and now rotation (r) is created (which is quantum gravity), therefore matter and gravity follow resulting in r=(ef)/(f(dc2) “then” m=r/(ef)(f(dc2) “now” g=r/m. As the building blocks of matter begin the process of increasing matter/mass, the mass of each building block of matter reduces its velocity and increase’s its mass equal to the matter created from r/(ef)(f(dc2), therefore r/(ef)(f(dc2) reoccurring to the maximum different reoccurring resonance governed by the maximum reoccurring r/m equivalent to r/((ef)f(dc2)). So “e” is already applied to m= r/(ef)(f(dc2) and already exists from the MRF therefore e=f(dc2).
The Higgs Field is the MRF’s which is the constant 2-dimensional resonance contained within the physics it created from the preceding MRF but is not a Higgs Boson itself as the Higgs Boson is matter not the MRF derived from the previous MRF2. Matter is a complex combination of many resonance which create our Standard Model yet our Standard Model does not go as deep as resonance therefore our Standard Model is incomplete.
There is no outer membrane of our universe to create any sort of opposite force on our expanding universe, therefore, the shell around the outer most limits of our expanding universe is the laws of physics itself created from the beginning and therefore gave our universe the laws in which it abides and the MRF in which all our universe is contained and expanding. When the energy released from the previous MRF, it created our MRF2 in which at the same time of the release from the previous MRF, the photon was recreated from our MRF. The photon reduces back into the MRF at entry into the Black Hole inline with b=c(e-f)c as light cannot increase inline with the rate required to enter the Black Hole therefore reduces back to its foundation which is the MRF. Therefore, light is part MRF and part matter which is then the ultimate perfect imbalance between a two dimensional and three-dimensional universe which now allows the beginning for (ef)/(f(dc2) and r/((ef)( f(dc2)) and r/m. Our universe with the increased energy physics created from the previous MRF now creates its own sustainable energy input and output which in turn is the process of MRF2. This is the process of sustainable multi universal physics. Everything is maybe within a 1 dimension infinite entity (Creation itself) which is the real unknow singularity. All dimensions/MRF2 maybe within this 1 dimensional singularity. This singularity has no area, all area is contained within it which allows multi dimensions/universes which are derived by MRF’s at a different energy level. Any conceived space between universes is not an area of space, it is this 1 dimensional singularity. All Universes are connected through the many Black Holes it creates. Once the new energy level stabilises to that universe equilibrium, the Black Hole will close off with a burst of energy back through the Black Hole equal to the previous universes MRF. These bursts are predicated in my equations with a fluctuation in energy and then stabilised back to it's equilibrium with the creation of another Black Hole. Each universe creates more energy than it can hold, therefore, there is many other universes with the same physics as ours.
Dark Matter is the MRF’s but a distorted portion of The MRF’s closest to the matter that is creating the distortion. Dark Energy is also the MRF’s it is just the undistorted portion that is further away from the matter. The area of the MRF’s closest to the mass of matter (galaxy) assists gravity to keep the mass in equilibrium with itself. The indented distortion of the MRF’s (also known as Dark Matter) is now the distorted/indent within the MRF’s required to keep matter together. Therefore (rg)/m is Dark Matter which is equal to the MRF. The distortion (Dark Matter) in the MRF’s is approximately 200% more distortion (Dark Matter) than there is matter. Dark Energy is equal to f which again, is the MRF. Dark Energy is equal to MRF which again, is the MRF’s.
This paper shows the universe is expanding and the energy within it increases. This theory brings together general relativity and quantum theory, it also proves string theory. Matter is moving within the MRF’s but does not increase in velocity it is contained within r/((ef)( f(dc2), however, it is the area of the universe that is increasing in area therefore the distance between matter increases. Matter never increases outside of the universe equilibrium, matter is formed equal to the universe equilibrium. Therefore, the equations of (ef)/(f(dc2) and r/(ef)(f(dc2) and r/m remain the same but in equilibrium with f(dc2) and c(e-f)c = c(b-e)/c.
A black hole is like a drain to reduce the incredible build-up of f(dc2), therefore we get c(e-f)c resulting in c(b-e)/c. After our universe reached its equilibrium c(b-e)/c approximately 946 years after exiting the previous Black Hole from the previous MRF, our universe equalised. The new physical laws created now would not protect us from amalgamation with other universes of the same physical laws. If our universe was to combine with another universe with the same laws, it would be like what we see with merging galaxies. The indication that our universe is merging with another would be a rush of matter in our universe towards the mass in which the collision/merger will take place, therefore, would merely be a merger of equal MRF’s.
At the time of exiting the previous MRF, the universe was organising itself within the new physical laws it created. Around 943 years after the exit, the universe began to stabilise as a result of f(dc2) and c(e-f)c. at around 946 years after the exit, the universe reached its equilibrium c(b-e)/c and continues in line with the physics described in this paper.
The energy in the universe has stabilised as per c(b-e)/c, this is the basic base foundational theory of everything.
Fig1 – 3 multiverses of different energy

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1611.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-26 08:27:40*

**Authors:** Gaurav Karnatak, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Vixra is very good journal of Physics.

The energy momentum tensor of generalized fields of dyons and energy momentum conservation laws
of dyons has been developed in simple, compact and consistent manner. We have obtained the Maxwell’s
field theory of energy momentum tensor of dyons (electric and magnetic) of electromagnetic field, Poynting vector and Poynting theorem for generalized fields of dyons in a simple, unique and consistent way.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14] **viXra:1611.0332 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-25 07:06:49*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: showing the images of the most fundamental structure and
constituents density distribution of a proton and a neutron.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:1611.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-17 11:37:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1611.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-16 05:00:04*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We discuss enhancements of the cross section in particle-antiparticle scattering, of a type not expected in
quantum field theory, however predicted in the quantum gravity theoretical framework discussed in Refs [1,
2, 3]. The first events of this kind are to be found in the energy range between some 111 GeV and 130 GeV,
with a stronger peak around 125-126 GeV, and weaker ones around 114 GeV and 130 GeV. The strongest
peak turns out to correspond to the resonance which is usually interpreted as due to a Higgs boson, whereas
the other ones are compatible with astrophysical observations devoted to inspect the presence of Dark
Matter. This approach provides a no-Higgs, no Dark Matter explanation for the observed excess of photon
production, which does not result from fine-tuning of parameters chosen ad-hoc in a particular model, but
naturally fits within the theoretical scenario described in [1]–[3]. Further peaks are expected to appear at
higher energy. They show up separated from each other by energy steps much wider than a typical resonance
width. Being isolated and of moderate intensity, they may be more difficult to single out over the statistical
fluctuations of background events.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1611.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-16 03:24:16*

**Authors:** Colin James

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

To attempt to answer the question 'What is a photon?' we combine the kinetic and electromagnetic aspects of a photon and derive a straightforward picture of the photon that appears to readily explain a number of phenomena including some of the strange features of the double-slit experiment. By considering the kinetic properties of a photon first, we look at wave-particle duality from the point of view of a particle system behaving with wavelike properties as the kinetic complement of a wave-packet. We find that the photon is contained by the vacuum by a force that is more than 200 times stronger than electrostatic.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1611.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 13:17:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In physics, confinement of particles is such an important phenomenon that the Clay Mathematics Institute has even pledged an award of a million dollars to anyone who can give a convincing and exhaustive scientific explanation from a mathematical point of view. For example, the quarks are confined in pairs or threes by the strong interaction-the force which holds the nuclei of the atoms together-making up neutrons and protons. A recent study at SISSA adds a new chapter to what we know about confinement. Using a relatively simple method, it has been shown how to determine whether, in a system with ferromagnetic characteristics, the emerging "particles" are subject to confinement. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1611.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 10:20:20*

**Authors:** Stephen Joseph Kennedy

**Comments:** 24 Pages. copyright 1990, Stephen Joseph Kennedy, Library of Congress submitted to Physical Review letters(not accepted) manuscript #LD 5183

A theory of the muon is presented that explains the mass of the muon
from a formula derived from the relativistic wave equations independently
discovered by Lanczos, Weyl, and Van der Waarden using the Liénard-
Wiechert potential, discussed in the appendix. The mean-life of the muon
is also calculated in a way that differs from the beta-decay-like standard
model mechanism but uses a spontaneous emission-like model using
Heisenberg's spontaneous emission formula and the model of Weinberg
and Salam with the Z0 Boson playing a role analogous to the photon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1611.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 12:06:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1611.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-10 08:00:21*

**Authors:** S.R. Shi

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

This paper is based on my own previous articles. I improve research methods and add some new contents in this paper. A more rigorous, more analytical, more complete and more organized mathematical physical method is adopted. And I am as far as possible to make the whole article have a sense of beauty. Firstly, the mathematics foundation of constant tensors analysis methods is established rigorously in Chapter One. Some wonderful mathematical properties are found. Many important constant tensors are proposed. Then in Chapter Two I use constant tensors as a mathematical tool to apply to physics. Some important physical quantities are defined by using constant tensors. All kinds of relationships between them are studied in detail. The canonical, analytical and strict mathematical physical sign system is established in this chapter. In Chapter Three, I use the mathematical tools in the previous two chapters to study spinorial formalism of various spin particles classical equations. And the equivalence between spinorial formalism and classical one is proved strictly. I focuse to study electromagnetic field, Yang-Mills field and gravitational field etc. Especially, a new spinorial formalism of the gravitational field identity is proposed. In order to further explore, I study several important equations by contrast. Some new and interesting results are obtained. The Chapter Four is the most important part of this thesis. It is also my original intention of writing this paper. In this chapter, I put forward a new form of particle equations: Spin Equation. The equation is directly constructed by spin and spin tensor. And I note that spin tensor is also the transformation matrix of corresponding field representation. So the physical meaning of this equation is very clear. The corresponding particle equation can be simply and directly written according to the transformation law of the particle field. It correctly describes neutrino, electromagnetic field, Yang-Mills field and electron etc. And it is found that it is completely equivalent to full symmetry Penrose equation. A scalar field can be introduced naturally in this formalism. Thus, a more interesting equation is obtained: Switch Spin Equation. When the scalar field is zero, free particles can exist. When the scalar field is not zero, free particles can't exist. The scalar field acts as a switch. It can control particles generation and annihilation. This provides a new physical mechanism of particles generation and annihilation. At the same time, it can also answer the question: why the universe inflation period can be completely described by the scalar fields. And the equation itself has an inherent limitation to the scalar field. So that the scalar will be quantized automatically. Each quantized value of the scalar is corresponding to different physical equations. That provides a new idea and an enlightenment for unity of five superstring theories. Finally, in Chapter Five Bargmann-Wigner equation is analyzed thoroughly. It is proved that it is equivalent to Rarita-Schwinger equation in half integer spin case. And it is equivalent to Klein-Gordon equation in integer spin case. The profound physical meanings of Bargmann-Wigner equation are revealed. By contrast, it is found that Bargmann-Wigner equation is suitable to describe massive particles, but not too suitable to describe massless particles. Penrose spinorial equation or Spin Equation is more suitable to describe massless particles. Mathematics and physics of this paper have a stronger originality. Some mathematical and physical concepts, methods and contents also have a certain novelty. All of them are strictly calculated and established step by step by my own independent efforts. It takes me a lot of time and energy. I use spare time to finish the paper. Due to the limited time and my limited level, it is inevitable that there are a few mistakes. Comments and suggestions are welcome!

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1611.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 10:55:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

More than seven years later, that collaboration could result in an inexpensive tabletop device to detect elusive neutrinos more efficiently and inexpensively than is currently possible, and could simplify scientists' ability to study the inner workings of the sun. [9] Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US $66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1611.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-07 14:30:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A precise measurement of absolute beam intensity is a key parameter to monitor any losses in a beam and to calibrate the absolute number of particles delivered to the experiments. [12] In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1611.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-06 02:33:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Holography isn't just for photons anymore. Researchers now report their success in using neutrons to make holograms, which record patterns of interference between two coherent beams. [14] James Vary, a professor of physics and astronomy, and Andrey Shirokov, a visiting scientist, together with an international team, used sophisticated supercomputer simulations to show the quasi-stable existence of a tetraneutron, a structure comprised of four neutrons (subatomic particles with no charge). [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1611.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-05 03:42:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1611.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 12:04:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1611.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 04:31:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

James Vary, a professor of physics and astronomy, and Andrey Shirokov, a visiting scientist, together with an international team, used sophisticated supercomputer simulations to show the quasi-stable existence of a tetraneutron, a structure comprised of four neutrons (subatomic particles with no charge). [13]
Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12]
The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11]
When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can “feel” each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10]
The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics