[15] **viXra:1612.0397 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 13:15:23*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In 2007 a single mathematical model encompassing both quark and lepton mixing was described. This model exploited
the fact that when a $3 \times 3$ rotation matrix whose elements are squared is subtracted from its transpose,
a matrix is produced whose non-diagonal elements have a common absolute value, where this value is an intrinsic property of the rotation matrix. For the
traditional CKM quark mixing matrix with its second and third rows interchanged (i.e., c - t interchange)
this value equals one-third the corresponding value for the leptonic matrix (roughly, 0.05 versus 0.15).
This model is distinguished by three such constraints on mixing.
As nine years have elapsed since its introduction, it is timely to assess the accuracy of the model's six mixing angles.
In 2012 a large experimental conflict with leptonic angle $\theta_{13}$ required toggling the sign of one of the model's integer exponents; this change did not significantly impair the model's economy, where it is just this economy that makes the model notable.
There followed a nearly fourfold improvement in the accuracy of the measurement of leptonic $\theta_{13}$.
Despite this much-improved measurement, and despite much-improved measurements for three other mixing angles since the model's introduction in 2007, no other conflicts have emerged.
The model's mixing angles in degrees are 45, 33.210911, 8.034394 (originally 0.013665) for leptons; and 12.920966, 2.367442, 0.190986 for quarks.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14] **viXra:1612.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-25 08:13:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A research team at the Lomonosov Moscow State University, using new interaction between neutrons, has theoretically justified the low-energy tertaneutron resonance that was recently obtained experimentally. [14] James Vary, a professor of physics and astronomy, and Andrey Shirokov, a visiting scientist, together with an international team, used sophisticated supercomputer simulations to show the quasi-stable existence of a tetraneutron, a structure comprised of four neutrons (subatomic particles with no charge). [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[13] **viXra:1612.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-25 10:17:53*

**Authors:** V.K.Sharma, B.C.Chanyal, O.P.S.Negi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The vast majority of the dark matter in the universe is believed to be nonbaryonic, which means that it contains no atoms and does not interact with ordinary matter via electromagnetic forces. The nonbaryonic dark matter includes neutrinos, and possibly hypothetical entities such as axions, or supersymmetric particles. Unlike baryonic dark matter, nonbaryonic dark matter does not contribute to the formation of the elements in the early universe (big bang nucleosynthesis) and so its presence is revealed only via its gravitational attraction. The nonbaryonic dark matter is evident through its gravitational effect only. There are two type of nonbaryonic dark matter respectively defined as hot dark matter and cold dark matter. For the existence of nonbaryonic dark matter in this universe we can used the higher dimensional division algebra. There exists four normed division algebras: the real numbers, complex numbers, quaternions, and octonions. Since, the octonions are the last division algebra, so we can easily described the octonion space as the combination of two quaternionic spaces namely gravitational G-space and electromagnetic EM-space. Thus, describing the octonion eight dimensional space as the combination of two quaternionic spaces (namely associated with the electromagnetic interaction (EM-space) and linear gravitational interaction (G-space)), we have reexamined the unified picture of EM-G space in terms of octonionic formulation in consistent manner. Consequently, we have obtained the fundamental components of angular momentum and torque for unified theory of gravi- electromagnetism. After that we relate these components in terms of octonionic dark matter and dark energy. In this formulation, it should be noted that the unified octonionic rotation energies in terms of angular momentum and torque will be responsible for the existence of dark matter and dark energy in this universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1612.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-20 06:53:18*

**Authors:** Christian Rakotonirina

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Talk given in 8th High Energy physics Conference in Antananarivo, Madagascar, HEPMAD16, 15th Anniversary, October2016

In this paper, formulas giving a Kronecker commutation matrices (KCMs) in terms of some matrices of particles physics and formulas giving electric charge operators (ECOs) for fundamental fermions in terms of KCMs have been reviewed. Physical meaning have been given to the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a KCM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1612.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-17 04:58:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Physicists at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with researchers in South Korea and Germany, have developed a theoretical framework for improving the stability and intensity of particle accelerator beams. [16] For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1612.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-17 05:31:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Using large-scale computer simulations, the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy research group at the Department of Earth and Space Sciences is making important contributions to Joint European Torus (JET), the biggest fusion experiment currently in operation. [17] Physicists at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with researchers in South Korea and Germany, have developed a theoretical framework for improving the stability and intensity of particle accelerator beams. [16] For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1612.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-16 23:58:57*

**Authors:** Gaurav Karnatak

**Comments:** 14 Pages. No

In this formalism the covariant derivative contains the four potentials associated with four
charges and thus leads the dierent gauge strength for the particles containing electric, magnetic,gravitational and Heavisidian charges. Quaternions representation in spontaneously symmetry of breaking and Higg's mechanics and the equation of motion are derived for free particles (i.e.electric, magnetic, gravitational and Heavisidian charges). The local gauge invariance in order to explain the Yang-Mill's field equation and spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism. The quaternionic gauge theory of quantum electrodynamics has also been developed in presence of electric, magnetic, gravitational and Heavisidian charge

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1612.0251 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-30 10:14:05*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regard to the neutrino oscillations.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1612.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-14 08:19:37*

**Authors:** M. J. Germuska

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

The Vir Theory of Elementary Particles provides a formula for the relationship between mass and spin. Using this formula the masses of over 200 particles were calculated with such accuracy that the errors from the actual masses are entirely attributable to the mass measurement errors. The particles come from 16 families including the lightest family N and the heaviest family Y. For each family of particles considered there is one or more Mendeleev-like table where the columns have increasing spin and the rows increasing mass, in such a way that the diagonal cells have the same predicted mass. The empty cells should in future be filled by new particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1612.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-13 12:07:04*

**Authors:** M. J. Germuska

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

A new theory of elementary particles is presented based on solid mathematical foundations of Variational Calculus, Euler’s Equations of Motion and Special Relativity. The Vir Theory of Elementary Particles explains that a particle is a stationary circular wave created by the motion of twin vortices in the relativistic ether. Mathematical equations show that they must have integer or half-integer spin, explain why the electric charge must be plus, minus or zero, why neutral particles come in right-handed and left-handed pairs, why charge-parity-time (CPT) transformation are invariant and why there are anti-particles but no stable anti-matter. A simple formula for the relationship between particle spin and mass is also derived, that can be used to verify the theory using the existing PDG data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1612.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-12 08:50:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1612.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 07:56:51*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 11 Pages. two tables, one figure

The masses of the leptons and baryons are shown to be quantitatively described in terms of magnetodynamic energies considering as a fundamental feature the quantization of magnetic flux inside a zitterbewegung motion “ orbit” performed by each particle in consequence of its interaction with the vacuum background( as proposed decades ago by Barut, Jehle, and Post). As a further proof of the soundness of the method, we present a plot of mass against magnetic moment in which the data for the spin-3/2 decuplet particles are shifted from the data for the spin-1/2 octet by the exact numerical factor predicted from the square root of the ratio between their spin angular momenta.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1612.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 08:26:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1612.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 06:41:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1612.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 07:04:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics