[18] **viXra:1709.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 06:57:27*

**Authors:** Austin J.Fearnley

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Model#7 extended the previous model by including spin 2 gravitons which are now withdrawn in model#8 and replaced by spin 1 gravitons. The reason for the change to spin 1 gravitons was the realisation that spin 1 gravitons together with a unified use of colour charge can unite the forces of QCD, QED, Weak and gravitation in a way that shows the commonality of all charges (Figure A). This commonality is outside the range of the Standard Model as there is a symmetry at the level of preons which is broken by aggregation of preons into elementary particles. At the preon level, the QED charge on preons derives exactly from the QCD charge. Because of aggregation of preons into quarks, that symmetry is broken at the level of quarks. A red quark can be either positive or negatively charged which hides the symmetry present at the level of preons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[17] **viXra:1709.0433 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-30 20:11:43*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Contrary to what the submission suggests, the “sum of squares” equation of viXra 1709.0386 has been recorded and analyzed in at least one previous publication. We also challenge the author’s interpretation of this equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[16] **viXra:1709.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 20:41:25*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A much easier process

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[15] **viXra:1709.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 18:33:11*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Scooped by http://dispatchesfromturtleisland.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-latest-combined-higgs-boson-mass.html

We observe that the sum of the squares of the three known fundamental massive bosons is within 0.4% of the square of the vacuum expectation value divided by 2. It is also well known that the top quark mass squared is also slightly less than this value. We put forth the conjecture that this is not a coincidence, and that these two facts are a result of a general principle for the Standard Model that the sum of the squares of the boson masses and the sum of the squares of the fermion masses actually equals the vacuum expectation value squared divided by two. Furthermore this foreshadows a coming particle desert at TeV energies, as the available reservoir of mass couplings has already been allocated to known particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[14] **viXra:1709.0385 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-15 09:33:38*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

For the first time, ** Law of Conservation of Light** is uncovered that consists of the eight principles including the wave-particle duality as well as the

[13] **viXra:1709.0311 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-21 09:40:48*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Under construction, first draft.

As we have recently shown, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes the underlying structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Here we uncover the connection between quantum field operators and the MFM starting from the operator product expansion of high-energy Quantum Field Theory. The approach confirms that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) stems from a symmetry breaking mechanism that turns the spacetime continuum into a MFM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1709.0306 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-13 04:56:42*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper an algebraic method is presented to derive a non-Hermitian Schr{\"o}dinger equation from $E=V+c\sqrt{m^2c^2+\left(\mathbf{p}-\frac{e}{c}\mathbf{A}\right)^2}$ with $E\rightarrow i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ and $\mathbf{p} \rightarrow -i\hbar \nabla$.
In the derivation no use is made of Dirac's method of four vectors and the root operator isn't squared either.
In this paper use is made of the algebra of operators to derive a matrix Schr{\"o}dinger equation. It is demonstrated that the obtained equation is Lorentz invariant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1709.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 08:23:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1709.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-25 08:46:25*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In E8 Physics, when our Planck Scale Universe emerged from its Parent Universe by Quantum Fluctuation, it was represented by Real Form E8(-248) with SO(16) symmetry; and during Octonionic NonUnitary Inflation our Universe was represented by Real Form E8(8) with SO(8,8) symmetry; and after the end of Octonionic Inflation with 8-dim Octonionic Spacetime, during the present era of (4+4)-dim Quaternionic Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Unitary Quaternionic Quantum Processes our Universe has been represented by Real Form E8(-24) with SO*(16) symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1709.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 00:04:29*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1709.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 21:11:20*

**Authors:** DING Jian

**Comments:** 14 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

Based on Aristotle's definition, all the knowledge was able to be divided into three parts: natural science, metaphysics and mathematics. Among them, we can distinguish between natural science and metaphysics according to whether there exists in reality. And the principle of the limit in mathematics helps us to break the bondage of finite thought. From the quantitative changes of real space to have gone deep into a qualitative difference of ideal realm, it has accomplished the unity of opposites of all knowledge. Take the postulation as an example. This concept corresponds to limiting value, and is a hypothesis that humans can only be continually to modify the one-sided view to approach the truth but can't use empirical methods to prove or disprove it. Newton's First Law is such a postulation, which has invariance or absoluteness, can be called the absolute truth and belonged to the metaphysical category. According to the above philosophical principles we have found that in Einstein's special relativity there is a paradoxes, which is to use an absolute truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another absolute truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity) but one of them can't be proved to be false. And his mistake to be found out, which is to confuse the light speed in reality with the c. So, starting from the perspective of all knowledge, all the inertial systems are redefined, Galileo's coordinate transformations once again enabled; and in order to eliminate the false and retain the true, Einstein's two postulations in special relativity are reshaped, which can make them reasonably to return to the framework of absolute space-time. Finally to point out, it has been identified that so-called "Non-being" in Lao-tzu is the "metaphysics", which will certainly have great significance to unify the Eastern and Western Philosophy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1709.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 03:37:11*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An extremely puzzling problem of particle physics is, how come, no baryon
number arises mathematically to describe the spin-1/2 octet baryons in the
Eightfold way model. Recently the author has shown that all the canonical
proposals to provide a baryon number to solve the above problem, are funda-
mentally wrong. So what is the resolution of this conundrum? Here we show
that the topological Skyrme-Witten model which takes account of the Wess-
Zumino anomaly comes to our rescue. In contrast to the two
avour model, the
presence of this anomaly term for three
avours, shows that the quantal states
are monopolar harmonics, which are not functions but sections of a ber bun-
dle. This generates a profoundly signicant "right hypercharges", which lead
to making the adjoint representation of SU(3) as being the ground state. This
provides a topologically generated baryon number for the spin-1/2 baryons in
the adjoint representation, to connect to the Eightfold way model baryon octet
states. This solves the mystery of the missing baryon number in the Eightfold
way model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1709.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 18:57:12*

**Authors:** DING Jian

**Comments:** 19 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

Based on Aristotle's definition, all the knowledge was able to be divided into three parts: natural science, metaphysics and mathematics. Among them, we can distinguish between natural science and metaphysics according to whether there exists in reality. And the principle of the limit in mathematics helps us to break the bondage of finite thought. From the quantitative changes of real space to have gone deep into a qualitative difference of ideal realm, it has accomplished the unity of opposites of all knowledge. Take the postulation as an example. This concept corresponds to limiting value, and is a hypothesis that humans can only be continually to modify the one-sided view to approach the truth but can't use empirical methods to prove or disprove it. Newton's First Law is such a postulation, which has invariance or absoluteness, can be called the absolute truth, and belonged to the metaphysical category. According to the above philosophical principles we have found that in Einstein's special relativity there is a paradoxes, which is to use an absolute truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another absolute truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity) but one of them can't be proved to be false. And his mistake to be found out, which is to confuse the light speed in reality with the c. So, starting from the perspective of all knowledge, all the inertial systems are redefined, Galileo's coordinate transformations once again enabled; and in order to eliminate the false and retain the true, Einstein's two postulations in special relativity are reshaped, which can make them reasonably to return to the framework of absolute space-time. Finally to point out, it has been identified that so-called "Nonbeing" in Lao-tzu is the "metaphysics", which will certainly have great significance to unify the Eastern and Western philosophy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1709.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-28 13:55:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** new section added at bottom of page

The conservation role of the Higgs Boson is the creation of the "Leptonic Spectrum"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1709.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 08:33:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Scientists generally imagine atomic nuclei to be more or less spherical clusters of protons and neutrons, but always relatively chaotic. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1709.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 06:37:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12]
An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11]
Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9]
A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7]
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6]
Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5]
Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1709.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-02 08:43:01*

**Authors:** A.J.Fearnley

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper summarises a model for building all elementary particles of the Standard Model plus the higgs, dark matter, dark energy and gravitons, out of preons and sub-preons. The preons are themselves built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. The four forces are shown to be unified by hexarks being string-like objects comprising a compactified multiverse-like structure of at least 10^39 strands of string-like 4D space and time blocks (septarks). Despite the individual forces seeming very different from each another, they all derive from the same colour strands, either as net colour braids (QCD and attractive gravity) or as net neutral-colour braids/strands (electric charge, weak isospin and dark energy, or repulsive gravity). Different strength forces have different numbers of braids in them but QCD-colour is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, the same as gravitational colour while electric charge, weak isospin and dark energy are all qualitatively the same neutral-colour mix, but not quantitatively the same.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1709.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 09:03:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

New research by a team from Aarhus, Swansea, and Purdue Universities has enabled recent experiments to make the first measurement of the 1S – 2S atomic state transition in antihydrogen. [12] The LHCb experiment has found hints of what could be a new piece of the jigsaw puzzle of the missing antimatter in our universe. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics