[11] **viXra:1605.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 04:19:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Radioactive decay anomaly could imply a new fundamental force, theorists say. [15] Researchers at the University of Southampton have proposed a new fundamental particle which could explain why no one has managed to detect 'dark matter', the elusive missing 85 per cent of the Universe's mass. [14] Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can't even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today's paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1605.0254 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-10 17:16:05*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages. thank you

Time Perspective Bias (TPB) predicts that all quantum
experimental results will vary with the difference
of scales between the source subject, and the effect observed.
TPB offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined
probability wavefunction Ψ”. In TPB,
time-divergence (perspective distortions in time), occur
in observations between classic scale and nano scales.
Explanations, resolutions and insights gained
from TPB
TPB explains all of the following mysteries with
beauty, simplicity and persuasion:
In nanoscales:
* The cloud appearance of electron orbits
* The gaps between electron orbits are very much
predicted
* The shapes of orbitals
* Collapse, as well as duality
* Why orbital density appears closest to nucleus
* Progression of energy states
* TPB suggests that information about energy states
and position can be gained from comparing observations
at two separate points in time.
In macroscales:
* Accelerated expansion
* Millisecond pulsars
* Galaxy outer rim rotation mysteries
* The nonuniform expansion of supernovae remnant
clouds
A great many mysteries are simply explained
by the single novel concept that events (durations
of time) appear to converge in macro scales and
diverge in nanoscales. The key is understanding
that the effect only occurs between scales of great
magnitude difference. Furthermore the effect is
nullified, in quantum mechanics, when these two
events are brought to the same scale by the introduction
of an apparatus.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1605.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-22 09:32:31*

**Authors:** J. S. Markovitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The last six years have seen great strides in measuring the neutrino squared-mass splittings and heavy quark masses. It is therefore timely to reconsider the mass formulas introduced by the author in 2010, which then disagreed with the ratio of the neutrino squared-mass splittings.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1605.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-02 02:41:16*

**Authors:** Wu Sheng-Ping

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory.
Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the current from electromagnetic field is proposed.
and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles.
The static properties and decay and scattering are reasoned, all meet experimental data.
The momentum-energy tensor of the electromagnetic field coming to the equation of general relativity is discussed. In the end that the conformation elementarily between this theory
and QED and weak theory is discussed compatible, except some bias in some analysis.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1605.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 03:44:25*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 10 pages, 22 equations, 9 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to the theory of Maxwell-Dirac electrodynamics. This describes the interaction of the electromagnetic photon field with a charged fermion (the electron). This gives another example of the applicability of our
divergence-free methods to a system with Abelian gauge invariance. Results of loop computations are given, implementing the principle of gauge-covariant momentum-space quantization.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1605.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-17 13:04:53*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The possibility of electron geometric structure is studied using a model based upon quantized electromagnetic impedances, and written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra. In such a model the electron is expanded beyond the point, to include the simplest possible objects in one, two, and three dimensions. These point, line, plane, and volume elements, quantized at the scale of the electron Compton wavelength and given the attributes of electric and magnetic fields, comprise a minimally complete Pauli algebra of flat 3D space. One can calculate quantized impedances associated with elementary particle spectrum observables (the S-matrix) from interactions between the eight geometric objects of this algebra - one scalar, three vectors, three bivector pseudovectors, and one trivector pseudoscalar. The resulting matrix comprises a Dirac algebra of 4D spacetime. Proton structure and spin are extracted via the dual character of scalar electric and pseudoscalar magnetic charges.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1605.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:11:22*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 1 Page. Fig. 4 to accompany paper "The Symmetry Groups of Light"

Figure 4 is an attempt to represent diagrammatically the connection between leptons and quarks. The essence of the relationship is that the quarks are a resonant subset of the leptons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1605.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-09 09:56:20*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The existence of the bare mass and the bare charge in Quantum Electrodynamics is analyzed in terms
of the Standard Model of particle physics.
QED arises as a renormalized theory as a consequense of spontaneous symmetry breaking
by Englert-Brout-Higgs mechanism as
$SU(3)_{C}\otimes SU(2)_{L}\otimes U(1)_{Y} \,\rightarrow \,SU(3)_{C} \otimes U(1)_{em}$.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1605.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 17:14:04*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We observe that the Standard Model's fermions can be mapped onto a 7-bit pattern, and that these bits can be used to calculate the various charges (color, weak isospin, hypercharge, and electromagnetic) for these particles. A geometrical object, the trihepton, is proposed as means of understanding where the pattern of fermions and the simple formulas for the charges come from. Its relationship with the Fano plane from projective geometry is considered. Issues and implications of the model are discussed. A fourth generation of fermions with spin 3/2 and absolute charge (2, 5/3, 4/3, 1) is hypothesized, and it is also suggested that there may be bosons associated with neutrino oscillation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1605.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 12:46:35*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 18 pages. « Oscillations temporelles du neutrino » is the French version of «Neutrino’s Temporal Oscillations» on viXra.org/abs/1605.0005

Nous conjecturons l’existence de neutrinos sans masse qui sont dans la ligne du modèle standard mais qui possèdent des fonctionnalités non représentées par le modèle standard : ils utilisent un chemin radial plus court que le photon et possèdent des saveurs bosoniques. Ils seraient considérés comme des bosons au lieu de fermions. Nous appelons cette théorie « oscillations temporelles du neutrino ». Confrontée à quelques comparaisons expérimentales – neutrinos solaires, neutrinos de SN1987A, neutrinos cosmologiques ̶ , la théorie donne de meilleurs résultats et des explications plus sensées que la théorie compliquée de l’oscillation du neutrino. L’expérience « OPERA » qui a mesuré la vitesse des neutrinos en 2011 a abouti à des données que ne peuvent expliquer les trois types de neutrinos existants. La physique des neutrinos semble malade. L’oscillation temporelle du neutrino, en montrant le raccourci que prennent des neutrinos sans masse dans l’espace-temps à trois dimensions spatiales que nous connaissons, représente dans le modèle standard une fenêtre ouverte sur une « nouvelle physique » qui a un rapport avec la réalité physique.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1605.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 08:11:02*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We conjecture the existence of massless neutrinos that are in the line of standard model (unable to account for the neutrino mass) but have characteristics that are not accounted for by the standard model: they use a shorter radial path than the photon and possess bosonic flavors. Considered like bosons instead of fermions. We call this theory "neutrino’s temporal oscillations". Faced with some experimental comparisons ̶ solar neutrinos, neutrinos from SN1987A, cosmological neutrinos ̶ , the theory gives better results, explanations and sense than the complicated theory of neutrino oscillations (transformism). The "OPERA" experiment which measured the speed of neutrinos in 2011 resulted, after a "superluminal" saga, in data that the three existing types of neutrinos cannot explain, with the final outcome of a fourth "sterile" neutrino with non-standard interaction. Neutrino physics does not make sense. "Neutrino’s temporal oscillations" shows the short cut that massless neutrinos take in the three spatial dimensions of the space-time that we know. It represents within the Standard Model an open window on a "new physics" that has a connection with physical reality.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics