[5] **viXra:0908.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 2 pages

Energy creates particles, the particles creates fields, and the fields
creates interplay

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:0908.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 6 pages

Quantum Theory's Uncertainty Principle violates conservation of energy & momentum
and invokes matter's unrealistic creation from, and dissolution into, nothing. In Unified
Theory action is an evolute of sharmon with Planck constant h as its quantum. The
inviolable conservations of energy and momentum ordain conservation of action,
invalidation of the Uncertainty Principle and introduction of the new Principle of Null
Action. It has universal applications and is conceptually superior to the old Hamilton's
Principle of Least Action as the latter unrealistically associates turnover of action NOT with
variations in but with constant energy & momentum. In Nature, the path chosen by an
isolated closed system during a real physical change through a succession of intermediate
states from the initial equilibrium state 'a' to the final equilibrium state 'b' is such that the
summation or integration of action covering all variations of energy or momentum is zero
or null. Hence the name: "Principle of Null Action". The new principle has successfully
derived the generally accepted equations for the following: Schwinger's Quantum
Dynamical Principle, Klein-Gorden Field Equations, Schrodinger Wave Equation, Special
and General Relativity, Euler's Equations, Lagrange's Equations, Maxwell Equations for
Electromagnetic Radiation, Newton's laws of motion, Thermodynamic Equation of State,
Discharge of Capacitance through Inductance & Resistance.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:0908.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 8 pages

An element composes other particles but it itself is non-composite. The basic substance
composes all and it itself is composed by the basic element(s). The Modern Standard Model
with Supersymmetry has over 200 basic particles but none of them satisfies the definition of
'element'. Inter-conversions of various forms of energies and/or with mass and the equation
E=mc^{2} compellingly needs a 'basic substance' composing all forms of E & m, otherwise E &
m could not interconvert. Real Sharmon Medium propagating light as wave-quantum
UNITY at constant velocity invariant to source-observer motion is the 'absolute reference
frame' and all-composing and all-pervading 'basic substance' composed by the new particle
'sharmon', which comprises a positive positrino & a negative negatrino, the two basic
elements named cosminos. They compose all forms of energy & mass, material particles and
energy-quanta in the Cosmos. Their electric charge is ± 1.37x 10^{-30} esu; mass 2.596x10^{-48} gm
& spin ½. Sharmon's mass is 5.192x10-48 gm, spin 0 & 1. As a kinetic gas, the sharmon
medium is irremovable by any means since the ~10^{-33} cm Sharmon can pass thru interatomic
spaces and between orbital electrons. Its number density is ~10^{15} sharmons per cm^{3},
mass density 0.519x10^{-33} gm.cm^{-3}. Its inter-sharmon distance of ~ 10,sup>-5 cm compares with
Mean Free Path for real gasses e.g. 1.12x 10^{-5} cm for Hydrogen. An element is singly
charged since multiple charges imply that many constituents. Cosmino's single unified
charge manifests as mass & electric charge via the mediation of gravitational and
electromagnetic fields/forces, which also unify into a single gravitoelectromagnetic
field/force. No particle is massless or sizeless point; neutrinos have mass, size & electric
charge. Cosmino compositions of quarks, leptons, neutrinos and photon are worked out.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:0908.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-09 07:03:20*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 1024 Pages.

The book is devoted to the applications of p-adic length scale hypothesis and dark matter hierarchy.
</p><p>
<OL>
<LI> p-Adic length scale hypothesis states that primes p≈ 2<sup>k</sup>, k integer, in particular prime,
define preferred p-adic length scales. Physical arguments supporting this hypothesis are based on the generalization of Hawking's area law for blackhole entropy so that it applies in case of elementary particles. A deeper number theory based justification for this hypothesis is based on the generalization of
the number concept fusing real number fields and p-adic number fields among common rationals or numbers in their non-trivial algebraic extensions. This approach also justifies the notion of multi-p-fractality and allows to understand scaling law in terms of simultaneous p≈ 2<sup>k</sup>- and 2-fractality.
<LI> In TGD framework the levels of dark matter hierarchy are labeled by the values of dynamical quantized Planck constant. The justification for the hypothesis provided by quantum classical correspondence and the fact the sizes of space-time sheets identifiable as quantum coherence regions can be arbitrarily large.
<LI> The weak form of electric-magnetic duality is the newest building brick of the vision and leads to a detailed view about electro-weak screening and color confinement and predicts new physics below weak scales. The weak form of electric-magnetic duality allows to identify Higgs bosons and to understand how they provide the longitudinal polarizations of gauge bosons. The most natural option is that photon eats the remaining Higgs scalar and receives a small mass. This true for all bosons regarded as massless and allows to have exact Yangian symmetry requiring the vanishing of IR divergences. Higgs potential and vacuum expectation of Higgs are not needed in the model.
<LI> Twistors emerge naturally in TGD framework and several proposal for twistorialization of TGD is discussed in two chapters devoted to the topic. Twistorial approach combined with zero energy ontology, bosonic emergence, and the properties of the Chern-Simons Dirac operator leads to the conjecture that all particles -also string like objects- can be regarded as bound states of massless particles identifiable as wormhole throats. Also virtual particles would consist of massles wormhole throats but bound state property is not assumed anymore and the energies of wormhole throats can have opposite signs so that space-like momentum exchanges become possible. This implies extremely strong constraints on loop momenta and manifest finiteness of loop integrals.
</OL>
</p><p>
The first part of the book is about the description of elementary particle massivation in terms of p-adic thermodynamics and Higgsy contribution affecting the vacuum conformal weight. In the first chapter the view about quantum TGD from particle physics perspective is discussed and the remaining chapters are devoted to the detailed calculation of masses of elementary particles and hadrons, and to various new physics suggested or predicted by the resulting scenario.
</p><p>
Second part of the book is devoted to the application of p-adic length scale hypothesis above elementary particle length scales. The so called leptohadron physics, originally developed on basis of experimental anomalies, is discussed as a particular instance of an infinite fractal hierarchy of copies of standard model physics, predicted by TGD and consistent with what is known about ordinary elementary particle physics. TGD based view about nuclear physics involves light exotic quarks as a essential element, and dark nuclear physics could have implications also at the level of condensed matter physics and biology. TGD based view about high T<sub>c</sub> superconductors involves also in an essential manner dark matter and is summarized in the closing chapter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:0908.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Rati Ram Sharma

**Comments:** 8 pages

An element is non-composite but composes other particles. The elementary
quarks & leptons of the Modern Standard Model are found to be compressible and
assembleable, hence having composition. These in Unified Theory are composed by two
elementary cosminos, positrino & negatrino. The cosmino-sharmon composition-structures
of electron, proton and neutron presented for the first time are defined by Form Factors
and concentric regions. It is shown that no ½-spin Fermion can be neutral. Electric Dipole
Moment of neutron calculated from Unified Theory agrees with observations. An almost
neutral neutron emits electron, never positron, because its outer region is negative.
Hofstadter's positive outer region in neutron is inconsistent with negatron decay. Effect of
superimposed magnetic field on neutron's negatron decay is explained without Electroweak
Theory's weak charge and W^{±} & Z^{0} particles. A new Hook's law mediated short-range
nuclear force is suggested.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics