[4] **viXra:1104.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 6 pages

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of
FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a
consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to
convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to
explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning
bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1104.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-07 17:41:15*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. part 3 of 3

Global symmetries are those that apply everywhere, and for all time, such as the electric charge, mass, and spin of an elementary particle. This is a symmetry only because all electrons (for example) everywhere and always have exactly the same electric charge, mass, and spin - any electron could be swapped with any other without causing the least disturbance to the universe. Other global symmetries include the value of the universal electromagnetic constant "velocity c", the value of the universal gravitational constant "G", the value of Planck's energy quantum (h), among many others. These physical constants or physical global symmetries never change and are determined, fixed, set, or "gauged" at the beginning of the universe. They are the defining parameters of our universe, distinguishing it from any other in the "Multiverse".
Local symmetries, on the other hand, involve actual changes in a single particle from one globally conserved symmetry state to another, as in the decay of a single neutron to a proton, electron, and electron anti-neutrino. In such a decay, all the original charges must reappear (in some form) in the product particles, and both the original and product particles must themselves be members of some global symmetry set or state. Finally, such locally gauged symmetry changes are, at least in principle, reversible given sufficient energy. Local gauge symmetry interactions involve post-"Big Bang" interactions between particles (or dimensions), and are mediated by the field vectors of the four forces of physics. They are the conserved interactions between particles (or the metric) that produce the common environment of our daily experience.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1104.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 13 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 16 pages.

Starting from the infrared limit of Yang-Mills theory, we introduce here a Higgs-free model in which
symmetry breaking arises from critical behavior near dimension four. Electroweak bosons develop mass
near the Wilson-Fisher point of Renormalization Group flow. The family structure of Standard Model is
recovered using the technique of "epsilon expansion". We also find that dimensional regularization offers a straightforward solution to the cosmological constant problem.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1104.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Alexander G. Kyriakos

**Comments:** 23 pages.

The first purpose of this chapter is to describe the influence of physical vacuum (PV) on the
characteristics of particles (e.g. electron) and their interactions. Our second purpose is to show
that all methods of calculation of this influence, which are used in quantum field theory (QFT),
can be represented in electromagnetic (EM) form within the framework of nonlinear theory of
elementary particles (NTEP).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics