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Any replacements are listed further down

[614] **viXra:1410.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 19:50:42*

**Authors:** Richard Gauthier

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A charged photon and its light-speed helical trajectory form a surprising new solution to the relativistic electron's energy-momentum equation E ^2 = p ^2 c ^2 + m^ 2 c ^4 . This charged photon is a new model for the electron, and quantitatively resembles the light-speed electron described by Dirac. His relativistic quantum mechanical equation for the electron was derived from the above energy-momentum equation. While the electron's energy is E = gamma mc^ 2 , the charged photon's energy is E = gamma mc ^2 = hf . The electron's relativistic momentum p = gamma mv is the longitudinal component of the charged photon's helically circulating momentum p total = gamma mc . At any electron speed, the charged photon has an internally circulating transverse momentum p t = mc , which at the helical radius Ro = L Compton / 4pi = 1.93 x 10^-13 m for a resting electron produces the z -component hbar/ 2 of the electron's spin. The right and left turning directions of the charged photon's helical trajectory correspond to a spin up (s z = +hbar / 2) and spin down (s z = -hbar / 2) electron. The negative and positive possible charges of the charged photon correspond to the electron and the positron. The circulating charged photon at the helical radius Ro produces one-half of the electron's pre-QED magnetic moment µ = µ Bohr predicted by the Dirac equation. There is a relativistic variation with the electron's speed v of the charged photon's helical radius R = Ro / (gamma)^ 2 and its helical pitch P = (2pi v / gamma c)Ro . The pitch has a maximum value P max = pi Ro when the electron's speed is v = c / sqrt(2) . The decreasing charged photon's helical radius R = R o / gamma^2 with the electron's increasing speed v quantitatively explains why the electron appears so small (< 10 ^-18 m) in high-energy electron scattering experiments, even though the characteristic radius of the circulating charged photon for a resting electron is Ro .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[613] **viXra:1410.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 08:54:24*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Comments Welcome.

In an earlier reading, we argued from a physical and number theoretic standpoint that an upper bound speed limit such as the speed of light implies the existence of a lower limit to the duration of events in the Universe. Consequently, this leads to a minimum characteristic length separation for events in the Universe. Herein, we argue that matter and energy that is in compliance with and in observance of the upper bound light speed limit is governed by the lower limiting uncertainty principle of Professor Werner Heisenberg. If there is a lower limiting uncertainty principle, we ask the natural and logical question 'What would an upper bound uncertainty principle mean?' We come to the interesting conclusion that an upper bound uncertainty principle must apply to particles that travel at speeds, equal to, or greater than the speed of light. Further, we argue that consequently, a tachyon must exist in a permanent state of confinement and must be intrinsically and inherently unstable in which event it oscillates between different states. These two requirements place quarks in a position to be good candidates for tachyons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[612] **viXra:1409.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 09:53:18*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electromagnetic waves are folds that propagate in a polarized vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[611] **viXra:1409.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 03:37:57*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Comments Welcome.

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is built on the original Dirac equation, an equation that exhibits perfect symmetry in that it is symmetric under charge conjugation (C), space (P) and time (T) reversal and any combination of these discrete symmetries. We demonstrate herein that the proposed Lorentz invariant Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations} (CSTD-Equations), while they obey (CPT) and PT-Symmetries, these equations readily violate C, P, T, CP and CT-Symmetries. Realizing this violation, namely the C-Violation, we take this golden opportunity to suggest that the Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations may help in solving the long standing riddle and mystery of the preponderance of matter over antimatter. We come to the tentative conclusion that if these CSTD-Equations are to explain the preponderance of matter over antimatter, then, photons are to be thought of as described by the flat version of this set of equations, while ordinary matter is to be explained by the positive and negatively curved spacetime versions of this same set of equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[610] **viXra:1409.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-25 08:16:29*

**Authors:** I.I. Guseinov

**Comments:** Pages.

By the use of condition of relativistic covariance, Dirac group theory, Clifford algebra and complete orthonormal sets of -self-frictional exponential type orbitals -SFETOs)
introduced by the author in standard convention, the Hartree-Fock (HF) theory is suggested
for multideterminantal single configuration states with any number of open shells of atoms
and molecules constructed from the Standard Model-Fermi (SM-F) particles with
and e =0 defined in the Standard Model of particle physics. It is shown that the
origin of stability of these systems is the quantum damping or self-frictional forces produced
by the SM-F particle itself. As an application, we have presented the periodic table for the
SM-F atomic elements using Pauli principle of spinless noncharged identical SM-F particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[609] **viXra:1409.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 03:57:01*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Superluminal communication achievable by comparison of expected interferometry patterns and found interferometry patterns

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[608] **viXra:1409.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-23 14:52:49*

**Authors:** J. M. Zhang, Masudul Haque

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We point out that in the first order time-dependent perturbation theory, the transition probability may behave nonsmoothly in time and have kinks periodically. Moreover, the detailed temporal evolution can be sensitive to the exact locations of the eigenvalues in the continuum spectrum, in contrast to coarse-graining ideas. Underlying this nonsmooth and level-resolved dynamics is a simple equality about the sinc function $\sinc x \equiv \sin x / x$. These physical effects appear in many systems with approximately equally spaced spectra, and is also
robust for larger-amplitude coupling beyond the domain of perturbation theory.
We use a one-dimensional periodically driven tight-binding model to illustrate these effects, both within and outside the perturbative regime.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[607] **viXra:1409.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-22 22:22:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article surprised the author because there was no intention of addressing the theories of quarks, the nuclear weak force or the Higgs field at first. The article eventually led to pointing a way out of those Nobel Prize winning theories, though (in 1969, 1979 and 2013 respectively). And that way out gives me a deep feeling of satisfaction. The universe is awash with the peculiar subatomic particles called neutrinos. They have no electrical charge, are nearly massless (at least a million times as light as an electron), and trillions of these ghostly particles sail right through stars, planets, you, and me every second. They don't interact with the strong force which binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei, nor do they interact with electromagnetic fields. To give an idea of how unreactive they are - in 2013, physicists in the USA began shooting neutrinos on a 503-mile trip from Fermilab (the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) west of Chicago to a detector in Minnesota. 150 trillion neutrinos leave Fermilab each second but only about ten interact with the detector in a whole week. Speaking of their near masslessness, physicists already know the Standard Model of particle physics (the theory of how particles and forces interact) is incomplete because it incorrectly predicts neutrinos possess no mass). Problems addressed in this article include 1) each particle is born as one of 3 flavors, or types - electron neutrino, muon neutrino or tau neutrino - but they can change flavor in a few thousandths of a second as they travel, 2) as far as scientists can tell, each neutrino is a combination of those 3 masses but they don't know which of the mixes is heaviest and which is lightest (this is the "mass ordering" problem), 3) the fundamental property of quantum systems called entanglement which means two quantum systems can become correlated in such a way that action on one system has implications for the outcome of a measurement on the other, and 4) single and double beta decay which involves neutron(s) decaying into proton(s) and emitting electron(s) plus antineutrino(s) in which, in double decay, the reaction is neutrinoless in some instances since an antineutrino is absorbed by a neutron as a neutrino (suggesting a neutrino is its own antiparticle).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[606] **viXra:1409.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 08:10:18*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Superluminal communication using interferometry patterns and collapse of wave fucntions, using no entangled photons as these create 'noise'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[605] **viXra:1409.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 04:08:21*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four page proposal

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K., 2014) leads an insight into the nature of ‘light’; that: the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ has to be at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get coherently added a ‘particle’ gets formed. Now, in this paper It is further shown that ‘wavelengths’ and ‘frequencies’ of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. And the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave. This study leads to an interesting new possibility that: it should be possible to emulate photons at microwave frequencies; and make deterministic predictions; by establishing perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[604] **viXra:1409.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-19 07:04:35*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Depending on the outcome of the triphoton experiment now underway, it is possible that the new local realistic Markov
Random Field (MRF) models will be the only models now available to correctly predict both that experiment and Bell’s
Theorem experiments. The MRF models represent the experiments as graphs of discrete events over space-time. This
paper extends the MRF approach to continuous time, by defining a new class of realistic model, the stochastic path
model, and showing how it can be applied to ideal polaroid type polarizers in such experiments. The final section
discusses possibilities for future research, ranging from uses in other experiments or novel quantum communication
systems, to extensions involving stochastic paths in the space of functions over continuous space. As part of this, it
derives a new Boltzmann-like density operator over Fock space, which predicts the emergent statistical equilibria of
nonlinear Hamiltonian field theories, based on our previous work extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping from the
case of classical systems described by a complex state variable α to the case of classical continuous fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[603] **viXra:1409.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 14:58:38*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Most physicists claim no superluminal communication between two seperate points in space is possible in any manner. This claim is based on the no communication theory and on special relativity stating all communication methods are subluminal. This paper discusses theoretical 'holes' in no communication theorem and proposes an experiment that may pass the no communication obstacle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[602] **viXra:1409.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 15:02:54*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Appendix A, appendix to the paper "Non spin based quantum information transmission methods"

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[601] **viXra:1409.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-14 06:57:50*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A four page letter

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference experiments” (Tank, H. K. http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf) leads to new light about the true nature of ‘light’; that real wavelengths and frequencies of ‘light’ are not what we have been thinking so far; rather, they are the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rates’ of repetitions ‘particles’ in space and time. The actual frequencies and wavelengths of the ‘wave’ are likely to be much higher, possibly close to the frequency of the electron, of the order of 10^22 cycles/second. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get constructively added a ‘particle’ gets formed. The wavelength and frequency of the actual wave, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of consecutive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. So far we have been taking the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rates’ of formation of ‘particles’ as the wavelength and frequencies of light, which may not correct, in the light of this new finding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[600] **viXra:1409.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 10:10:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages. vitalik.kayukov@mail.ru

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
information model of quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of wave
functions via the Feynman integral in the ways of extreme informational entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[599] **viXra:1409.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-08 16:17:24*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper is concerned with my second theory on massive photons. The main difference between these two theories is the way kinetic energy and total energy are defined. Because it is difficult to decide which theory is the correct one without solid experimental evidence to discard the incorrect one, we must take both theories into account for the time being.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[598] **viXra:1409.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 16:58:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the theory on the rest mass of the photon. The equations for
the energy of the photon are developed. The theory predicts an equation for the “massive” photoelectric effect similar to the Einstein's original photoelectric effect. This new theory predicts that the value of the black hole's cutoff radius is a function of the frequency of the photons generated inside the black hole. This means that the black hole's event horizon is not a spherical surface but a three-dimensional shell. Because this formulation is not a gravity theory but a theory on massive photons, it cannot predict
exactly the same Schwarzchild radius as general relativity. Despite of not being a gravity theory, this theory predicts that, should the equivalent mass of the photon equal its rest mass, the black hole cutoff radius would be equal to the Schwarzchild radius. I am convinced that the full potential of this formulation will be shown when it is used in conjunction with the Proca equations, the standard model and quantum gravity theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[597] **viXra:1409.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 09:46:47*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted for Bell Labs Prize Competition July 11, 2014

It is well known that electron spin is quantized, and is measured to be either spin up or spin down in a magnetic field, as was first demonstrated in the classic Stern-Gerlach experiment almost 100 years ago. However, it is also believed that a quantum spin may be indeterminate until it is measured, being in a quantum superposition of the two quantum states. On the contrary, I propose (based on a locally realistic spin-quantized picture of quantum waves) that an electron quantum state is always either spin up or spin down, but is never in a superposition of the two. This concept should be directly testable using a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment, similar to that presented in standard quantum textbooks, but apparently never carried out experimentally. This experiment should be straightforward using modern atomic beam laboratory equipment. If successful, this could lead to a serious review of quantum foundations, as well as a new set of practical applications. In particular, a binary storage or logic element based on quantum spin should continue to work down to the atomic scale. This should enable computer memories with orders of magnitude greater density than those based on conventional magnetic memories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[596] **viXra:1409.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 06:57:14*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

If the duration of the emission, the duration of the passage and the duration of the absorption of photons depend on the progression value, then the consequence of the observation of red-shift for old photons will be that space is compressing rather than expanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[595] **viXra:1409.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 08:40:33*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to Applied Superconductivity Conference, Aug. 11, 2014

In recent years, quantum computing has promised a revolution in computing performance, based on massive parallelism enabled by many entangled qubits. Josephson junction integrated circuits have emerged as the key technology to implement such a universal digital quantum computer. Indeed, prior experiments have demonstrated simple Josephson qubit configurations with quantized energy levels and long coherence times, which are a necessary prerequisite for a practical quantum computer. However, these quantized states do not directly prove the presence of entanglement or macroscopic superposition, which are essential for the superior speed of such a digital quantum computer. On the contrary, an alternative realistic foundation for quantum mechanics has recently been proposed, with coherent transitions between quantized states, but without entanglement. A new experiment is proposed that may test whether superconducting quantum circuits can exhibit quantized states without macroscopic entanglement or superposition. Specifically, a flux qubit (a bi-stable SQUID) may be configured with a resonant input line for excitation and a single-flux quantum output line for simultaneous direct measurement of quantized energy and flux states, which are incompatible measurements in standard quantum theory. Such an observation could undermine the assumptions of superposition and entanglement, bringing into question the foundation and the ultimate performance of a universal digital quantum computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[594] **viXra:1408.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 21:49:20*

**Authors:** Hardev Singh Virk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper is published in www.researchgate.net. Comments are welcome.

The origin of quantum mechanics goes back to the mid-1920s.It was formulated first as matrix mechanics by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan; then as wave mechanics by Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger; and later on asquantum statistics of subatomic particles by Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. Combining relativistic mechanics with quantum mechanics, Dirac formulated his relativistic quantum mechanics during 1930s. Uncertainty Principle is thecornerstone of Quantum Physics. The role of randomness in microscopic physical processes shatters the myth that the universe is deterministic. Quantum world is unpredictable in the classical sense and demolishes the idea of an objective universe. The Copenhagen interpretation remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists.Quantum theories support cosmic spirit pervading the cosmos and inter – relationship of individuals in the world society. Quantum philosophy is holistic and is going to revolutionize our world-view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[593] **viXra:1408.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 08:29:23*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 269 Pages.

This is a field theory model. It is a functional holistic model designed for hands-on inventors and alternative thinkers. It provides streamlined thinkers with a common sense view of quantum physics and cosmology that can be visualized without the necessity of mathematics. As a new model, the Ultra-Space Field Theory has removed historical flaws traditionally ignored by the supporters of the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[592] **viXra:1408.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 03:12:23*

**Authors:** Oliver Consa

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A semiclassical model of the electron is presented based on the Principle of Helical Motion (“A free electron always moves at the speed of light following a helical motion, with a constant radius, and with the direction of movement perpendicular to the rotation plane”). This model interprets the Zitterbewegung as a real motion that causes rotation of the electron spin and its magnetic moment. Based on this model, the quantum magnetic flux and quantum Hall resistance are obtained as parameters of the electron and special relativity theory is derived from the helical motion of the electron. Finally, a fix is proposed for the De Broglie’s wavelength that questions the very validity of the Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[591] **viXra:1408.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 04:09:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[590] **viXra:1408.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-25 01:51:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[589] **viXra:1408.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 09:55:42*

**Authors:** Gil Raviv

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In contrast to the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation, there is no true two-body formulation using the relativistic Dirac equation for the case of a hydrogenlike atom. Instead, the relativistic Dirac equation treats the atom as a single particle in a Coulomb field asserted by a static nucleus of infinite mass located at its core, which fails to take into account the nuclear mass and recoil. A new simple and elegant approach is presented that allows for the formulation of a true two-body relativistic equation, as well as for the reduction of the formula into an equivalent one-body equation with a readily known solution.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[588] **viXra:1408.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 02:56:46*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new space-time structure that is the three-dimensional time structure by comparison to the three-dimensional space. These two space-time structures are completely symmetrical. We improve the Maxwell equations in the new space-time structure by adding a new set of equations. The new set of equations has the space-time symmetrical structure by comparison to the old one. We can also obtain another type of wave equation by solving the hyper-symmetric Maxwell equations. The new wave equation contains both time and space coordinates. The general solution of this new wave equation can be divided into two parts. One part corresponds to the free particles, which means the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon. The amplitude of the localized electromagnetic wave will decrease exponentially when the distance from the mass center increasing. Another part of the general solution corresponds to the bound state of the particles. The equation of the localized electromagnetic wave in bound state is consistent with the Schrödinger’s equation. So we can draw the conclusion that the Schrödinger’s equation is just a special case of the localized electromagnetic wave equation. We can get the new interpretation of the wave function in quantum mechanics based on these analyses. The new interpretation shows that the essence of the wave function in quantum theory is the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon. So we can solve the problem of the collapse of the wave function based on the new interpretation. In order to proof the correctness of the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon, we apply it to solve the problem of Helium atom’s ground state energy. The theoretic calculation results are very satisfactory. Our calculation shows that the theoretic value of Helium atom’s ground state energy is -2.9033864868188(69)a.u., which is very close to the experiment results.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[587] **viXra:1408.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 05:06:15*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes " are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)

Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes "
are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[586] **viXra:1408.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 07:15:07*

**Authors:** I.I.Guseinov

**Comments:** 26 pages, 6 tables

Using condition of relativistic covariance, group theory and Clifford algebra the -component Lorentz invariance generalized relativistic wave equation for a particle with arbitrary mass and spin is suggested, where and It is shown that the charged scalar ( ) and noncharged scalar ( ) particles with are described by two-component relativistic equations. Accordingly, the noncharged scalar fermi particles ( ) can be used as an elementary particle of the Standard Model of particle physics. In the case of arbitrary integral spin , the relativistic equation for leads to the equation of massless boson particles. For the solution of presented in this work generalized relativistic equation in the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation, the 2(2s+1)-component orthogonal basis sets of spinor functions for the arbitrary mass and spin are suggested in position, momentum and four-dimensional spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[585] **viXra:1408.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 19:22:15*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the discovery of a new theoretical equation for the mass of the proton. Since the equation depends, among other things, on the gravitational constant G, I found that the formula produces the correct value of the proton mass if and only if we use the latest experimental limits (due to the experimental error of 150 ppm) for this constant. The latest and most accurate value of G obtained so far comes from atomic interferometry. This new and revolutionary experimental method was devised by an Italian team of scientists and the results were published earlier this year in Nature. Due to the previous lack of accuracy and large discrepancies in the measurement of G, this experimental result is a scientific breakthrough that allow us and shall allow us to confirm, among other things, the validity of equations for the mass of particles, the latest fundamental particle formulations and cosmological theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[584] **viXra:1408.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 12:21:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[583] **viXra:1408.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 18:30:59*

**Authors:** Justin Lee

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Justifying a local hidden variable theory requires an explanation of Bell's inequality violation. Ever since Bell derived the inequality to test the classical prediction on the correlation of two spin-1/2 particles, many experiments have observed the violation, and thus concluded against the local realism, while validating the non-locality of quantum entanglement. Still, many scientists remain unconvinced of quantum entanglement because the experiments have loopholes that could potentially allow a local realistic explanation. Upholding the local realism, this paper introduces how a precession of the spin would produce a cosine-like correlation function, and furthermore how it would also contribute to a fair sampling loophole. Simulating the precession in Monte Carlo method reveals that it can explain the observed Bell's violation using only classical mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[582] **viXra:1408.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 13:40:18*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Possible solution of the Schrödinger’s cat paradox is considered

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[581] **viXra:1408.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 17:37:10*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is concerned with a generalization of the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle which I developed in 2012 and that I called the universal uncertainty principle. This principle takes into account a) the quantized nature of space and b) the quantum fluctuations of the empty space. I have applied the simplified version of this principle to two different phenomena: a) black holes; where I explain both the temperature and the entropy of these cosmic objects and b) fundamental particles; where I calculated the approximate size of the electron. I have already published these two calculations in previous online articles so they are not included here. In this paper I propose a general form of the universal uncertainty principle which, unlike the simplified version, also includes the quantum fluctuations of the vacuum. All the laws of physics which are affected by this principle will need to be re-written as I have shown in the case of the temperature for the black hole.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[580] **viXra:1408.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 13:35:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the numeric formulas for the Higgs boson mass. The formulas presented here are in agreement with the with the ATLAS detector's results obtained in 2014.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[579] **viXra:1408.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-05 11:51:53*

**Authors:** Mark Timothy Sheldrick

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is possible to use two particles (A and B) with entangled properties to transmit information at faster than light speeds. This can be done, not by trying to modulate the results of how particle A is measured, but by modulating whether particle A is measured or not measured. The effect of this modulating method is to place particle B in either a single value (but arbitrary) state or leave it in a superposition of states.
It is then possible for the reciever of particle B to distinguish between these two states by the use of an appropriately designed interferometer. Such a device can be designed to produce an interference pattern only when particle B is in a superposition of values and a straight simple image when particle B has a single (arbitrary) defined value.
Under the Copenhagen interpretation and existing experimental results, this method will produce a way of signalling fater than light. It will require the use of multiple entangled pairs of particles to effectively transmit a single bit of information.
Under the Multi-Worlds Interpretation, it will not be so easy to communicate faster than light by this mechanism, as detector B will be detecting photon B as a superposition of values in both cases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[578] **viXra:1408.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-01 23:00:14*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

Almost a century ago Stern-Gerlach laid important foundations for quantum mechanics. Based on these, Bell formulated a model of local hidden variables, which is supposed to describe "all possible ways" in which classical systems can generate results, but Bell did not consider one possibility in which classical behavior leads to quantum results. Bell buried the key fact needed to challenge his logic: the ø-dependence of two energy modes: rotation and deflection. An *Energy-Exchange theorem* is presented and proved: if dø/dt is not equal to zero, the implied time-evolution will affect expectation values and the essentially classical mechanism yields quantum correlations *-a·b*. Analysis of the spin-component measurement brings Bell’s counterfactual logic into question. I show that Watson’s formal linking of time-evolution operator to measurement operation addresses Bell's stated concerns about *measurement* in quantum mechanics and produces the *-a·b* correlation. Our results, restricted to particle spin, have wider implications, including relevance to the ontic versus epistemic issues currently debated in the literature. The suggested formalism extends beyond Stern-Gerlach to other quantum mechanical processes characterized by a 'jump' or 'collapse of the wave function'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[577] **viXra:1407.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-31 08:06:16*

**Authors:** Jacopo Durandi

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This is a preliminary version.

In this work the usual formulation of the variational methods of Clas-
sical Mechanics is slightly modified by describing space as an interface implementing
instructions: these instructions, in the form of bit strings, determine the existence and
the dynamics of classical systems and are global – that is, their information content
is present at every point of space. These changes are then carried over to Feynman’s
path integral formulation of non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics by recurring to the
quantum superposition principle. The information content of the instructions is ex-
panded to include spin; it then follows an interpretation within this framework of the
collapse of the wave function in terms of splitting and merging of information and, as
an illustration, of Wheeler’s delayed choice experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[576] **viXra:1407.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-29 09:10:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[575] **viXra:1407.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-25 12:49:44*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Possible solution of the Schrödinger's cat paradox@@ is considered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[574] **viXra:1407.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-25 09:00:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[573] **viXra:1407.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 11:56:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[572] **viXra:1407.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 20:11:29*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper,I introduce the virtual velocity of the particle. It is from the spetial theory of relativity, because of the velocity of the particles or Dirac equation be not able to explaine hydrogen atom phenamina. In the spetial theory of relativity, time dilatation and lenth constraction are related by the equation (1).
I get from the above relation, the vitual velocity of a particle and the virtual speed of a particle can be beyond the speed of light.
I think the virtual velocity and potential have nonlocality in physics, and wave function may exists there before we observe the particle's position. New quantum machanics is similar to Shrodinger equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[571] **viXra:1407.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 09:33:23*

**Authors:** Saurav Dwivedi

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Keywords: Pragmatism; Bimodal Logic; Probability.

Some variants of quantum theory theorize dogmatic “unimodal” states-of-being, and are based on hodge-podge classical-quantum language. They are based on *ontic* syntax, but *pragmatic* semantics. This error was termed semantic inconsistency [1]. Measurement seems to be central problem of these theories, and widely discussed in their interpretation. Copenhagen theory deviates from this prescription, which is modeled on experience. A *complete* quantum experiment is “*bimodal*”. An experimenter *creates* the system-under-study in *initial* mode of experiment, and *annihilates* it in the *final*. The experimental *intervention* lies beyond the theory. I theorize most rudimentary bimodal quantum experiments studied by Finkelstein [2], and deduce “bimodal probability density” π = |ψin>⊗<φfin| to represent *complete* quantum experiments. It resembles core insights of the Copenhagen theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[570] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-19 00:08:06*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-page priliminary note

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [2], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves contained in ∆ω will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in ∆ω for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[569] **viXra:1407.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:09:58*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. This paper shows that the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle obeys this new formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[568] **viXra:1407.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:12:05*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new Law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. This paper shows that the black hole entropy obeys this new formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[567] **viXra:1407.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:14:56*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In 2012 I formulated the Scale Principle or Scale Law which was published electronically in May this year. This paper proposes a theory to answer an old question: Where do the laws of physics come from?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[566] **viXra:1407.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-13 03:25:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[565] **viXra:1407.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 00:31:03*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-Page Note

For more than twenty years I have been trying to communicate the true nature of 'matter' through the system of 'peer-reviewed-journals', but the prestigious journals are not courageous-enough to publish. So I am expressing my view here to the open-minded readers.
'Matter' is not a 'substance', 'matter' is a 'process' i.e. 'a phenomenon'. 'Matter' is a process of fluctuations arisen in a 'continuum'. The continuum nature of the fundamental-reality allows formations of spherical 'wave-packets' of micro-microscopic-dimensions*. There are: integer (whole number) of such 'wave-packets'. The waves generated by these packets spread in all the directions. An interesting difference between the interference of conventional electromagnetic waves and the waves of 'matter-particles' is: that in the case of electromagnetic waves generated by radio-stations, the waves add constructively or destructively depending upon their relative phase, and the antennas remain firmly fixed; whereas in the case of 'matter-waves' depending upon the constructive or destructive superimposition of the waves, the antennas change their positions! Because the 'particles of matter' are so light-weight, that they change their positions like 'free-floating-antennas. Interference of 'matter-waves' causes the changes in the positions of the 'spherical wave-packets' called 'particles of matter'. We require not just 'strings' or 'loops' but rather three or four-dimensional-continuum to describe the 'particles of matter'. Thus, the particles of 'matter' are 'particles' as far as their micro-microscopic size, and their whole, integer number is concerned; and they are 'waves' as far as their true nature, of 'fluctuations of the most fundamental continuum’, is concerned.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[564] **viXra:1407.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-08 10:13:26*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We consider a single electron amplitude splitting interference experiment with respect to the possibility of a blueshift in energy/momentum due to the changes in static electric potential.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[563] **viXra:1407.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-07 08:42:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[562] **viXra:1407.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 23:16:51*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

There has been proven that mathematical origins of randomness in quantum and Newtonian physics are coming from the same source that is dynamical instability. However in Newtonian physics this instability is measured by positive finite Liapunov exponents averaged over infinite time period, while in quantum physics the instability is accompanied by a loss of the Lipchitz condition and represented by an infinite divergence of trajectories in a singular point. Although from a mathematical viewpoint such a difference is significant, from physical viewpoint it does not justify division of randomness into “deterministic “(chaos) and “true” (quantum physics). The common origin of randomness in Newtonian and quantum physics presents a support of the correspondence principle that is being searched by quantum chaos theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[561] **viXra:1407.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-05 02:00:20*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A six-page letter

This letter attempts to propose explanations for the ninety-year-old puzzle which thousands of physicists, including Einstein, Plank, Feynman …have been trying to resolve. A ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized here as an impulse-function in space; and then Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain; showing that a ‘particle’ contains a ‘set’ of waves, and not just a single frequency. Then a small ‘set’ of waves is taken and its sum is plotted showing that at most of the places the wave-amplitudes mutually nullify each-other and constructively add only at discrete points in space and time; agreeing with our mathematical characterization. Then we show that in the experiments performed so far the red lasers had sizably wide line-width, means the sources have producing a wide set of waves, and just a pure single frequency. Similarly, in the single-particle interference-experiments incandescent filament-lamps were used with green filters inserted to isolate single photons; but it is obvious that at the frequencies of light very narrow-band-filters are not yet technically feasible, so the green filters used allowed sizable wide band of waves. These wide band of waves passed from both the slits, interfered like waves, and whenever and wherever they got coherently added, a ‘particle’ called ‘photon’ got detected.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[560] **viXra:1407.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 13:28:16*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Because of found mistakes, which we are lazy to correct, we need to check and recheck the foundations of Physics. As example of mistakes: "all" scientists used solution of dust collapse almost century, but it was wrong [Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1473-84, 2010]. Honest work on the errors, as I understand, has not begun. You postpone everything until the Second Coming? But God speaks: Matthew 25:26.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[559] **viXra:1407.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:01:16*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws and part of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The purpose of this article is to show that this theory also predicts Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Thus this new formulation can be extended to classical mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[558] **viXra:1407.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 09:59:04*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This article shows that both the Bohr postulate and the De Broglie condition are special cases of the abovementioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[557] **viXra:1407.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 01:56:17*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk, Nico Vuyk.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 14

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different
laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with
unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which
was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling
energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of
Quantum Knots or Dark Matter particles with the characteristic of small fireballs or Ball
Lightning often observed in the natural environment..
According to Quantum FFF Theory, Black holes (micro and macro) are the origin of all
universal dark matter phenomena.
As a consequence the tunnelling energy bullets are also a first sign of microscopic Dark
Matter in the Lab.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[556] **viXra:1406.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 11:31:51*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Nearly all tools that quantum physicists use are in some way based on the concept of the wave function. This means that such tools deliver a blurred view of the fine grain structures and fine grain behavior that these tools describe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[555] **viXra:1406.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 07:43:45*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A critical inspection of quantum field theory will reveal that
quantum field theory can be reconstructed only by means of
classical field theory. In detail the following six assertions
are claimed and proved: (1) Perturbation theory can be achieved
by means of classical field theory. (2) Particles that are
independent of one another are not correlated. This is especially
true for the ingoing particles of scattering processes. (3)
Outgoing particles in scattering processes are correlated. But the usual justification of
quantum statistics is faulty. (4) In quantum field theory there
is an amazing multitude of particle concepts. But a concise description of real existing elementary particles is lacking. (5) The path integral representation is not clearly defined in the particle picture of quantum mechanics. In the wave picture it is only another description of the expansion of a quantum state. (6) Functional representation is nothing else than a comprehensive version of perturbation theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[554] **viXra:1406.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 07:49:09*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Commonsense local realism (CLR) is the fusion of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively). Advancing our case for a wholly CLR-based quantum mechanics, we use undergraduate maths and logic to factor the quantum entanglements in EPRB and Aspect (2002). Such factors (one factor relating to beables in Alice's domain, the other to beables in Bob's), refute Bell's theorem and eliminate the need for ‘t Hooft's superdeterminism. An obvious unifying algorithm (based on spin-s particles in a single thought-experiment) is foreshadowed and left as an exercise. That is, to emphasise the physical significance of our results, we here factor EPRB and Aspect (2002) separately and in detail.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[553] **viXra:1406.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-29 08:29:50*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 2 pages. Related manuscripts are at http://vixra.org/abs/1312.0097, and http://vixra.org/abs/1405.0006 .

Indefinite metric vectors are absolutely required as the physical states in Minkowski space because that is indefinite metric space and the physical space-time. For example, Maxwell equations are wave equations in Minkowski space. However, traditional Quantum theory ordinarily has been studied only in definite metric space, i.e., Hilbert space. There are no clear expression for indefinite metric vectors. Here we show a wave function example using Dirac's delta function for indefinite metric vectors in Minkowski space. In addition, we show the vectors can interfere with itself.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[552] **viXra:1406.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 13:38:45*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This paper shows that the fine structure constant is a special case of the above mentioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[551] **viXra:1406.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 16:02:17*

**Authors:** François Barriquand

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The impact of linear superpositions of magnetic potentials on the physical robustness of “patchings” used to build up the “wave section” of an electron orbiting around a magnetic monopole is examined. It is shown that most of these linear superpositions must be discarded if one wishes to preserve the possibility that magnetic monopoles may exist.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[550] **viXra:1406.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-26 02:15:46*

**Authors:** I.I. Guseinov, B.A.Mamedov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is devoted to examine a physical nature of quantum self-frictional atomic potentials and nuclear attraction forces. Using analytical formulas for the – generalized Laguerre polynomials ( -GLPs) and - generalized exponential type orbitals ( -GETOs), the self-frictional atomic potentials and nuclear attraction forces are investigated, where and is the integer ( , ) or noninteger ( , ) self-frictional quantum number. We notice that the -GLPs, the origin of which is the quantum self-frictional fields, are the radial parts of the -GETOs. The dependence of the quantum self-frictional potentials and nuclear attraction forces as a function of the distance from nucleus is analyzed. The relationships presented are valid for the arbitrary values of quantum numbers and scaling parameters.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[549] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 16:40:52*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

A presentation file (powerpoint original available from the author) that outlines the history of generalized quantum impedances and the application of the impedance concept to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox (paper presented at the 2013 Rochester Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information), time symmetry in QM (accepted 2014 Berlin Conference on Quantum Information and Measurement), Quantum Interpretation of the Impedance Model, the Chiral Anomaly, Axions,...
56 slides with much repetition, without repetiton ~30 slides.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[548] **viXra:1406.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 11:36:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[547] **viXra:1406.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 05:10:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The human body is a constant@@ flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[546] **viXra:1406.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 17:47:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present article introduces a numerological expression for the electron spin g-factor. This formula is accurate to nine decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[545] **viXra:1406.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 17:49:37*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present investigation is concerned with the numerological formulation for the mass of the proton. The formula presented here is accurate to 8 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[544] **viXra:1406.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 10:50:17*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

A single photon is well known to have spin S = hbar, which would correspond to circular polarization, and all quantum transitions with photon absorption or emission correspond to DeltaS = ±hbar. However, it is also widely believed that a single photon may be linearly polarized, which would correspond to a state with S = 0. Indeed, linearly polarized single photons are central to most quantum entanglement experiments. On the contrary, it has recently been suggested (based on a realistic spin-quantized wave picture of quantum states) that a linearly polarized photon state must be a superposition of a pair of circularly polarized photons, each with S = ±hbar. This question cannot be resolved using a conventional photon detector, which generally cannot distinguish one photon from two simultaneous photons. However, it can be addressed using a superconducting microcalorimeter detector with sub-eV energy resolution and high quantum efficiency (QE). A careful experiment demonstrating this photon pairing could place in question some of the paradoxical central foundations of modern quantum theory, including quantum entanglement and nonlocality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[543] **viXra:1406.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-10 14:53:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The present investigation is focused on a simple quantum mechanical model that will unveil the size of fundamental particles such as the electron. The result of this research indicates that the diameter of the electron is smaller or equal than 10 times the Planck length, approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[542] **viXra:1406.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 19:31:41*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect quantum mechanics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of an information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. It has been suggested that quantum mechanics should be complemented by the intelligent particle as an independent entity, and that will be the necessary step to physics of Life. At this stage, the intelligent particle is introduced as an abstract mathematical concept that is satisfied only mathematical rules and assumptions, and its physical representation is still an open problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[541] **viXra:1406.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-05 01:16:43*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Generalizing Bell 1964:(15) to realizable experiments, CHSH (1969) coined the term “Bell's theorem”. Since the results of such experiments (eg, see Aspect 2002) contradict Bell's theorem: at least one step in his supposedly commonsense analysis must be false. Using undergraduate maths and logic, we find a mathematical error, a false equality, in Bell (1964). Uncorrected, and therefore continuing, this error undermines all of Bell's EPR-based analysis and many later variants, rendering them false. We can therefore predict with certainty that all loophole-free EPRB-style experiments will also give the lie to Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[540] **viXra:1406.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 08:37:05*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 32 Pages. 32

There is still large uncertainty on the foundation of Black hole theory principles even recently created by new ideas of Stephen Hawking and others,
As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a new Black Hole alternative model already described in my Vixra recorded Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form). It seems to be crucial for the interpretation and solution of a number of unsolved physics problems, from quantum to astronomical scales.
This new black hole model has a major impact on how we could interpret the universe as a real raspberry shaped Charge Parity symmetric multiverse with full entanglement down to each anti-copy mirror quantum at long distant to solve the way God plays dice with dual entangled dice inside distant copy universe.
At the same time I found possibilities to compare these ideas as possible answers on well known physics problems such as described at the Wikipedia site.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[539] **viXra:1406.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 11:17:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
A diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[538] **viXra:1406.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 05:50:28*

**Authors:** Ugo Fabbri

**Comments:** 77 Pages. freelance researcher, work recognised in the proceedings of the 92nd SIF Congress, Turin 2006, p. 93. See also: FQXi “Genesis: The Origin of Quarks, From the Number Alpha to the Materiality of the Universe”

Galileo was convinced that the book of the Universe was “written in the language of mathematics, [whose] characters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth” [1].
Similarly, Albert Einstein, at a conference at Kyoto University in 1922, stated: “The fundamentals of geometry have a physical significance” [2].
These observations, made by the two noble fathers of modern physics, have the potential to subvert the standard perspective of present-day science. The principal of complementarity has, however, been underestimated and has not produced the effects that it might.
In contrast, the holistic theory of limits (unknown in the literature) – in ideal continuity with Galileo and Einstein – unifies the quantum fundamentals of geometry with the laws of physics and creates the initial conditions for elaborating a theory of the Whole that can describe physical reality in a unitary context and on all scales of magnitude.
In accordance with the premise, the holistic theory of limits enunciates the following theorem:
The interaction of a flow of radial energy with the fundamentals of geometry generates a virtual quantum configuration (of ideally spherical symmetry) known otherwise in the literature as quantum void. This configuration is the geometrical locus within which energy is converted into corresponding mass and where the principal physical-numerical magnitudes that confer materiality to the Universe, from quarks to the universal physical constants, are generated.
The dynamics of events thus triggered generate the number alpha, fine structure constant, dominus of the universe (said by Nobel laureate Feynman to be “one of the most enigmatic riddles”).
Einstein spent the last years of his life in a vain attempt to find a theory capable of unifying the electromagnetic field with the interaction of gravity: the holistic theory provides the trigonometric solution of the phenomenon.
Geoffrey Chew, a pupil of Fermi, asserted that the universe was unitary, everything in it being correlated with the Whole. The holistic theory of limits extends that theory from the infinitely great to the microcosm, and this unification makes it possible to reconstruct the shared origin of matter and of the interaction of gravity.
The results shown have been obtained by applying the multidisciplinary method of inquiry suggested by Descartes.
[1] Galileo Galilei, Il Saggiatore, 1623. chap. VI (published in English under the title The Assayer, translation by Stillman Drake, 1957).
[2] ex multis: A. Einstein Come io vedo il mondo Ed. Newton p.45, 92, University of Bologna progettomatematica.dm.unibo.it/NonEuclidea/File/ellittica6.htm

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[537] **viXra:1406.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-01 02:43:16*

**Authors:** Xue -You Lee

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Geometrical optics has high similarity with classical particle mechanics. After first
quantization program classical particle mechanics can obtain non-relativistic quantum mechanics
that suitable for micro, but quantum mechanics does not describe the photon that its static mass is zero. So whether there is a kind of "quantization" approach for geometrical optics, by which non-relativistic quantum mechanics that can be used to describe the photon can be obtained. It’s quantum mechanics of photon similar to the Schrödinger wave mechanics under the neglection of
the formation and annihilation of photon. In this paper, several methods that can be used to find
the first quantization theory of photon are given.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[536] **viXra:1405.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 10:57:06*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

David Mermin, sans le dire met en évidence une faille importante chez Einstein à propos du 'maintenant'. Depuis 2006, je propose d'attribuer une essence, une épaisseur au 'maintenant' quantifiable de l'ordre de 10-25s ou moins encore. Pour le reste D. Mermin se trompe avec les QBists...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[535] **viXra:1405.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 08:39:27*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Les QBist proposent de prendre en compte,la subjectivité, la 'présence', du sujet pensant pour expliquer les bizarreries de la mécanique quantique. C'est intéressant parce qu'ils lèvent un tabou. Mais leur hypothèse est superficielle parce qu'il faut prendre en compte la 'Présence' avec un p majuscule.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[534] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 08:48:43*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 185 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is based on a selected set of first principles and this foundation is extended by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The target of this project is a model that shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality.
With other words the model is completely deduced. In advance the model is not called a model of physics. After a set of extension steps the model reaches some interesting results. At that instance a discussion might be started whether the model can be used as a model of physics. However, it is impossible to prove that this model gives a correct view of physical reality. In fact the models of contemporary physics face the same restriction.
For this reason the project is formatted as a game. The participants of the game start with formulating well selected first principles and extend this foundation with trustworthy methods such that the target model shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality. In this way the Hilbert Book Model is just an instance of this game.
The reader is invited to join the game or investigate and criticize the HBM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[533] **viXra:1405.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 07:15:31*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** German Version of viXra:1405.0281. 21 pages without titlepage, 14 without titlepage and appendix

Quantum theory (QT) which is one@@ of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider shortly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[532] **viXra:1405.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 06:20:33*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is common amongst the bigoted elite physicists and mathematicians to dismiss radical written by a non-famous, non-Nobel Laureate as mere worthless “opinion”, without bothering to waste time reading it to either bother to find out whether it is based on facts and proof tested or not. Then they close down the discussion and refuse to enter further correspondence. So this paper consists entirely of a short quotation from Murray Gell-Mann’s very poorly organized book The Quark and the Jaguar, published in 1994, disproving popular superstition/fairy tale quantum entanglement hypers and media sponsors.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[531] **viXra:1405.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-22 20:23:31*

**Authors:** Luis Gregorio Navarro Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Morales Rojas, Gabriela Peralta Diaz, Adrian Gonzalez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Spanish language

En la presente práctica se muestra la distribución espacial y de momentos de un haz cuántico, de una fuente BBO (Beta-Borato de Bario) que produce un par de haces mediante conversión paramétrica descendente espontánea a partir de la excitación de un láser de 405 nm. Los haces se definen como cuánticos pues está presente una estadística de detección y coincidencias, que nos permite distinguir fotones individuales.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[530] **viXra:1405.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-21 20:21:49*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper points out that the negative energy solutions of the Dirac
equation are inconsistent with the observed characteristics of the
positron. It also notes that the Dirac equation is not a quantum
representation of the relativistic expression for the kinetic plus rest
energy of a moving charge.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[529] **viXra:1405.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-21 10:24:56*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** 14 pages without appendix (additional 7 pages)

Quantum theory (QT) which is one of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider shortly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[320] **viXra:1409.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-22 04:22:46*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four page proposal

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K., http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf 2014) leads to an insight into the nature of ‘light’; that: the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ has to be at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get coherently added a ‘particle’ gets formed. Now, in this paper it is further shown that ‘wavelengths’ and ‘frequencies’ of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. And the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave. This study leads to an interesting new possibility that: it should be possible to emulate photons at microwave frequencies; and make deterministic predictions; by establishing perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[319] **viXra:1409.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-19 09:35:56*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Depending on the outcome of the triphoton experiment now underway, it is possible that the new local realistic Markov
Random Field (MRF) models will be the only models now available to correctly predict both that experiment and Bell’s
Theorem experiments. The MRF models represent the experiments as graphs of discrete events over space-time. This
paper extends the MRF approach to continuous time, by defining a new class of realistic model, the stochastic path
model, and showing how it can be applied to ideal polaroid type polarizers in such experiments. The final section
discusses possibilities for future research, ranging from uses in other experiments or novel quantum communication
systems, to extensions involving stochastic paths in the space of functions over continuous space. As part of this, it
derives a new Boltzmann-like density operator over Fock space, which predicts the emergent statistical equilibria of
nonlinear Hamiltonian field theories, based on our previous work extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping from the
case of classical systems described by a complex state variable α to the case of classical continuous fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[318] **viXra:1409.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 13:32:05*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Most physicists claim no superluminal communication between two seperate points in space is possible in any manner. This claim is based on the no communication theory and on special relativity stating all communication methods are subluminal. This paper discusses theoretical 'holes' in no communication theorem and proposes an experiment that may check the validity of the no-communication theorem under special conditions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[317] **viXra:1409.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 09:08:55*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A four page letter

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for thewave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K. http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf) leads to new light about the true nature of ‘light’; that: (i) either the real wavelengths and frequencies of the ‘waves’ of ‘light’ are not what we have been thinking so far; or (ii) the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get constructively added a ‘particle’ gets formed. The wavelengths and frequencies of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. Therefore, (i) if the wavelength of the wave measured by us is ‘distance’ between two successive formations of ‘particles’ then the frequency of the actual wave may be much higher; or (ii) if the wavelength measured by us is wavelength of the actual wave, then the formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ may be at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave.. If we can establish perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’, then it may be possible to make deterministic prediction of detection of ‘photons’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[316] **viXra:1409.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-15 02:56:11*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A brief letter

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K. http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf) leads to new light about the true nature of ‘light’; that real wavelengths and frequencies of the ‘waves’ of ‘light’ are not what we have been thinking so far; rather, they are the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rates’ of repetitions of ‘particles’ in space and time. The actual frequencies and wavelengths of the ‘wave’ are likely to be much higher, possibly close to the frequency of the electron, of the order of 10^22 cycles/second. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get constructively added a ‘particle’ gets formed. The wavelength and frequency of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. So far we have been taking the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rates’ of formation of ‘particles’ as the wavelength and frequencies of light, which may not correct, in the light of this new finding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[315] **viXra:1409.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-08 06:07:09*

**Authors:** Marc Meurens

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As measured in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, the intra-temporal decrease of the gravitation constant G reveals the quantum relativity according to which the time unit represents the local density of quantum energy causing the expansion as well as the gravitation of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[314] **viXra:1409.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 04:52:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

If the duration of the emission, the duration of the passage and the duration of the absorption of photons depend on the progression value, then the consequence of the observation of red-shift for old photons will be that space is compressing rather than expanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[313] **viXra:1408.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-23 12:23:35*

**Authors:** J.oukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A.Podosenov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.3, No.3, August 2014

Possible solution of the Schrödinger's cat paradox is considered.We pointed out that: the collapsed state of the cat always shows definite and predictable measurement outcomes even if Schrödinger's cat consists of a superposition:
cat= a|live cat>+b|death cat>

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[312] **viXra:1408.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-06 16:04:19*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

Almost a century ago Stern-Gerlach laid important foundations for quantum mechanics. Based on these, Bell formulated a model of local hidden variables, which is supposed to describe "all possible ways" in which classical systems can generate results, but Bell did not consider one possibility in which classical behavior leads to quantum results. Bell buried the key fact needed to challenge his logic: the ø-dependence of two energy modes: rotation and deflection. An *Energy-Exchange theorem* is presented and proved: if dø/dt is not equal to zero, the implied time-evolution will affect expectation values and the essentially classical mechanism yields quantum correlations *-a·b*. Analysis of the spin-component measurement brings Bell's counterfactual logic into question. I show that Watson’s formal linking of time-evolution operator to measurement operation addresses Bell's stated concerns about *measurement* in quantum mechanics and produces the *-a·b* correlation. Our results, restricted to particle spin, have wider implications, including relevance to the ontic versus epistemic issues currently debated in the literature. The suggested formalism extends beyond Stern-Gerlach to other quantum mechanical processes characterized by a 'jump' or 'collapse of the wave function'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[311] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-27 02:02:51*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page paper

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has some “diameter”, in stead of being a ‘point-particle’ of mathematical zero dimension; and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its “diameter” experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c /∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the ‘expansion of spectrum’ in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction.] Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in ref. [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places. And the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide band of waves will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded wide band, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[310] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 01:55:36*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A five-page letter

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the expansion of spectrum in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places; and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves, contained in the expanded band ∆ω, will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded band by ∆ω, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[309] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 01:33:25*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-page Note

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the expansion of spectrum in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places; and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves, contained in the expanded band ∆ω, will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded band by ∆ω, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[308] **viXra:1407.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 15:36:52*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

This paper investigates the origins of the fine structure constant and the laws of physics.
Evidence strongly suggests that there is a common origin behind the laws of physics. The most striking evidence is perhaps the Lorentz transformation’s equations which are mentioned here and analyzed in a separate paper. The author presents a new perspective about the laws of nature and proposes an answer to the question: Where do the laws of physics come from?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[307] **viXra:1407.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 17:53:34*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Earlier this year (May) I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. Since then I found that other quantum mechanical laws including the Bohr postulate and the De Broglie wavelength formula also obey the scale principle. Later I proved that this new law also describes the formula for the Schwarzschild radius, the equation for Einstein’s relativistic energy and Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Now I discovered that the Schrödinger’s equation can also be explained in terms of the present formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[306] **viXra:1407.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 23:57:07*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A six-page letter

This letter attempts to propose explanations for the century-old puzzle which thousands of physicists, including Einstein, Plank, Feynman …have been trying to resolve. A ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized here as an impulse-function in space; and then Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain; showing that a ‘particle’ contains a ‘set’ of waves, and not just a single frequency. Then a small ‘set’ of waves is taken and its sum is plotted showing that at most of the places the wave-amplitudes mutually nullify each-other and constructively add only at discrete points in space and time; agreeing with our mathematical characterization. Then we show that in the experiments performed so far the red lasers had at least a few thousand Hz wide line-width; means the sources have been producing a wide set of waves, and not just a pure single frequency. Similarly, in the single-particle interference-experiments incandescent filament-lamps were used with green filters inserted to isolate single photons; but it is obvious that at the frequencies of light very narrow-band-filters are not yet technically feasible, so the green filters used allowed significantly wide band of waves. This wide band of waves passed from both the slits, interfered like waves, and whenever and wherever they got coherently added, a ‘particle’ called ‘photon’ got detected.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[305] **viXra:1407.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 09:13:26*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Because of found mistakes, which we are lazy to correct, we need to check and recheck the foundations of Physics. As example of mistakes: "all" scientists used solution of dust collapse almost century, but it was wrong [Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1473-84, 2010]. Honest work on the errors, as I understand, has not begun. You postpone everything until the Second Coming? But God speaks: Matthew 25:26.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[304] **viXra:1407.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 00:40:57*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Because of found mistakes, which we are lazy to correct, we need to check and recheck the foundations of Physics. As example of mistakes: "all" scientists used solution of dust collapse almost century, but it was wrong [Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1473-84, 2010]. Honest work on the errors, as I understand, has not begun. You postpone everything until the Second Coming? But God speaks: Matthew 25:26.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[303] **viXra:1407.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 02:57:56*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of Quantum Knots or Dark Matter particles with the characteristic of small fireballs or Ball Lightning often observed in the natural environment..
According to Quantum FFF Theory, Black holes (micro and macro) are the origin of all universal dark matter phenomena.
As a consequence the tunnelling energy bullets are also a first sign of microscopic Dark Matter in the Lab.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[302] **viXra:1406.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 05:01:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nearly all tools that quantum physicists use are in some way based on the concept of the wave function. This means that such tools deliver a blurred view of the fine grain structures and fine grain behavior that these tools describe. This appears no handicap for applied physics. The tools fill the complete need of applied quantum physics. However, the blurred view hampers the search for the origins of features and phenomena, because they must be sought in the fine grain structure and the fine grain behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[301] **viXra:1406.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-30 16:37:04*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Nearly all tools that quantum physicists use are in some way based on the concept of the wave function. This means that such tools deliver a blurred view of the fine grain structures and fine grain behavior that these tools describe. This appears no handicap for applied physics. The tools fill the complete need of applied quantum physics. However, the blurred view hampers the search for the origins of features and phenomena, because they must be sought in the fine grain structure and the fine grain behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[300] **viXra:1406.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 04:18:58*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 3pages. Chapter of "generalization for vector space" is added in v2.

Indefinite metric vectors are absolutely required as the physical states in Minkowski space because that is indefinite metric space and the physical space-time. For example, Maxwell equations are wave equations in Minkowski space.
However, traditional Quantum theory ordinarily has been studied only in definite metric space, i.e., Hilbert space. There are no clear expression for indefinite metric vectors.
Here we show a wave function example using Dirac's delta function for indefinite metric vectors in Minkowski space. In addition, we show the vectors can interfere with itself.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[299] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-31 17:52:13*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

a slideshow/presentation file outlining of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[298] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-10 12:49:32*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

a slideshow/presentation file outlining of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[297] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-01 09:50:03*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

an outline of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[296] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-26 09:33:05*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 50 Pages. a presentation file, 50 slides - powerpoint file available from the author

an outline of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[295] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-24 23:00:36*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 45 Pages. presentation file - 45 slides

Presentation outlining the history of generalized quantum impedances, and application of the impedance concept to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox (2013 Rochester Conference on Quantum Information and Measurement), time symmetry in QM (2014 Berlin Conference on QIM), quantum interpretation of the impedance model (ditto Berlin), the chiral anomaly, axions,...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[294] **viXra:1406.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-19 18:37:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present article introduces a numerological expression for the electron spin g-factor. This formula is accurate to twelve decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[293] **viXra:1406.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 11:35:46*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect quantum mechanics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of an information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. It has been suggested that quantum mechanics should be complemented by the intelligent particle as an independent entity, and that will be the necessary step to physics of Life. At this stage, the intelligent particle is introduced as an abstract mathematical concept that is satisfied only mathematical rules and assumptions, and its physical representation is still an open problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[292] **viXra:1406.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 06:23:27*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Generalizing Bell 1964:(15) to realizable experiments, CHSH (1969) coined the term “Bell's theorem”. Despite loopholes, but as expected, the results of such experiments contradict Bell's theorem to our total satisfaction. Thus, for us, at least one step in Bell's supposedly commonsense analysis must be false. Using undergraduate maths and logic, we find a mathematical error in Bell (1964) --- a false equality, uncorrected and thus continuing, undermines all Bell-style EPRB-based analyses, rendering them false. We again therefore predict with certainty that all loophole-free EPRB-style experiments will also give the lie to Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[291] **viXra:1406.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 07:39:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[290] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-20 12:41:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 260 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is based on a selected set of first principles and this foundation is extended by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The target of this project is a model that shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality.
With other words the model is completely deduced. In advance the model is not called a model of physics. After a set of extension steps the model reaches some interesting results. At that instance a discussion might be started whether the model can be used as a model of physics. However, it is impossible to prove that this model gives a correct view of physical reality. In fact the models of contemporary physics face the same restriction.
For this reason the project is formatted as a game. The participants of the game start with formulating well selected first principles and extend this foundation with trustworthy methods such that the target model shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality. In this way the Hilbert Book Model is just an instance of this game.
The reader is invited to join the game or investigate and criticize the HBM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[289] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-03 16:51:56*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 255 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is based on a selected set of first principles and this foundation is extended by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The target of this project is a model that shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality.
With other words the model is completely deduced. In advance the model is not called a model of physics. After a set of extension steps the model reaches some interesting results. At that instance a discussion might be started whether the model can be used as a model of physics. However, it is impossible to prove that this model gives a correct view of physical reality. In fact the models of contemporary physics face the same restriction.
For this reason the project is formatted as a game. The participants of the game start with formulating well selected first principles and extend this foundation with trustworthy methods such that the target model shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality. In this way the Hilbert Book Model is just an instance of this game.
The reader is invited to join the game or investigate and criticize the HBM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[288] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 04:01:26*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 233 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[287] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-26 17:01:10*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 228 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[286] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-12 04:28:24*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 206 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[285] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-05 16:42:24*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 193 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[284] **viXra:1405.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 14:03:37*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** Contains 7 pages appendix

Quantum theory (QT) which is one of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider briefly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics