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Any replacements are listed further down

[909] **viXra:1511.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 09:53:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9]
Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8]
As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[908] **viXra:1511.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 10:57:46*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The postulate that coordinate and momentum representations are related to each other by the Fourier transform has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory. As a consequence, coordinate wave functions of photons emitted by stars have cosmic sizes. This results in a paradox because predictions of the theory contradict observations. The reason of the paradox and its resolution are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[907] **viXra:1511.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 10:30:43*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The attempt of Schrödinger to describe elementary particles by wave packets is repeated by means nowadays available, that is to say, by applying the results of quantum field theory and especially by the explicit consideration of interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[906] **viXra:1511.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 23:23:59*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

In trial,
we especially consider inequalities for confirming multipartite entanglement
from experimental data obtained in Bell-type experiments.
We present new entanglement witness inequalities.
Some physical situation is that we measure
$\sigma_x$, $\sigma_y$, and $\sigma_z$ per side.
Our analysis discovers a new multipartite entangled state
and it is experimentally feasible.
If the reduction factor $V$ of the interferometric contrast observed
in a $N$-particle correlation experiment is $V>0.4$, then
a measured state is full $N$-partite entanglement in a significant
specific case.
It is not revealed by previous Bell-type experimentally
feasible methods presented
in \cite{NKI},
which states if $V>0.5$ then
the significant specific type state is full $N$-partite entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[905] **viXra:1511.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 23:28:52*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 pages

We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling,
based on the truth values, i.e.,
the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false.
The results of measurement are either 0 or 1.
To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both
observability and controllability
of a quantum state.
The new measurement theory can satisfy these two.
Especially, we systematically
describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using
raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[904] **viXra:1511.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:56:58*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 5 pages

Present understanding of non-possibility of Quantum communication rests on analysis of possibility of signalling within a Quantum system. Is it possible to achieve signalling by a setup where the system is changed from one to another where the act of change serves as the signal and the change in the measurement probabilities would be detected and deciphered at the receiver end? A proposal is made where a variant of Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser experiment setup of Kim et al is used to achieve the same. The setup is also designed such that the speed of communication can be faster than light.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[903] **viXra:1511.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 06:17:19*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Casimir's celebrated result that the conducting plates of an unpowered rectangular cavity attract each other with a pressure inversely proportional to the fourth power of their separation entails an unphysical unbounded pressure as the plate separation goes to zero. An unphysical result isn't surprising in light of Casimir's unphysical assumption of perfectly conducting plates that zero out electric fields regardless of their frequency, which he sought to counteract via a physically foundationless discarding of the pressure between the cavity plates when they are sufficiently widely separated. Casimir himself, however, emphasized that real metal plates are transparent to sufficiently high electromagnetic frequencies, which makes removal of the frequency cutoff that he inserted unjustifiable at any stage of his calculation. Therefore his physically groundless discarding of the large-separation pressure isn't even needed, and when it is left out a constant attractive pressure between the plates exists when their separation is substantially larger than the cutoff wavelength. The intact cutoff furthermore implies zero pressure between the plates when their separation is zero, and also that Casimir's pressure is merely the subsidiary lowest-order correction term to the constant attractive pressure between the plates that is dominant when their separation substantially exceeds the cutoff wavelength.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[902] **viXra:1511.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 12:48:28*

**Authors:** M. B. Bell

**Comments:** 6 pages with 4 figs. This paper has been published in the International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol 5, pp166-172. author email addresses are: morley.bell@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca and morleybell@rogers.com

Recently evidence has been reported for a low-level velocity oscillation with a period of 39 +/- 1 Mpc (127 +/- 3 Myr) superimposed on the Hubble flow. Like the Hubble flow, this oscillation is assumed to be an expansion and contraction of space itself. If space is oscillating as it expands and the Hubble flow contains a superimposed velocity ripple, matter on Earth will experience alternating accelerations and decelerations relative to the rest of the matter in the Universe. The acceleration curve can be obtained from the velocity oscillation curve simply by taking the magnitude of the derivative of the velocity curve and the acceleration curve is found here to have a period of 63.5+/-1.5 Myr. Evidence has also been claimed recently for an ubiquitous ~62 +/-3 Myr periodic fluctuation superimposed on general trends in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. The periods of the acceleration curve oscillation and fossil biodiversity fluctuations are thus identical within the errors. A second, weaker fluctuation is also detected in both the Hubble flow and fossil biodiversity trends. They too have identical periods of ~140 Myr. From this excellent agreement it is argued here that it is the oscillation in the Hubble flow, through an inertia-like phenomenon involving all the matter in the Universe that has produced the fluctuations in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. This may represent the first instance where observational evidence supporting Mach's Principle of Inertia has been found.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[901] **viXra:1511.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 02:49:01*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The general n-point information (n-pi) are introduced and equations for them are considered. The role of right and left invertible interaction operators occurring in these equations together with their interpretation is discussed. Some comments on approximations to the proposed equations are given. The importance of positivity conditions and a possible interpretation of n-pi in the case of their non-compliance, for essentially nonlinear interactions (ENI), are proposed. A language of creation, annihilation and projection operators which can be applied in classical as well as in quantum case is used. The role of the complex numbers and functions in physics is also a little elucidated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[900] **viXra:1511.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 10:23:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Scientists from the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the Department of Physics at the University of Basel have demonstrated for the first time how electrons are transported from a superconductor through a quantum dot into a metal with normal conductivity. This transport process through a quantum dot had already been calculated theoretically in the nineties, but scientists at the University of Basel have now succeeded in proving the theory with measurements. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[899] **viXra:1511.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 13:30:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[898] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 20:55:51*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However the theorem presupposes that particles which are distanced from each become spatially disconnected. The possibility of spatial-locality between distanced particles has never been considered neither in Bell's theorem, nor in its experimental tests. Here I show that an infinite set of local and deterministic relativity theories cannot be forbidden by Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[897] **viXra:1511.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 17:37:30*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. Hence, I propose the justification of the projection postulate in the linguistic interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[896] **viXra:1511.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 16:07:29*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this article I explain the concepts behind the multifaceted Planck mass through each of
its facets, highlighting the relation of the Planck mass with the origins of the universe,
with the physics of white dwarfs and black holes, with the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle, and, finally, with the microscopic world of elementary particles. The paper also suggests a new definition for this “multicoloured” mass. In certain way the Planck
mass is a unit that unifies all of physics. Finally, one of the meanings proves, beyond
reasonable doubt, the existence of the Pre-universe and suggests, also, the existence of
parallel universes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[895] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 15:11:50*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof of his theory and all its experimental tests, have presupposed that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body which departs away from an observer's rest-frame will extend rather than contract, could satisfy the condition of spatial locality in Bell's experiment, even when particles are distanced enough to ensure that the temporal locality has been efficiently excluded. This implies that all local realist theories which belong to the aforementioned type could not be screened-out using Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[894] **viXra:1511.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 07:07:37*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A novel protocol of quantum cryptography, called genuine quantum secure communication (GQSC), is proposed by using a new method for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD). After secure quantum channel being established, the transmission of secret messages in the GQSC protocol does not require classical channel. Compared with the previous protocols of quantum secure direct communication, the advantage of the present protocol is not only more security, but also higher covert.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[893] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 16:27:22*

**Authors:** J, A, J, van Leunen

**Comments:** 75 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, the paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[892] **viXra:1511.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 03:16:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In a quantum superposition, a quantum object can be in two incompatible states at the same time, which is famously illustrated by Schrödinger's dead-and-alive cat. Recent research has shown that it's possible to have a superposition not only of incompatible states, but also of incompatible orders of events. We often think of events occurring in a definite chronological order, with event A happening (and causing) event B, or vice versa. But in certain quantum processes, events don't happen in a single definite order, but instead both orders (A before B, and B before A) occur at the same time. This counterintuitive superposition-like phenomenon is called "causal nonseparability." [11]
For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[891] **viXra:1511.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 09:44:20*

**Authors:** Hosein Majlesi

**Comments:** 10 Page,10 figure, Patent:139350140003006698, Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Stern-Gerlach experiment by free electron is very important experiment because it answered some questions that remain unanswered for almost a century. Bohr and Pauli considered its objective observation as impossible while some other scientists considered such observation as possible. The experiment on free electrons has not been conducted so far because the high magnetic field gradient predicted there was thought as impossible to generate. This paper proves that it is not only possible but also observable using a high vacuum lamp which is deionized well. To obtain a high magnetic field gradient, it is not necessary to have a very strong magnetic field and it is possible to observe the phenomenon using a very sharp pointed magnet and adjusting the voltage in a certain distance from free electron beams. that objective observation requires your consideration of some technical points simultaneously.In this experiment, no electric field and no magnetic field does not change with time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[890] **viXra:1511.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 02:31:42*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 2 figures

The entanglement states of particles are now widely used in quantum communication. However, these entanglement states usually relate to only one of the particles' physical quantities.
Here we theoretically show that there exists a packaged entanglement state which encapsulates all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles.
We first show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form a packaged entanglement state in which the particles are indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement state. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states.
These packaged entanglement states could be useful for matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[889] **viXra:1511.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 11:47:29*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Hamiltonians in particle interactions are subject to a number of constraints originating from locality, the cluster decomposition principle and Lorentz covariance of the scattering matrix. Moreover, it is always assumed that the Hamiltonian must be deﬁned on a Hilbert space and be bounded from below, the latter would be a requirement following from stability of the system. In this paper we examine if these criteria are really mandatory, as it is well known that all of them taken together lead to the usual inﬁnities of quantum ﬁeld theory. In particular, we study a class of Hamiltonians unbounded from below and examine its stability. This leads us into the construction of novel statistics in three space dimensions; it is shown that for rigid strings the possibilities for statistics exceed those for standard anyons in two space dimensions

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[888] **viXra:1511.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 16:29:11*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

1 October 2015: A reply to the challenge, “What’s your problem with Bell’s theorem?” (For me, a problem is a deviation from an expectation.)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[887] **viXra:1511.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 06:12:00*

**Authors:** Swapnil Patil

**Comments:** Total 14 pages including supplementary information. The supplementary information is at the end of the manuscript.

The wave-particle duality is one of the most remarkable concepts in physics ever discovered. It is a central pillar upon which the entire theory of quantum mechanics is based. However the origin of wave-particle duality is unrevealed yet and is generally taken as a postulate representing a fundamental fact of nature. In this paper we attempt to disclose the origin of this remarkable fact of nature. We argue that the introduction of exchange interaction among a group of particles would naturally lead them to demonstrate wave-like character from particle-like character. Thus the existence of exchange interaction amongst particles is an absolutely necessary criterion for quantum behavior to manifest thus shedding light on the microscopic origin of the peculiar quantum behavior of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[886] **viXra:1511.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-02 03:59:22*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I propose to explain the results of three recent publications in the light of my iconoclast TpS hypothesis and so analyse the results as a possible confirmation of it. The first publication is about 'Tunnel effect', the second one is about 'Quantum entanglement', the third one concern 'Zeno effect'. 'A world in Presence': viXra : 1211.0149 and the others introduce this TpS hypothesis.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[885] **viXra:1511.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 09:54:01*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

By starting from an infinite dimensional quaternionic separable Hilbert space and its companion Gelfand triple as a base model, the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of some basic fields. A special method is introduced that generates normal operators and parameter spaces from existing quaternionic number systems. The same method is used to relate functions that use these parameter spaces with corresponding normal operators. Continuum eigenspaces of operators that reside in the Gelfand triple will represent the investigated basic fields.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus as well as Maxwell based differential calculus. This is done in order to investigate the properties and behavior of the investigated basic fields. The two toolkits offer different views on the basic fields and this fact divides the fields in different categories.
The electric field belongs to the Maxwell based category. It is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum and belongs to the quaternion calculus based category of fields.
The paper produces an algorithm that calculates the electric charge and color charge of elementary objects from the symmetry properties of their local parameter spaces. The electric charges generate the electric field. Also the spin of elementary objects is considered.
The behavior of photons and dynamic electromagnetic fields is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields. The paper shows that the usual interpretation of a photon as an electric wave is not correct. In addition the relation between gravitation and inertia is explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[884] **viXra:1511.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-01 06:45:22*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 12 Pages. a previous version appeared in J.Modern Phys( www.scirp.org) 4(9), 1189 (2013)

The concept of an intrinsic vibrational-rotational motion of the electron(
zitterbewegung) has been introduced by Schroedinger, and later developed by
Kerson Huang and more recently by A. Barut, among others. These authors
listed a series of features that should accompany such motion, although its
very existence is usually regarded as merely speculative. In the present paper
we investigate the consequences of the existence of this motion as far as
measured properties of particles are concerned. A phenomenological model
based upon the quantization of a classical vibrating system, in the lines of the
old Correspondence Principle of Bohr, is applied to particles to mimic the
effect of the zitterbewegung upon measurable dynamic properties like the
magnetic energy, and the magnetic moment. Gauge invariance is inevitably
imposed in the form of a quatization criterion needed for the passage from the
classical to the quantum treatment, which results in the prediction of magnetic
flux quantization within the area covered by the vibrations. The calculations
are carried out for the electron, and also for the proton and the neutron by
considering the electric charges of their constituent quarks. The conclusion is
that if the zitterbewegung motion is real, the mass, the magnetic moment, the
Compton wavelengths (or the measured sizes for the nucleons) for each of
these particles, are gathered together in a single expression which is a
function of the number of flux quanta trapped inside their ”orbits”. The
treatment proposed is simple, self-contained, and quantitatively correct. We
finish the paper making some remarks on the compatibility of these results
with those obtained from first principles by QCD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[883] **viXra:1510.0507 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-30 08:41:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One of the oddest predictions of quantum theory – that a system can't change while you're watching it – has been confirmed in an experiment by Cornell physicists. Their work opens the door to a fundamentally new method to control and manipulate the quantum states of atoms and could lead to new kinds of sensors. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[882] **viXra:1510.0501 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 19:43:19*

**Authors:** Roman Sverdlov

**Comments:** 55 Pages. I am using THE RESULTS of this paper, without derivation, in arXiv:1309.3287. At the time of posting this other paper I tried to submit the oscillator paper to arXiv as well. It was put on hold and its still on hold, after 2 years. So I submit it to viXra

The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we would like to write down algebraic expression for the wave function of general excited state of harmonic oscillator which doesn't include derivative signs (this is to be contrasted with typical physics textbook which only gets rid of derivative signs for first few excited states, while leaving derivatives in when it comes to Hermite polynomial for general n). Secondly, we would like to write similar expression for two dimensional case as well. In the process of tackling two dimensions, we will highlight the interplay between Cartesian and polar coordinates in 2D in the context of an oscillator. All of the above mentioned results have probably been derived by others but unfortunately they are not easily available. The purpose of this paper is to make it easier for both students and general public to look up said results and their derivations, should the need arise. We also attempt to illustrate different angles from which one could look at the problem and this way encourage students to think more deeply about the material.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[881] **viXra:1510.0499 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 11:55:19*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. rus (русский)

It is shown that the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics of Everett has in their justification the false logical construction.

Многомировая интепретации квантовой механики Эверетта – эвереттика или оксфордская интерпретация – имеет в своём обосновании ложное логическое построение. Объяснение противоречия опыту «расщепления наблюдателя» обосновывается на ошибочном сходстве с невозможностью почувствовать движение Земли, которое, тем не менее, доказывается теорией Коперника.

В самом деле, проведённая Эвереттом параллель состоит в сравнении двух принципиально различных ситуаций. В случае с ощущением движения Земли доказательством ложности ощущений и истинности движения Земли является реальное физическое наблюдение. Первоначально в большинстве случаев наблюдение было косвенным, но при этом подтверждалось строгими доказательными логическими рассуждениями. В дальнейшем такое движение наблюдалось самым непосредственным образом. То есть, отсутствие субъективных ощущений движения Земли получило строгое экспериментальное объяснение.

Совершенно иная ситуация складывается с «расщеплением наблюдателей». Никто из них, бесспорно, ни в одном эксперименте субъективно не ощущает своего расщепления на разные ветви альтерверса. Но в данном случае, в отличие от экспериментального наблюдения вращения Земли, не существует и принципиально не может существовать эксперимента, способного показать такое расщепление! Здесь неуместна даже формулировка «во всяком случае, в настоящий момент таких экспериментов не проводилось». Такие эксперименты неосуществимы в принципе.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[880] **viXra:1510.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 20:33:58*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The present work purports to a radically new perspective towards exploiting the advantages of quantum computation using classical systems. Termed ‘Quantum Tricks’, the technique relies on replacing the inherent probabilistic nature of the qubit with a pseudorandom generator. Using this, extremely simple mathematical operations are developed to implement basic Pauli X, Y and Z gates, using FPGA. Following this, entanglement is implemented and a real life application of quantum computing, namely Quantum Teleportation is implemented using the ‘QTrick Bits’. It is seen that the QTrick Bits are able to implement the teleportation with a remarkable degree of accuracy. Nonlinear characterization of the entangled states reveal the presence of chaos, thus providing subtle hints towards understanding the QTrick signal behavior. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with its efficacy in implementing quantum teleportation accurately form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[879] **viXra:1510.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:20:30*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

One of the most successful theories of modern physics, quantum mechanics has undergone rigorous testing and validation, one of the primary motives being fanciful and informative applications of quantum information theory such as teleportation and superdense coding. Over the years, many explanations have been given for the mechanism and interpretation of the various quirks and mysteries of quantum mechanics, the latest entrant being a suggestion of nonlinearity and chaos underlying quantum mechanics. The present work purports to a formulation of quantum bit as a SU(2) Lie Group using a Chua’s chaos generator circuit as the basis. PSPICE simulations of the same are performed. Various basic quantum gates such as the Pauli X, Y, Z, Hadamard and CNOT gates are implemented using this formulation. Finally, the chaos-qubit formulation is validated using a real time application – quantum teleportation. The ability to successfully demonstrate the teleportation of a single qubit numerically suggests that the chaotic interpretation of quantum mechanics has some validity. Furthermore, it ushers in the era of low cost, high capacity, high security information systems using nonlinear electrical circuits.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[878] **viXra:1510.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-28 09:33:52*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

As we move steadily into the world of compact and ultrafast devices, there is a steady increase in demand for high speed devices and gadgets. Here, photonics comes handy and even more with the advent of Silicon Photonics, which enables photonics and electronics to be integrated into the same chip. In this paper, two all optical systems, one an all optical processor/multiplier based on second harmonic generation and another, a Radio Over Fibre communication system are presented. . These techniques would be potential contenders in revolutionizing the world of Telecommunication and signal processing, effectively replacing electronics with photonics, which would result in extremely fast devices and reduced thermal effects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[877] **viXra:1510.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:14:32*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The strange and often counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics such as collapse and entanglement have led to a series of interpretations of the reality expressed by the discipline. The present work purports to the formulation and postulation of a new interpretation of quantum mechanics, one that stems from the principles of chaos theory. Specifically, the superposed state in a quantum system is viewed as an equivalent of a chaotic signal, whose collapse is decided procedurally by the initial conditions and timing-wise by the process of measurement. The basic postulates of quantum mechanics and a glimpse of entanglement is viewed in this perspective. Following this, the proposed chaotic interpretation is compared with other standard interpretations in light of various properties such as determinism, locality, realism, counterfactual definiteness, and hidden variables. The novel perspective of quantum mechanics fundamentals through chaos theory, where the latter has undergone significant progress in terms of studying the system ehaviour using standard tools and evolutionary patterns, offers a plethora of interesting and exciting options to study the hidden realities of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[876] **viXra:1510.0436 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:17:33*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The present work purports to the proposal and elucidation of a novel kind of logic, where the apparent ‘practical uncertainty’ of chaos is effectively harnessed in the form of S-Bits, or Simultaneous Bits, to achieve quantum computation like effects. Specifically, it is seen that a single NMOSFET possessed the sufficient nonlinearity to generate a signal driven chaos, which is then proposed as similar to the superposed state of a qubit, and hence termed “S-Bits”. The measurement/collapse operations are performed using hysteresis, achieved using back-to-back MOS Varactors. Using these formulations, various quantum and reversible logic gates such as the three Pauli Rotation Gates, Hadamard Gate, CNOT and TOFFOLI gates are implemented in hardware level using extremely simple circuitry. Following this, the phenomenon of entanglement using S-bits is discussed, followed by implementations of quantum teleportation and superdense coding. The results reveal the effective reproduction of quantum computation applications using simple circuitry involving the S-Bit analogue, thus ushering in the golden era of affordable quantum computing.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[875] **viXra:1510.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 21:20:16*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The present work explores a radically new perspective exploiting the advantages of quantum computation using classical systems. Termed ‘Quantum Tricks’, the essence of the technique is replacing the inherent probabilistic nature of a qubit with a pseudorandom generator, resulting in the implementation of basic Quantum Gates such as the Pauli X, Y, Z, Hadamard and CNOT gates using extremely simple mathematical operations followed by an implementation of entanglement. Following this, a brief overview of the concept of cellular automata and associated rules is presented. Finally, the ‘Quantum Trick Cellular Automata’ (QTCA) concept is formulated, differing from the classical cellular automata in two aspects - presence of superposed states other than 1 and 0, and implementation of above mentioned quantum gates. It is seen that QCTA comprising of CNOT and Entanglement operations give rise to rich, complex and ornamental patterns, characteristic of the underlying chaos. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with its efficacy in implementing rich patterns using cellular automata concepts form the highlights of the present work.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[874] **viXra:1510.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 23:22:18*

**Authors:** Franklin Hu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The spectral lines given off by Hydrogen are well known and is simply described by the Rydberg formula. However, this only works on the hydrogen atom. If we try to describe the spectra with the Rydberg formula for helium and lithium, it fails – or does it? This a paper explores the idea that the spectra of heavier elements like helium and lithium can actually be described by just providing scaling factors to the Rydberg formula to explain the spectra given off by multi-electron atoms. This shows that the spectra is not a complex multi-body problem and that there is a very simple stair case pattern that the spectra follows.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[873] **viXra:1510.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 12:22:29*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Time Perspective Bias (TPB) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture.
Quantum scale time intervals, as measured, appear
magnified and diverging. Resulting pluralism in time and space is proposed to be simply an illusion (of skewed perspective).
TPB predicts that altering the scales , between the observer and the particle detectors will result in a variation of the "wave function collapse", proportionately.
Note: TPB does not contradict time dilation,
GR, nor expansion. In TPB, corrections of skewed
time intervals are first converted to true length. Subsequently, all classical and relative physics (t') are then calculated.
TPB also provides a simple alternative explanation for: accelerated expansion, the "galaxy outer rim rotation problem", millisecond pulsars and the "double slit experiment".

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[872] **viXra:1510.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-21 11:22:53*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The interpretation of Young's double slit experiment of diffraction and interference remains controversial. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces as Newton speculated. The STOE simulation of the light diffraction experiments produces the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern on the screen. An experiment used an image resulting from a single slit projected onto a second mask. If the second mask slit is placed at the center of the image, a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is projected onto the screen. One side of a slit in the minima examined the result of varying the intensity of the illumination across the slit. One slit of two in the minima examined the result of only one of the double slits being illuminated. The resultant patterns on a screen were photographed and are on the opposite side of center from the illuminated side of the second mask. The STOE simulation reproduced the images. The STOE explains several quantum peculiarities with classical processes. These observations do not reject the Newtonian model of diffraction and does reject wave models.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[871] **viXra:1510.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 02:52:06*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

1 October 2015: A reply to the challenge, “What’s your problem with Bell’s theorem?”

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[870] **viXra:1510.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-18 13:36:06*

**Authors:** Alexander SOIGUINE

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When quantum mechanical qubits as elements of two dimensional complex Hilbert space are generalized to elements of even subalgebra of geometric algebra over three dimensional Euclidian space, geometrically formal complex plane becomes explicitly defined as an arbitrary, variable plane in 3D. The result is that the quantum state definition and evolution receive more detailed description, including clear calculations of geometric phase, with important consequences for topological quantum computing.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[869] **viXra:1510.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 13:47:01*

**Authors:** J.C. Hodge

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces along their trajectory. Previous papers explored the screen projections of a diffraction pattern from a first mask through second mask slits. The images on a screen by an edge of the second mask also demonstrate correlation of observed pattern and simulation pattern. The STOE is consistent and all other models of diffraction are inconsistent with these observations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[868] **viXra:1510.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 10:05:20*

**Authors:** Sergey Vasiliev

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In English & In Russian

The purpose of this theory is to explain the physical meaning of such quantum mechanical phenomenon as stochastic behavior of elementary particles and other quantum objects. With this aim the given theory introduces the concept of "natural quantum selection", which includes phenomena described by quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and quantum cosmology. This theory partially unites the fields of study of the above mentioned theories. This theory explains why there is such a magnitude of particle masses and coupling constants of a standard model of a standard model obtained experimentally but not predicted by a model.
Предлагается теория естественного квантового отбора, целью которой является объяснение физического смысла такого квантовомеханического явления, как вероятностное поведение элементарных частиц и других квантовых объектов; и одновременно описание динамического механизма тонкой настройки Вселенной, показывающего необязательность для установления и поддержания равновесия между силами взаимодействия и веществом Вселенной конкретных значений произвольных констант стандартной модели физики элементарных частиц, которые получены экспериментально, но не предсказываются моделью.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[867] **viXra:1510.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-09 10:16:11*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are mistakes in Sections 3 and 4 of the paper [ J. Quantum Inf. Sci. 2015, 5, 71], some calculated values have been corrected in this note.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[866] **viXra:1510.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-08 10:42:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[865] **viXra:1510.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-08 03:58:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[864] **viXra:1510.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-07 07:30:27*

**Authors:** Israel Shapira, Micky Maltz, Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Concerning the constancy of the speed of light, we indicate that Feynman's "sum-over-paths" theory of quantum mechanics implicitly relates also to velocities of a photon from C to infinity through the paths, and not only to paths alone taken by the photon. We suggest a modification of Feynman's approach according to which every single photon not only travels from source to destination in all possible paths, but also in all the velocities from zero to infinity, through each of the paths. Matter, however (as already suggested by Israel Shapira several years ago), is tuned to interact with photons only at the special relative velocity C. It follows that the behavior of light as stated by the second postulate of special relativity can result from this suggested physics. We propose experimental setups that challenge special relativity in this regard.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[863] **viXra:1510.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-05 07:54:38*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We propose a new interpretation of quantum mechanics without the
observer and thereby solve the micro-macro problem. Our proposal goes
beyond Bohm-de Broglie theory but is as far as it stands mathematically
isomorphic to it.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[862] **viXra:1510.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 09:46:54*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The homogeneity symmetry is re-examined and shown to be non-unitary, with no requirement for the imaginary unit. This removes symmetry, as reason, for imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) -- by Postulate. The work here is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a full and complete theory of quantum randomness.**Keywords:** foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, mathematical logic, formal system, elementary algebra, information, axioms, mathematical propositions, logical independence, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[861] **viXra:1510.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 04:38:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the University of Konstanz, in Germany is claiming to have directly sampled electric-field vacuum fluctuations, which would be the first ever made. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes an experiment they carried out and a part of it which they claim indicates that they have measured vacuum fluctuations directly for the first time. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[860] **viXra:1510.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-02 07:12:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Now in a new study, scientists from Hokkaido University in Japan have reported the first evidence of quantum tunneling as a mechanism for the surface diffusion of hydrogen atoms on the surface of ice, although quantum tunneling has previously been observed for hydrogen atoms on the surface of some metals. In quantum tunneling, the hydrogen atoms can move through barriers that they otherwise could not pass through using only classical mechanisms, such as thermal hopping. [10]
An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[859] **viXra:1510.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 09:40:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Is a cognitive computer the future of computing? While the computer has come a long way in the last few years, researchers at IBM say it hasn’t come far enough. Research in cognitive computing could lead to smart computers that compose, create, and digest via cognitive learning, a process that might seem a bit intimidating and complex at first, but is now being called the future of computers, and expected to be introduced into the market in as little as five to ten years. [11]
Combining the vast processing power of quantum computers with cognitive computing systems like IBM's Watson will lead to huge advances in artificial intelligence, according to a C-level executive at the US software giant. [10]
Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[858] **viXra:1510.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 04:07:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[857] **viXra:1509.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 21:24:36*

**Authors:** R Lecamwasam, S Needham, P Reddy

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is our belief that under the Everett interpretation of quantum mechanics, postulating the objective reality of a universal wavefunction and the sufficiency of the linear model describing quantum mechanical systems without observers to equally describe systems with an observer, there must presently exist a universe where objects indistinguishable from a carrot \cite{carrot} in our consensus reality take the role of the dominant sapient species on Earth. In this brief note, we present our justification for this belief based on the postulates of the Everett interpretation and speculative ideas of what such a universe might be like.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[856] **viXra:1509.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-30 07:59:23*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We point out that there is no obvious contradiction between the results of quantum mechanics and consequences of general relativity

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[855] **viXra:1509.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 21:42:47*

**Authors:** Vedat Tanriverdi

**Comments:** 6 pages, classical electron radius, spin, quantum mechanics

Some simple models about classical electron radius and spin are considered.
These simple models are considered for a better understanding spin and its relation with other electron properties, i.e. charge, inertia, energy.
These models have different inconsistencies with current theories, however they are still helpful for understanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[854] **viXra:1509.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 13:58:36*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I derive the invariance of the product: relativistic mass times relativistic length.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[853] **viXra:1509.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-29 14:00:50*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to derive the formula for the momentum of a body (or particle) as a
function of its “contracted” length. The paper also shows that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction is a real effect, and therefore, not an illusion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[852] **viXra:1509.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-28 09:46:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For a very long time mankind has questioned what consciousness is – whether our ability to think, our free will, is tied directly to our soul or if it’s a component of the complexity of our brains? [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[851] **viXra:1509.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-26 03:42:57*

**Authors:** Isaac Deronic

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recently it was proposed that quantum mechanics, if applied to macroscopic systems, would necessarily include a form of fortune telling or psychic phenomena. In this article, this claim is presented using formal quantum mechanics methods, and the results are analysed and found to be possible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[850] **viXra:1509.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 09:59:10*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The homogeneity symmetry is re-examined and shown to be non-unitary. This is motivated by the prospect that logical independence in elementary algebra, entering quantum mathematics, will constitute the basis for a theory explaining quantum randomness.
Keywords: foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, mathematical logic, formal system, elementary algebra, information, axioms, mathematical propositions, logical independence, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[849] **viXra:1509.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 10:57:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Schrodinger's thought experiment to prepare a cat in a superposition of both alive and dead states reveals profound consequences of quantum mechanics and has attracted enormous interests. Here we propose a straightforward method to create quantum superposition states of a living microorganism by putting a small bacterium on top of an electromechanical oscillator. [11]
For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[848] **viXra:1509.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-25 05:50:07*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** Rencontres Du Vietnam conference submission, 2 pages, for the proceedings. Very abbreviated discussion and put in Quantum physics, due to its overwhelming quantum fluctuation orientatation

Brief synopsis of a quantum effect, for the Rencontres Du Vietnam (hot topics in Gravitation) conference, in Quy Nohn as of August 2016. Outlines what may be relevant quantum conditions for a minimum value of a graviton (heavy Gravitons), as opposed to the situation where Goldbauer and other researchers only talk about the top allowed maximum mass of a heavy graviton

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[847] **viXra:1509.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-23 16:43:40*

**Authors:** Dimitris Mastoridis, Konstantinos Kalogirou

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The current paper presents a new idea that it might lead us to the Grand Unified Theory. A concrete mathematical framework have been provided that could be appropriate for one to work with. Possible answers were given concerning the problems of dark matter and dark energy as well as the "penetration" to vacuum dominant epoch, combining Quantum Physics with Cosmology through the existence of Higg's boson. A value for Higg's mass around 125.179345 Gev/c^2 and a value for vacuum density around 4.41348x10-5Gev/cm^3 were derived . Via Cartan's theorem a proof regarding the number of bosons existing in nature (28) have been presented. Additionally, the full Lagrangian of our Cosmos (including Quantum Gravity) was accomplished.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[846] **viXra:1509.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-22 05:14:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The irrationality of how we think has long plagued psychology. When someone asks us how we are, we usually respond with "fine" or "good." But if someone followed up about a specific event — "How did you feel about the big meeting with your boss today?" — suddenly, we refine our "good" or "fine" responses on a spectrum from awful to excellent. [8]
A new trend taking shape in psychological science not only uses quantum physics to explain humans' (sometimes) paradoxical thinking, but may also help researchers resolve certain contradictions among the results of previous psychological studies. According to Zheng Joyce Wang and others who try to model our decision-making processes mathematically, the equations and axioms that most closely match human behavior may be ones that are rooted in quantum physics. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[845] **viXra:1509.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 18:15:06*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we shall show the relation between the locality of Quantum Mechanics and the meaning of the quantum state.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[844] **viXra:1509.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 11:34:48*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As opposed to the classical logic of true and false, when elementary algebra is treated as a formal axiomatised system, formulae in that algebra are either provable, disprovable or otherwise, logically independent of axioms. This logical independence is well-known to Mathematical Logic. The intention here is to cover the subject in a way accessible to physicists, and suggest how this logical independence might connect with quantum randomness.
Keywords:mathematical logic, formal arithmetic, formal system, axioms, mathematical propositions, Soundness Theorem, Completeness Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum physics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[843] **viXra:1509.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 23:57:44*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper the results obtained by evaluating the maximum information
about the Universe by using the method of quantization of time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[842] **viXra:1509.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-18 07:13:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[841] **viXra:1509.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-17 11:22:46*

**Authors:** Michael A. Sherbon

**Comments:** 12 Pages. International Journal of Physical Research 2, 1, 1-9 (2014). CC 3.0

Arnold Sommerfeld introduced the fine-structure constant that determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction. Following Sommerfeld, Wolfgang Pauli left several clues to calculating the fine-structure constant with his research on Johannes Kepler's view of nature and Pythagorean geometry. The Laplace limit of Kepler's equation in classical mechanics, the Bohr-Sommerfeld model of the hydrogen atom and Julian Schwinger's research enable a calculation of the electron magnetic moment anomaly. Considerations of fundamental lengths such as the charge radius of the proton and mass ratios suggest some further foundational interpretations of quantum electrodynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[840] **viXra:1509.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-17 01:31:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

An international team led by Radboud University physicists has discovered that reversing the poles of magnets must be possible without a heating or a magnetic field.. A strong pulse of light can have a direct effect on the strong quantum mechanical 'exchange interaction', therefore changing the magnetism. [9]
Magnetic waves are known as solitons—for solitary waves—and were theorized to occur in magnets in the 1970s. They form because of a delicate balance of magnetic forces—much like water waves can form a tsunami. Now physicists have used a specialized x-ray method to take pictures of them. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[839] **viXra:1509.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-16 08:17:25*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** Physics Journal, Volume 1, Issue 3 (2015), Page 183--188.

We use the validity of Addition and Multiplication for a hidden variables theory. First, we provide an example that the two operations Addition and Multiplication do not commute with each other as revealed by the analyses that are performed in a finite set of numbers. Our discussion leads to an initial conclusion that Sum rule and Product rule do not commute with each other in a hidden variables theory. If we accept this conclusion, we do not get the Bell- Kochen -Specker paradox. In more detail, quantum mechanics may accept the hidden variables theory. Next, we discuss the validity of operators under an assumption that Sum rule and Product rule commute with each other. In this case, we indeed get the Bell- Kochen -Specker paradox. We got the non-classicality of macroscopic experimental data observed in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the double-slit experiment. If we detect |↑> and then we detect |↓>, the experiments cannot accept the hidden variables theory. We considered whether we can assign the predetermined “hidden” result to numbers 1 and -1 as in results of measurements with the number of measurements finite (e.g., twice) in the experiments. It turned out that we cannot assign the predetermined hidden result to such results of measurements. The next conclusion indicates interestingly that the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept classical mechanics. The double-slit experiment had led to the same situation, and they were indeed quantum mechanical phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[838] **viXra:1509.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 13:44:09*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The possibility of obtention of quantum vacuum in laboratory is shown in this work. The method consists in ward off air atoms from the surface of a solid material plate. The clearance can reach up to several nanometers, thus producing a region where there are no elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[837] **viXra:1509.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-15 09:28:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A new trend taking shape in psychological science not only uses quantum physics to explain humans' (sometimes) paradoxical thinking, but may also help researchers resolve certain contradictions among the results of previous psychological studies. According to Zheng Joyce Wang and others who try to model our decision-making processes mathematically, the equations and axioms that most closely match human behavior may be ones that are rooted in quantum physics. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[836] **viXra:1509.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-11 10:08:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

An international team of researchers, including the MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology at the University of Twente in The Netherlands and the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, announced today in Science the observation of a dynamic Mott transition in a superconductor. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[835] **viXra:1509.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-10 11:57:07*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces along their trajectory (http://intellectualarchive.com/ ?link=item\&id=1557). By setting initial conditions in a simulation, predictions of screen patterns can be made. Changing the altitude produces a change in the width of the pattern. Using a pattern resulting from a single slit, a second mask can examine the result of varying the intensity of the illumination across the slit and of only one of the double slits being illuminated. The resultant patterns on a screen were photographed and are on the opposite side of center from the illuminated side of the second mask. The STOE is consistent and all other models of diffraction are inconsistent with these results.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[834] **viXra:1509.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 08:51:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[833] **viXra:1509.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-07 02:26:00*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

After discussing various examples, the diameter of a single photon is calculated by combining the formulas of quantum mechanics and wave theory. The experimentally known coherence length is the length of the photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[832] **viXra:1509.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-06 14:57:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Since the 1930s scientists have been searching for particles that are simultaneously matter and antimatter. Now physicists have found strong evidence for one such entity inside a superconducting material. The discovery could represent the first so-called Majorana particle, and may help researchers encode information for quantum computers.[27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[831] **viXra:1509.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-04 09:55:37*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

My previous research involved representing energies (gravitational mass, inertial mass, and Planck’s constant) of different particle speeds as an equivalence for quantum (Mc = ΔmΔw = hf/c). In addition, E = Mc2 (kinetic energy is changed to mass) does not indicate that the total energy change is always proportional to particle speed. Therefore, “energy representation of a mathematical action,” and “energy change of a physical interaction” are not similar. The actual physical phenomenon should distinguish between these actions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[830] **viXra:1509.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-03 15:30:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron suggests the existence of a super light particle yet to be observed. However, it is not clear whether this particle is an electrino, a new type of neutrino, a neutralino (a neutral particle that is neither a neutrino nor a darkino) or a darkino (a neutral particle “responsible” for the mysterious dark matter contents of the Universe). The formula also suggests four possible values for the rest mass of this super light particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[829] **viXra:1509.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-02 11:33:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[828] **viXra:1508.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-30 14:25:05*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this note we show that in the modified quantum mechanics EPR correlations can be explained locally. We show also that the claim on the quantum nonlocality is in the modified quantum mechanics false.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[827] **viXra:1508.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-29 05:23:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[826] **viXra:1508.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 11:53:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The pursuit of an understanding of the base machinery of the mind led early researchers to anatomical exhaustion. With neuroscience now in the throes of molecular mayhem and a waning biochemical bliss, physics is spicing things up with a host of eclectic quantum, spin, and isotopic novelties. While increases in electron spin content have been linked to anesthetic effects, nuclear spins have recently been implicated in a more rarefied and subtle phenomenon— neural quantum processing. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[825] **viXra:1508.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:30:07*

**Authors:** Mojtaba Mahmoudi Fard

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is thought that in accordance with the quantum uncertainty, energy could be extracted from the empty space. However, space nowadays could be considered as a material sui generis entity, a collection of indivisible small particles, and in a grainy fabric. So this paper asserts that the vacuum is not a concept other than the space-time itself related to its microscopic structure and the underlying ether.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[824] **viXra:1508.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 13:44:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6]
Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[823] **viXra:1508.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-25 13:46:36*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke, Henry Otobrise, Tolulope Famoroti, Adenike Olatinwo, Afees Tiamiyu, Funmi Akintujoye

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

We give an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of the Ising model in mutually orthogonal external magnetic fields, using as basis the eigenstates of a system of non-interacting spin~$1/2$ particles in external magnetic fields. We subsequently apply our results to obtain an analytical expression for the ground state energy per spin, to the fourth order in the exchange integral, for the Ising model in perpendicular external fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[822] **viXra:1508.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 11:14:35*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article criticises the phenomenon “wave-like-behaviour” of matter and shows that the Davisson-Germer experiment, considered as the validation of De Broglie’s hypothesis, can be interpreted in another way too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[821] **viXra:1508.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 03:29:59*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Idea that time can have origin in entanglement is based on the preposition that “internal observer”, “external observer”, “coordinate time” and “proper time” are theoretical models of the world which have counterpart in physical universe. Bijective epistemology based on bijective function of set theory confirms these models have no counterpart in physical universe; they are pure theoretical inventions on which we cannot build a consistent scientific theory. Idea that time could have origin in entanglement has no enough theoretical and experimental basis to be taken seriously as an adequate model of physical world.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[820] **viXra:1508.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-23 10:03:40*

**Authors:** PV Raktoe

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper discribes several mistakes in (theoretical) physics, it explains why most mysteries in the universe cannot be solved. Scientists claim that a black hole is massive, but there is no proof that it is. They think a black hole is massive because they think it needs to be (because of Einstein's gravity), otherwise the stars wouldn't stay in their orbit. They looked at the stars and their speed and used mathematics to calculate how massive a black hole needed to be, but if there is no proof that a black hole is massive you also need to look at another option; an empty black hole. A massive black hole remains a mystery because they cannot see what's inside, but when you remove that mass it's not a mystery anymore. But more important, the origin of gravity reveals itself. And once you understand what gravity is, you will immediately understand that most mysteries in space are in fact man-made. You will find that Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, massive black holes, dark matter and dark energy don't exist, and that is why they cannot find or explain it. You will find that some mysteries can easily be solved, because you will understand what the universe is.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[819] **viXra:1508.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 10:24:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One thing that all chemical reactions have in common—whether they are the reactions that take place inside a battery, the metabolic reactions inside a living organism, or the combustion reactions that cause an explosion—is that they all involve some kind of change in energy. On a large scale, the changes in energy of a reaction can usually be measured in various ways for practical purposes, but attempting to understand the fundamental origins of this energy at smaller and smaller scales becomes more complicated, especially as chemistry enters the quantum realm. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[818] **viXra:1508.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 08:19:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Per Delsing and his team want to combine theoretical calculations with experiments on superconducting circuits to gain an understanding of how things fit together at the nano level. Among other things, they plan to simulate objects that move very rapidly, almost at the speed of light, and demonstrate the "twin paradox" on a microchip. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[817] **viXra:1508.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 06:44:30*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Unification of strong force, weak force, and electromagnetism is provided via higgs mechanism. Thus, gluons, W+, W-, and Z particles can acquire mass. All green related gluons then have mass. This theory links U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) for a general unification theory which extends from Weinberg's electroweak interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[816] **viXra:1508.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 13:16:51*

**Authors:** Antonio Cardoso

**Comments:** 6 pages, 1 figure

In this paper we discuss a recent double-slit experiment where which-path information is obtained without disturbing the photons in their path to the detector, and, as a consequence, an interference pattern is observed on the far screen even if it is known which slit the photons go through. We argue that this result is in clear contradiction with a fundamental principle in orthodox quantum mechanics – Bohr’s complementarity principle – and also point out that, on the other hand, the results of this experiment are the expected ones in the framework of de Broglie’s pilot wave theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[486] **viXra:1511.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 22:14:58*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 6 Figures

Present understanding of non-possibility of Quantum communication rests on analysis of possibility of signalling within a Quantum system. Is it possible to achieve signalling by a setup where the system is changed from one to another where the act of change serves as the signal and the change in the measurement probabilities would be detected and deciphered at the receiver end? A proposal is made where a variant of Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser experiment setup of Kim et al is used to achieve the same. The setup is also designed such that the speed of communication can be faster than light.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[485] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-16 17:51:11*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's theorem presupposes that particles that are distanced from each other become spatially disconnected. Yet studies have never experimentally confirmed the possibility of spatial locality between distanced particles. Here, I show that Bell’s theorem cannot forbid an infinite set of local-deterministic relativity theories that violate Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies. This result in itself cannot guarantee a theory from this set of theories to successfully reproduce the predictions of quantum theory, but until the spatial locality loophole is satisfactorily closed, experiments should be decided the fate of such theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[484] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 19:58:49*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However Bell's theorem presupposes that particles which are distanced from each become spatially disconnected. However, the possibility of spatial-locality between distanced particles has never been confirmed experimentally. Here I show that an infinite set of local-deterministic relativity theories which violate Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies, cannot be forbidden by Bell's theorem. This in itself cannot guarantee that a theory from this set of theories will be successful in reproducing the predictions of quantum theory, but until the spatial-locality loophole is satisfactorily closed, the fate of such theories should be decided by experiments.
Keywords: Bell's Theorem, Entanglement, Relativity, Locality, Realism. Lorentz Invariance.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[483] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 09:23:55*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However the theorem presupposes that particles which are distanced from each become spatially disconnected. The possibility of spatial-locality between distanced particles has never been considered neither in Bell's theorem, nor in its experimental tests. Here I show that an infinite set of local and deterministic relativity theories cannot be forbidden by Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[482] **viXra:1511.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-18 07:41:36*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. Hence, I propose the justification of the projection postulate in the linguistic interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[481] **viXra:1511.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-19 16:06:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

In this article I explain the concepts behind the multifaceted Planck mass through each of
its facets, highlighting the relation of the Planck mass with the origins of the universe,
with the physics of white dwarfs and black holes, with the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle, and, finally, with the microscopic world of elementary particles. The paper also suggests a new definition for this “multicoloured” mass. In certain way the Planck
mass is a unit that unifies all of physics. Finally, three main conclusions are drawn: (a)
the cause of quantum entanglement, (b) the existence of the Pre-universe, and (c) the
possible existence of parallel universes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[480] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-12 05:45:57*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof presupposes that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body distancing from an observer's rest-frame will stretch rather than contract, could maintain spatial locality between particles, even when the particles are distanced enough to ensure that information about the outcomes of one particle is passed to the other particle faster than light. This implies that local and realistic theories which belong to the aforementioned Doppler-like theories could not be disqualified a priori by Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[479] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-11 13:30:43*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem cannot close the loophole of spatial locality
Abstract
Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof presupposes that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body which departs away from an observer's rest-frame will extend rather than contract, could maintain spatial locality between particles, even when the particles are distanced enough to ensure that information about the outcomes of one particle is passed to the other particle faster than light. This implies that local and realistic theories which belong to the aforementioned Doppler-like theories could not be disqualified a priori by Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[478] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 21:02:09*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof presupposes that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body which departs away from an observer's rest-frame will extend rather than contract, could maintain spatial locality between particles, even when the particles are distanced enough to ensure that information about the outcomes of one particle is passed to the other particle faster than light. This implies that local and realistic theories which belong to the aforementioned Doppler-like theories could not be disqualified a priori by Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[477] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 04:36:24*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, the paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields. These sets represent two different space-progression models. Both sets of equations and both models are equally valid.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[476] **viXra:1511.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 07:48:54*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures

Entanglement states are important for both basic research and applied research. However, these entanglement states usually relate to one or several of the particles' physical quantities. Here we theoretically show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form packaged entanglement states which encapsulate all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles. The particles in the packaged entanglement states are hermaphroditic and indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement states. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states. These packaged entanglement states could be important for particle physics and useful in matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[475] **viXra:1511.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 17:01:29*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The entanglement states of particles are now widely used in quantum communication. However, these entanglement states usually relate to only one of the particles' physical quantities.
Here we theoretically show that there exist packaged entanglement states which encapsulate all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles.
We first show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form the packaged entanglement states in which the particles are indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement state. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states.
These packaged entanglement states could be important for particle physics and useful in matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[474] **viXra:1511.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-12 07:05:51*

**Authors:** Swapnil Patil

**Comments:** Total 15 pages incl. suppl. info. This replacement is a linguistic refinement/elaboration of text of the manuscript and the suppl. info. (like a pedagogical description).

The wave-particle duality is one of the most remarkable concepts in physics ever discovered. It is a central pillar upon which the entire theory of quantum mechanics is based. However the origin of wave-particle duality is unrevealed yet and is generally taken as a postulate representing a fundamental fact of nature. In this paper we attempt to disclose the origin of this remarkable fact of nature. We argue that the introduction of exchange interaction among a group of particles would naturally lead them to demonstrate wave-like character from particle-like character. Thus the existence of exchange interaction among particles is an absolutely necessary criterion for quantum behavior to manifest thus shedding light on the microscopic origin of the peculiar quantum behavior of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[473] **viXra:1511.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 01:24:42*

**Authors:** Swapnil Patil

**Comments:** Total 14 pages including supplementary information (at the end). This replacement is a linguistic refinement of text of the manuscript and the supplementary information.

The wave-particle duality is one of the most remarkable concepts in physics ever discovered. It is a central pillar upon which the entire theory of quantum mechanics is based. However the origin of wave-particle duality is unrevealed yet and is generally taken as a postulate representing a fundamental fact of nature. In this paper we attempt to disclose the origin of this remarkable fact of nature. We argue that the introduction of exchange interaction among a group of particles would naturally lead them to demonstrate wave-like character from particle-like character. Thus the existence of exchange interaction among particles is an absolutely necessary criterion for quantum behavior to manifest thus shedding light on the microscopic origin of the peculiar quantum behavior of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[472] **viXra:1511.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-04 06:23:32*

**Authors:** Swapnil Patil

**Comments:** Total 14 pages including supplementary information. The supplementary information is at the end of the manuscript. This replacement updates the reference to our paper on arXiv:1409.7156

The wave-particle duality is one of the most remarkable concepts in physics ever discovered. It is a central pillar upon which the entire theory of quantum mechanics is based. However the origin of wave-particle duality is unrevealed yet and is generally taken as a postulate representing a fundamental fact of nature. In this paper we attempt to disclose the origin of this remarkable fact of nature. We argue that the introduction of exchange interaction among a group of particles would naturally lead them to demonstrate wave-like character from particle-like character. Thus the existence of exchange interaction amongst particles is an absolutely necessary criterion for quantum behavior to manifest thus shedding light on the microscopic origin of the peculiar quantum behavior of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[471] **viXra:1511.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 15:43:48*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

By starting from an infinite dimensional quaternionic separable Hilbert space and its companion Gelfand triple as a base model, the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of some basic fields. A special method is introduced that generates normal operators and parameter spaces from existing quaternionic number systems. The same method is used to relate functions that use these parameter spaces with corresponding normal operators. Continuum eigenspaces of operators that reside in the Gelfand triple will represent the investigated basic fields.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus as well as Maxwell based differential calculus. This is done in order to investigate the properties and behavior of the investigated basic fields. The two toolkits offer different views on the basic fields and this fact divides the fields in different categories.
The electric field belongs to the Maxwell based category. It is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum and belongs to the quaternion calculus based category of fields. It will be shown that both sets of equations can describe both fields and that the fundamental difference between the fields is located in the artifacts that vibrate and deform these fields.
The paper produces an algorithm that calculates the electric charge and color charge of elementary objects from the symmetry properties of their local parameter spaces. The electric charges generate the electric field. Also the spin of elementary objects is considered.
The behavior of photons and dynamic electromagnetic fields is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields. The paper shows that the usual interpretation of a photon as an electric wave is not correct. In addition the relation between gravitation and inertia is explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[470] **viXra:1511.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 08:00:52*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

By starting from an infinite dimensional quaternionic separable Hilbert space and its companion Gelfand triple as a base model, the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of some basic fields. A special method is introduced that generates normal operators and parameter spaces from existing quaternionic number systems. The same method is used to relate functions that use these parameter spaces with corresponding normal operators. Continuum eigenspaces of operators that reside in the Gelfand triple will represent the investigated basic fields.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus as well as Maxwell based differential calculus. This is done in order to investigate the properties and behavior of the investigated basic fields. The two toolkits offer different views on the basic fields and this fact divides the fields in different categories.
The electric field belongs to the Maxwell based category. It is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum and belongs to the quaternion calculus based category of fields.
The paper produces an algorithm that calculates the electric charge and color charge of elementary objects from the symmetry properties of their local parameter spaces. The electric charges generate the electric field. Also the spin of elementary objects is considered.
The behavior of photons and dynamic electromagnetic fields is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields. The paper shows that the usual interpretation of a photon as an electric wave is not correct. In addition the relation between gravitation and inertia is explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[469] **viXra:1511.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-05 12:17:20*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concept of an intrinsic vibrational-rotational motion of the electron( zitterbewegung) has been introduced by Schroedinger, and later developed by Kerson Huang and more recently by A. Barut, among others. These authors listed a series of features that should accompany such motion, although its very existence is usually regarded as merely speculative. In the present paper we investigate the consequences of the existence of this motion as far as measured properties of particles are concerned. A phenomenological model based upon the quantization of a classical vibrating system, in the lines of the old Correspondence Principle of Bohr, is applied to particles to mimic the effect of the zitterbewegung upon measurable dynamic properties like the magnetic energy, and the magnetic moment. Gauge invariance is inevitably imposed in the form of a quatization criterion needed for the passage from the classical to the quantum treatment, which results in the prediction of magnetic flux quantization within the area covered by the vibrations. The calculations are carried out for the electron, and also for the proton and the neutron by considering the electric charges of their constituent quarks. The conclusion is that if the zitterbewegung motion is real, the mass, the magnetic moment, the Compton wavelengths (or the measured sizes for the nucleons) for each of these particles, are gathered together in a single expression which is a function of the number of flux quanta trapped inside their ”orbits”. The treatment proposed is simple, self-contained, and quantitatively correct. We finish the paper making some remarks on the compatibility of these results with those obtained from first principles by QCD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[468] **viXra:1510.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-20 07:46:07*

**Authors:** Kamal Barghout

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Physical processes are time asymmetric at the macroscopic level in favor of a forward arrow of time while it is believed to be theoretically time-symmetric at the microscopic level. A physical process (cause and effect) is intimately bound up with a physical system and a force that produces a change of the state of motion that characterizes the physical process. The change of the state of motion of a physical system is characterized by the change of its velocity; an important aspect of Relativity Theory (RT). It seems that space-time itself as described by RT must inevitably constitute a system that describes physical processes. Quantum mechanics (QM) implies space-time itself may be quantum in nature if QM is to comply with RT geometrically; i.e. Loop quantum gravity theory as a quantum space-time. I describe here space-time as a “discrete” system by which RT describes the motion of a physical system. Space, time and the forward arrow of time are described as the outcome of the interaction of space-time system containing such a discrete structure and physical systems such that the rules of RT are satisfied. Here, space, time and the intimate relationship between them are defined. Length contraction, time dilation and the forward arrow of time are explained accordingly.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[467] **viXra:1510.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 22:05:15*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There are mistakes in Sections 3 and 4 of the paper [ J. Quantum Inf. Sci. 2015, 5, 71], some calculated values have been corrected in this note.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[466] **viXra:1510.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-02 12:44:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[465] **viXra:1510.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-13 06:01:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[464] **viXra:1510.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-12 10:41:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[463] **viXra:1510.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-05 11:30:37*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The homogeneity symmetry is re-examined and shown to be non-unitary, with no requirement for the imaginary unit. This removes symmetry, as reason, for imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) -- by Postulate. The work here is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a full and complete theory of quantum randomness.**Keywords:**foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, mathematical logic, formal system, elementary algebra, information, axioms, mathematical propositions, logical independence, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[462] **viXra:1509.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 07:10:11*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We point out that there is no obvious contradiction between the results of quantum mechanics and consequences of general relativity

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[461] **viXra:1509.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-25 12:05:10*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Replaced , since I accidentally picked the wrong file. This is the one to use. My apologies.

Brief synopsis of a quantum effect, for the Rencontres Du Vietnam (hot topics in Gravitation) conference, in Quy Nohn as of August 2016. Outlines what may be relevant quantum conditions for a minimum value of a graviton (heavy Gravitons), as opposed to the situation where Goldbauer and other researchers only talk about the top allowed maximum mass of a heavy graviton

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[460] **viXra:1509.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-27 12:51:06*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this note we shall show the relation between the locality of Quantum Mechanics and the meaning of the quantum state.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[459] **viXra:1509.0197 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 08:57:42*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract As opposed to the classical logic of true and false, when elementary algebra is treated as a formal axiomatised system, formulae in that algebra are either provable, disprovable or otherwise, logically independent of axioms. This logical independence is well-known to Mathematical Logic. The intention here is to cover the subject in a way accessible to physicists. This work is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a complete theory of quantum randomness.**Keywords** mathematical logic, formal system, axioms, mathematical propositions, Soundness Theorem, Completeness Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum physics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[458] **viXra:1509.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-24 16:53:06*

**Authors:** Herbert Weidner

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

After discussing various examples, the diameter of a single photon is calculated by combining the formulas of quantum mechanics and wave theory. The experimentally known coherence length is the length of the photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[457] **viXra:1509.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-18 19:00:21*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

My previous research involved representing energies (gravitational mass, inertial mass, and Planck’s constant) of different particle speeds as an equivalence for quantum (Mc = ΔmΔw = hf/c). In addition, E = Mc2 (kinetic energy is changed to mass) does not indicate that the total energy change is always proportional to particle speed. Therefore, “energy representation of a mathematical action,” and “energy change of a physical interaction” are not similar.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[456] **viXra:1509.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-14 10:36:33*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

My previous research involved representing energies (gravitational mass, inertial mass, and Planck’s constant) of different particle speeds as an equivalence for quantum (Mc = ΔmΔw = hf/c). In addition, E = Mc2 (kinetic energy is changed to mass) does not indicate that the total energy change is always proportional to particle speed. Therefore, “energy representation of a mathematical action,” and “energy change of a physical interaction” are not similar. The actual physical phenomenon should distinguish between these actions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[455] **viXra:1509.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-14 18:01:49*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A.Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron suggests the existence of a super light particle yet to be observed. However, it is not clear whether this particle is an electrino, a new type of neutrino, a neutralino (a neutral particle that is neither a neutrino nor a darkino) or a darkino (a neutral particle “responsible” for the mysterious dark matter contents of the Universe).
The formula also suggests four possible values for the rest mass of this super light particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[454] **viXra:1508.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-07 17:58:41*

**Authors:** PV Raktoe

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper discribes several mistakes in (theoretical) physics, it explains why most mysteries in the universe cannot be solved. Scientists claim that a black hole is massive, but there is no proof that it is. They are all sure that it's massive, otherwise the stars wouldn't stay in their orbit. The mass of a black hole is based on the stars and their orbital speed near that black hole, but if there is no proof that a black hole is massive you also need to look at another option; an empty black hole. A massive black hole remains a mystery because they cannot see what's inside, but when you remove that mass it's not a mystery anymore. But more important, the origin of gravity reveals itself. And once you understand what gravity is, you will immediately understand that most mysteries in space are in fact man-made. You will find that Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, massive black holes, dark matter and dark energy don't exist, and that is why they cannot find or explain it. You will find that some mysteries can easily be solved, because you will understand what the universe is.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[453] **viXra:1508.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-24 17:00:31*

**Authors:** PV Raktoe

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper discribes several mistakes in (theoretical) physics, it explains why most mysteries in the universe cannot be solved. Scientists claim that a black hole is massive, but there is no proof that it is. They think a black hole is massive because it needs to be (because of Einstein's gravity), otherwise the stars wouldn't stay in their orbit. They looked at the stars and their speed and used mathematics to calculate how massive a black hole needed to be, but if there is no proof that a black hole is massive you also need to look at another option; an empty black hole. A massive black hole remains a mystery because they cannot see what's inside, but when you remove that mass it's not a mystery anymore. But more important, the origin of gravity reveals itself. And once you understand what gravity is, you will immediately understand that most mysteries in space are in fact man-made. You will find that Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, massive black holes, dark matter and dark energy don't exist, and that is why they cannot find or explain it. You will find that some mysteries can easily be solved, because you will understand what the universe is.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[452] **viXra:1508.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-31 06:56:15*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unification of strong force, weak force, and electromagnetism is provided via higgs mechanism. Thus, gluons, W+, W-, and Z particles can acquire mass. All green related gluons then have mass. This theory links U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) for a general unification theory which extends from Weinberg's electroweak interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[451] **viXra:1508.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-28 00:53:33*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unification of strong force, weak force, and electromagnetism is provided via higgs mechanism. Thus, gluons, W+, W-, and Z particles can acquire mass. All green related gluons then have mass. This theory links U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) for a general unification theory which extends from Weinberg's electroweak interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics