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2014 - 1401(11) - 1402(7) - 1403(20) - 1404(12)

Any replacements are listed further down

[526] **viXra:1404.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:43:02*

**Authors:** Koji Sugiyama

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

We try to derive the Born rule from the many-worlds interpretation in this paper.
Although many researchers have tried to derive the Born rule (probability interpretation) from Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI), it has not resulted in the success. For this reason, derivation of the Born rule had become an important issue of MWI. We try to derive the Born rule by introducing an elementary event of probability theory to the quantum theory as a new method.
We interpret the wave function as a manifold like a torus, and interpret the absolute value of the wave function as the surface area of the manifold. We put points on the surface of the manifold at a fixed interval. We interpret each point as a state that we cannot divide any more, an elementary state. We draw an arrow from any point to any point. We interpret each arrow as an event that we cannot divide any more, an elementary event.
Probability is proportional to the number of elementary events, and the number of elementary events is the square of the number of elementary state. The number of elementary states is proportional to the surface area of the manifold, and the surface area of the manifold is the absolute value of the wave function. Therefore, the probability is proportional to the absolute square of the wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[525] **viXra:1404.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 07:14:53*

**Authors:** Koji Sugiyama

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

We derive the two-valuedness and the angular momentum of a spin-1/2 from a rotation of 3-dimensional surface of a sphere, in this paper.
Although many researchers have tried quantization of gravity, they have not resulted in the success. Quantization of the gravity has been an important issue of physics. In order to quantize gravity, we constructed a particle as a string that is 1-dimensional manifold. In this paper, we construct the wave function of a spin-1/2 as 3-dimensional surface of a sphere (3-sphere) that is 3-dimensional manifold.
Spin-1/2 has two properties. The first property is that rotating a spin-1/2 particle by 360 degrees does not bring it back to the same state, but to the state with the opposite phase. The property is called "two-valuedness of spin-1/2." The second property is that the spin has angular momentum that is same as the angular momentum in normal space. We will derive them as follows.
We will derive the two-valuedness of the spin as follows.
The point particle cannot rotate. On the other hand, we cannot derive the two-valuedness of the spin by a rotation of 2-dimensional surface of a sphere (2-sphere). Therefore, we derive the two-valuedness of the spin by a rotation of 3-sphere.
We interpret the angle of rotation of the 3-sphere as the phase of a wave function. We interpret the 3-sphere as the absolute value of a wave function.
We can express 3-sphere as the manifold with a constant sum of squares of the radius of two circles. When one circle's radius becomes the maximum, the other circle's radius becomes zero. Therefore, we can turn the circle inside out naturally. If we combine the circle turned inside out with the original circle, the manifold becomes a torus with a node. If we rotate the node of the torus by 360 degrees, we can turn the torus inside out. If we rotate the node of the torus 720 degrees, we can return the torus to the original state. This property is consistent with the property of the spin.
We derive the angular momentum of the spin as follows.
We make a 1-dimensional segment of a line by removing one point from 1-dimensional circle. On the other hand, we can make boundary of two points by removing one point from 1-dimensional space. We combine the boundaries of them. By repeating this, we can construct 1-dimensional helical space.
We make 2-dimensional disk by removing one point from 2-sphere. On the other hand, we can make boundary like a circle by removing one point from 2-dimensional space. We combine the boundaries of them. By repeating this, we can construct 2-dimensional helical space.
We make 3-dimensional solid sphere by removing one point from 3-sphere. On the other hand, we can make boundary like a 3-sphere by removing one point from 3-dimensional space. We combine the boundaries of them. By repeating this, we can construct 3-dimensional helical space.
The angle of rotation of the 3-sphere is the angle of rotation of 3-dimensional helical space. In addition, we can interpret the angle of the rotation in the helical space as the coordinates of the normal 3-dimensional space. Therefore, we can interpret the angular momentum of the 3-sphere as the angular momentum of normal space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[524] **viXra:1404.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-13 17:03:03*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the most important open questions in physics is the possibility of reconciliation, and perhaps unification, between quantum theory and relativity theory. Here I show that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle, termed Complete Relativity, reconciles with quantum mechanics at significant meeting points: It explains the quantum criticality at the Golden Ratio. More importantly, it confirms with Planck's energy. These results are quite astounding, given the fact that Complete Relativity, like Special Relativity, is a deterministic model of the dynamics of moving bodies. An application of the theory to cosmology, discussed in a recent paper, revealed that it yields definitions of dark matter and dark energy, and predicts the contents of the universe with impressive accuracy. Taken together, these results raise the exciting possibility that physics at the quantum scale, and at the cosmological scale, are the two faces of one coin: The coin of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[523] **viXra:1404.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 13:48:49*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new class of dynamical systems with a preset type of interference of probabilities is introduced. It is obtained from the extension of the Madelung equation by replacing the quantum potential with a specially selected feedback from the Liouville equation. It has been proved that these systems are different from both Newtonian and quantum systems, but they can be useful for modeling spontaneous collective novelty phenomena when emerging outputs are qualitatively different from the weighted sum of individual inputs. Formation of language and fast decision-making process as potential applications of the probability interference is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[522] **viXra:1404.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 04:33:32*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. публикация на русском языке: "ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ СИЛЫ КАЗИМИРА ДЛЯ УПРАВЛЯЕМОГО ДВИЖЕНИЯ МАКРОТЕЛ", 31-03-2014, http://science.snauka.ru/2014/03/6710

Considered the Casimir effect for construction «angle bar». Theoretically discovered uncompensated force in the direction from the top of the angle bar to its opening angle. Assessment of the magnitude of this force.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[521] **viXra:1404.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 16:06:56*

**Authors:** Alexander Zaslavsky

**Comments:** 20 Pages

The conditions of arising and some effects of physical phenomenon that may be found in the process of observing high energy particles are considered in this work. This phenomenon is
consequence of time discreteness. When the repetition frequency of a particle discrete state proves to be commensurable with its own frequency (energy), the aliasing effect of its wave function may take place. The wave function aliasing limits the particle energy spectrum giving rise to the uninvestigated abnormal modes of movement. In view of the fact the discreteness of particle states at a time is a prerequisite for aliasing, the effect under consideration, in case of its experimental verification, may serve a proof of this discreteness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[520] **viXra:1404.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 13:09:53*

**Authors:** Stefan Freundt

**Comments:** 19 Pages. German language

As Richard Feynman said roughly 50 years after discovering quantum mechanics:
"On the other hand, I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."
And to this day, no one has yet found a good explanation for wave-particle duality, nonlocality or wave function collapse.
The discussion seems rather to have been resolved and no longer to be so important.
The success is too great, and the level of precision too high with which predictions can be made using quantum mechanics
and subsequent theories (quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics).
This is absolutely sufficient for an engineer. He can use this knowledge to build laser diodes and make the world a better place.
Physicians, however, who want to know "what holds the world together in its inmost folds", will seek an interpretation
of the wave function. And these physicians have been puzzling their brains for approximately 100 years without any success.
The same mathematics which helps quantum mechanics make their precise predictions, however, also provide a way out of this dilemma.
This approach frees us from interpreting wave-particle duality and explaining wave function collapse.
In return, however, it questions all differential calculus approaches used as well as our continuous space.
It calls for a search for a relativistic ether and for a structure of elementary particles.
"Auf der anderen Seite denke ich, es ist sicher zu sagen, niemand versteht Quantenmechanik."
Dies äußert Richard Feynman ca. 50 Jahre nach ihrer Entdeckung.
Und bis heute hat niemand eine gute Erklärung für den Welle-Teilchen-Dualismus,
die Nichtlokalität, den Kollaps der Wellenfunktion... gefunden. Die Diskussion scheint eher beigelegt und nicht mehr so wichtig.
Zu groß sind die Erfolge, zu hoch ist die Genauigkeit, mit der Vorhersagen in der Quantenmechanik und den Nachfolgetheorien
(Quantenelektrodynamik und Quantenchromodynamik) gemacht werden können.
Für einen Ingenieur ist dies vollkommen ausreichend. Er kann mit diesem Wissen Laserdioden bauen und die Welt verbessern.
Aber ein Physiker, der wissen will, "was die Welt im Innersten zusammenhält",
wird nach einer Interpretation der Wellenfunktion fragen. Und diese Physiker zerbrechen sich schon seit ca. 100 Jahren ergebnislos den Kopf.
Dabei liefert die gleiche Mathematik, die der Quantenmechanik zu ihren genauen Vorhersagen verhilft, auch einen Ausweg aus obigem Dilemma.
Dieser Ansatz befreit von einer Interpretation des Welle-Teilchen-Dualismus und einer Erklärung des Kollaps der Wellenfunktion.
Er stellt im Gegenzug aber die gesamte verwendete Differentialrechnung und unseren kontinuierlichen Raum in Frage.
Es wird zur Suche nach einem relativistischen Äther und einer Struktur der Elementarteilchen aufgefordert.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[519] **viXra:1404.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:10:24*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[518] **viXra:1404.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 08:21:37*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward “Volume density functional theory (VDFT).”

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[517] **viXra:1404.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 12:11:47*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two unsolved problems in quantum mechanics are addressed: a source of randomness and an origin of entanglement. These problems being hidden in the Schrödinger equations became transparent in its Madelung version. Special attention is concentrated on equivalence between the Schrodinger and the Madelung equations.
It has been demonstrated that randomness in quantum mechanics has the same mathematical source as that in turbulence and chaos, and the origin of entanglement is the global constraint imposed by the normalization constraint of the probability density that becomes an additional variable in the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[516] **viXra:1404.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 08:56:58*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on the improved design of Four-photon entanglement device and the definition of
Encoding rules, Decoding rules and Error correction rules, we could be able to achieve the
information transmission in the quantum channel directly, and lead to the superluminal
communication result.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[515] **viXra:1404.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 23:35:18*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is one thing to draw lobes for electrons with the understanding that one does not know what is going on inside those lobes. It is something entirely different to indicate that those lobes are filled with clouds or bits of electron presence! The wave approach to indicate an electron’s path is quite appropriate, however. Electron movement is well defined per the precise spectral data generated. Movement of electrons to and fro within and between atoms will be on well-defined pathways with their electrostatic fields moving with them. The movement of an electrostatic field is illustrated as its associated particle moves along an elliptical path.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[514] **viXra:1403.0976 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-31 12:41:07*

**Authors:** Alexandre de Castro

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In computer science, the P =?NP problem is to determine whether every language accepted by some nondeterministic algorithm in polynomial-time is also accepted by some (deterministic) algorithm in polynomial-time. Currently, such a complexity-class problem is proving the existence of one-way (quantum) functions: operations that are computationally ‘easy’, while their inverses are computationally ‘hard’. In this paper, I show that this outstanding issue can be answered by an appeal to physics proofs about the thermodynamic cost of computation. The physics proof presented here involves Bennett's reversible algorithm, an input-saving (Turing) machine that computationally corresponds to the controlled-NOT quantum gate used to reconcile Szilárd's one-molecule engine (a variant of Maxwell’s demon gedankenexperiment) and Landauer’s principle, which asserts a minimal thermodynamic cost to performing a bitwise operation, and which can be derived solely on the basis of the properties of the logical operation itself. In what follows, I show that by running the Bennett's input-saving (Turing) machine backwards a superposed memory state is generated when the critical inequality in Landauer’s principle is reversed, which determines the condition of existence of a thermodynamically non-invertible quantum circuit in polynomial-time, that would otherwise be mathematically invertible. As a result, an input-saving machine can be used to model entangled memory in non-unstable quantum computers.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[513] **viXra:1403.0962 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-29 03:04:16*

**Authors:** Keith Ferrer

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The quantization of electromagnetic radiation can be interpreted based on the relativistic properties of light waves given its constant velocity relative to bodies that are slower than them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[512] **viXra:1403.0960 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 11:27:39*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The bonding of the hydrogen atom in the B—H—B sequence of diborane is just a standard overlapping of atomic orbitals. With the MCAS model, hydrogen naturally has the capacity to form linear and non-linear bonds between two atoms, when necessary. There is no need for the nebulous 3-center, two-electron, bond that has been used to honor the unassailable s-orbital of the spdf-QM model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[511] **viXra:1403.0952 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 10:23:57*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I present an analysis of the quantum erasing effect which categorizes the effect into attenuating and non-attenuating phenomena. It is shown that the attenuating quantum eraser is typically explained in a spurious fashion, and insight is given concerning the real phenomenon of interference between distinguishable states that would properly explain the attenuating eraser.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[510] **viXra:1403.0950 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 12:09:57*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In classical electrodynamics the vacuum is defined as a region where there are no electric or magnetic fields. In such a region, a charged particle (such as an electron) will feel no effect — the Lorentz force is zero. The space external to a perfect (i.e., infinite) solenoid can be considered an electromagnetic vacuum, since E and B vanish there. While a non-zero vector potential A does exist outside the solenoid, it can exert no influence on the particle, and thus cannot be directly detected or quantified classically. However, in 1959 Aharonov and Bohm predicted that a vector field would exert a purely quantum-mechanical effect on the phase of the particle’s wave function, which
in principle should be detectable. The predicted phase shift was not observed experimentally until 1986, when Tonomura brilliantly verified the effect using a microscopic solenoid. This paper provides a simplified explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect using a path-integral approach that is suitable for the advanced undergraduate.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[509] **viXra:1403.0947 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 08:07:08*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven-page-letter

The particle-interference-experiments, with the photons and electrons have clearly shown that they are always detected as localized ‘particles’; and the density of their detections exhibit a pattern similar to the interference of waves. This experimental-observation is now explained here, making the current, ‘probabilistic interpretation’, a past history. The ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized as an ‘impulse function’ in space; and then Fourier-transformed into the wave-number-domain, as a wide band of constituent-waves as shown in the fig. 1&2. The ‘particle’ is explained as an ‘event’ of constructive-superimposition of a wide band of ‘pre-quantum-waves’. This ‘event’ occurs in space at regular distances; and at regular instances in time. We know that even the purest monochromatic laser source has a ‘line-width’ of a few Giga-Hertz, or at least a few kilo-Hertz. So in the particle-interference-experiments, they are these wide bands of waves which pass through both the slits, even in the case of single photon states, and interfere physically. This physical interference of the wide bands of pre-quantum-waves determines the position and time of emergence of the ‘particle’. Thus, form the theoretical view-point, there are only the waves, and waves alone; and the ‘particle’ is a specific situation of constructive-superimposition of all the spectral-components of pre-quantum-waves; so there is no wave-particle-duality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[508] **viXra:1403.0929 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-25 02:08:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page-letter

While the experiments have shown similar wave-nature of matter-particles and photons, there are two different formulae for finding Relativistic-increase of energy of massive-particles and photons. This paper presents a unification of the two different formulae, in terms of Doppler-shifts of waves; leading to an insight that the ‘particles-of-matter’ seem to be the ‘standing-waves’; and de-Broglie’s ‘matter-waves’, and ‘quantum-mechanical-waves’ are ‘envelop-variations’ of the actual, more-fundamental waves.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[507] **viXra:1403.0924 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 08:59:31*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 pages

We discuss whether the
Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories.
We discuss that the existence of
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out
the existence of probability space of
specific quantum measurement.
If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then measurement outcome is $+1$.
If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then measurement outcome is $-1$.
This hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory.
This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the specific
hidden-variables theory.
And we study whether quantum phase factor
accepts hidden-variables theories.
We use the transition probability for
two spin-1/2 pure states $(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$
and
$(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$.
It is $\cos^2(\theta/2)$.
We discuss that the phase factor does not accept another specific
hidden-variables theory.
We explore the phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical.
Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing
which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[506] **viXra:1403.0741 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-23 09:30:10*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 27 pages

We discuss the fact that there is a crucial contradiction within
Von Neumann's theory.
We derive a proposition concerning
a quantum expected value under an assumption of the existence
of the orientation of reference frames in
$N$ spin-1/2 systems ($1 \leq N < +\infty$). This assumption
intuitively depictures our physical world.
However, the quantum predictions within the formalism
of Von Neumann's projective measurement
violate the proposition with a magnitude that grows
exponentially with the number of particles.
We have to give up either the existence
of the directions or the formalism of Von Neumann's
projective measurement.
Therefore, Von Neumann's theory cannot depicture our
physical world with a violation factor that
grows exponentially with the number of particles.
The theoretical formalism of the implementation of
the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm relies on Von Neumann's theory.
We investigate whether Von Neumann's theory meets the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.
We discuss the fact that the crucial contradiction
makes the quantum-theoretical formulation of Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm
questionable.
Further, we discuss the fact that projective measurement theory does
not meet an easy detector model for a single Pauli observable.
Especially, we systematically
describe our assertion
based on more mathematical analysis using raw data.
We propose a solution of the problem.
Our solution is equivalent to changing Planck's constant ($\hbar$) to a
new constant ($\hbar/\sqrt{2}$).
It may be said that a new type of the quantum theory early
approaches Newton's theory in the macroscopic scale
than the old quantum theory does.
We discuss how our solution is used in an implementation of
Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[505] **viXra:1403.0585 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-21 22:39:07*

**Authors:** Klinkerman R.V.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the given work attempt to understand the nature of gravitation on the basis
of quantum concepts is done. It supposed, that in a basis of gravitation lay zero
fluctuations of quantum fields which are identified with the chaos "surrounding"
the Universe. The gravitational field is result of transformation by a physical body
of distant chaos in near chaos.
Key words: gravitation, particles, zero fluctuations, « phantoms of particles
», chaos, transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[504] **viXra:1403.0502 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-21 10:41:34*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza).
The calculations, herein, imply space to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Space that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[503] **viXra:1403.0500 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-21 12:00:09*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 40 Pages

Dr. Diederik Aerts joins us this issue with a serious challenge to Quantum Physics as understood by the mainstream, as we call them. Also Jim Marsen, MSME, with his TRON theory as developed with his dad.
The Institute has formally accepted a proposed alliance with the NPA, the Natural Philosophy Alliance. NPA, in turn is working toward an alliance with The Electric Universe organization. The ramifications of this would be huge. See www.k1man.com/Springer130319A.pdf

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[502] **viXra:1403.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-18 09:18:23*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Diamonds and silicon wafers are prized materials that share a common crystal structure. Tetrahedral atom interactions are the basis for their properties: hardness, thermal conductivity, electrical non-conductivity, etc. sp3-Hybrid orbitals provide the current explanation for the interatomic “bond” connections. These covalent bonds, however, do not provide an adequate mechanism for these materials acting as semiconductors. Ionic bonding between atoms with the crystal lattice fully connected via overlapped, but “unoccupied”, orbitals does provide a logical structure to explain how semiconductor doping works, however.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[501] **viXra:1403.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-14 19:24:01*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages. A Clebsch-Gordan primer for the puzzled student!

The problem of angular momentum addition requires the calculation of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. While systems involving small values of momenta and spin present no special problem, larger systems require extensive computational effort. This paper describes a straightforward method for computing the coefficients for any two-particle problem exactly by means of a simplified form of the recursion formula in a notation that is particularly accessible to the third- or fourth-year student. The method is summarized in a brief BASIC program.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[500] **viXra:1403.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-13 04:09:04*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

With Bell (1964) and his EPR-based mathematics contradicted by experiments, at least one step in his supposedly commonsense theorem must be false. Defining commonsense local realism as the fusion of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively), we eliminate all such contradictions and make EPR correlations intelligible by completing the quantum mechanical account in a classical way. Thus refuting the famous inequality at the heart of Bell's mathematics, we show that Bell's theorem is limited by Bell's use of naive realism. Validating the classical mantra that correlated tests on correlated things produce correlated results without mystery, we conclude that Bell's theorem and related experiments negate naive realism, not commonsense local realism.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[499] **viXra:1403.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-09 03:52:37*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two-page letter

In a recent paper, titled “Explanation for the observed wave-particle-duality of Light” (Tank, H.K. http://vixra.org/abs/1402.0153, 2014) it was explained that: “Since at very high frequencies, narrowband filtering and generation of purely monochromatic light of one Hertz bandwidth is not yet technically possible, there has been quite a wide bandwidth of waves involved, in the double slit experiments and photoelectric experiments performed so far. And since this wide ‘band’ of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space and time, we get ‘particles’ at the detectors.” Now, to further confirm the validity of this explanation, a new kind of experiment is proposed here, in which protons and electrons are accelerated at appropriate velocities vp ve , such that their de Broglie wavelengths are equal; i.e. ( h / mp vp )= ( h / me ve ) and let them pass through closely spaced slits so that they can interfere with each other. Similarly, in another experiment, their wave-functions: A exp i ( kp X - ωp t ) = A exp i ( ke X - ωe t ) , and let them pass through closely spaced slits, and see how the two matter-waves interfere.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[498] **viXra:1403.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-07 05:13:42*

**Authors:** Chetan Waghela

**Comments:** 17 Pages. submitted as poster for QIPA 2013 at HRI.

Hamiltonian Mechanics works for conserved systems. Quantum Mechanics is given in Hamiltonian language. In papers by Dekker and recently by A. Sergi, this problem was circumvented by complexifying the energy and interpreting the dissipative part as Imaginary part. Based on the Dekker model, a following interpretation is presented in Density-Operator language for Pseudo-Hermiticity. Proper forms of Quantum measures are provided, as there is need in this new formalism, namely correcting Pati and Zielinski, Wang.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[497] **viXra:1403.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-06 12:37:41*

**Authors:** A.M. Ilyanok

**Comments:** Pages 23, Figures 6, Table 1

The present chapter investigates electron. It is shown that electron has an intricate internal structure which determines both static and dynamic properties of the electron itself and important parameters of te condensed matter.
Stationary “cold” electron (≤0.1eV) is modeled by a thin elastic ring called ector having diameter which is 137,036 times larger Bohr’s radius of hydrogen which consists of specific form of magnetic field. On the basis of the ector model the size, mass, charge, electromagnetic mass, spin and magnetic moment of electron are described. The model of “cold” ring electron in a condensed matter explains from new perspective critical parameters of phase transitions “metal-semiconductor” (Winner’s crystallization) and low temperature and high temperature superconductivity.
Ring electron spirals into a void torus as compared to steady moving “hot” electrons (>>0.1эВ). The size of the torus depends on its kinetic energy which makes it possible to describe changes of the cross-section of the interaction with gas – Ramsauer effect. The model of ring electron transforming onto the torus also makes it possible to construct a hydrogen atom and describe energy states of the atom including its spectrum, process of emission/absorption, size of the atom and its stability.
The model of the toroid electron explains correlation of the change of the interacting cross-section of relativistic electron with accelerating electro-magnetic wave up to complete disappearance of the interaction called disruption in the energy spectrum of cosmic electrons.
Very high coincidence degree with the experimental data and simplicity of formulas testify to the adequacy of the employed model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[496] **viXra:1403.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-04 18:28:28*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This file is not yet submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

Quantum non-locality belongs to one puzzling feature of quantum mechanics, which some people think as unexplained using classical theories. But there seems a possibility to explain quantum non-locality using Maxwell equations or complex Minkowski metric. Therefore it seems worth to discuss this issue.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[495] **viXra:1403.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-02 09:39:23*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On the basis of concentric spherical layer-type model and multi-quantum
energy level distribution, propose a new mechanism of atomic energy absorption and
emission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[494] **viXra:1403.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-02 11:40:33*

**Authors:** Kelly Loum

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple thought experiment that can easily be performed in the laboratory that gives results that do not have an explanation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[493] **viXra:1402.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-23 06:26:25*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A three-page letter

It is well known, that in some experiments, light exhibits ‘wave’ property; like interference and diffraction; whereas in other experiments, like photoelectric effect, it shows ‘particle’ nature. So, the physicists currently think in terms of wave-particle-duality of light. Here, in this letter, it is intended to explain this ‘wave-particle-duality’; and then this insight is applied to understand the observations of ‘cosmological red shift’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[492] **viXra:1402.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-22 01:04:29*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There is increasing evidence that the hydrogen atom in X—H—X connections is covalently bound to both X atoms in equal to varying degrees. A spherical s-orbital for hydrogen attached to two 2-electron covalent bonds clearly violates the spdf-QM concept of shared electron bonding. A short discussion of the situation is presented along with a simple alternative orbital model for hydrogen that allows hydrogen to have two, diametrically opposite, covalent bonds.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[491] **viXra:1402.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-21 00:46:53*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 11 pages.

We suggest a way to produce any number of clones of an unknown quantum state. We also suggest a way to transmit information from one place to other far away place exactly and almost instantaneously. This paper thus aims to suggest a method to produce “more than one clone” and a method to achieve “instantaneous and exact information transfer”.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[490] **viXra:1402.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-21 02:33:09*

**Authors:** Takahiro Nomoto

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In four-dimensional or higher-dimensional space, spin angular momentum is not known well. For instance, we are not sure how many components it has in four-dimensional space. In this paper, the spin properties are theoretically derived and investigated in general-dimensional space. Before studying spin, we review the orbital angular momentum properties first, because they are theoretically well known even in higher-dimensional space. Then, for the orbital angular momentum, we make a special but natural assumption, and see that it leads a quantity similar to spin or Pauli matrices. It is remarkable that all the spin properties are derived from the one and only one assumption. Consistency of our consideration is checked by calculating the four-dimensional version of spin spherical harmonics and its eigenvalues. This theory may enable us to understand the double degeneracy of spin-1/2 particles without bringing in something called spin.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[489] **viXra:1402.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-20 05:54:38*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 31 Pages. 31

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory states:
That the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Preons also called Higgs particles,
oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, forming a universal reference
frame, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in bunches of
oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local speed of light adapted to the local mass
carrying objects., reason to design a new Particle-Quantum Wave system.
That Fermions are real stringy particles with a complex propeller shape spinning over two
rotation axes leaving a Calabi Yau manifold behind.
As a consequence there are no attraction forces on propeller shaped Fermions.
Only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses by zero point Casimir effects in
combination with the local vacuum oscillation spectrum (in hedgehog shape) coming from all
directions on Fermions are responsible for all forces and other energetic phenomena around
black holes.
As a consequence New physics will be needed and the introduction of Quantum based
monopole radiation fields like the electric and magnetic fields, reason to design new
Feynman diagrams even for Gravity.
The gravity of Black Holes is assumed to be based on the zero point Casimir oscillation
spectrum only, but without the opposing repulsive gravitons. Black holes don’t emit gravitons
because according to Quantum-FFF theory, they are massless and contain a nucleus of
massless Higgs based Quantum knots only able to absorb the incoming oscillating vacuum
particles, reason to design a new Black Hole principle.
This new black hole is not able to emit gravitons as a consequence Black holes should be
supposed to be massless and the origin of all Dark matter. Secondly black holes are equipped
with an electric potential between horizons, as the origin of so called Birkeland and Alfven
current circuits around stars and galaxies.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[488] **viXra:1402.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-16 06:28:42*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On the basis of concentric spherical layer-type model, put forward
a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels due to the quantum

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[271] **viXra:1404.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-15 08:15:41*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward “Volume density functional theory (VDFT).”

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[270] **viXra:1404.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-10 14:29:44*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on the improved design of Four-photon entanglement device and the definition of Encoding rules, Decoding rules and Error correction rules, we could be able to achieve the information transmission in the quantum channel directly, and lead to the superluminal communication result.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[269] **viXra:1403.0976 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-14 05:38:11*

**Authors:** Alexandre de Castro

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In computer science, the P =?NP problem is to determine whether every language accepted by some nondeterministic algorithm in polynomial-time is also accepted by some (deterministic) algorithm in polynomial-time. Currently, such a complexity-class problem is proving the existence of one-way functions: operations that are computationally ‘easy’, while their inverses are computationally ‘hard’. In this paper, I show that this outstanding issue can be answered by an appeal to physics proofs about the thermodynamic cost of computation. The physics proof presented here involves Bennett's reversible algorithm, a physically-motived input-saving (Turing) machine – that computationally corresponds to two successive controlled-NOT quantum gates – used to reconcile Szilárd's one-molecule engine (a variant of Maxwell’s demon gedankenexperiment) and Landauer’s principle, which asserts a minimal thermodynamic cost to performing a bitwise operation, and which can be derived solely on the basis of the properties of the logical operation itself. In what follows, I show that by running the Bennett's input-saving machine backwards the critical inequality in Landauer’s principle is reversed, which provokes time-reversal symmetry. This outcome determines the condition of existence of a thermodynamically non-invertible quantum circuit in polynomial-time, that would otherwise be mathematically invertible. The main finding of this paper shows that a quantum circuit of two successive controlled-NOT gate becomes one-way, provided that adiabatically immersed in a heat bath. This physical constraint can be particularly important to model symmetry-protected isomorphism from a cluster state to itself in quantum teleport by measurement-based quantum computing.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[268] **viXra:1403.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-15 13:36:18*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Computer program didn't typeset correctly; third attempt

The problem of angular momentum addition requires the calculation of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. While systems involving small values of momenta and spin present no special problem, larger systems require extensive computational effort. This paper describes a straightforward method for computing the coefficients for any two-particle problem exactly by means of a simplified form of the recursion formula in a notation that is particularly accessible to the third- or fourth-year student. The method is summarized in a brief BASIC program.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[267] **viXra:1403.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-15 09:35:44*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Minor revisions

The problem of angular momentum addition requires the calculation of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. While systems involving small values of momenta and spin present no special problem, larger systems require extensive computational effort. This paper describes a straightforward method for computing the coefficients for any two-particle problem exactly by means of a simplified form of the recursion formula in a notation that is particularly accessible to the third- or fourth-year student. The method is summarized in a brief BASIC program.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[266] **viXra:1403.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-27 00:00:32*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

With Bell (1964) and his EPR-based mathematics contradicted by experiments, at least one step in his supposedly commonsense theorem must be false. Defining commonsense local realism as the fusion of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively), we eliminate all such contradictions and make EPR correlations intelligible by completing the quantum mechanical account in a classical way. Thus refuting the famous inequality at the heart of Bell's mathematics, we show that Bell's theorem is limited by Bell's use of naive realism. Validating the classical mantra that correlated tests on correlated things produce correlated results without mystery, we conclude that Bell's theorem and related experiments negate naive realism, not commonsense local realism.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[265] **viXra:1403.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-05 06:57:09*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On the basis of concentric spherical layer-type model and multi-quantum
energy level distribution, propose a new mechanism of atomic energy absorption and
emission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[264] **viXra:1402.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-06 01:52:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven-page letter

It is well known, that in some experiments, light exhibits ‘wave’ property; like interference and diffraction; whereas in other experiments, like photoelectric effect, it shows ‘particle’ nature. So, the physicists currently think in terms of ‘wave-particle-duality’ of light, their mutual exclusiveness, and complementarily. Here, in this paper, this ‘wave-particle-duality’ is explained; that at the frequencies of light, very narrow-band filtering, and generation of purely monochromatic light, of one Hz bandwidth, are not technically possible; so there is always some bandwidth and ‘line-width’, due to which the waves form wave-packets, localized in space, as ‘particles’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[263] **viXra:1402.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-24 05:41:30*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A three-page letter

It is well known, that in some experiments, light exhibits ‘wave’ property; like interference and diffraction; whereas in other experiments, like photoelectric effect, it shows ‘particle’ nature. So, the physicists currently think in terms of wave-particle-duality of light. Here, in this letter, it is intended to explain this ‘wave-particle-duality’; and then this insight is applied to understand the observations of ‘cosmological red shift’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[262] **viXra:1402.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-02-16 21:14:50*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On the basis of concentric spherical layer-type model, put forward
a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels due to the quantum

**Category:** Quantum Physics