Quantum Physics

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(8) - 0703(11) - 0705(1) - 0708(1) - 0711(1)
2008 - 0802(1) - 0804(6) - 0807(1) - 0812(1)
2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(10) - 0908(9) - 0909(4) - 0910(6) - 0911(4) - 0912(4)
2010 - 1001(5) - 1002(3) - 1003(29) - 1004(9) - 1005(7) - 1006(5) - 1007(5) - 1008(4) - 1009(3) - 1011(1) - 1012(1)
2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(6) - 1104(7) - 1105(3) - 1106(8) - 1107(9) - 1108(7) - 1109(11) - 1110(10) - 1111(11) - 1112(9)
2012 - 1201(1) - 1202(3) - 1203(11) - 1204(5) - 1205(8) - 1206(6) - 1207(4) - 1208(9) - 1209(8) - 1210(11) - 1211(12) - 1212(7)
2013 - 1301(16) - 1302(10) - 1303(6) - 1304(8) - 1305(16) - 1306(19) - 1307(16) - 1308(10) - 1309(15) - 1310(2) - 1311(11) - 1312(25)
2014 - 1401(9) - 1402(7) - 1403(19) - 1404(14) - 1405(13) - 1406(20) - 1407(22) - 1408(17) - 1409(19) - 1410(15) - 1411(22) - 1412(16)
2015 - 1501(8) - 1502(20) - 1503(18) - 1504(14) - 1505(27) - 1506(26) - 1507(27) - 1508(31) - 1509(26) - 1510(27) - 1511(31) - 1512(34)
2016 - 1601(24) - 1602(23) - 1603(46) - 1604(56) - 1605(38) - 1606(40) - 1607(36)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1204] viXra:1607.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 13:21:22

Titius-Bode Law as a Direct Manifestation of Gravitational Waves

Authors: J.R. Croca, P. Castro, M. Gatta, A. Cardoso, R. Moreira
Comments: 10 pages, 4 figures

Since its initial proposal in 1766, Titius-Bode empirical law remains a puzzling source of discomfort as it predicts the average distances from the planets to the Sun for no apparent reason. Using a framework analogous to de Broglie’s pilot wave theory and the self-organizing Principle of Eurhythmy, we claim that several main physical quantities describing the Solar System are quantified. Hence Titius-Bode Law is a direct manifestation of gravitational waves in the Solar System.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1203] viXra:1607.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:03:37

Exact Diagonalization of the D-Dimensional Spatially Confined Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

Authors: Kunle Adegoke, Adenike Olatinwo, Henry Otobrise, Funmi Akintujoye, Afees Tiamiyu
Comments: 18 Pages.

In the existing literature various numerical techniques have been developed to quantize the confined harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions. In obtaining the energy eigenvalues, such methods often involve indirect approaches such as searching for the roots of hypergeometric functions or numerically solving a differential equation. In this paper, however, we derive an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of a confined quantum harmonic oscillator in higher dimensions, thus facilitating direct diagonalization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1202] viXra:1607.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:21:26

On Approximating the Free Harmonic Oscillator by a Particle in a Box

Authors: Kunle Adegoke, Adenike Olatinwo, Henry Otobrise, Funmi Akintujoye, Afees Tiamiyu
Comments: 11 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate and illustrate, once again, the potency of the variational technique as an approximation procedure for the quantization of quantum mechanical systems. By choosing particle-in-a-box wavefunctions as trial wavefunctions, with the size of the box as the variation parameter, approximate eigenenergies and the corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained for the one dimensional free harmonic oscillator.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1201] viXra:1607.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 08:41:31

Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Scientists have discovered an anomaly in the properties of ice at very cold temperatures near 20 K, which they believe can be explained by the quantum tunneling of multiple protons simultaneously. The finding is a rare instance of quantum phenomena emerging on the macroscopic scale, and is even more unusual because it is only the second time—the first being superconductivity— that macroscopic quantum phenomena have been observed in a system that is based on fermions, which include protons, electrons, and all other matter particles. Other systems exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena have been based on photons, a type of boson, which mediate the forces between matter. [11] Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1200] viXra:1607.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 04:23:12

Simultaneous Photon Absorption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Theorists show that two atoms in an optical cavity can absorb the same photon. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1199] viXra:1607.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 10:03:40

Quantum Error Correction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1198] viXra:1607.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 07:10:20

Quantum Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A breakthrough into the full characterisation of quantum states has been published today as a prestigious Editors' Suggestion in the journal Physical Review Letters. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1197] viXra:1607.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 04:30:38

Quantized Spin Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In a new study, University of Iowa theoretical physicist Michael Flatté proposes that a magnetic current flowing through a magnetic iron sheet will cause a current in a second, nearby magnetic iron sheet, even though the sheets aren't connected. The movement is created, Flatté and his team say, when electrons whose magnetic spin is disturbed by the current on the first sheet exert a force, through electromagnetic radiation, to create magnetic spin in the second sheet. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1196] viXra:1607.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 20:06:27

Why do We Live in a Quantum World?

Authors: Craig Alan Feinstein
Comments: 2 Pages.

Anybody who has ever studied quantum mechanics knows that it is a very counter-intuitive theory, even though it has been an incredibly successful theory. This paper aims to remove this counter-intuitiveness by showing that the laws of quantum mechanics are a natural consequence of Konrad Zuse's and Edward Fredkin's digital universe hypothesis combined with classical Newtonian mechanics. We also present a possible way to test the digital universe hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1195] viXra:1607.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 11:05:30

Molecule Quantum Simulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

First completely scalable quantum simulation of a molecule. [15] Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1194] viXra:1607.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 13:33:34

Quantum Holography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1193] viXra:1607.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 10:40:13

The Rydberg Formula and Rydberg Series

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 7 Pages.

Consideration of the Rydberg Series leads to a model for the hydrogen atom in which the variable of quantisation is the Lorentz factor, Gamma, and not angular momentum as postulated by Niels Bohr and integral to current theories. This is consistent with an atom in which the electron is seen as an objectively real particle having deterministic position and velocity. The electron is seen to orbit at a constant radius irrespective of the energy state of the atom and so there is no change in potential energy between energy states. All of the energy changes are therefore kinetic in nature. The model also provides a simple physical explanation of the hitherto mysterious Fine Structure Constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1192] viXra:1607.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 21:43:35

Quantum Mechanics In 5-dimensional Space-time And Special Relativity Theory

Authors: XiaoLin li
Comments: 14 Pages.

Results of Special Relativity Theory can be derived out from Quantum Mechanics. Quantum Mechanics is independent integrated theory. There exist a new physics view. Real physical world is 5-dimensional space-time. Human world is 4-dimensional space-time,it’s only the projection of real physics world. Quantum Mechanical particle-wave is present in 5-dimensional space-time. So we can derive out Mass-energy equation. So we can derive out all results of Special Relativity Theory. In 5-dimensional space-time,all the particles speed is the light speed c. That is reason that the light speed c is very special. Coordinates transformation in 5-dimensional space-time,can derive out Lorentz transformation. In 5-dimensional space-time,space is relative,but time is absolute. In 5-dimensional space-time,there only exist space expansion or space contraction,not exist time expansion or time contraction. The new 5-dimensional space-time theory,not only is consistent with space-time system of Special Relativity Theory,but also can transition to space-time system in Lorentz symmetry breaking smoonthly. The new 5-dimensional space-time theory has more wide range adaptation than Special Relativity Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1191] viXra:1607.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 11:40:51

The David Bohm Pilot-Wave Interpretation is the Best Approach to Reality of Quantum Physics

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 1 Page.

The problem with introducing the particle trajectories into Quantum Physics is the need of the violation of the Energy Conservation law. The latter law must hold, because the Noether's theorem requires it for the case of homogeneous time. Therefore, the wonder is happening, provided, that the David Bohm's theory is proved. But latter proof is there, in [M. Ringbauer et al.: Nature Physics, 2015] together with my explanation in the present manuscript. Enjoy! All rights Reserved!
Category: Quantum Physics

[1190] viXra:1607.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 02:40:05

Universal Quantum Gate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists have now developed a universal quantum gate, which could become the key component in a quantum computer. [14] Using a small quantum system consisting of three superconducting qubits, researchers at UC Santa Barbara and Google have uncovered a link between aspects of classical and quantum physics thought to be unrelated: classical chaos and quantum entanglement. Their findings suggest that it would be possible to use controllable quantum systems to investigate certain fundamental aspects of nature. [13] Bowtie-shaped nanoparticles made of silver may help bring the dream of quantum computing and quantum information processing closer to reality. These nanostructures, created at the Weizmann Institute of Science and described recently in Nature Communications, greatly simplify the experimental conditions for studying quantum phenomena and may one day be developed into crucial components of quantum devices. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1189] viXra:1607.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 04:47:14

Qubit Entanglement Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Using a small quantum system consisting of three superconducting qubits, researchers at UC Santa Barbara and Google have uncovered a link between aspects of classical and quantum physics thought to be unrelated: classical chaos and quantum entanglement. Their findings suggest that it would be possible to use controllable quantum systems to investigate certain fundamental aspects of nature. [13] Bowtie-shaped nanoparticles made of silver may help bring the dream of quantum computing and quantum information processing closer to reality. These nanostructures, created at the Weizmann Institute of Science and described recently in Nature Communications, greatly simplify the experimental conditions for studying quantum phenomena and may one day be developed into crucial components of quantum devices. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1188] viXra:1607.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 14:55:35

Gij Zult Modulair Construeren

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Kijk om je heen en je raakt er snel van overtuigd dat alle losse objecten ofwel modules of modulaire systemen zijn. Het lijkt erop dat de schepper modulair bouwen tot zijn devies gemaakt heeft. Er bestaan echter ook continuüms en die continuüms lijken in verband te staan met de losse objecten. Als waarnemers van deze feiten proberen we deze verbanden te begrijpen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1187] viXra:1607.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 15:01:42

Thou Shalt Construct in a Modular Way

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Look around and you become easily convinced from the fact that all discrete objects are either modules or modular systems. With other words, the creator of this universe must be a modular designer. His motto is “Construct in a modular way”. However, also non-discrete items exist. Universe contains continuums and these continuums appear to relate to the discrete objects. Further, we as observers of these facts, want to place everything into an appropriate model, such that we can comprehend our environment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1186] viXra:1607.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 08:54:11

Ultracold Pauli Exclusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

University of Otago physicist Niels Kjaergaard and his team have used extremely precisely controlled laser beams to confine, accelerate and gently collide ultracold atomic clouds of fermionic potassium. [15] Scientists obtain evidence of many-body localization in a closed quantum system. [14] Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1185] viXra:1607.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 12:50:34

On New Quantum Search Algorithms and Complexity of NP-Complete Problems

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 14 pages

We develop three new quantum algorithms for searching the desired target state in the unstructured database of size N. The first algorithm requires Log N iterative steps. It constructs two quantum bags of equal size in terms of two quantum states, out of which exactly one quantum state will have nonzero overlap with the target state. This determination of overlap is done by taking the inner product, in Log N time [2], of the implicitly known target state with any one of these two quantum states. The second algorithm requires just one single step which uses a new suitable operator and the choice of this operator is problem dependent, i.e. it depends upon the number of qubits required to be used to represent an element in the index set. The third algorithm again requires only a single step and this algorithm makes use of a fixed (same) operator. It is known that algorithm for unstructured database search can be easily adaptable for solving NP-Complete problems. However, the computational complexity of NP-Complete problems after the adaptations of both the classical as well as quantum [1] search algorithms remains of the exponential order as the exponent for quantum [1] algorithm changes only to one-half times the exponent for classical algorithm. But for our quantum algorithms the exponent falls substantially so that our new quantum algorithms for unstructured search are capable if reducing the computational complexity of NP-Complete problems to polynomial order!
Category: Quantum Physics

[1184] viXra:1607.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 12:53:35

Distant Nuclear Spins Couple

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time, researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland have coupled the nuclear spins of distant atoms using just a single electron. [14] Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1183] viXra:1607.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 18:11:26

The Prediction And The Discovery Of The X(4500) Particle

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 5 Pages.

In September 2015 I wrote a paper where I predicted the existence of a new particle with a rest mass of 4500 MeV /c2 . The particle which was discovered by CERN's scientists in 2016 seems to be a tetraquark. The particle which is known as X(4500) is a member of a family of possible tetraquarks.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1182] viXra:1607.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 20:43:00

Proposed Experiments to Test the Foundations of Quantum Computing

Authors: Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan
Comments: 8 Pages. Submitted to International Conference on Rebooting Computing June 2016, to be held in San Diego CA, Oct. 2016

Quantum computing promises computational performance that is exponentially faster than any conceivable classical computer. This is due to the theoretically expected scaling of N entangled qubits, with parallel evolution of 2^N quantum states. This is in sharp contrast to classical computing, where N bits may have 2^N classical states, but only one at a time. It is widely believed that quantum superposition and entanglement have been demonstrated in several experimental systems, and that practical quantum computing can be achieved once sufficiently long quantum relaxation times are obtained. On the contrary, we suggest that there may be serious problems with quantum computing on both the macroscopic and microscopic levels, and that the experiments thus far have not proven the existence of non-classical superposition states, which are necessary for the proper functioning of qubits. In order to investigate this further, we propose new experiments in three physical systems: electron spins, single photons, and superconducting loops. We further suggest that certain more limited classes of quantum computing, such as quantum annealing, do not require quantum entanglement, and can achieve significant performance enhancements even if universal quantum computing proves to be impossible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1181] viXra:1607.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 00:32:53

The Superluminal Signal in Quantum Billiard and in the Casimir Configuration

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 6 Pages. ----

The quantum energy levels of electron inside of the box with the infinite barriers at point 0 and l is considered. The situation is then extended to the thee dimensions. Quantum mechanics of such so called quantum billiard does not involve the retarded wave functions (the retarded Green functions) and it means that the quantum pressure is instantaneous at the walls of the box. The instantaneous process is equal to the action at a distance, or to the existence of the superluminal signals inside of the quantum box. The similar situation is in case of the Casimir effect between two capacitor plates.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1180] viXra:1607.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 11:19:50

Many-body Localization in a Closed Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists obtain evidence of many-body localization in a closed quantum system. [14] Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1179] viXra:1607.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 10:50:04

Liquid-like Spin Quantum State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Experiments using inelastic neutron scattering at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering have found indications of a possible new quantum spin state in a novel antiferromagnetic material barium ytterbium zinc oxide (Ba3Yb2Zn5O11) which provides both a challenge and validation of the third law of thermodynamics. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1178] viXra:1607.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 02:20:37

Photodissociation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Photodissociation A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
Category: Quantum Physics

[1177] viXra:1607.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 07:44:21

Photons Quantum Processor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1176] viXra:1607.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 05:35:33

Quantum Web Graphs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Physicists have shown that, by describing a quantum network as a mathematical graph, they can determine the best way to use quantum repeaters to achieve long-distance entanglement. [13] Bowtie-shaped nanoparticles made of silver may help bring the dream of quantum computing and quantum information processing closer to reality. These nanostructures, created at the Weizmann Institute of Science and described recently in Nature Communications, greatly simplify the experimental conditions for studying quantum phenomena and may one day be developed into crucial components of quantum devices. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1175] viXra:1607.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 16:11:42

A Geometrodynamical Interpretation of the Measurement Problem

Authors: Tomer Shushi
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a new interpretation of the measurement problem of how the wavefunction collapse occur, based on the notion of geometrodynamics, which is a field that attempts to describe our reality from a geometric and dynamic perspectives. The interpretation is then discussed and analyzed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1174] viXra:1607.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 03:30:33

Dream of Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Bowtie-shaped nanoparticles made of silver may help bring the dream of quantum computing and quantum information processing closer to reality. These nanostructures, created at the Weizmann Institute of Science and described recently in Nature Communications, greatly simplify the experimental conditions for studying quantum phenomena and may one day be developed into crucial components of quantum devices. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1173] viXra:1607.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 09:15:32

Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Now in a new study, researchers have experimentally demonstrated a quantum fingerprinting protocol and shown that it can surpass the classical limit for solving communication complexity problems. [10] Quantum superposition has been used to compare data from two different sources more efficiently than is possible, even in principle, on a conventional computer. The scheme is called "quantum fingerprinting" and has been demonstrated by physicists in China. It could ultimately lead to better large-scale integrated circuits and more energy-efficient communication. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1172] viXra:1607.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 23:17:38

Potential Impact of BioField Treatment on Atomic and Physical Characteristics of Magnesium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Magnesium (Mg), present in every cell of all living organisms, is an essential nutrient and primarily responsible for catalytic reaction of over 300 enzymes. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on atomic and physical properties of magnesium powder. Magnesium powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part received biofield treatment. Both control and treated magnesium samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area and particle size analyzer. XRD data showed that biofield treatment has altered the lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, atomic weight, and nuclear charge per unit volume of treated magnesium powder, as compared to control. In addition, the crystallite size of treated magnesium was significantly reduced up to 16.70, 16.70, and 28.59% on day 7, 41 and 63 respectively as compared to control. Besides this, the surface area of treated magnesium powder was increased by 36.5 and 10.72% on day 6 and 72 respectively, whereas it was reduced by 32.77% on day 92 as compared to control. In addition, biofield treatment has also altered the particle sizes d10, d50, and d99 (size, below which 10, 50, and 99% particles were present, respectively) as compared to control. Overall, data suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the atomic and physical properties of treated magnesium powder.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1171] viXra:1607.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 08:20:06

Hybrid Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The multi-qubit chip has five superconducting transmon qubits and associated readout resonators. When cooled to absolute zero, such a device can compute things like quantum simulations of advanced materials. [16] Bringing together the best of two types of quantum computer for the first time, researchers at Google have created a prototype that combines the architecture of both a universal quantum computer and an analogue quantum computer. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1170] viXra:1607.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 09:21:55

Classical 'Quantum' Bounds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

The physicists, Diego Frustaglia et al., at the University of Sevilla in Spain, have published a paper on the emergence of quantum bounds in classical experiments in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1169] viXra:1607.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 06:04:15

Terahertz Waves Power-Splitting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

One of the most basic components of any communications network is a power splitter that allows a signal to be sent to multiple users and devices. Researchers from Brown University have now developed just such a device for terahertz radiation—a range of frequencies that may one day enable data transfer up to 100 times faster than current cellular and Wi-Fi networks. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1168] viXra:1606.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-29 23:18:35

Thermal and Physical Properties of Biofield Treated Bile Salt and Proteose Peptone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

Bile salt (BS) and proteose peptone (PP) are important biomacromolecules being produced inside the human body. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of BS and PP. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated BS and PP samples were characterized by particle size analyzer (PSA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PSA results showed increase in particle size (d50 and d99) of both treated BS and PP as compared to control. Surface area analysis showed minimal decrease by 1.59%, in surface area of treated BS as compared to control. However, the treated PP showed increase (8%) in surface area as compared to control. DSC characterization showed increase in melting temperature of treated BS as compared to control. Whereas, DSC thermogram of treated PP showed decrease in melting temperature with respect to control. Moreover, the DSC of control and treated PP showed presence of exothermic peaks which were possibly due to protein aggregation. The treated PP showed higher exothermic transition temperature as compared to control. XRD analysis revealed slight reduction in crystalline nature of BS as compared to control. On the other hand, XRD data of control and treated PP showed an amorphous nature. TGA analysis of treated BS showed maximum thermal decomposition temperature at 22°C which was higher as compared to control sample (106°C). This could be due to biofield treatment which may enhance the thermal stability of treated BS with respect to control. However, the TGA thermogram of treated PP showed decrease in maximum thermal stability as compared to control. The overall results showed that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of BS and PP.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1167] viXra:1606.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 04:21:06

Low Dose Rate Imaging

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages.

Heerbaan 6The quality of low dose rate imaging strongly depends on the number of quanta that take part in the detected image. If quantum multiplication is applied, then the detective quantum efficiency of the imaging chain is an important imaging quality characteristic. Also the blur caused by the chain of imaging components that take part in the imaging process affects the imaging quality. For linear operating imaging devices this translates in the optical transfer function of the participating components. The fact that these qualifiers play a decisive role is based on the assumption that human perception is in a special way optimized for perceiving low dose rate images.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1166] viXra:1606.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 08:16:06

Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1165] viXra:1606.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 09:39:48

Superconductor's Asymmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1164] viXra:1606.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 23:14:01

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Structural and Morphological Properties of Silicon Carbide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Silicon carbide (SiC) is a well-known ceramic due to its excellent spectral absorbance and thermo-mechanical properties. The wide band gap, high melting point and thermal conductivity of SiC is used in high temperature applications. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on physical, atomic, and structural characteristics of SiC powder. The control and biofield treated SiC powder was analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques with respect to control. The XRD pattern revealed that crystallite size was significantly increased by 40% in treated SiC as compared to control. The biofield treatment has induced changes in lattice parameter, density and molecular weight of atoms in the SiC powder. Particle size was increased upto 2.4% and the surface area was significantly reduced by 71.16% in treated SiC as compared to control. The FT-IR results indicated that the stretching vibrations frequency of silicon-carbon bond in treated SiC (925 cm-1) was shifted towards lower frequency as compared to control (947 cm-1). These findings suggest that biofield treatment has substantially altered the physical and structural properties of SiC powder.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1163] viXra:1606.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 03:45:03

3-D Pattern of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The era of quantum computers is one step closer as a result of research published in the current issue of the journal Science. The research team has devised and demonstrated a new way to pack a lot more quantum computing power into a much smaller space and with much greater control than ever before. The research advance, using a 3-dimensional array of atoms in quantum states called quantum bits—or qubits—was made by David S. Weiss, professor of physics at Penn State University, and three students on his lab team. He said "Our result is one of the many important developments that still are needed on the way to achieving quantum computers that will be useful for doing computations that are impossible to do today, with applications in cryptography for electronic data security and other computing-intensive fields." [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1162] viXra:1606.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:18:38

Biofield Treatment: an Alternative Approach to Combat Multidrug-Resistant Susceptibility Pattern of Raoultella Ornithinolytica

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

Raoultella ornithinolytica is belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, a Gram-negative encapsulated aerobic bacillus associated with bacteremia and urinary tract infections. As biofield therapy is increasingly popular in biomedical heath care, so present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study, and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of R. ornithinolytica. Clinical sample of R. ornithinolytica was divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated which were analyzed for the above parameters using MicroScan Walk-Away® system on day 10 after treatment. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay results showed a significant increase (60.71%) in sensitivity pattern of antimicrobials i.e. changed from resistant to susceptible while 10.71% of tested antimicrobials changed from intermediate to susceptible as compared to control. MIC results showed a significant decrease in MIC values of 71.88% tested antimicrobials as compared to control. Biochemical reaction study showed 15.15% alteration in different biochemical such as cetrimide, cephalothin, kanamycin, and ornithine after biofield treatment as compared to control. A significant change in biotype number (7775 4370) was also observed with organism identified as Klebsiella oxytoca after biofield treatment as compared to control (7775 5372). Overall results conclude that biofield treatment could be used as complementary and alternative treatment strategy against multidrug resistant strain of R. ornithinolytica with respect to improve the sensitivity and reduce the MIC values of antimicrobials. Hence, it is assumed that biofield treatment might be a suitable cost effective treatment strategy in near future, which could have therapeutic value in patients suffering from multidrug resistant pathogens.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1161] viXra:1606.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 06:04:18

Quantum Entanglement Swapping

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

There is a phenomenon called entanglement swapping. Suppose that Alice and Bob have an entangled state. If I then take one part of Alice's entangled state, and another part from Bob, and I do a joint measurement on them, the remaining parts of Alice's and Bob's states will also become entangled, even though they never interacted. [16] RMIT quantum computing researchers have developed and demonstrated a method capable of efficiently detecting high-dimensional entanglement. [15] More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1160] viXra:1606.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 09:25:20

Measuring Polarization of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape,
Category: Quantum Physics

[1159] viXra:1606.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 13:58:55

Magnetic Anisotropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

There is a big effort in industry to produce electrical devices with more and faster memory and logic. Magnetic memory elements, such as in a hard drive, and in the future in what is called MRAM (magnetic random access memory), use electrical currents to encode information. However, the heat which is generated is a significant problem, since it limits the density of devices and hence the performance of computer chips. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1158] viXra:1606.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 11:47:16

Stoe Model of the Electron Spin 1/2 Observation

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model posits the bizarre features of the quantum mechanics model of the small scale should have analogies in the classical scale. One such feature of the quantum model is the model of ``spin 1/2'' observation of the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The STOE model of the structure of electron using disc magnets as an analogy of hods suggests multiple North--South poles produce the ``spin'' observation. The electron analogy is placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field and the change of orientation is photographed. Noting that the re-orientating always occurs implies no electron will travel straight through the magnetic field. Thus, the STOE models another quantum feature, the spin 1/2 effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1157] viXra:1606.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 13:08:18

Particle Zoo in a Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers simulated the creation of elementary particle pairs out of the vacuum by using a quantum computer. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1156] viXra:1606.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 07:32:34

Genetic Quantum Algorithms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In the new study, the researchers demonstrated that genetic algorithms can identify gate designs for digital quantum simulations that outperform designs identified by standard optimization techniques, resulting in the lowest levels of digital quantum errors achieved so far. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1155] viXra:1606.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-23 05:53:27

On Super Computing.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present some of the theoretical underpinnings of a super computer which is superior to the classical and quantum computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1154] viXra:1606.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:30:22

Quantum Cache in Diamonds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Quantum devices can team up to perform a task collectively, but only if they share that most " spooky " of all quantum phenomena: entanglement. Remote devices have been successfully entangled in order to investigate entanglement itself, but the entanglement's quality is too low for practical applications. The solution, known as entanglement purification, has seemed daunting to implement in a real device. Now new research shows that even quite simple quantum components—nanostructures in diamond—have the potential to store and upgrade entanglement. The result relies on hiding information in almost-inaccessible nuclear memories, and may be a key step toward the era of practical quantum networks. [8] In quantum entanglement, two particles are correlated in such a way that any action on one of them affects the other even when they are far apart. The traditional methods of measuring the degree of quantum entanglement were originally developed for nonidentical particles, such as between an electron and a proton, or two atoms of different types. [7] For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1153] viXra:1606.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 12:16:59

Atomic Clocks and Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1152] viXra:1606.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 05:56:15

Universal Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Bringing together the best of two types of quantum computer for the first time, researchers at Google have created a prototype that combines the architecture of both a universal quantum computer and an analogue quantum computer. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1151] viXra:1606.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 06:32:42

Mixed Matter and Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In a lovely demonstration of light's quantum effects, physicists in the UK have just mixed a molecule with light at room temperature for the first time ever. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1150] viXra:1606.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 19:25:55

Gravitational Waves

Authors: PV Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

The discovery of a gravitational wave is scientific fraud because scientists claim that they have definite proof, that signal might be real but there is no definite proof that they found a gravitational wave. Scientific fraude can be tempering with data, but it can also be a deliberate misinterpretation of data. That is what they did (misinterpretation of data), and they claimed that there was definite proof but in fact there is not. That discovery of a gravitational wave is also the result of a fallacy, scientists are lost in fiction. The research might be correct but I don't believe it, the conclusions are incorrect and absurd. Scientists were able to claim that it was a gravitational wave because science journalists failed to see what was happening, they failed to see that there was no definite proof. Science journalists act like fans, they admire the scientists and therefore they don't ask too many or no questions. Scientists claim that gravity is the result of the curvature of a fictional space fabric (space-time), and those gravitational waves are shockwaves (wrinkles) in that fictional space fabric bit there is no proof that it exists. Scientists know that space and time are real (3D), but that also means that space and time cannot exist as real things in a fictional space fabric (4D). When you claim that space and time are merged in a fictional space fabric, then you are saying that space and time don't exist (then you're talking about fiction). Space-time (4D) means that space and time cannot exist in reality (3D), and therefore Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, etc cannot exist as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1149] viXra:1606.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 08:52:45

Detecting Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

RMIT quantum computing researchers have developed and demonstrated a method capable of efficiently detecting high-dimensional entanglement. [15] More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1148] viXra:1606.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 14:49:26

Controlling Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1147] viXra:1606.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 15:00:41

Quantum Materials in Curved Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists observe behavior of quantum materials in curved space. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1146] viXra:1606.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 05:13:18

Superconductors, Lasers, and Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

However, as superconductors, lasers, and Bose-Einstein condensates all share a common feature, it has been expected that it should be able to see these features at the same time. A recent experiment in a global collaborative effort with teams from Japan, the United States, and Germany have observed for the first time experimental indication that this expectation is true. [30] The quantum behaviour of hydrogen affects the structural properties of hydrogen-rich compounds, which are possible candidates for the elusive room temperature superconductor, according to new research co-authored at the University of Cambridge. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1145] viXra:1606.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 11:54:44

200 Beryllium Ions Entangled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

More than 200 beryllium ions have been entangled in a record-breaking experiment done by researchers at NIST in the US. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1144] viXra:1606.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-10 11:59:39

Illusory Signaling under Local Realism with Forecasts

Authors: John R. Dixon
Comments: 5 Pages.

G. Adenier and A.Y. Khrennikov (2016) show that a recent ``loophole free'' CHSH Bell experiment violates no-signaling equalities, contrary to the expected impossibility of signaling in that experiment. We show that a local realism setup, in which nature sets hidden variables based on forecasts, and which can violate a Bell Inequality, can also give the illusion of signaling where there is none. This suggests that the violation of the CHSH Bell inequality, and the puzzling no-signaling violation in the CHSH Bell experiment may be explained by hidden variables based on forecasts as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1143] viXra:1606.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 12:31:59

New Method to Get the Kochen-Specker Theorem

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 17 pages

We derive new type of no-hidden-variables theorem based on the assumptions proposed by Kochen and Specker. We consider $N$ spin-1/2 systems. The hidden results of measurement are either $+1$ or $-1$ (in $\hbar/2$ unit). We derive some proposition concerning a quantum expected value under an assumption about the existence of the Bloch sphere in $N$ spin-1/2 systems. However, the hidden variables theory violates the proposition with a magnitude that grows exponentially with the number of particles. Therefore, we have to give up either the existence of the Bloch sphere or the hidden variables theory. Also we discuss two-dimensional no-hidden-variables theorem of the KS type. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1142] viXra:1606.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-09 04:02:07

Information and Conditional Probability to go Beyond Hidden Variables

Authors: Koji Nagata, Germano Resconi, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes
Comments: 6 pages

We study the relation between the possibility of describing quantum correlation with hidden variables and the existence of the Bloch sphere. We derive some proposition concerning a quantum expected value under an assumption about the existence of the Bloch sphere in $N$ spin-1/2 systems. However, the hidden variables theory violates the proposition with a magnitude that grows exponentially with the number of particles. Therefore, we have to give up either the existence of the Bloch sphere or the hidden variables theory. We show that the introduction of curved information and the continuity equation of probability is in agreement with classical quantum mechanics. So we give up the hidden variable theory as local theory and we accept the Bloch sphere as global theory connected with the information space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1141] viXra:1606.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 11:41:33

Optical Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1140] viXra:1606.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 02:16:39

Quantum Enigma Machine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1139] viXra:1606.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 08:29:42

Kochen-Specker Theorem in the Two-Dimensional White Noise State

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 4 pages

We present the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem in the two-dimensional white noise state. We consider whether we can simulate the double-slit experiment in the state by a realistic theory of the KS type. We assume an implementation of the double-slit experiment. There is a detector just after each slit. Thus interference figure does not appear, and we do not consider such a pattern. We assume that a source of spin-carrying particles emits them in a state, which can be described as the two-dimentional white noise state. We consider a single expected value of a Pauli observable $\sigma_x$ in the double-slit experiment. A wave function analysis says that the quantum expected value of it is zero. However, the realistic theory of the KS type cannot coexist with the value of the expected value of $\langle\sigma_x\rangle=0$. Hence, we cannot simulate the double-slit experiment in the state by the realistic theory of the KS type.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1138] viXra:1606.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 08:26:50

Data Storage with Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1137] viXra:1606.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 11:14:27

Is There An Abstract Wave Function?

Authors: Nguyen Dinh Dung
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper gives a hypothesis about state and a formulation about quantum system. This formulation has no inside conflict, needn’t any abstract boundary and can connect state with reality. Its calculation consists with orthodox theory (OQM). It is used to explain double slits experiment and Stern-Gerlach experiment. Paper also shows a case, in which, this formulation and OQM give different result.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1136] viXra:1606.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 09:12:14

Quantum Speed Limits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In order to determine how fast quantum technologies can ultimately operate, physicists have established the concept of "quantum speed limits." Quantum speed limits impose limitations on how fast a quantum system can transition from one state to another, so that such a transition requires a minimum amount of time (typically on the order of nanoseconds). This means, for example, that a future quantum computer will not be able to perform computations faster than a certain time determined by these limits. [15] Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1135] viXra:1606.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 16:25:28

Mechanisms that Keep Reality Coherent

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Quantum physics applies Hilbert spaces as the realm in which quantum physical research is done. However, the Hilbert spaces contain nothing that prevents universe from turning into complete chaos. Quantum physics requires extra mechanisms that ensure sufficient coherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1134] viXra:1606.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-02 16:32:57

De Mechanismen Die de Realiteit Coherent Houden

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Language is Dutch

De kwantumnatuurkunde gebruikt Hilbertruimten als het kader waarin kwantum fysisch onderzoek gedaan wordt. De Hilbertruimte bevat echter niets wat er voor zorgt dat niet alles snel in een chaos belandt. Kwantumfysica heeft extra mechanismen nodig die ervoor zorgen dat het universum zijn samenhang behoudt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1133] viXra:1606.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 03:45:30

Global Quantum Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

You can't sign up for the quantum internet just yet, but researchers have reported a major experimental milestone towards building a global quantum network-and it's happening in space. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1132] viXra:1606.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 13:34:29

Lattice Quantum Geometry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The geometry and topology of electronic states in solids plays a central role in a wide range of modern condensed-matter systems including graphene or topological insulators. However, experimentally accessing this information has proven to be challenging, especially when the bands are not well-isolated from one another. As reported in last week's issue of Science, an international team of researchers has devised a straightforward method to probe the band geometry using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1131] viXra:1606.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 01:36:43

Quantum Thermal Transistor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers have designed a quantum thermal transistor that can control heat currents, in analogy to the way in which an electronic transistor controls electric current. The thermal transistor could be used in applications that recycle waste heat that has been harvested from power stations and other energy systems. Currently, there are methods for transporting and guiding this heat, but not for controlling, amplifying, and switching the heat on and off, as the quantum thermal transistor can do. [15] Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1130] viXra:1605.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-31 02:14:39

Quantum Photonic Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1129] viXra:1605.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 04:38:24

Violation of no-Signaling Constraint by Local Quantum Measurement Discrimination with Numerous Eight-Qubit Entangld States

Authors: Youbang Zhan
Comments: 10 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum measurements is an important subject of quantum information processes. In this paper we present a novel protocol for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) with multi-qubit entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two spacelike separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-qubit GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the LQMD.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1128] viXra:1605.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 05:56:13

Quantum Annealing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

One of the most striking discoveries of quantum information theory is the existence of problems that can be solved in a more efficient way with quantum resources than with any known classical algorithm. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1127] viXra:1605.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 16:28:01

An Unorthodox View on the Foundations of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper is telling essentials of the story of the Hilbert Book Test Model without applying the mathematical formulas. The paper cannot avoid the usage of mathematical terms, but these terms will be elucidated such that mathematical novices can still understand most of the story. The Hilbert Book Test Model is a way to investigate the part of the foundation of physical reality that cannot be observed. This foundation is necessarily simple and it can easily be comprehended by skilled scientists. However, this paper is targeted to readers that are not skilled in math.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1126] viXra:1605.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:19:14

Practical Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1125] viXra:1605.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 07:12:14

Teleportation of Information Without Classical Communication Channel

Authors: Iliyan Peruhov
Comments: 7 Pages.

The spin projection expectation value of electrons in magnetic field in direction perpendicular to the magnetic induction B depends on the magnitude of B and the time t, spent by the electron in the field. Consequently choosing the value of the product B.t one can have spin statistics biased to +1/2 or -1/2. The spin statistics of electrons from a quantity of EPR pairs is manipulated this way. The spin statistics of the partner electrons will show the opposite statistics, thus realizing teleportation of information without the use of a classical channel in contrast to the Bennett teleportation protocol [1].
Category: Quantum Physics

[1124] viXra:1605.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 03:07:12

Reaction Less Drive by Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Wire.

Authors: LeoVuyk
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs filed particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, (and not- as normal- in opposition due to the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field) .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron powder atoms. This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet platings with a spiralling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1123] viXra:1605.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 15:37:12

Wavefunction Collapse Resolved, as a Function of Time Perspective Distortion

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages.

"Time Perspective Theory (TPT) predicts that all quantum experimental results will vary with the scale of the instrumentation involved in any measurement. For example; The Davisson-Germer Experiment involved observations between the detectors angular measurements (at the observers scale) and electron behavior (at quantum scales). TPT predicts that if detecting instruments can be scaled and positioned much closer to the point of beam scattering the intensities would become more isotropic, proportionately. This concept of perspectives between scales sheds some light on the Double Slit Experiment. TPT offers an alternate explanation to the "undetermined probability wavefunction Ψ". In TPT, wavefunction is a time perspective distortion between the scale of the observer and the scale of the particle. In the ""Double slit experiment"", the ""collapse"" is resolved when an optical plate (or any measuring instrument) is introduced at the scale of the particle. Subsequently, the measurement becomes no longer between scales, but rather at the same scale. Although TPT is analogous to the distortions of spacial perspective, TPT addresses distortions in the time dimension (perspective vs orthogonal). TPT proposes that the same convex distortions and divergence which occur in space during magnifcation, also occurs in time. Subsequently, if a particle's motion (v) is viewed as pluralistic in time, so then is it's position d/t. TPT has great implications in Macro-space, as well. Time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event. Subsequently, decreased time intervals appear as increased velocity. See figure 1. Thus, Photons travelling to an observer from remote past events will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. TPT provides a simple alternative explanation for: wavefunction, the ""Double slit experiment"", accelerated universal expansion, millisecond pulsars and the galaxy outer rim rotation problem. "
Category: Quantum Physics

[1122] viXra:1605.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 13:30:32

Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Spintronics In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1121] viXra:1605.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 04:16:00

The Light

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1120] viXra:1605.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 07:41:47

Computing a Secret Key

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1119] viXra:1605.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-20 11:09:52

Photon Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1118] viXra:1605.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-20 04:27:12

Producing Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1117] viXra:1605.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-18 08:47:04

Spin-Gravity Coupling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1116] viXra:1605.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-18 09:38:24

Six-State Magnetic Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Computers are often described with "ones and zeros," referring to their binary nature: each memory element stores data in two states. But there is no fundamental reason why there should be just two. In a new study, researchers have designed a magnetic element that has six stable magnetic states, which paves the way toward realizing a six-state magnetic memory element. [13] Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11] In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1115] viXra:1605.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-17 09:18:40

New Form of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1114] viXra:1605.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-16 13:17:31

Quantum Friction Modeling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Theoretical chemists at Princeton University have pioneered a strategy for modeling quantum friction, or how a particle's environment drags on it, a vexing problem in quantum mechanics since the birth of the field. The study was published in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. [11] Protons can tunnel in solutions and at temperatures above the boiling point of water, found scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1113] viXra:1605.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-16 05:20:03

Gravitational Theory of the Casimir Effect: from the Virtual Quantum Vacuum to the Deterministic Physical Vacuum

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Casimir effect is interpreted generally through the consideration of indeterministic quantum events that are justified by the indeterminacy principle and by the concept of quantum vacuum. That explanation is based on the hypothesis of existence of statistical fluctuations of energy around the point of zero energy that generate virtual pairs of particle-antiparticle. With this research let us intend to prove the Casimir effect can be explained by the interaction mass-mass of the symmetry MLM without the necessity to make use of virtual and probabilistic paradigms.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1112] viXra:1605.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-15 13:50:08

Stoe Assumptions that Model Particle Diffraction and that Replaces QM

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 6 Pages.

The STOE originally was a model to describe mysterious cosmological observations. The STOE has explained Young's Experiment and light as photons. It also predicted the result of The Hodge Experiment that differentiates between particles (photons) and waves going through the slits. The assumptions used in the STOE explanation and the computer simulation are many over several papers. This paper lists the assumptions used to form the equations. The advantages of the STOE are that it is one model of the big, the Newtonian scale, and the small of light and that it is more intuitive.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1111] viXra:1605.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-15 14:08:43

Extension of the Standardmodel

Authors: Kronberger Reinhard
Comments: 17 Pages.

The symmetrie of the coxeterelement of the affine liegroup E9 shows an extension of the quantum standardmodel. By doing a second symmetriebreaking it shows the graviton particle and a new field like the higgsfield.I call it oktoquintenfield. This field predicts a new particle like the higgsfield predict the higgs.This new particle is a Spin 2 Tensorboson. The extended standardmodel also allows to understand dark energie by the cosmological constant and dark matter. Like the weak force with light the extension shows a superweak force with gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1110] viXra:1605.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 05:46:43

Polarimeters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Polarimeters Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1109] viXra:1605.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 06:39:37

Addendum – the Table of All the Abbreviations Used in Bidum Version 1.1

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 4 Pages. ADDENDUM – The table of all the abbreviations used in BIDUM version 1.1

Dear readers, I appreciate your time and patience to read/try to read my article. However, this is not a simple article: as it describes the universe in informational terms (as it is a model of the universe; Bio-Info-Digital-Universe-Model [BIDUM]) and has almost 60 pages, it tends to be more like a manual in which I have reformulated a lot of classical and modern concepts of physics. Like any manual/book-like article, the abbreviations are inevitable, as I also try to impose new general concepts (together with their abbreviations which I try to propose too). If I had used the classical terms with a minimal abbreviational strategy, the phrases would become very complex and hard to read as the explanations have a lot of parenthesis (as I practice a tree-like multi-level phrase structures). The main abbreviations I have imposed is for fundamental physical concepts I try to present and I always first explain them (and mention them between parenthesis). These are the most frequent: (elementary) quantum particle ([E]QP), gauge-boson (GB), non-gauge particle (NGP), physical information (quantity/quanta) (PI[q/qua]), biological information (quantity/quanta) (BI[q/qua]), biophysical information (quantity/quanta) (BPI[q/qua]), physical observer (PO), biological observer (BO), Fine Structure Constant (FSC), GCC (gravitational coupling constant), fundamental forces/fields (FFs): strong nuclear force/field (SNF), weak nuclear force/field (WNF), electromagnetic force/field (EMF), (electro)gravitational force/field (EGF), super string theory (SST), M-theory (MT) etc. The majority of the rest of them are standard abbreviations used in standard physical language. I have also anticipated the difficulty of reading this manual-like article, that is why I have also created this separate file with all the abbreviations used in my BIDUM. Important remark: this update is also due Sergey G. Fedosin[ ] which I want to thank again as he convinced my once again that this table of abbreviations is a must to share with all my readers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1108] viXra:1605.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-12 18:57:37

(Short Essay) (11 Pages) an Info-Digital Universe (Toy) Model (Idum) (In Brief) Using the Hypothetical Gravitonic Qubit as the Basic Unit of the Physical Information

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 11 Pages. Title and abstract revised and updated: 13.05.2015

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: an important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [3]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [4,5]. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s Bio-IDUM (BIDUM) version 1.1 [6]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1107] viXra:1605.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-13 02:17:09

Atoms Entangled with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1106] viXra:1605.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 13:12:35

Majorana-Based Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11] In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1105] viXra:1605.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 13:54:54

Perfect Quantum Metamaterial

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Scientists have devised a way to build a "quantum metamaterial"—an engineered material with exotic properties not found in nature—using ultracold atoms trapped in an artificial crystal composed of light. The theoretical work represents a step toward manipulating atoms to transmit information, perform complex simulations or function as powerful sensors. [11] An optical chip developed at INRS by Prof. Roberto Morandotti's team overcomes a number of obstacles in the development of quantum computers, which are expected to revolutionize information processing. An international research team has demonstrated that on-chip quantum frequency combs can be used to simultaneously generate multiphoton entangled quantum bit (qubit) states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1104] viXra:1605.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 10:22:59

Quantum Dot Replaces Metallic Island

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from France, Russia and Finland has improved on the current design of an electronic turnstile, by replacing the conventional metallic "island" with a quantum dot. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes how the design works, why it is better than the conventional approach and how much the error rate was reduced. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1103] viXra:1605.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 09:31:42

Single Electrons for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Electrons represent an ideal quantum bit, with a "spin" that when pointing up can represent a 0 and down can represent a 1. Such bits are small (even smaller than an atom), and because they do not interact strongly they can remain quantum for long periods. However, exploiting electrons as qubits also poses a challenge in that they must be trapped and manipulated. Which is exactly what David Schuster, a University of Chicago assistant professor of physics and his collaborators at UChicago, Argonne National Laboratory, and Yale University have done. [10] Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1102] viXra:1605.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 06:12:22

IBM Quantum Computer Test

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

IBM on Wednesday opened its quantum computer processor to anyone who wants to try what is expected to be a new kind of computing with enormously improved power and speed. [11] Scientists and engineers from the Universities of Bristol and Western Australia have developed how to efficiently simulate a "quantum walk" on a new design for a primitive quantum computer. [10] Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1101] viXra:1605.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 02:04:57

Quantum Computer Walk

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Scientists and engineers from the Universities of Bristol and Western Australia have developed how to efficiently simulate a "quantum walk" on a new design for a primitive quantum computer. [10] Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1100] viXra:1605.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 07:12:51

Quantum Annealing for Ising Anyonic Syatems

Authors: Masamichi Sato
Comments: 15 Pages.

We consider the quantum annealing for Ising anyonic systems. After giving a description of quantum annealing for Ising anyonic systems, we discuss its use for solving the practical problems, such as phylogenetics, linguistics and decision making. Our scope is not to show the details of calculation, but to invoke the interests on quantum annealing of anyonic systems to solve practical problems in various elds. In near future, this method might be widely spread as a technological foundation of machinery devices to solve the problems on many sights.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1099] viXra:1605.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 01:14:33

Energy Shift of H-Atom Electrons Due the Blackbody Photons

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 6 Pages. the original article

The electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons is determined by calculating the mean square amplitude of oscillation of an electron coupled to the relic photon fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Energy shift of electrons in H-atom is determined in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. The
Category: Quantum Physics

[1098] viXra:1605.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-08 08:59:02

Photon Non-physical Interactions and Quantum Enigmas

Authors: Victor Vaguine
Comments: 5 Pages.

A systematic analysis of the simplest quantum optics experiment of linearly polarized photons with a beam-splitter leads to several quantum enigmas, which cannot be explained on the basis of quantum positivism or quantum optics. The fact that photons demonstrate under the "No-Click" conditions non-physical interactions at detector shows that quantum mechanics paradigm is deficient. The study raises philosophical, foundational, and paradigmatic issues with respect to limitations of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1097] viXra:1605.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-07 09:24:29

Controlling Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers from the Department of Applied Mathematics and the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo have developed a versatile new way of controlling quantum systems that can affect the reliability of experiments. [14] A team around Dr. Stephan Dürr from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Prof. Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now demonstrated in an experiment how an important gate operation – the exchange of the binary bit values 0 and 1 – can be realized with single photons. [13] A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1096] viXra:1605.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-07 01:32:09

Quantum Logical Operations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A team around Dr. Stephan Dürr from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Prof. Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now demonstrated in an experiment how an important gate operation – the exchange of the binary bit values 0 and 1 – can be realized with single photons. [13] A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1095] viXra:1605.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-03 21:57:26

Fermi's Golden Rule: Its Derivation and Breakdown by an Ideal Model

Authors: Jiang-Min Zhang
Comments: 8 Pages. pedagogical lecture note for my quantum-mechanics course

Fermi's golden rule is of great importance in quantum dynamics. However, in many textbooks on quantum mechanics, its contents and limitations are obscured by the approximations and arguments in the derivation, which are inevitable because of the generic setting considered. Here we propose to introduce it by an ideal model, in which the quasi-continuum band consists of equaldistant levels extending from $-\infty $ to $+\infty $, and each of them couples to the discrete level with the same strength. For this model, the transition probability in the first order perturbation approximation can be calculated analytically by invoking the Poisson summation formula. It turns out to be a \emph{piecewise linear} function of time, demonstrating on one hand the key features of Fermi's golden rule, and on the other hand that the rule breaks down beyond the Heisenberg time, even when the first order perturbation approximation itself is still valid.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1094] viXra:1605.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-03 03:54:15

A Quantum Theory of Electrodynamics

Authors: James Russell Farmer
Comments: 115 Pages. A precursor to this work, of the same title, was published in the Toth-Maatian Review, Lubbock, Texas, Editor Harold Willis Milnes, in three installments, 1990-93. Quantisation via use of Fourier transform common to both papers.

Einstein explained Planck’s law by hypothesizing that a radiation field consists of photons, whose energy is in proportion to the frequency of the radiation and whose quantity is in proportion to the electromagnetic intensity. In this paper, classical electrodynamics has been quantized in this fashion by starting with the Fourier transform frequency spectrum and using the non-relativistic Doppler shift formulae. Because this paper presents a quantum theory, it has been necessary to introduce the electromagnetic duality. It has been considered that insofar as an electron is a quantum of electric charge, the positron is a quantum of magnetic charge. Then the anti-matter solution of Dirac’s and Feynman’s QED becomes a magnetic monopole. Instead of just four equations of electromagnetism, we are forced to consider eight equations, and explain the consequences of this. We then conclude that photons consist of fermions, (electrons, positrons) travelling on pilot electromagnetic waves. Although photons are therefore electrically or magnetically charged, they do not interact with electromagnetic fields, as the Lorentz force is negated insofar as the electric and magnetic amplitudes are orthogonal to each other and to the propagation vector. Insofar as there are two kinds of Doppler shift, relativistic and non-relativistic, we show how the relativistic formulae relate to our frequency spectrum. Chemical and biological consequences of the theory are examined, specifically in regard to the Diels-Alder [4+ 2] cyclo-addition reaction, (Chemistry), and the cowpea phosphatase functionality, (Biology). 4-vectors are discussed, and two new 4-vectors introduced, and it is shown that an electromagnetic flux tube, as observed in solar flares and in terrestrial electromagnetic circuits, is a consequence of the existence of the space-time 4-vector. Finally, the weak and strong nuclear forces are introduced as thermodynamic consequences of the electromagnetic duality presented in this paper, the transfer of enthalpy and entropy. In this respect, we have the unification of particle physics and thermodynamics. A final point of note is that insofar as photons consist of electric and magnetic quanta propagating on “pilot” electromagnetic waves, the speed of propagation can be ascertained from two of the Maxwell and Maxwell-dual equations, the electric divergence equation and the magnetic divergence equation. This is because, obviously, if we know the radius of an electron or positron, and we know the spin of these fermions from quantum mechanics, then we know the propagation velocity, c = 1 / (ε0μ0)½, where 1/ε0 is the proportionality constant for the electric divergence and μ0 is the proportionality constant for the magnetic divergence. In the non-dual classical electromagnetism of Maxwell, all four of the non-dual equations are required to ascertain the speed of the electromagnetic propagation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1093] viXra:1605.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 17:43:15

The Real Reason the Electron’s Bare G-Factor is 2 times Classical

Authors: Donald Bowen
Comments: 11 Pages.

When analyzing an Electron’s orbit’s and movements, a “classical” bare g-factor of “1” must be used, but when analyzing just the Electron itself, A bare g-factor and gyromagnetic ratio of twice the “classical” value is needed to fit reality. Nobody has yet explained this. By examining the electromagnetic nature of the electron it is possible to show a simple reason why it’s bare g-factor must be 2, without resorting to superluminal velocities or dismissing it as mystically intrinsic.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1092] viXra:1605.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-01 03:20:17

Kochen-Specker Theorem as a Precondition for Quantum Computing

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 6 pages

We study the relation between the Kochen-Specker theorem (the KS theorem) and quantum computing. The KS theorem rules out a realistic theory of the KS type. We consider the realistic theory of the KS type that the results of measurements are either $+1$ or $-1$. We discuss an inconsistency between the realistic theory of the KS type and the controllability of quantum computing. We have to give up the controllability if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type. We discuss an inconsistency between the realistic theory of the KS type and the observability of quantum computing. We discuss the inconsistency by using the double-slit experiment as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics. This experiment can be an easy detector to a Pauli observable. We cannot accept the realistic theory of the KS type to simulate the double-slit experiment in a significant specific case. The realistic theory of the KS type can not depicture quantum detector. In short, we have to give up both the observability and the controllability if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type. Therefore the KS theorem is a precondition for quantum computing, i.e., the realistic theory of the KS type should be ruled out.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1091] viXra:1604.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-30 22:06:51

Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the speed of light is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1090] viXra:1604.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-30 03:52:12

Quantum Cryptography One-Way Street

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1089] viXra:1604.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 14:05:04

Autonomous Quantum Error Correction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

It might be said that the most difficult part of building a quantum computer is not figuring out how to make it compute, but rather finding a way to deal with all of the errors that it inevitably makes. Errors arise because of the constant interaction between the qubits and their environment, which can result in photon loss, which in turn causes the qubits to randomly flip to an incorrect state. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1088] viXra:1604.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 03:05:44

Quantum Theory of the 4-Dimensional Matter Wave – a Model to Intuitively Explain Quantum Theoretical Effects

Authors: Randolf Rolff
Comments: 12 pages; German language – Deutsch: Quantentheorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Modell zur anschaulichen Erklärung quantentheoretischer Effekte

This paper describes a physical model to intuitively explain quantum theoretical effects. The developed model describes a mechanism, which gives a logical sense to the calculation of probability amplitudes. Hence the double-slit experiment and Schrödinger’s cat become understandable. The here described model is an extension of the physical model described in the prior manuscript “Theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave”. That paper describes a model which postulates a particle as a real matter wave in a 4-dimensional and absolute space. With that theory it is possible to describe the relativistic effects in qualitatively and quantitatively accuracy. The quantum theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave shows that this model already presages a way to explain the quantum theoretical effects. From the introduction of the long extent in the 4th dimension it is not far to a model in which a particle uses many paths simultaneously. It is a conclusive derivation of the quantum theoretical effects using the model to describe the relativistic effects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1087] viXra:1604.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-27 16:37:25

A Note on The Reduced Mass

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we are rewriting the reduced mass formula into a form that potentially gives more intuition on what is truly behind the reduced mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1086] viXra:1604.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-27 17:42:25

Simplification of the Klein--Gordon Equation

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 1 Page.

In this note we are simplifying the Klein--Gordon Equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1085] viXra:1604.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-28 02:47:46

Entangled Photon Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1084] viXra:1604.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-26 17:10:47

Hodge Experiment Distinguishes Between Wave and Particle Caused Diffraction Patterns

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Hodge Experiment was designed to support the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) particle model of the photon. It also rejected the wave models of light. The general model of light waves within the Hodge Experiment's conditions is shown to lead to unobserved effects. It also provides an insight into inertia. The STOE model of particles and the wave model of a continuous medium yield indistinguishable results for the screen image in the traditional diffraction experiment. Therefore, the Hodge Experiment provides a method to distinguish between a direct wave caused diffraction pattern and a particle caused diffraction pattern that resolves the wave--particle duality conundrum.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1083] viXra:1604.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-26 13:16:31

Electron Eye on Atoms and Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1082] viXra:1604.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-26 14:39:16

Superfast Light of Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1081] viXra:1604.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-26 04:10:00

Light-Induced Spin Current

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Publishing in Nature Physics April 25, the scientists, led by Professor of Physics Mingzhong Wu in CSU's College of Natural Sciences, are the first to demonstrate using non-polarized light to produce in a metal what's called a spin voltage - a unit of power produced from the quantum spinning of an individual electron. Controlling electron spins for use in memory and logic applications is a relatively new field called spin electronics, or spintronics, and the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1080] viXra:1604.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-25 07:01:52

Quantum Physics in Real Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Small objects like electrons and atoms behave according to quantum mechanics, with quantum effects like superposition, entanglement and teleportation. One of the most intriguing questions in modern science is if large objects – like a coffee cup-could also show this behavior. Scientists at the TU Delft have taken the next step towards observing quantum effects at everyday temperatures in large objects. They created a highly reflective membrane, visible to the naked eye, that can vibrate with hardly any energy loss at room temperature. The membrane is a promising candidate to research quantum mechanics in large objects. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1079] viXra:1604.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-24 09:38:19

Bell Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1078] viXra:1604.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-23 05:47:24

Quantum Tunneling Water

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Quantum Tunneling Water Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1077] viXra:1604.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-23 03:51:49

Measurement Theory Based on the Truth Values Provides the Maximum Violation of the Bell-Mermin Inequality

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 3 pages

We investigate the violation factor of the Bell-Mermin inequality. Until now, we use an assumption that the results of measurement are $\pm 1$. In this case, the maximum violation factor is $2^{(n-1)/2}$. The quantum predictions by $n$-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state violate the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with $n$. Recently, a new measurement theory based on the truth values is proposed. The values of measurement outcome are either $+1$ or 0. Here we use the new measurement theory. We consider multipartite GHZ state. It turns out that the Bell-Mermin inequality is violated by the amount of $2^{(n-1)/2}$. The measurement theory based on the truth values provides the maximum violation of the Bell-Mermin inequality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1076] viXra:1604.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-23 04:03:42

Atoms in Silicon as Quantum Simulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

In a proof-of-principle experiment, researchers at UNSW Australia have demonstrated that a small group of individual atoms placed very precisely in silicon can act as a quantum simulator, mimicking nature-in this case, the weird quantum interactions of electrons in materials. [9] Dartmouth College and Griffith University researchers have devised a new way to "sense" and control external noise in quantum computing. Quantum computing may revolutionize information processing by providing a means to solve problems too complex for traditional computers, with applications in code breaking, materials science and physics, but figuring out how to engineer such a machine remains elusive. [8] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1075] viXra:1604.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-22 08:36:11

One-Way Quantum Steering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Experiments provide evidence for one-way quantum steering—an effect by which distant entangled systems can influence one another in a directional way. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1074] viXra:1604.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-21 12:36:30

Self-Referential Symmetry: the Foundations Underlying Quantum Indeterminacy

Authors: Steve Faulkner
Comments: 15 Pages.

Abstract:
Between 2008 and 2010, Tomasz Paterek et al published ingenious work linking quantum randomness with logical independence. From a foundational point of view, this is evidence that quantum randomness, and therefore indeterminacy, have mathematical origins. The logical independence of Paterek et al is seen in a system of Boolean propositions. Here, I explain the origins of that logical independence in terms of standard quantum theory, showing it has symmetry foundations in a ‘unitary switch’ -- and whose logic originates in logically circular

Keywords:
foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, pure eigenstates, mixed states, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1073] viXra:1604.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 14:00:50

Quantum Cascade Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from across the country, led by Alexander Spott, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA, have built the first quantum cascade laser on silicon. The advance may have applications that span from chemical bond spectroscopy and gas sensing, to astronomy and free-space communications. [14] A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1072] viXra:1604.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 10:40:48

Zip Software and Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Quantum physics has a reputation for being mysterious and mathematically challenging. That makes it all the more surprising that a new technique to detect quantum behaviour relies on a familiar tool: a "zip" program you might have installed on your computer. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[629] viXra:1607.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-14 12:19:24

Gij Zult Modulair Construeren

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Kijk om je heen en je raakt er snel van overtuigd dat alle losse objecten ofwel modules of modulaire systemen zijn. Het lijkt erop dat de schepper modulair bouwen tot zijn devies gemaakt heeft. Er bestaan echter ook continuüms en die continuüms lijken in verband te staan met de losse objecten. Als waarnemers van deze feiten proberen we deze verbanden te begrijpen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[628] viXra:1607.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-24 08:33:16

Thou Shalt Construct in a Modular Way

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 8 Pages. The docx version is http://www.e-physics.eu/ThouShaltConstructInAModularWay.docx

Look around and you become easily convinced from the fact that all discrete objects are either modules or modular systems. With other words, the creator of this universe must be a modular designer. His motto is “Construct in a modular way”. However, also non-discrete items exist. Universe contains continuums and these continuums appear to relate to the discrete objects. Further, we as observers of these facts, want to place everything into an appropriate model, such that we can comprehend our environment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[627] viXra:1607.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-20 15:50:12

Thou Shalt Construct in a Modular Way

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Look around and you become easily convinced from the fact that all discrete objects are either modules or modular systems. With other words, the creator of this universe must be a modular designer. His motto is “Construct in a modular way”. However, also non-discrete items exist. Universe contains continuums and these continuums appear to relate to the discrete objects. Further, we as observers of these facts, want to place everything into an appropriate model, such that we can comprehend our environment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[626] viXra:1606.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-03 02:43:58

Gravitational Waves

Authors: Peter V Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

The discovery of a gravitational wave is scientific fraud because scientists claim that they have definite proof, that signal might be real but there is no definite proof that they found a gravitational wave. Scientific fraude can be tempering with data, but it can also be a deliberate misinterpretation of data. That is what they did (misinterpretation of data), and they claimed that there was definite proof but in fact there is not. That discovery of a gravitational wave is also the result of a fallacy, scientists are lost in fiction. The research might be correct but I don't believe it, the conclusions are incorrect and absurd. Scientists were able to claim that it was a gravitational wave because science journalists failed to see what was happening, they failed to see that there was no definite proof. Science journalists act like fans, they admire the scientists and therefore they don't ask too many or no questions. Scientists claim that gravity is the result of the curvature of a fictional space fabric (space-time), and those gravitational waves are shockwaves (ripples) in that fictional space fabric but there is no proof that it exists. Scientists know that space and time are real (3D), but that also means that space and time cannot exist as real things in a fictional space fabric (4D). When you claim that space and time are merged in a fictional space fabric, then you are saying that space and time don't exist (then you're talking about fiction). Space-time (4D) means that space and time cannot exist in reality (3D), and therefore Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, etc cannot exist as well. And there is also another way to explain why space-time doesn't and cannot exist, all you have to do is to look at an object in space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[625] viXra:1606.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-02 04:06:41

Gravitational Waves

Authors: Peter V Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

The discovery of a gravitational wave is scientific fraud because scientists claim that they have definite proof, that signal might be real but there is no definite proof that they found a gravitational wave. Scientific fraude can be tempering with data, but it can also be a deliberate misinterpretation of data. That is what they did (misinterpretation of data), and they claimed that there was definite proof but in fact there is not. That discovery of a gravitational wave is also the result of a fallacy, scientists are lost in fiction. The research might be correct but I don't believe it, the conclusions are incorrect and absurd. Scientists were able to claim that it was a gravitational wave because science journalists failed to see what was happening, they failed to see that there was no definite proof. Science journalists act like fans, they admire the scientists and therefore they don't ask too many or no questions. Scientists claim that gravity is the result of the curvature of a fictional space fabric (space-time), and those gravitational waves are shockwaves (ripples) in that fictional space fabric but there is no proof that it exists. Scientists know that space and time are real (3D), but that also means that space and time cannot exist as real things in a fictional space fabric (4D). When you claim that space and time are merged in a fictional space fabric, then you are saying that space and time don't exist (then you're talking about fiction). Space-time (4D) means that space and time cannot exist in reality (3D), and therefore Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, etc cannot exist as well. And there is also another way to explain why space-time doesn't and cannot exist, all you have to do is to look at an object in space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[624] viXra:1606.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 07:48:38

Gravitational Waves

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

The discovery of a gravitational wave is scientific fraud because scientists claim that they have definite proof, that signal might be real but there is no definite proof that they found a gravitational wave. Scientific fraude can be tempering with data, but it can also be a deliberate misinterpretation of data. That is what they did (misinterpretation of data), and they claimed that there was definite proof but in fact there is not. That discovery of a gravitational wave is also the result of a fallacy, scientists are lost in fiction. The research might be correct but I don't believe it, the conclusions are incorrect and absurd. Scientists were able to claim that it was a gravitational wave because science journalists failed to see what was happening, they failed to see that there was no definite proof. Science journalists act like fans, they admire the scientists and therefore they don't ask too many or no questions. Scientists claim that gravity is the result of the curvature of a fictional space fabric (space-time), and those gravitational waves are shockwaves (wrinkles) in that fictional space fabric but there is no proof that it exists. Scientists know that space and time are real (3D), but that also means that space and time cannot exist as real things in a fictional space fabric (4D). When you claim that space and time are merged in a fictional space fabric, then you are saying that space and time don't exist (then you're talking about fiction). Space-time (4D) means that space and time cannot exist in reality (3D), and therefore Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, etc cannot exist as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[623] viXra:1606.0093 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-10 15:00:46

On the Unification of the Constants of Nature

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 4 Pages.

A short essay that unifies electromagnetism and gravity with a 5−D system of natural units.
Category: Quantum Physics

[622] viXra:1606.0093 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-10 08:43:42

On the Unification of the Constants of Nature

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 4 Pages.

A short essay that unifies electromagnetism and gravity with a 5−D system of natural units.
Category: Quantum Physics

[621] viXra:1606.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-07 10:22:20

Does a Classical Probability Space for Two-Dimensional Quantum Measurement Theory Exist?

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 4 pages

Recently, a new measurement theory based on the truth values is proposed \cite{NN1}. The results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The measurement theory accepts a hidden variables model for a single Pauli observable. Therefore we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this case. On the other hand, we discuss the fact that the projective measurement theory (the results of measurements are either $+1$ or $-1$) does not meet a hidden variables model for a single Pauli observable. Hence we cannot introduce a classical probability space for the projective measurement theory in this case. Our discussion provides new insight to formulate quantum measurement theory, by using the measurement theory based on the truth values.
Category: Quantum Physics

[620] viXra:1606.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-07 06:28:26

A Classical Probability Space Exists for the Measurement Theory Based on the Truth Values

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 3 pages

Recently, a new measurement theory based on the truth values is proposed \cite{NN1}. The results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The measurement theory accepts a hidden variables model for a single Pauli observable. Therefore we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory. Our discussion provides new insight to formulate quantum measurement theory based on the truth values.
Category: Quantum Physics

[619] viXra:1606.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-04 11:14:06

Kochen-Specker Theorem in Almost All the Two-Dimensional States

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 3 pages

We present the Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states. We consider whether we can simulate the double-slit experiment in a state by a realistic theory of the KS type. It turns out that we cannot simulate the double-slit experiment in almost all the states by a realistic theory of the KS type. An exception is an eigenvector of a measured Pauli observable.
Category: Quantum Physics

[618] viXra:1606.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-01 07:21:50

Mechanisms that Keep Reality Coherent

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages.

Quantum physics applies Hilbert spaces as the realm in which quantum physical research is done. However, the Hilbert spaces contain nothing that prevents universe from turning into complete chaos. Quantum physics requires extra mechanisms that ensure sufficient coherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[617] viXra:1606.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 06:36:36

Mechanisms that Keep Reality Coherent

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

Quantum physics applies Hilbert spaces as the realm in which quantum physical research is done. However, the Hilbert spaces contain nothing that prevents universe from turning into complete chaos. Quantum physics requires extra mechanisms that ensure sufficient coherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[616] viXra:1606.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-15 04:37:21

Mechanisms that Keep Reality Coherent

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

Quantum physics applies Hilbert spaces as the realm in which quantum physical research is done. However, the Hilbert spaces contain nothing that prevents universe from turning into complete chaos. Quantum physics requires extra mechanisms that ensure sufficient coherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[615] viXra:1606.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-04 15:04:33

Mechanisms that Keep Reality Coherent

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Quantum physics applies Hilbert spaces as the realm in which quantum physical research is done. However, the Hilbert spaces contain nothing that prevents universe from turning into complete chaos. Quantum physics requires extra mechanisms that ensure sufficient coherence.
Category: Quantum Physics

[614] viXra:1606.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-04 15:06:45

De Mechanismen Die de Realiteit Coherent Houden

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

De kwantumnatuurkunde gebruikt Hilbertruimten als het kader waarin kwantum fysisch onderzoek gedaan wordt. De Hilbertruimte bevat echter niets wat er voor zorgt dat niet alles snel in een chaos belandt. Kwantumfysica heeft extra mechanismen nodig die ervoor zorgen dat het universum zijn samenhang behoudt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[613] viXra:1605.0268 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-29 16:09:19

An Unorthodox View on the Foundations of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper is telling essentials of the story of the Hilbert Book Test Model without applying the mathematical formulas. The paper cannot avoid the usage of mathematical terms, but these terms will be elucidated such that mathematical novices can still understand most of the story. The Hilbert Book Test Model is a way to investigate the part of the foundation of physical reality that cannot be observed. This foundation is necessarily simple and it can easily be comprehended by skilled scientists. However, this paper is targeted to readers that are not skilled in math.
Category: Quantum Physics

[612] viXra:1605.0257 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-25 17:47:33

Reaction Less Drive by Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Wire.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs filed particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, (and not- as normal- in opposition due to the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field) .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron powder atoms. This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet platings with a spiralling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.
Category: Quantum Physics

[611] viXra:1605.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-07 08:51:54

The Light

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[610] viXra:1605.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-06 02:47:18

The Light

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[609] viXra:1605.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-29 07:23:45

The Light

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[608] viXra:1605.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-27 23:29:15

The Light

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.
Category: Quantum Physics

[607] viXra:1605.0170 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-09 16:14:02

Extension of the Standardmodel

Authors: Kronberger Reinhard
Comments: 10 Pages.

The symmetrie of the coxeterelement of the affine liegroup E9 shows an extension of the quantum standardmodel. By doing a second symmetriebreaking it shows the graviton particle and a new field like the higgsfield.I call it oktoquintenfield. This field predicts a new particle like the higgsfield predict the higgs.This new particle is a Spin 0 boson. The extended standardmodel also allows to understand dark energie by the cosmological constant and dark matter. Like the weak force with light the extension shows a superweak force with gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[606] viXra:1605.0170 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 15:17:02

Extension of the Standardmodel

Authors: Kronberger Reinhard
Comments: 11 Pages.

The symmetrie of the coxeterelement of the affine liegroup E9 shows an extension of the quantum standardmodel. By doing a second symmetriebreaking it shows the graviton particle and a new field like the higgsfield.I call it oktoquintenfield. This field predicts a new particle like the higgsfield predict the higgs.This new particle is a Spin 0 Boson or a Spin 2 Tensorboson. The extended standardmodel also allows to understand dark energie by the cosmological constant and dark matter. Like the weak force with light the extension shows a superweak force with gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[605] viXra:1605.0170 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-17 12:19:26

Extension of the Standardmodel

Authors: Kronberger Reinhard
Comments: 10 Pages.

The symmetrie of the coxeterelement of the affine liegroup E9 shows an extension of the quantum standardmodel. By doing a second symmetriebreaking it shows the graviton particle and a new field like the higgsfield.I call it oktoquintenfield. This field predicts a new particle like the higgsfield predict the higgs.This new particle is a Spin 2 Tensorboson. The extended standardmodel also allows to understand dark energie by the cosmological constant and dark matter. Like the weak force with light the extension shows a superweak force with gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[604] viXra:1605.0170 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-17 04:15:48

Extension of the Standardmodel

Authors: Kronberger Reinhard
Comments: 10 Pages.

The symmetrie of the coxeterelement of the affine liegroup E9 shows an extension of the quantum standardmodel. By doing a second symmetriebreaking it shows the graviton particle and a new field like the higgsfield.I call it oktoquintenfield. This field predicts a new particle like the higgsfield predict the higgs.This new particle is a Spin 2 Tensorboson. The extended standardmodel also allows to understand dark energie by the cosmological constant and dark matter. Like the weak force with light the extension shows a superweak force with gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[603] viXra:1604.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-12 18:53:11

(Short Summary) (16 Pages) a Bio-Info-Digital Universe Model (Bidum Version 1.1) Based on a Series of Planck-Like Informational Constants and Using the Hypothetical Gravitonic Qubit as the Basic Unit of the (Bio)physical Information

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 16 Pages. My last revision and update from: 13.05.2016

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.
Category: Quantum Physics

[602] viXra:1604.0300 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-29 07:02:29

The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Indeterminacy

Authors: Steve Faulkner
Comments: 16 Pages.

Abstract:
Between 2008 and 2010, Tomasz Paterek et al published ingenious work linking quantum randomness with logical independence. Following up on that work, this paper develops a full mathematical theory of quantum indeterminacy. Paterek exposes the revelation that, if information conveyed in experiments is to be fully represented, then the faithful, isomorphic representation of pure eigenstates --- and of mixed states --- must be acknowledged as distinct isomorphisms. Only mixed states are necessarily unitary. Here, I show that self‑referentially generated unitarity permits transition between those isomorphisms, from pure states to mixed. The self-referent information is logically independent of the pure states. Indeterminacy is the deficiency of definite quantitative information, inherent in the self-referent system. The profound finding is that indeterminacy becomes a visible feature of quantum mathematics when unitarity (or self-adjointness) imposed: --- by Postulate --- is given up.

Keywords:
foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, pure eigenstates, mixed states, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.
Category: Quantum Physics

[601] viXra:1604.0300 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-27 11:20:18

How the Imaginary Unit is Inherent in Quantum Indeterminacy

Authors: Steve Faulkner
Comments: 15 Pages.

Abstract:
Between 2008 and 2010, Tomasz Paterek et al published ingenious work linking quantum randomness with logical independence. From a foundational point of view, this is evidence that quantum randomness, and therefore indeterminacy, have mathematical origins. The logical independence of Paterek et al is seen in a system of Boolean propositions. Here, I explain the origins of that logical independence in terms of standard quantum theory, showing it has symmetry foundations in a ‘unitary switch’ -- and whose logic originates in logically circular self-reference. The profound finding is that indeterminacy becomes a visible feature of quantum mathematics when unitarity (or self-adjointness) --- by Postulate --- is given up.

Keywords:
foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, pure eigenstates, mixed states, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.
Category: Quantum Physics