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Any replacements are listed further down

[669] **viXra:1501.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 05:39:13*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract I comment on the background meaning, beneath Boolean encodings,
used in the paper by Tomasz Paterek et al.
Keywords foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum
randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state,
measured state, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, mathematical logic, logical
independence, mathematical undecidability.
DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4703.4883

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[668] **viXra:1501.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-14 13:40:15*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

Recently, violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation
in spin measurements is
discussed {[J. Erhart {\it et al.},
Nature Physics {\bf 8}, 185 (2012)]}
and {[G. Sulyok {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 88}, 022110 (2013)]}.
We derive the optimal limitation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
in a specific two-level system (e.g., electron spin, photon
polarizations, and so on).
Some physical situation is that we would measure $\sigma_x$ and $\sigma_y$,
simultaneously.
The optimality is certified by the Bloch sphere.
We show that a violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle means
a violation of the Bloch sphere in the specific case.
Thus, the above experiments show a violation of the Bloch sphere when we use
$\pm 1$ as measurement outcome.
This conclusion agrees with recent
researches {[K. Nagata,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 48}, 3532 (2009)]} and
{[K. Nagata {\it et al.},
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)]}.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[667] **viXra:1501.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-11 13:37:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

New research from Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9]
A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time.
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[666] **viXra:1501.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-09 05:33:04*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we have tried to describe a gauge group for gravitational potential associated with the elementary particle as described by their spiral structure in accordance with the standard model. It relates to the framework of quantum field theory considering the Dark Potential Waves which constitutes the Universe to be destructively interfering through Symmetry which breaks spontaneously through autocatalysis to initiate the Higgs Mechanism which consecutively defines the gravitational potential resulting in various spiral forms of particles. It also redefines the formation of Spiral Structure of Elementary Particles in context to formation of Sea Shells.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[665] **viXra:1501.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 09:26:08*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The puzzles of quantum mechanics are: 1. what is the medium for the photon and for the electron wave? i.e. what is waving? 2. particle interference pattern 3. observer effect. 4. entanglement. In Quantum Erasure and Double-Slit experiments, how does the emitter know to direct the photon two both slits or only to one slit? And how does the detector know where to detect the photons to form an interference pattern and not a bell-shaped (Gaussian) pattern or vice versa? This paper proposes a few, closely related, simple and subtle laws of nature governing quantum phenomena. Some of the findings in this paper are: 1. A photon is emitted in two steps: the creation of photon path and the emission of the photon 2. Although (almost) all of the energy of the photon is localized in space, the photon extends to infinity. An extremely small energy of the photon, which we call the 'precursor wave' in this paper, extends to infinity. The instant the photon is emitted, its precursor wave creates a path to infinity; it appears instantaneously in all its path to infinity, with infinitely small energy density. The precursor wave serves as the 'highway' for the propagation of the main energy packet. However, to conserve the principle of causality, we assume that the tip of the photon propagates at a speed billions times the speed of light. Thus, there are two speeds associated with the photon: the speed we know as c and the speed at which the photon length increases. 2. A photon will be emitted only towards an absorber. A photon is emitted by the interaction of the emitter and a detector. It is obvious that a photon will not be emitted if there is no emitter. Nor will a photon be emitted if there is no detector . Once a photon is emitted, however, it exists objectively, autonomously. The photon is emitted only after its path is determined by the interaction of the emitter and the absorber, at the instant of emission. 3. The photon energy will be concentrated where there is higher wave amplitude, i.e higher intensity of oscillation of electric and magnetic fields. This results in 'dragging' of the electromagnetic energy by the wave, hence eliminating the need for any medium. It is also proposed that single photon interference is a quantum phenomenon whereas two photon interference is a classical phenomenon. Similar laws hold for the electron. The 'medium' for the electron wave is the electron (the electron mass density field) itself. Where there is higher intensity of electron wave/oscillation, there will be higher electron mass density. This means that the electron wave 'drags' the electron with itself. Therefore, no exotic 'medium' is required for the photon and for the electron wave.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[664] **viXra:1501.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 01:28:37*

**Authors:** Lane M Davis

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

By modeling both the atom and the photon as capacitors, the correct energy levels are easily produced via extrapolation from Maxwell's, Gauss', Coulomb's and Ohm's laws — without the need to inject Planck's constant into the equation ad-hoc. In the case of the photon, Einstein's photoelectric equation is formulated as a result, with Planck's constant consequently occurring as an aggregate of fundamental constants. Analysis of these equations lends credence to Planck's fervent and controversial personal dogma that the constant which he himself had discovered is nothing but “a mathematical trick”. Further analysis shows that this model reconciles the wave-particle duality; wherein the wave properties of light and matter produce the particle-like aspects as a result of the laws of electrical engineering in conjunction with the uncertainty principle and Schrödinger's wave equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[663] **viXra:1501.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 21:47:46*

**Authors:** M. Pitkänen

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Quantum criticality is one of the corner stone assumptions of TGD. The value of Kähler coupling strength fixes quantum TGD and is analogous to critical temperature. TGD Universe would be quantum critical. What does this mean is however far from obvious and I have pondered the notion repeatedly both from the point of view of mathematical description and phenomenology. Superfluids exhibit rather mysterious looking effects such as fountain effect and what looks like quantum coherence of superfluid containers which should be classically
isolated. These findings serve as a motivation for the proposal that genuine superfluid portion of superfluid corresponds to a large h_{eff} phase near criticality at least and that also in other phase transition like phenomena a phase transition to dark phase occurs near the vicinity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[662] **viXra:1412.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-30 09:47:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Prospects of developing computing and communication technologies based on quantum properties of light and matter may have taken a major step forward thanks to research by City College of New York physicists led by Dr. Vinod Menon. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[661] **viXra:1412.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-30 04:39:53*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page note

Quantum entanglement of pair of particles is now an established fact as described in [1]. But its theoretical explanation is yet to be found. So this letter attempts to propose one possible explanation, based on this author’s previous works: In a paper titled: “Some conjectures on the nature of energy and matter”[2] and its latest version “ On the emergence of physical world from the ultimate reality” [3] it was proposed that ‘space’ or ‘vacuum’ can be viewed as a ‘super flexible continuum (SFC), and ‘particles’ of ‘matter’ as ‘spherical standing wave patterns’ of fluctuations generated in SFC. Since, in a continuum, when a labeled dot moves from point A to A’ the point B behind it has to move from B to B’; and this chain of displacements has to complete a closed circular path, whose radius can be as small as a few nano-meters or as large as a few thousand kilometers. This motion of point A completes a small circle on the surface of a spherical shell in a time t , giving rise to a wave in the radial direction. The propagation of this wave in the radial direction is at the speed of light; whereas the displacements of points on the surface of spherical shell are instantaneous; because of the continuum nature of ‘space’. When such a wave of fluctuations moves in radial direction, it mirror-wave, of the same frequency and amplitude, has to move in radially opposite direction, giving rise to a pair of pulses moving apart in r adial directions. Since, the spin and polarization of ‘photons’ are in perpendicular to the direction of their motion, they are in the tangential-direction of the spherical shell, on which displacements of points take place instantaneously. This is what is known as ‘entanglement’ of ‘photons’. The observed entanglement of photons, and other particles, imply the presence of an underlying ‘super flexible continuum’ (SFC) , as was anticipated in [1] in the year 1988.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[660] **viXra:1412.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-29 08:51:26*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

the Planck’s energy quantum hypothesis will be deduced by ‘basic force interpretation’ in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[659] **viXra:1412.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-26 11:33:23*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Abstract
A biological model of elementary particles with many resemblances with DNA.
More precisely, with a circular supercoiled DNA, or as supercoiled rods.
The model is isomorphic with the quark model.
It justifies all the elementary particles, and only these. A particle is a closed wire, a single strand, a helix. Quarks are twisted pieces of this helix, having its own charge Q, but also isospin projection I3 and hypercharge Y.
I put charge Q, isospin projection I3 and hypercharge Y in one-to-one correspondence with a physical model, in which each quark, each piece of helix, has its own Linking number Lk, Twist Tw and Writhe Wr. As a consequence, any elementary particle is modelled by a closed wire, with its own internal Twist, Writhe Wr and Linking number (charge).
For any closed cord Lk is invariant, so the alteration of the Twist will absorbed as Writhe and viceversa. Each couple Tw / Wr corresponds to different conformation.
The lowest-energy conformation will have the lowest mass, and the others will have much more mass.
As I know, the model is just “picturesque”, but may lead to some idea

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[658] **viXra:1412.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 22:54:52*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Bell oversimplified his model based on confusing a provisional precession eigenvalue equation with Dirac's fundamental helicity eigenvalue equation. I derive a local classical model based on energy-exchange physics that Bell intentionally suppressed and I show that Bell's constraints determine whether the model is local or non-local. The physical theory upon which the model is based can be tested experimentally; if valid, Bell's claims of non-locality will be proved wrong.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[657] **viXra:1412.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 08:25:50*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

This letter proposes an explanation for the century-old puzzle of the wave-particle-duality of light, which thousands of physicists, including Einstein, Plank, Feynman …, have been trying to resolve. Since a ‘particle’ is localized in space, it is mathematically characterized here as an impulse-function in space. Then it is argued that if this ‘particle’ has anything to do with waves then we can know it by taking Fourier-transform of the impulse-function in space. When Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain; we find that a ‘particle’ should contain a wide ‘set’ of waves, and not just a single frequency. Then we show that in the experiments performed so far [1] the red lasers had significantly wide line-width, means the sources have been producing a wide set of waves, and not just a pure single frequency. Similarly, in the single-particle interference-experiments incandescent filament-lamps were used with green filters inserted to isolate single photons; but it is obvious that at the frequencies of light very narrow-band-filters are not yet technically feasible, so the green filters used allowed significantly wide band of waves. So in the experiments performed so far we got ‘particles’ localized in space. And in the double-slit-interference-experiments this wide band of waves passed from both the slits, interfered like waves, and whenever and wherever they got coherently added, a ‘particle’ called ‘photon’ got detected. Atoms emit short-duration pulses of radiation, so their Fourier transform contains a wide band of frequencies. And at the time of detection, an atom needs only a small piece of continuous ‘wave’, of a suitable duration, amplitude and frequency, for ejection of an electron. So it is concluded here that: emission and detection of light is in the form of ‘photons’; whereas its propagation in space is in the form of a wide band of ‘waves’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[656] **viXra:1412.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 23:01:47*

**Authors:** Jia Yongxin, Jia Xiangyun, Jia Yuxuan

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

In the current optical theory, the moving mass of light quantum is usually studied as the basic mass where the photon energy is concerned. In the paper titled "The Relationship between light translation and fluctuation and ether energy and momentum", the relations between ether photon, energy of the ether field and its momentum can also be considered in light of the manifestation of the mass and momentum, This can show the situation of light quantum based on energy divergence, which has certain significance for an accurate understanding of ether. It can be seen that this method ignores systematicness and independent space of ether photon itself and only the overall relative manifested state of light quantum but not the essential state is revealed. In this context, it is difficult for us to understand the relationship between real photon mass and moving mass, which is quite unacceptable just like the principle of qualitative change in theory of relativity. From the perspective of quantum property of light quantum momentum, the relationship between the real mass of photon, moving mass and motion itself as well as the relationship between ether photon particle group and motion of astral body and hence the relationship with frequency are analyzed. Our discussion can accurately reflect the real conditions of mass, momentum and energy of light quantum. Many results conforming to the observation are obtained, which can provide explanations for the following relations: the relations between light radiation and motion of pulsating star, volume expansion and motion of astral body, nova eruption and motion, transverse Doppler effect, and the frequency difference in solar spherical radiation. The section can also be used as further development of the classical particle physics, and it can become the compressible fluid mechanics featured by failure of universal gravitation, no strength, non-viscosity and continuous media by changing the mechanics of a single mass point to the mechanics of mass point groups and the manifested group mechanics due to the energy expansion of the single mass point. By bypassing the too general concept of energy in theory of relativity, the energy is defined as the quantity of mass points and momentum points, so that the relationship between energy and momentum is analyzed more clearly.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[655] **viXra:1412.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 04:21:43*

**Authors:** C. Burton, H. Isaaks

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new variation on the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is introduced, and its
effects on the evolution of the Universe are reviewed. It is demonstrated that this modified
form of quantum mechanics will produce a habitable Universe with no required tuning of the
parameters, and without requiring multiple Universes or external creators.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[654] **viXra:1412.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 12:44:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[653] **viXra:1412.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 05:58:11*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5pages,1figure

It will be considered that microscopic particle does not have wave nature , diffraction experiment of microscopic particle should indirectly and objectively reflect the existence of one force which can lead to particle’s diffraction phenomenon , the force belongs to deeper theory under the quantum mechanics , and will be proved that it relates to electrostatic force in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[652] **viXra:1412.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 05:33:15*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Discussion about limits of no communication theorems

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[651] **viXra:1412.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 04:38:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[650] **viXra:1412.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 06:43:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[649] **viXra:1412.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 16:43:45*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2, from the universal uncertainty relations. These relations are a generalization of the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Thus, this approach unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of the quantum mechanical interpretation of the above formula, and, at the same time, provides
the proof of the correctness of the universal uncertainty relations that I found in 2012.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[648] **viXra:1412.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 11:09:38*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

When photons hit a material surface they exert a pressure on it. It was shown that this pressure has a negative component (opposite to the direction of propagation of the photons) due to the existence of the negative linear momentum transported by the photons. Here we show that, in the photoelectric effect, the electrons are ejected by the action of this negative component of the momentum transported by the light photons. It is still shown that, also the gravitational interaction results from the action of this negative component of the momentum transported by specific photons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[647] **viXra:1412.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-04 01:35:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Although the idea of heavy photons has been around for almost 30 years, it gained new interest just a few years ago when theorists suggested that it could explain why several experiments detected more high-energy positrons—the antimatter partners of electrons—than scientists had expected in the cosmic radiation of space. Data from the PAMELA satellite experiment; the AMS instrument aboard the International Space Station; the LAT experiment of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and others have all reported finding an excess of positrons. [13]
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[646] **viXra:1412.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 13:34:33*

**Authors:** Omer Zvi Dickstein

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It has been stated time and again that up to date, superluminal communication is beyond our reach. But, is superluminal communication an impossibility or an improbability? Observing current No Communication Theorems (NCT) one must conclude that it is a mere improbability, and that communication may be possible in the future.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[645] **viXra:1411.0589 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-29 04:30:52*

**Authors:** Essam E Maroun

**Comments:** 10 Pages. email: emaroun85@hotmail.com

The conditions of the early universe are not known with any measure of certainty — they are only theories. Therefore, using the assumption that the estimated total energy of the observable universe is conserved, we propose a different lower limit for the gravitational energy; we attempt to unify the subatomic and the large scale universe into one coherent whole; thus, showing that the cosmos behaves like a quantum object. It uses a form of Bohr’s quantization to strengthen the unification of quantum gravity. Our model is simple, yet comprehensive.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[644] **viXra:1411.0582 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-28 03:01:34*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown how misleading is the Einstein propagating photon, while the gravitation - electricity symmetry is patent in the holographic two-step intaraction scheme. in accordance with Coherent Cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[643] **viXra:1411.0573 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 16:50:05*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A numeric formula for the masses of composite particles made of three quarks is presented.
The formula, which uses “discontinuous” quantum numbers, predicts the masses of 13 baryons and one lepton (the tau particle), with an accuracy of, at least, 3 decimal places. The maximum accuracy of the formula is 5 decimal places. The formula suggests the existence of a general formula for the mass of all known particles, which is yet, to be discovered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[642] **viXra:1411.0570 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-26 12:42:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers have studied electron-positron (e+e-) collisions for interactions that produce a normal photon γ and a dark photon A′ that interacts with ordinary matter particles. The dark photon can potentially decay into an e+e- pair (shown here) or a μ+μ- pair (not shown). However, the latest results from the BaBar collaboration offer no sign of dark photons, thus placing new limits on these types of models. [13]
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[641] **viXra:1411.0556 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-24 09:39:57*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The formidable problem with double-slit experiments (and with Quantum Mechanics as a whole) is: if electrons and photons exhibit wave properties (seen as interference patterns), then what is waving? What is the medium for transmission of ‘electron waves’? Does it give sense at all to talk about ‘interference’ of a particle? The hypothesis of existence of a medium (the ether) was already disproved experimentally by the Michelson-Morley experiment, in the case of the photon (light). For the electron, such a medium is not even conceivable. Despite the success of Schrodinger’s wave function in predicting and explaining the results of experiments, what physical quantity the wave function actually represents is still unknown. Erwin Schrodinger was on the right track with his view of the electron as a ‘smeared’ object, rather than as a point particle, and with his rejection of the Copenhagen interpretation. Yet he was still far from the ultimate mystery. Then how is a wave possible without a medium? How can a wave property and a particle property co-exist in a single physical entity (the electron and the photon)? Nature uses a simple and subtle trick : the electron mass density at a given point of space is directly proportional to the intensity of oscillation of the electron (the electron wave) at that point. The instantaneous mass density of the electron at a given point is directly proportional to the instantaneous vibrational velocity of the electron at that point. This resolves the central mystery in Quantum Mechanics: electron interference pattern. The photon energy density at a given point is directly proportional to the intensity of vibration (oscillation) of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. The new theory provides a hint on the mystery behind Planck’s relation: E=h.f. Higher frequency photons have higher energy than lower frequency photons just because higher frequency photons also have higher amplitudes of electric and magnetic fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[640] **viXra:1411.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 12:05:36*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is obtained postulating that the ratio between the mass of the electron to the mass of the muon equals the ratio between the mass of the down quark to the mass of the charm quark. The values of the quark masses used in this formula fall into the experimental limits published by reference [1].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[639] **viXra:1411.0532 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 11:25:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Sometimes, you can picture something so vividly in your head that it feels as though you’re actually looking at what you’re imagining. But no matter how good your imagination is, information will flow through your brain in the opposite direction compared to when you actually perceive something. That’s the conclusion of a new study, published in NeuroImage, which looked at brain activity in participants when they were either watching clips or recalling them in their heads. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[638] **viXra:1411.0482 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 13:00:20*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is concerned with a formula for the mass of the neutron. This formula is based on
the mass of the proton and the masses of the three heavier leptons: the electron (generation 1), the muon (generation 2) and the tau particle (generation 3). The formula is, at least, accurate to 4 decimal places. Because the mass of the tau particle is poorly known, it is unknown whether this formula is physically correct or it is simply a numeric coincidence. Finally, the formula suggests a deep mass relationship between quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[637] **viXra:1411.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-18 12:10:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[636] **viXra:1411.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-16 09:15:03*

**Authors:** Jack B. Wenger

**Comments:** 128 Pages. Availible as html at www. quasiuniverse.com

Preface or abstract
Quasi universe changes very little. It is simply another perspective on the standard model and provides substance to field theory. The mathematics involved should be the similar, although this perspective may
provide some shortcuts and may even eliminate the need for “normalization”, perhaps not. I think that it makes many of the observed characteristics of cosmology, quantum mechanics and particle physics more intuitive. As far as I can tell it, agrees with observations as reported in the popular press and the texts that I have read. Others may find major flaws in its presentation. If that is the case, I am happy. At least they have read it.
The diagram, on the title page represents a cross section of the layers within a 5space hyper sphere. All spacial systems are treated as interfaces. Lines represent 4spaces, the areas between lines represent 5spaces and the point where the lines meet represents a 3space or volume.
The convention used within this document is that a 5space hyper sphere has a curved 4space (4
dimensional) surface that encloses a 5space hyper (5 dimensional) volume just as a 3space sphere has a 2space (2 dimensional) or planar surface that encloses a 3space (3 dimensional) volume.
The layers within the 5space sphere also have curved 4space surfaces or interfaces.
The yellow layer is a 5space fluid that is intruding between two others. The region at which the intruder separates the other two and where all layers meet is a volume or 3space.
The intruder rubs against the other two layers and creates shear which is expressed as an extremely fine texture of vortices. This is the primary field, an ocean of energy similar to the Higgs field in our universe.
These vortices create and follow wakes of distortion or torque at the interfaces between the intruder and the other two layers.
The shear vortices and their wakes are the ingredients that make up vastly larger objects and fields much in the way that grains of sand and cement make up the foundations of a building.
These large objects and fields mimic the particles and fields in our universe
The paradigm suggests some solutions to apparent problems of today’s physical theories.
It suggests a variable rate of expansion of the quasi universe and provides a source for its dark energy. It goes further in that it links dark energy, gravitation and universal expansion together.
It provides a structure for a three or four quark system that does not need fractional charge. Debris from collisions would imply the three 5D partitions created by the intrusion of Daleth and should be similar to the debris that implies the three quark model in our universe. Quasi universe allows the Daleth partition to have zero charge because it may contain two matter swarms of opposing charges and intrinsic spin.
These extra swarms may behave like our “sea quarks”.
The properties of photonic and matter swarms allow us to easily visualize these objects as “particle waves”.
There are no conflicts here. And it is easy to visualize shear vortices as the currency for the
conversion of matter to energy and vice versa. Their fluidity as swarms requires that their interactions to be described in terms of probabilities, complex interference and quasi quantum states
What follows below is rational for this scenario.
I am not under the illusion that I have everything right. These are simply suggestion as to how one might approach the paradigm.
The paper will be updated as I reevaluate some of the concepts

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[635] **viXra:1411.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 16:46:08*

**Authors:** Casper Spanggaard

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

A definition of G is derived using the product of two Planck point masses and a definition of hbar based on the speed of light in vacuum and geometry. The theoretical value of G is found to be 6.74981057667161 x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2 yielding a relative accuracy error of the CODATA 2010 G-value of -1.1255%. One experiment resulted in a value with a smaller relative accuracy error than the CODATA 2010 G-value of -0.5098%. Both rest and relativistic mass product equations are derived. These equations relate the relative spacetime spin frequency w_s, the relative orbital frequency w_o and (relativistic equation only) the Lorentz factor y describing relative linear speed of two bodies to the mass product. The Planck mass is a special case mass with w_sw_o = w_planck^2 = 1 s^-2. The theoretical value of the Planck mass was found to be 2.16039211144077 x 10^-8 kg. The relative accuracy error of the CODATA 2010 Planck mass value is 0.7461%. This error is attributed to use of the different definition of hbar. When derived from both hbar and G constants as well as the rest mass product equation, three kilogram unit definition candidates are all inconsistent. The candidate derived from the rest mass product equation is the only candidate that has equal second and meter exponents suggesting a kind of symmetry. This definition is considered the nominal kilogram unit definition. The other two candidates are considered to be artifacts of the hbar and G constants.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[634] **viXra:1411.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-13 09:10:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[633] **viXra:1411.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 23:08:51*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In "Quantum Spin and Local Reality" (QSLR) I show that Bell suppressed key physical phenomena to arrive at his inequality. As a result Bell's conclusions are incorrect — his model fails to match reality. Bell's defense is based on quantum mechanical eigenvalue equations with reference to Dirac. I briefly review some issues in the history of spin, and analyze the non-relativistic Stern-Gerlach eigenvalue equation and the relativistic Dirac equation, and show their relevance to Bell.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[632] **viXra:1411.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 06:07:56*

**Authors:** Peter A Jackson, John S Minkowski.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

'Quantum state reduction' (QSR) has no classical logic, and the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR) paradox remains unresolved. Many assume no classical explanation is possible. John Bell disagreed despite his 'theorem' and 'inequalities' (J Bell. 1987).i We identify an ontological construction and describe a classical mechanism (CM) predicting experimental data as Bell anticipated by employing different assumptions and a physical analogy of 'superposed' states. Electron spin-flip (reversing polarity and/or spin state) is found to reverse the local, not the distant, detector finding, suggesting that an assumption employed in 'weak measurement' analysis is false. Quantum spin is modelled as the small scale ('hyperfine') angular momentum of orbiting charges, each also rotating. The classical mechanism produces a violation of the Bell inequality from a cosine intermediate angular surface velocity distribution at each recursive scale of orbital angular momentum (OAM) diameter. The 'probability' of triggering one or the other detector emerges from the angular momentum exchanged on ('measurement') interaction. Standard quantum electro-dynamic (QED) provisions for field phase distribution square the amplitude to give Malus's Law and reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics (QM). Uncertainty reduces to higher orders. Modified 'quasi-classical' definitions are offered for familiar QM concepts and terms.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[631] **viXra:1411.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 02:32:47*

**Authors:** Omer Zvi Dickstein

**Comments:** 1 Page. Correction to paper 11411.0078v1

Correction to paper 11411.0078v1
The quantum eraser section in that paper is wrong and must be disreguarded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[630] **viXra:1411.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-09 11:32:07*

**Authors:** Omer Zvi Dickstein

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Superluminal communication is considered impossible by most physicists. However this statement must be examined over and over. This paper offers an experiment that attempts to examine this statement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[629] **viXra:1411.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-09 04:17:12*

**Authors:** I.I.Guseinov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Historically, the explanation of combined self-frictional (SF) unique field theory of nature (universe-stars, galaxies, …, and atomic-molecular systems) has been the scientific problem of the development of natural sciences. In this study, by the use of complete orthonormal sets of - self-frictional exponential type orbitals ( -SFETOs) and - self-frictional Laguerre polynomials ( -SFLPs) introduced by the author in standard convention, the combined quantum SF unique field theory of nature is suggested. The obtained formulas are expressed through the free noncharged spinless SF nucleus atoms as a function of distance from nucleus r for , , SF quantum number and scaling parameter . We note that the origin of stability of these systems is the quantum damping of SF forces produced by the SF particles. The periodic table for the suggested free noncharged spinless SF atomic elements is also presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[628] **viXra:1411.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 12:26:07*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article applies a simplified calculation of effect Unruh based on the nature of the quantum oscillation of the vacuum. To obtain the formula for the temperature Unruh used the concept of energy level transitions of the quantum oscillator under the influence of inertial and gravitational fields

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[627] **viXra:1411.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-06 11:23:22*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukcic, Jever, Germany, 2104,

Today, quantum-mechanical phenomena especially such as non-locality refer to some mathematical foundations, especially to Bell’s inequality and the CHSH inequality. Experimental data, analyzed by the help of Bell’s inequality or the CHSH inequality favor a quantum mechanical description of nature, over local hidden variable theories (often referred to as local realism). In general, the use of mathematically inconsistent methods can imply a waste of money, time and effort on this account. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem and the CHSH-inequality by the proof that we can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's inequalities. If you accept Bell's theorem or the CHSH-inequality as correct, you must accept too that +0 = +1, which is a logical contradiction. Bell's theorem and the CHSH-inequality are refuted.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[626] **viXra:1411.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-06 11:28:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In research published Dec. 19 in Science Express, the team reported the most precise measurement to date of the electron's shape, improving it by a factor of more than 10 and showing the particle to be rounder than predicted by some extensions of the Standard Model, including some versions of Supersymmetry. This theory posits new types of particles that help account, for example, for dark matter, a mysterious substance estimated to make up most of the universe. [5]
Electrons are elementary particles — indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state — the electron wave function — can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics.
Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron — the electron’s wave function — can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[625] **viXra:1411.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-04 13:02:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Electrons are elementary particles — indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state — the electron wave function — can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics.
Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron — the electron’s wave function — can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[624] **viXra:1411.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 15:23:57*

**Authors:** Casper Spanggaard

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

A deeper understanding of why the reduced Planck constant and Planck constant ("Planck constants") have the values they have as determined by experiments is developed. New definitions of the Planck constants are arrived at using the speed of light in vacuum and geometric considerations. The kilogram SI base unit is found to be derived from the SI base units second and meter. The values of the Planck constants determined by experiments and published by CODATA (2010) are found to both have a relative accuracy error of 0.3552%. A new kilogram definition is proposed and it is argued that since the kilogram will then be a derived SI unit, the kilogram should not be considered an SI base unit anymore.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[623] **viXra:1411.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 11:19:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time.
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[622] **viXra:1410.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 06:51:41*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 8 Pages. original article

We derive by the Schwinger source theory method, the power spectrum
of photons, generated by charged particle moving within 2D sheet, with
index of refraction n. Some graphene-like structures, for instance graphene
with implanted ions, or, also 2D-glasses, are dielectric media, enabling the
experimental realization of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. The relation of
the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation to LED, where the 2D the additional dielectric
sheet is the integral part of LED, is discussed. It is not excluded that LEDs
with the 2D dielectric sheets will be the crucial components of detectors in
experimental particle physics.
1 Introduction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[621] **viXra:1410.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 03:12:31*

**Authors:** Zhen-Hu Ning

**Comments:** 12 pages

Different from the existing quantum threshold signature schemes, which are mainly based on the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, we construct the map from the multiple binary information to a quantum and support a new threshold signature scheme based on divisible quantum entanglement and p -unitary operator, which are well defined in the paper. Compared with the existing the schemes, the scheme involved fewer quanta. The scheme also meets the requirement of “Threshold Signature”, that is to say, only the number of participants is
not less than the threshold, they can execute the signature or the verification.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[620] **viXra:1410.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 08:21:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A leading candidate for room temperature superconductors is the copper compound cuprate, but no one knew how cuprates facilitated superconductivity...until some brave souls looked inside a black hole and broke out the string theory to explain how they work.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[619] **viXra:1410.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 18:21:32*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's equation of equivalence of mass and energy from the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[618] **viXra:1410.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 12:07:14*

**Authors:** D. Bowen, R. Mulkern

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This is a classically based rotating charge loop model of an electron which explains the electron’s de Broglie base frequency to an accuracy of over 6 decimal places. The model also predicts the magnetic moment of the electron to over 6 decimal places and helps explain the transition from a purely electromagnetic photon to a fermion state of matter. The model also explains how charge and spin are conserved in the transition. Finally, this concept might be extended to explain the Tau and Muon higher energy states of the electron as well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[617] **viXra:1410.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 18:52:13*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Superluminal communication without entangled particles based on well known principles

Entanglement studies dwell on multi-particle systems by definition – one particle, via a global symmetry/conservation law is correlated to another. It has often been wondered via EPR/Bell/Aspect/Dopfer-Zeilinger/Zbinden whether: first, a communication scheme is possible by entangled quantum state collapse and secondly, whether such a scheme would work over spacelike separations. This study follows on from the author’s earlier scheme of sending classical data over a Bell Channel, to now, using an unentangled source. The rationale for this is that beams from a three-way or n-way splitter (even with single photons) are in a sense “entangled” with themselves via the principle of conservation of probability: measurement of a photon in one beam causes a collapse of the wavefunction in all the others. The new communication scheme represents an improvement over using expensive and complicated entangled sources of poor purity, for common-or-garden coherent sources.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[616] **viXra:1410.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 15:42:36*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.
Isaac Newton
In mathematical world, the bridge from matter to intelligence requires extension and modification of quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[615] **viXra:1410.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:16:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Princeton University scientists have observed an exotic particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could yield powerful computers based on quantum mechanics.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[614] **viXra:1410.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 11:27:36*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The task to be carried out should be clear from the title. The
reason for choosing wave mechanics as a starting point was the
estimation that the present state of quantum field theory is not
acceptable. There are two essential points in the construction
presented here: First of all the role of interaction is
adequately respected in it. Secondly a new attack is made to
solve the old problem of describing elementary particles by
stable wave packets, but this time with all means nowadays being
available. Perturbation theory can be applied to solve the field
equation. But the Feynman rules and the prescription for the
exchange terms cannot be deduced in quantum field theory,
whatever version of it is chosen. The result of the present
construction shall be called quantum wave theory. It reveals to
be both, a field theory and a quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[613] **viXra:1410.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 17:40:46*

**Authors:** J. Foukzon, A. A. Potapov, S. A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A number of experiments on trapped single ions or atoms have been performed in recent years [1,2,3,4]. Monitoring the intensity of scattered laser light off of such systems has shown abrupt changes that have been cited as evidence of "quantum jumps" between states of the scattered ion or atom . The existence of such jumps was required by Bohr in his theory of the atom. Bohr’s quantum jumps between atomic states [5] were the first form of quantum dynamics to be postulated. He assumed that an atom remained in an atomic eigenstate until it made an instantaneous jump to another state with the emission or absorption of a photon. Since these jumps do not appear to occur in solutions of the Schrodinger equation, something similar to Bohr's idea has been added as an extra postulate in modern quantum mechanics.
Stochastic quantum jump equations [6], [7],[8]were introduced as a tool for simulating the dynamics of a dissipative system with a large Hilbert space and their links with quantum measurement the or were also noted [9],[10],[11],[12],[13].This measurement interpretation is generally known as quantum trajectory theory [14].By adding filter cavities as part of the apparatus, even the quantum jumps in the dressed state model can be interpreted as approximations to measurement-induced jumps [15].
The question arises whether an explanation of these jumps can be found to result from an Colombeau solution [16]-[18] of the Schrödinger equation alone without additional postulates. We found exact quasi-classical asymptotic of the quantum averages.The physical interpretation of these asymptotics given below, shows that the answer is "yes."

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[612] **viXra:1410.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 01:45:19*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 1 Page. Occupy America

Occupy America

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[354] **viXra:1412.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-03 20:06:33*

**Authors:** Victor Paromov

**Comments:** 11 pages, 3 tables, 3 figures

In modern physics, the two most basic principles of interaction, the principal of space-time involvement of the General Relativity (GR) and the gauge transformation principle of the quantum field theories are incompatible due to the completely different understanding of the space-time. To solve this fundamental inconsistency, the General Principal of Interaction (GPI) is proposed. The GPI requires the Einstein’s principal of space-time involvement to be applied to all types of interaction assuming that the space-time is nine-dimensional with five extra spatial dimensions in addition to the ordinary space-time (OST). With the GPI, strong nuclear forces can be understood as geometrical alterations of the compactified three-dimensional “nuclear space” (NS), and electromagnetism and weak nuclear forces can be understood as geometrical alterations of the open two-dimensional “electromagnetic space” (EMS). Thus, the space-time includes three realms: OST, EMS and NS, which are geometrically separated due to the differences in their overall curvatures. The GPI provides a strong basis for the future theory unifying all four types of interaction as it naturally combines the space-time-based understanding of interaction with the quantization by describing all elementary particles as curvature waves in the multidimensional space-time. It is expected that the GPI-based theory will be a fully deterministic self-consistent non-renormalizable theory describing all types of interaction with low number of free parameters and no Higgs mechanism. The mathematical description of this theory is not given; only possible ways to construct suitable framework are being discussed. The GPI-based theory requires absence of gauge bosons and prohibits neutrino, H, W and Z bosons. Considering the fact that all these particles are proven experimentally the conjectured GPI-based theory will make no sense until strong experimental evidence of the opposite is found. Also, it is discussed: 1) why the main principals of the GR and gauge theories are mutually exclusive, 2) application of the GPI to the three interactions currently described by the SM, 3) expected advantages of the conjectured GPI-based theory, 4) possible explanations of the “dark matter” and “dark energy” phenomena, 5) the theory’s problems and 6) predictions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[353] **viXra:1412.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-03 06:06:35*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven page letter

Quantum entanglement of pair of particles is now an established fact as described in [1]. But its theoretical explanation is yet to be found. So this letter attempts to propose one possible explanation, based on the previous works. In a paper titled: “Some conjectures on the nature of energy and matter” [2], and its latest version titled: “ On the emergence of physical world from the ultimate reality” [3] it was proposed that ‘space’ or ‘vacuum’ can be viewed as a ‘super flexible continuum (SFC), and ‘particles’ of ‘matter’ as ‘spherical standing wave patterns’ of fluctuations generated in SFC. Einstein tried to do-away with ether in his special theory of relativity, but when he had to assign curvature to space, he told: " Well, in that sense, there exists an ether" But majority of scientists still stick to emptiness of space, and are facing understanding observations like quantum entanglement and collapse of the quantum-mechanical wave-function. In this manuscript space is assumed to be a super-flexible-continuum, and you will find that it helps gaining an insight into the quantum entanglement and collapse of q-m wave-function. Since, in a continuum, when a labeled dot moves from point A to A’, as shown in the figure1 here, the point B behind it has to move from B to B’; and this chain of displacements has to complete a closed circular path, whose radius can be as small as a few nano-meters or as large as a few thousand kilometers. Since there is no preferred axis about which the point A should orbit, it moves partly about x-axis, partly about y-axis and partly about z-axis; forming a small circle on the spherical shell. This motion of point A, of completing a small circle on the surface of a spherical shell, takes some time t, giving rise to a wave in the radial directions. The propagation of this wave in the radial directions is at the speed of light; whereas the displacements of points on the surface of spherical shell are instantaneous and simultaneous; because of the continuum nature of ‘space’. When such a wave of fluctuations moves in radial direction its mirror-wave, of the same frequency and amplitude, has to move in radially opposite direction, giving rise to a pair of pulses moving apart in radial directions. Since, the spin and polarization of ‘photons’ are perpendicular to the direction of photon’s motion, they are in the tangential-direction of the spherical shell, on which displacements of points take place instantaneously. Therefore, when spin, or polarization, of one photon is measured the spin and polarization of the mirror-particle gets instantaneously affected, because of the instantaneous displacement of points on the surface of the spherical shell. Similarly, when a photon is absorbed by one atom on the spherical shell, the wave collapses, because of simultaneous displacement of points on the spherical shell. Thus, the observed entanglement of photons, and other particles, imply the presence of an underlying ‘super flexible continuum’ (SFC), as was anticipated in [2] in the year 1988.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[352] **viXra:1412.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-30 09:36:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page letter

Quantum entanglement of pair of particles is now an established fact as described in [1]. But its theoretical explanation is yet to be found. So this letter attempts to propose one possible explanation, based on this author’s previous works. In a paper titled: “Some conjectures on the nature of energy and matter”[2] and its latest version “ On the emergence of physical world from the ultimate reality” [3] it was proposed that ‘space’ or ‘vacuum’ can be viewed as a ‘super flexible continuum (SFC), and ‘particles’ of ‘matter’ as ‘spherical standing wave patterns’ of fluctuations generated in SFC. Since, in a continuum, when a labeled dot moves from point A to A’ the point B behind it has to move from B to B’; and this chain of displacements has to complete a closed circular path, whose radius can be as small as a few nano-meters or as large as a few thousand kilometers. This motion of point A completes a small circle on the surface of a spherical shell in a time t, giving rise to a wave in the radial direction. The propagation of this wave in the radial direction is at the speed of light; whereas the displacements of points on the surface of spherical shell are instantaneous; because of the continuum nature of ‘space’. When such a wave of fluctuations moves in radial direction its mirror-wave, of the same frequency and amplitude, has to move in radially opposite direction, giving rise to a pair of pulses moving apart in radial directions. Since, the spin and polarization of ‘photons’ are perpendicular to the direction of photon’s motion, they are in the tangential-direction of the spherical shell, on which displacements of points take place instantaneously. Therefore, when spin, or polarization, of one photon is measured the spin and polarization of the mirror-particle gets instantaneously affected, because of the instantaneous displacement of points on the surface of the spherical shell. This is what is known as ‘entanglement’ of ‘photons’. The observed entanglement of photons, and other particles, imply the presence of an underlying ‘super flexible continuum’ (SFC), as was anticipated in [1] in the year 1988.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[351] **viXra:1412.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 19:39:41*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It will be considered that microscopic particle does not have wave nature , diffraction experiment of microscopic particle should indirectly and objectively reflect the existence of one force which can lead to particle’s diffraction phenomenon , the force belongs to deeper theory under the quantum mechanics , and will be proved that it relates to electrostatic force in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[350] **viXra:1412.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 14:45:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2 , from the universal uncertainty relations. These relations are a generalization of the original uncertainty relations developed by Werner Heisenberg in 1927. Thus, this approach unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of a) the quantum mechanical nature of the above
formula, and, b) the correctness of the universal uncertainty relations that I found in 2012.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[349] **viXra:1411.0582 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-07 19:28:33*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown how misleading is the Einstein propagating photon, while the gravitation - electricity symmetry is patent in the holographic two-step intaraction scheme. in accordance with Coherent Cosmology and Eddington's Large Number prediction for the number of atoms in the Universe (136 x 2^256). A simple natural interpretation for dark matter follows, as well as a graviton mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[348] **viXra:1411.0582 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-03 02:36:43*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown how misleading is the Einstein propagating photon, while the gravitation - electricity symmetry is patent in the holographic two-step intaraction scheme. in accordance with Coherent Cosmology

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[347] **viXra:1411.0573 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-15 16:58:44*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A numeric formula for the masses of composite particles made of three quarks is presented.
The formula, which uses “discontinuous” quantum numbers, predicts the masses of 13 baryons and one leptons (the tau particle), with an accuracy of, at least, 3 decimal places. The maximum accuracy of the formula is 5 decimal places. The formula suggests the existence of a general formula for the mass of all known particles, which is yet, to be
discovered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[346] **viXra:1411.0556 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-08 07:29:04*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The formidable problem with double-slit experiments is: if electrons and photons exhibit wave properties (seen as interference patterns), then what is waving? What is the medium for transmission of ‘electron waves’? Such a medium has been disproved experimentally, in the case of the photon, and not even conceivable for the electron. Erwin Schrodinger was on the right track with his view of the electron as a ‘smeared’ object, rather than as a point particle. Then how is a wave possible without a medium? How can a wave property and a particle property co-exist in a single physical entity (wave- particle duality)? Nature uses a simple and subtle trick : the average electron mass density at a given region of space is directly proportional to the root mean square (RMS) intensity of oscillation (velocity) of the electron (the electron wave) in that region. The instantaneous mass density of the electron at a given point is directly proportional to the instantaneous magnitude of vibrational velocity of the electron at that point. The average photon energy density in a given region of space is directly proportional to the root mean square of rate of change of the electric and magnetic fields in that region. The instantaneous energy density of the photon at a given point of space and time is directly proportional to the magnitude of rate of change of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. The rate of change of electric and magnetic fields in turn depends on the frequency, amplitude and phase of the wave. The electron mass and photon energy will always be concentrated at regions of high wave amplitude. This means that the electron and the photon are dragged by their respective waves. The new theory provides a hint on the mystery behind Planck’s relation: E=h.f. Higher frequency photons have higher energy than lower frequency photons just because higher frequency photons also have higher amplitudes of electric and magnetic field oscillations. If we assume that ordinary waves also have the same fundamental properties as electron waves, then we may be able to explain the lack of backward propagation in Huygens’ principle. We may be able to explain why the bouncing oil droplet in the Couder-Fort oil bath experiment starts to go in the direction of the wave propagation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[345] **viXra:1411.0556 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-05 02:34:10*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The formidable problem with double-slit experiments is: if electrons and photons exhibit wave properties (seen as interference patterns), then what is waving? What is the medium for transmission of ‘electron waves’? Such a medium is disproved experimentally, in the case of the photon, and not even conceivable for the electron. Erwin Schrodinger was on the right track with his view of the electron as a ‘smeared’ object, rather than as a point particle. Then how is a wave possible without a medium? How can a wave property and a particle property co-exist in a single physical entity (the electron and the photon)? Nature uses a simple and subtle trick : the electron mass density at a given point of space is directly proportional to the intensity of oscillation of the electron (the electron wave) at that point. The instantaneous mass density of the electron at a given point is directly proportional to the instantaneous vibrational velocity of the electron at that point. The photon energy density at a given point is directly proportional to the intensity of vibration (oscillation) of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. The higher the rate of change of electric and magnetic fields at a given point of space and time, the higher the energy density of the photon at that point. The rate of change of electric and magnetic fields depends on the frequency, amplitude and phase of the wave. The new theory provides a hint on the mystery behind Planck’s relation: E=h.f. Higher frequency photons have higher energy than lower frequency photons just because higher frequency photons also have higher amplitudes of electric and magnetic field oscillations. If we assume that ordinary waves also have the same fundamental properties as electron waves, then we may be able to explain the lack of backward propagation in Huygens’ principle. We may be able to explain why the bouncing oil droplet in the Couder-Fort oil bath experiment starts to go in the direction of the wave propagation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[344] **viXra:1411.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-05 03:55:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Electrons are elementary particles — indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state — the electron wave function — can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics. Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron — the electron’s wave function — can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[343] **viXra:1410.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-15 16:55:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2 , from the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Thus, this paper unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of
the quantum mechanical nature of the above famous formula.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[342] **viXra:1410.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:25:29*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. FLAWED BUT MAY BE ON THE WAY TO SOMETHING...

THIS PAPER WILL BE WITHDRAWN OR LEFT UP TO SHOW THE PROCESS OF EVOLUTION OF THOUGHT. Entanglement studies dwell on multi-particle systems by definition – one particle, via a global symmetry/conservation law is correlated to another. It has often been wondered via EPR/Bell/Aspect/Dopfer-Zeilinger/Zbinden whether: first, a communication scheme is possible by entangled quantum state collapse and secondly, whether such a scheme would work over spacelike separations. This study follows on from the author’s earlier scheme of sending classical data over a Bell Channel, to now, using an unentangled source. The rationale for this is that beams from a three-way or n-way splitter (even with single photons) are in a sense “entangled” with themselves via the principle of conservation of probability: measurement of a photon in one beam causes a collapse of the wavefunction in all the others. The new communication scheme represents an improvement over using expensive and complicated entangled sources of poor purity, for common-or-garden coherent sources.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[341] **viXra:1410.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-05 01:05:38*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The task to be carried out should be clear from the title. The reason for choosing wave mechanics as a starting point was the estimation that the present state of quantum field theory is not
acceptable. There are two essential points in the construction presented here: First of all the role of interaction is adequately respected in it. Secondly a new attack is made to solve the old problem of describing elementary particles by
stable wave packets, but this time with all means nowadays being available. Perturbation theory can be applied to solve the field equation and to derive the Feynman rules. But the prescription for the exchange terms cannot be deduced in quantum field theory, whatever version of it is chosen. The result of the present construction shall be called quantum wave theory. It reveals to be both, a field theory and a quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[340] **viXra:1410.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-01 10:21:33*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A. A. Potapov, S. A.Podosenov

**Comments:** 22 Pages. International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.3, No.4, November 2014

Exact quasi-classical asymptotic beyond WKB-Theory and beyond Maslov canonical operator to the Colombeau solutions of the n-dimensional Schrodinger equation is presented. Quantum jumps nature is considered successfully. We pointed out that an explanation of quantum jumps can be found to result from Colombeau solutions of the Schrödinger equation alone without additional postulates.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[339] **viXra:1410.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-11 19:50:05*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 1 Page. Occupy America, updated draft

Occupy America

**Category:** Quantum Physics