**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(8) - 0703(12) - 0705(1) - 0708(1) - 0711(1)

2008 - 0802(1) - 0804(6) - 0807(1) - 0812(1)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(10) - 0908(9) - 0909(4) - 0910(6) - 0911(4) - 0912(4)

2010 - 1001(5) - 1002(3) - 1003(29) - 1004(9) - 1005(7) - 1006(5) - 1007(5) - 1008(4) - 1009(3) - 1011(1) - 1012(1)

2011 - 1101(7) - 1102(4) - 1103(6) - 1104(7) - 1105(3) - 1106(8) - 1107(9) - 1108(7) - 1109(11) - 1110(10) - 1111(11) - 1112(9)

2012 - 1201(1) - 1202(3) - 1203(11) - 1204(5) - 1205(8) - 1206(6) - 1207(5) - 1208(9) - 1209(8) - 1210(11) - 1211(12) - 1212(7)

2013 - 1301(16) - 1302(11) - 1303(6) - 1304(9) - 1305(16) - 1306(20) - 1307(16) - 1308(10) - 1309(15) - 1310(2) - 1311(14) - 1312(26)

2014 - 1401(9) - 1402(7) - 1403(19) - 1404(15) - 1405(13) - 1406(20) - 1407(21)

Any replacements are listed further down

[576] **viXra:1407.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-29 09:10:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[575] **viXra:1407.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-25 12:49:44*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Possible solution of the Schrödinger's cat paradox is considered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[574] **viXra:1407.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-25 09:00:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[573] **viXra:1407.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 11:56:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[572] **viXra:1407.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-21 20:11:29*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper,I introduce the virtual velocity of the particle. It is from the spetial theory of relativity, because of the velocity of the particles or Dirac equation be not able to explaine hydrogen atom phenamina. In the spetial theory of relativity, time dilatation and lenth constraction are related by the equation (1).
I get from the above relation, the vitual velocity of a particle and the virtual speed of a particle can be beyond the speed of light.
I think the virtual velocity and potential have nonlocality in physics, and wave function may exists there before we observe the particle's position. New quantum machanics is similar to Shrodinger equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[571] **viXra:1407.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-20 09:33:23*

**Authors:** Saurav Dwivedi

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Keywords: Pragmatism; Bimodal Logic; Probability.

Some variants of quantum theory theorize dogmatic “unimodal” states-of-being, and are based on hodge-podge classical-quantum language. They are based on *ontic* syntax, but *pragmatic* semantics. This error was termed semantic inconsistency [1]. Measurement seems to be central problem of these theories, and widely discussed in their interpretation. Copenhagen theory deviates from this prescription, which is modeled on experience. A *complete* quantum experiment is “*bimodal*”. An experimenter *creates* the system-under-study in *initial* mode of experiment, and *annihilates* it in the *final*. The experimental *intervention* lies beyond the theory. I theorize most rudimentary bimodal quantum experiments studied by Finkelstein [2], and deduce “bimodal probability density” π = |ψin>⊗<φfin| to represent *complete* quantum experiments. It resembles core insights of the Copenhagen theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[570] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-19 00:08:06*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-page priliminary note

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [2], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves contained in ∆ω will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in ∆ω for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[569] **viXra:1407.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:09:58*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. This paper shows that the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle obeys this new formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[568] **viXra:1407.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:12:05*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new Law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. This paper shows that the black hole entropy obeys this new formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[567] **viXra:1407.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-14 17:14:56*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In 2012 I formulated the Scale Principle or Scale Law which was published electronically in May this year. This paper proposes a theory to answer an old question: Where do the laws of physics come from?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[566] **viXra:1407.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-13 03:25:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[565] **viXra:1407.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-11 00:31:03*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-Page Note

For more than twenty years I have been trying to communicate the true nature of 'matter' through the system of 'peer-reviewed-journals', but the prestigious journals are not courageous-enough to publish. So I am expressing my view here to the open-minded readers.
'Matter' is not a 'substance', 'matter' is a 'process' i.e. 'a phenomenon'. 'Matter' is a process of fluctuations arisen in a 'continuum'. The continuum nature of the fundamental-reality allows formations of spherical 'wave-packets' of micro-microscopic-dimensions*. There are: integer (whole number) of such 'wave-packets'. The waves generated by these packets spread in all the directions. An interesting difference between the interference of conventional electromagnetic waves and the waves of 'matter-particles' is: that in the case of electromagnetic waves generated by radio-stations, the waves add constructively or destructively depending upon their relative phase, and the antennas remain firmly fixed; whereas in the case of 'matter-waves' depending upon the constructive or destructive superimposition of the waves, the antennas change their positions! Because the 'particles of matter' are so light-weight, that they change their positions like 'free-floating-antennas. Interference of 'matter-waves' causes the changes in the positions of the 'spherical wave-packets' called 'particles of matter'. We require not just 'strings' or 'loops' but rather three or four-dimensional-continuum to describe the 'particles of matter'. Thus, the particles of 'matter' are 'particles' as far as their micro-microscopic size, and their whole, integer number is concerned; and they are 'waves' as far as their true nature, of 'fluctuations of the most fundamental continuum’, is concerned.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[564] **viXra:1407.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-08 10:13:26*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We consider a single electron amplitude splitting interference experiment with respect to the possibility of a blueshift in energy/momentum due to the changes in static electric potential.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[563] **viXra:1407.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-07 08:42:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[562] **viXra:1407.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 23:16:51*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

There has been proven that mathematical origins of randomness in quantum and Newtonian physics are coming from the same source that is dynamical instability. However in Newtonian physics this instability is measured by positive finite Liapunov exponents averaged over infinite time period, while in quantum physics the instability is accompanied by a loss of the Lipchitz condition and represented by an infinite divergence of trajectories in a singular point. Although from a mathematical viewpoint such a difference is significant, from physical viewpoint it does not justify division of randomness into “deterministic “(chaos) and “true” (quantum physics). The common origin of randomness in Newtonian and quantum physics presents a support of the correspondence principle that is being searched by quantum chaos theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[561] **viXra:1407.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-05 02:00:20*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A six-page letter

This letter attempts to propose explanations for the ninety-year-old puzzle which thousands of physicists, including Einstein, Plank, Feynman …have been trying to resolve. A ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized here as an impulse-function in space; and then Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain; showing that a ‘particle’ contains a ‘set’ of waves, and not just a single frequency. Then a small ‘set’ of waves is taken and its sum is plotted showing that at most of the places the wave-amplitudes mutually nullify each-other and constructively add only at discrete points in space and time; agreeing with our mathematical characterization. Then we show that in the experiments performed so far the red lasers had sizably wide line-width, means the sources have producing a wide set of waves, and just a pure single frequency. Similarly, in the single-particle interference-experiments incandescent filament-lamps were used with green filters inserted to isolate single photons; but it is obvious that at the frequencies of light very narrow-band-filters are not yet technically feasible, so the green filters used allowed sizable wide band of waves. These wide band of waves passed from both the slits, interfered like waves, and whenever and wherever they got coherently added, a ‘particle’ called ‘photon’ got detected.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[560] **viXra:1407.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-04 13:28:16*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Because of found mistakes, which we are lazy to correct, we need to check and recheck the foundations of Physics. As example of mistakes: "all" scientists used solution of dust collapse almost century, but it was wrong [Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1473-84, 2010]. Honest work on the errors, as I understand, has not begun. You postpone everything until the Second Coming? But God speaks: Matthew 25:26.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[559] **viXra:1407.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-02 16:01:16*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws and part of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The purpose of this article is to show that this theory also predicts Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Thus this new formulation can be extended to classical mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[558] **viXra:1407.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 09:59:04*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This article shows that both the Bohr postulate and the De Broglie condition are special cases of the abovementioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[557] **viXra:1407.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-01 01:56:17*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk, Nico Vuyk.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 14

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different
laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with
unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which
was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling
energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of
Quantum Knots or Dark Matter particles with the characteristic of small fireballs or Ball
Lightning often observed in the natural environment..
According to Quantum FFF Theory, Black holes (micro and macro) are the origin of all
universal dark matter phenomena.
As a consequence the tunnelling energy bullets are also a first sign of microscopic Dark
Matter in the Lab.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[556] **viXra:1406.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 11:31:51*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Nearly all tools that quantum physicists use are in some way based on the concept of the wave function. This means that such tools deliver a blurred view of the fine grain structures and fine grain behavior that these tools describe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[555] **viXra:1406.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 07:43:45*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A critical inspection of quantum field theory will reveal that
quantum field theory can be reconstructed only by means of
classical field theory. In detail the following six assertions
are claimed and proved: (1) Perturbation theory can be achieved
by means of classical field theory. (2) Particles that are
independent of one another are not correlated. This is especially
true for the ingoing particles of scattering processes. (3)
Outgoing particles in scattering processes are correlated. But the usual justification of
quantum statistics is faulty. (4) In quantum field theory there
is an amazing multitude of particle concepts. But a concise description of real existing elementary particles is lacking. (5) The path integral representation is not clearly defined in the particle picture of quantum mechanics. In the wave picture it is only another description of the expansion of a quantum state. (6) Functional representation is nothing else than a comprehensive version of perturbation theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[554] **viXra:1406.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 07:49:09*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Commonsense local realism (CLR) is the fusion of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively). Advancing our case for a wholly CLR-based quantum mechanics, we use undergraduate maths and logic to factor the quantum entanglements in EPRB and Aspect (2002). Such factors (one factor relating to beables in Alice's domain, the other to beables in Bob's), refute Bell's theorem and eliminate the need for ‘t Hooft's superdeterminism. An obvious unifying algorithm (based on spin-s particles in a single thought-experiment) is foreshadowed and left as an exercise. That is, to emphasise the physical significance of our results, we here factor EPRB and Aspect (2002) separately and in detail.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[553] **viXra:1406.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-29 08:29:50*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 2 pages. Related manuscripts are at http://vixra.org/abs/1312.0097, and http://vixra.org/abs/1405.0006 .

Indefinite metric vectors are absolutely required as the physical states in Minkowski space because that is indefinite metric space and the physical space-time. For example, Maxwell equations are wave equations in Minkowski space. However, traditional Quantum theory ordinarily has been studied only in definite metric space, i.e., Hilbert space. There are no clear expression for indefinite metric vectors. Here we show a wave function example using Dirac's delta function for indefinite metric vectors in Minkowski space. In addition, we show the vectors can interfere with itself.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[552] **viXra:1406.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 13:38:45*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This paper shows that the fine structure constant is a special case of the above mentioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[551] **viXra:1406.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 16:02:17*

**Authors:** François Barriquand

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The impact of linear superpositions of magnetic potentials on the physical robustness of “patchings” used to build up the “wave section” of an electron orbiting around a magnetic monopole is examined. It is shown that most of these linear superpositions must be discarded if one wishes to preserve the possibility that magnetic monopoles may exist.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[550] **viXra:1406.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-26 02:15:46*

**Authors:** I.I. Guseinov, B.A.Mamedov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is devoted to examine a physical nature of quantum self-frictional atomic potentials and nuclear attraction forces. Using analytical formulas for the – generalized Laguerre polynomials ( -GLPs) and - generalized exponential type orbitals ( -GETOs), the self-frictional atomic potentials and nuclear attraction forces are investigated, where and is the integer ( , ) or noninteger ( , ) self-frictional quantum number. We notice that the -GLPs, the origin of which is the quantum self-frictional fields, are the radial parts of the -GETOs. The dependence of the quantum self-frictional potentials and nuclear attraction forces as a function of the distance from nucleus is analyzed. The relationships presented are valid for the arbitrary values of quantum numbers and scaling parameters.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[549] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-23 16:40:52*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

A presentation file (powerpoint original available from the author) that outlines the history of generalized quantum impedances and the application of the impedance concept to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox (paper presented at the 2013 Rochester Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information), time symmetry in QM (accepted 2014 Berlin Conference on Quantum Information and Measurement), Quantum Interpretation of the Impedance Model, the Chiral Anomaly, Axions,...
56 slides with much repetition, without repetiton ~30 slides.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[548] **viXra:1406.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 11:36:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[547] **viXra:1406.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 05:10:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The human body is a constant@@ flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[546] **viXra:1406.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 17:47:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present article introduces a numerological expression for the electron spin g-factor. This formula is accurate to nine decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[545] **viXra:1406.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 17:49:37*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present investigation is concerned with the numerological formulation for the mass of the proton. The formula presented here is accurate to 8 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[544] **viXra:1406.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 10:50:17*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

A single photon is well known to have spin S = hbar, which would correspond to circular polarization, and all quantum transitions with photon absorption or emission correspond to DeltaS = ±hbar. However, it is also widely believed that a single photon may be linearly polarized, which would correspond to a state with S = 0. Indeed, linearly polarized single photons are central to most quantum entanglement experiments. On the contrary, it has recently been suggested (based on a realistic spin-quantized wave picture of quantum states) that a linearly polarized photon state must be a superposition of a pair of circularly polarized photons, each with S = ±hbar. This question cannot be resolved using a conventional photon detector, which generally cannot distinguish one photon from two simultaneous photons. However, it can be addressed using a superconducting microcalorimeter detector with sub-eV energy resolution and high quantum efficiency (QE). A careful experiment demonstrating this photon pairing could place in question some of the paradoxical central foundations of modern quantum theory, including quantum entanglement and nonlocality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[543] **viXra:1406.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-10 14:53:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The present investigation is focused on a simple quantum mechanical model that will unveil the size of fundamental particles such as the electron. The result of this research indicates that the diameter of the electron is smaller or equal than 10 times the Planck length, approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[542] **viXra:1406.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-09 19:31:41*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect quantum mechanics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of an information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. It has been suggested that quantum mechanics should be complemented by the intelligent particle as an independent entity, and that will be the necessary step to physics of Life. At this stage, the intelligent particle is introduced as an abstract mathematical concept that is satisfied only mathematical rules and assumptions, and its physical representation is still an open problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[541] **viXra:1406.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-05 01:16:43*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Generalizing Bell 1964:(15) to realizable experiments, CHSH (1969) coined the term “Bell's theorem”. Since the results of such experiments (eg, see Aspect 2002) contradict Bell's theorem: at least one step in his supposedly commonsense analysis must be false. Using undergraduate maths and logic, we find a mathematical error, a false equality, in Bell (1964). Uncorrected, and therefore continuing, this error undermines all of Bell's EPR-based analysis and many later variants, rendering them false. We can therefore predict with certainty that all loophole-free EPRB-style experiments will also give the lie to Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[540] **viXra:1406.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 08:37:05*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 32 Pages. 32

There is still large uncertainty on the foundation of Black hole theory principles even recently created by new ideas of Stephen Hawking and others,
As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a new Black Hole alternative model already described in my Vixra recorded Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form). It seems to be crucial for the interpretation and solution of a number of unsolved physics problems, from quantum to astronomical scales.
This new black hole model has a major impact on how we could interpret the universe as a real raspberry shaped Charge Parity symmetric multiverse with full entanglement down to each anti-copy mirror quantum at long distant to solve the way God plays dice with dual entangled dice inside distant copy universe.
At the same time I found possibilities to compare these ideas as possible answers on well known physics problems such as described at the Wikipedia site.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[539] **viXra:1406.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 11:17:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
A diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[538] **viXra:1406.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 05:50:28*

**Authors:** Ugo Fabbri

**Comments:** 77 Pages. freelance researcher, work recognised in the proceedings of the 92nd SIF Congress, Turin 2006, p. 93. See also: FQXi “Genesis: The Origin of Quarks, From the Number Alpha to the Materiality of the Universe”

Galileo was convinced that the book of the Universe was “written in the language of mathematics, [whose] characters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth” [1].
Similarly, Albert Einstein, at a conference at Kyoto University in 1922, stated: “The fundamentals of geometry have a physical significance” [2].
These observations, made by the two noble fathers of modern physics, have the potential to subvert the standard perspective of present-day science. The principal of complementarity has, however, been underestimated and has not produced the effects that it might.
In contrast, the holistic theory of limits (unknown in the literature) – in ideal continuity with Galileo and Einstein – unifies the quantum fundamentals of geometry with the laws of physics and creates the initial conditions for elaborating a theory of the Whole that can describe physical reality in a unitary context and on all scales of magnitude.
In accordance with the premise, the holistic theory of limits enunciates the following theorem:
The interaction of a flow of radial energy with the fundamentals of geometry generates a virtual quantum configuration (of ideally spherical symmetry) known otherwise in the literature as quantum void. This configuration is the geometrical locus within which energy is converted into corresponding mass and where the principal physical-numerical magnitudes that confer materiality to the Universe, from quarks to the universal physical constants, are generated.
The dynamics of events thus triggered generate the number alpha, fine structure constant, dominus of the universe (said by Nobel laureate Feynman to be “one of the most enigmatic riddles”).
Einstein spent the last years of his life in a vain attempt to find a theory capable of unifying the electromagnetic field with the interaction of gravity: the holistic theory provides the trigonometric solution of the phenomenon.
Geoffrey Chew, a pupil of Fermi, asserted that the universe was unitary, everything in it being correlated with the Whole. The holistic theory of limits extends that theory from the infinitely great to the microcosm, and this unification makes it possible to reconstruct the shared origin of matter and of the interaction of gravity.
The results shown have been obtained by applying the multidisciplinary method of inquiry suggested by Descartes.
[1] Galileo Galilei, Il Saggiatore, 1623. chap. VI (published in English under the title The Assayer, translation by Stillman Drake, 1957).
[2] ex multis: A. Einstein Come io vedo il mondo Ed. Newton p.45, 92, University of Bologna progettomatematica.dm.unibo.it/NonEuclidea/File/ellittica6.htm

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[537] **viXra:1406.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-01 02:43:16*

**Authors:** Xue -You Lee

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Geometrical optics has high similarity with classical particle mechanics. After first
quantization program classical particle mechanics can obtain non-relativistic quantum mechanics
that suitable for micro, but quantum mechanics does not describe the photon that its static mass is zero. So whether there is a kind of "quantization" approach for geometrical optics, by which non-relativistic quantum mechanics that can be used to describe the photon can be obtained. It’s quantum mechanics of photon similar to the Schrödinger wave mechanics under the neglection of
the formation and annihilation of photon. In this paper, several methods that can be used to find
the first quantization theory of photon are given.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[536] **viXra:1405.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 10:57:06*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

David Mermin, sans le dire met en évidence une faille importante chez Einstein à propos du 'maintenant'. Depuis 2006, je propose d'attribuer une essence, une épaisseur au 'maintenant' quantifiable de l'ordre de 10-25s ou moins encore. Pour le reste D. Mermin se trompe avec les QBists...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[535] **viXra:1405.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 08:39:27*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Les QBist proposent de prendre en compte,la subjectivité, la 'présence', du sujet pensant pour expliquer les bizarreries de la mécanique quantique. C'est intéressant parce qu'ils lèvent un tabou. Mais leur hypothèse est superficielle parce qu'il faut prendre en compte la 'Présence' avec un p majuscule.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[534] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 08:48:43*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 185 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is based on a selected set of first principles and this foundation is extended by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The target of this project is a model that shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality.
With other words the model is completely deduced. In advance the model is not called a model of physics. After a set of extension steps the model reaches some interesting results. At that instance a discussion might be started whether the model can be used as a model of physics. However, it is impossible to prove that this model gives a correct view of physical reality. In fact the models of contemporary physics face the same restriction.
For this reason the project is formatted as a game. The participants of the game start with formulating well selected first principles and extend this foundation with trustworthy methods such that the target model shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality. In this way the Hilbert Book Model is just an instance of this game.
The reader is invited to join the game or investigate and criticize the HBM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[533] **viXra:1405.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 07:15:31*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** German Version of viXra:1405.0281. 21 pages without titlepage, 14 without titlepage and appendix

Quantum theory (QT) which is one@@ of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider shortly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[532] **viXra:1405.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 06:20:33*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is common amongst the bigoted elite physicists and mathematicians to dismiss radical written by a non-famous, non-Nobel Laureate as mere worthless “opinion”, without bothering to waste time reading it to either bother to find out whether it is based on facts and proof tested or not. Then they close down the discussion and refuse to enter further correspondence. So this paper consists entirely of a short quotation from Murray Gell-Mann’s very poorly organized book The Quark and the Jaguar, published in 1994, disproving popular superstition/fairy tale quantum entanglement hypers and media sponsors.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[531] **viXra:1405.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-22 20:23:31*

**Authors:** Luis Gregorio Navarro Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Morales Rojas, Gabriela Peralta Diaz, Adrian Gonzalez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Spanish language

En la presente práctica se muestra la distribución espacial y de momentos de un haz cuántico, de una fuente BBO (Beta-Borato de Bario) que produce un par de haces mediante conversión paramétrica descendente espontánea a partir de la excitación de un láser de 405 nm. Los haces se definen como cuánticos pues está presente una estadística de detección y coincidencias, que nos permite distinguir fotones individuales.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[530] **viXra:1405.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-21 20:21:49*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper points out that the negative energy solutions of the Dirac
equation are inconsistent with the observed characteristics of the
positron. It also notes that the Dirac equation is not a quantum
representation of the relativistic expression for the kinetic plus rest
energy of a moving charge.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[529] **viXra:1405.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-21 10:24:56*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** 14 pages without appendix (additional 7 pages)

Quantum theory (QT) which is one of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider shortly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[528] **viXra:1405.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 10:37:47*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 90 pages, 64 eqs, 44 refs; published Russian translation of arXiv:physics/0601140; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 11(3) (2013) 437-517

The universal symmetry, or conservation, of complexity underlies any law or principle of system dynamics and describes the unceasing transformation of dynamic information into dynamic entropy as the unique way to conserve their sum, the total dynamic complexity. Here we describe the real world structure emergence and dynamics as manifestation of the universal symmetry of complexity of initially homogeneous interaction between two protofields. It provides the unified complex-dynamic, causally complete origin of physically real, 3D space, time, elementary particles, their properties (mass, charge, spin, etc.), quantum, relativistic, and classical behaviour, as well as fundamental interaction forces, including naturally quantized gravitation. The old and new cosmological problems (including "dark" mass and energy) are basically solved for this explicitly emerging, self-tuning world structure characterised by strictly positive (and large) energy-complexity. A general relation is obtained between the numbers of world dimensions and fundamental forces, excluding plausible existence of hidden dimensions. The unified, causally explained quantum, classical, and relativistic properties (and types of behaviour) are generalised to all higher levels of complex world dynamics. The real world structure, dynamics, and evolution are exactly reproduced by the probabilistic dynamical fractal, which is obtained as the truly complete general solution of a problem and the unique structure of the new mathematics of complexity. We outline particular, problem-solving applications of always exact, but irregularly structured symmetry of unreduced dynamic complexity to microworld dynamics, including particle physics, genuine quantum chaos, real nanobiotechnology, and reliable genomics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[527] **viXra:1405.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 06:13:09*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The following work demonstrates that any change in an observer's time dimension is brought about as the result of a probabilistic quantum event whose outcome is uncertain in one direction and deterministic in the other. From this it is established that the Big Bang does not have a cause in the traditional sense, but rather is a consequence of a random quantum fluctuation that occurs when the Universe is in a state of Heat Death. Furthermore, it is established that when quantum particles are fully entangled, from the perspective of the entangled particles, the space between them does not emerge until their coherence has been altered, such that Special Relativity is not violated as a result of an instantaneous transmission of information. Based on the aforementioned quantum nature of both space and time, it is suggested that a quantum explanation of gravitation is most likely to be found by understanding the magnitude of coherence between the quantum fields of macroscopic objects. Causes of gravitational acceleration and time dilation are explained in terms of the magnitude of quantum coherence between the gravitating bodies.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[526] **viXra:1405.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 15:17:45*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The current spdf-QM electron orbital model is a forced one based on the precepts of a spherical starting point that requires that macro-physical laws no longer apply. For atoms to actually bond to one another, atomic orbitals have to be “hybridized”. π-bonds formed by overlapped, unhybridized, p-orbitals may make sense mathematically, assuming spin-reversal electron pairing actually occurs, but the nebulous clouds hardly make sense from a 3D, real world, perspective with mobile, interacting electrons. This paper looks at the sp-QM orbital hybridization from a 3D perspective, carries that hybridization a step further with split p's, and offers an alternative.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[525] **viXra:1405.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 20:59:57*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Rejected as a submission to FQXi2014 essay contest

FQXi 2014 asks, ‘How should humanity steer the future?' Recalling false obstacles to medical progress in humanity's recent past — eg, impeding Semmelweis (b.1818), McClintock (1902), Marshall (1951) — we reply, ‘Steer by Logic.' Then — with Logic in view and other scientific disciplines in mind — we amplify our answer via an online coaching-clinic/challenge based on Einstein's work. With the future mostly physical, this physics-based challenge shows how we best steer clear of false obstacles — unnecessary barriers that slow humanity's progress. Hoping to motivate others to participate, here's our position: we locate current peer-reviewed claims of ‘impossible' — like those from days of old — and we challenge them via refutations and experimental verifications. The case-study identifies an academic tradition replete with ‘impossibility-proofs' — with this bonus: many such ‘proofs' are challengeable via undergraduate maths and logic. So — at the core of this clinic/challenge; taking maths to be the best logic — we model each situation in agreed mathematical terms, then refute each obstacle in like terms. Of course, upon finding ‘impossibilities' that are contradicted by experiments, our next stride is easy: at least one step in such analyses must be false. So — applying old-fashioned commonsense; ie, experimentally verifiable Logic — we find that false step and correct it. With reputable experiments agreeing with our corrections, we thus negate the false obstacles. Graduates of the clinic can therefore more confidently engage in steering our common future: secure in the knowledge that old-fashioned commonsense — genuine Logic — steers well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[524] **viXra:1405.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 07:57:28*

**Authors:** John P. Wallace, Michael J. Wallace

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In a study of magnetic losses in iron and steel a relativistic longitudinal spin wave was found. The exceedingly small mass and large scale of the spin wave requires an accurate relativistic description for a boson. Because of these characteristics it forms a state that is decoupled from property variations of the substrate and is only weakly dissipated. In the effort to explain the behavior of this spin wave an elementary quantum representation of a relativistic particle was found to be provided by a differential equation which produces two solutions: one for boson family and one for fermions. This local statistical quantum state equation derived from the massless dispersion relation provides a general mechanism for obtaining a statistical and symmetry description required for the definition of a quantum particle. The analysis allowed confirmation of the mass of the longitudinal spin wave from the original experimental measurements. The analysis required introducing a new frame of reference where the particles properties are generated and this allowed the integration of relativity into the quantum mechanical description as a consequence.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[523] **viXra:1405.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 21:54:17*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Rejected by a certain journal with the reason as same as http://vixra.org/abs/1312.0097

We present a new explanation for a quantum eraser. The erasure and reappearance of an interference pattern have been explained that a revolvable linear polarizer erases or marks the information of "which-path markers", which indicate the photon path. Mathematical description of the traditional explanation requires quantum-superposition states. However, the phenomenon can be explained without quantum-superposition states by introducing non-localized potentials which can be identified as an indefinite metric vector with zero probability amplitude. In addition, a delayed choice experiment can also be explained without entangled states under the assumption that an definite orientation of the non-localized potentials configured by a setup of the experiment determines the polarization of the photon pairs in advance.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[522] **viXra:1404.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-30 03:05:50*

**Authors:** Anurag Pallaprolu

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Quantum computing, NMR Quantum Computers, Ensemble Computing

This document is submitted as a partial requirement for the
course Quantum Information and Computing, BITS Pilani. The
phenomenon of NMR can be used to generate spin states of nuclei
and these can be used as qubits for computational purposes, the
speciality being, an ensemble of molecules must be utilized. This allows for an exponentiation in the processing power of the computer. The document explains about the setup, measurement and initialization of an NMR quantum computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[521] **viXra:1404.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 13:14:49*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Outline of the method. More updates and analysis in due course.

A technique is presented for improving the ratio of entangled photons to un-entangled photons for any means of generation. The approach takes advantage of the entangled nature of the photons of interest and their concomitant temporal coherence length, to separate that component by a combination of beam convergence, destructive interference, Faraday-Rotators, polarising filters and then beam divergence. The method applies to energy-time entangled photons and matter waves too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[520] **viXra:1404.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-23 13:00:25*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper was written for the general public and it outlines the basics of General Keplerian Dynamics (GKD). GKD is based on the work of Nikola Tesla's dynamic theory of gravity (what is available under the FOIA) and it is the only publically available GUT from which novel technology is currently being developed. Not only can GKD be proven experimentally [ctrl+click to open in a new tab], but it also has the power of prediction [ctrl+click]. If you are an experimental physicist who would like to prove/disprove GKD, please visit the pending predictions section within the links above. This document gets updated periodically and the latest date of publication was on 04/23/14.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[519] **viXra:1404.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-16 06:43:02*

**Authors:** Koji Sugiyama

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

We try to derive the Born rule from the many-worlds interpretation in this paper.

Although many researchers have tried to derive the Born rule (probability interpretation) from Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI), it has not resulted in the success. For this reason, derivation of the Born rule had become an important issue of MWI. We try to derive the Born rule by introducing an elementary event of probability theory to the quantum theory as a new method.

We interpret the wave function as a manifold like a torus, and interpret the absolute value of the wave function as the surface area of the manifold. We put points on the surface of the manifold at a fixed interval. We interpret each point as a state that we cannot divide any more, an elementary state. We draw an arrow from any point to any point. We interpret each arrow as an event that we cannot divide any more, an elementary event.

Probability is proportional to the number of elementary events, and the number of elementary events is the square of the number of elementary state. The number of elementary states is proportional to the surface area of the manifold, and the surface area of the manifold is the absolute value of the wave function. Therefore, the probability is proportional to the absolute square of the wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[518] **viXra:1404.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-13 17:03:03*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One of the most important open questions in physics is the possibility of reconciliation, and perhaps unification, between quantum theory and relativity theory. Here I show that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle, termed Complete Relativity, reconciles with quantum mechanics at significant meeting points: It explains the quantum criticality at the Golden Ratio. More importantly, it confirms with Planck's energy. These results are quite astounding, given the fact that Complete Relativity, like Special Relativity, is a deterministic model of the dynamics of moving bodies. An application of the theory to cosmology, discussed in a recent paper, revealed that it yields definitions of dark matter and dark energy, and predicts the contents of the universe with impressive accuracy. Taken together, these results raise the exciting possibility that physics at the quantum scale, and at the cosmological scale, are the two faces of one coin: The coin of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[517] **viXra:1404.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 13:48:49*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new class of dynamical systems with a preset type of interference of probabilities is introduced. It is obtained from the extension of the Madelung equation by replacing the quantum potential with a specially selected feedback from the Liouville equation. It has been proved that these systems are different from both Newtonian and quantum systems, but they can be useful for modeling spontaneous collective novelty phenomena when emerging outputs are qualitatively different from the weighted sum of individual inputs. Formation of language and fast decision-making process as potential applications of the probability interference is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[516] **viXra:1404.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 04:33:32*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. публикация на русском языке: "ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ СИЛЫ КАЗИМИРА ДЛЯ УПРАВЛЯЕМОГО ДВИЖЕНИЯ МАКРОТЕЛ", 31-03-2014, http://science.snauka.ru/2014/03/6710

Considered the Casimir effect for construction «angle bar». Theoretically discovered uncompensated force in the direction from the top of the angle bar to its opening angle. Assessment of the magnitude of this force.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[515] **viXra:1404.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 16:06:56*

**Authors:** Alexander Zaslavsky

**Comments:** 20 Pages

The conditions of arising and some effects of physical phenomenon that may be found in the process of observing high energy particles are considered in this work. This phenomenon is
consequence of time discreteness. When the repetition frequency of a particle discrete state proves to be commensurable with its own frequency (energy), the aliasing effect of its wave function may take place. The wave function aliasing limits the particle energy spectrum giving rise to the uninvestigated abnormal modes of movement. In view of the fact the discreteness of particle states at a time is a prerequisite for aliasing, the effect under consideration, in case of its experimental verification, may serve a proof of this discreteness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[514] **viXra:1404.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 13:09:53*

**Authors:** Stefan Freundt

**Comments:** 19 Pages. German language

As Richard Feynman said roughly 50 years after discovering quantum mechanics:
"On the other hand, I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics."
And to this day, no one has yet found a good explanation for wave-particle duality, nonlocality or wave function collapse.
The discussion seems rather to have been resolved and no longer to be so important.
The success is too great, and the level of precision too high with which predictions can be made using quantum mechanics
and subsequent theories (quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics).
This is absolutely sufficient for an engineer. He can use this knowledge to build laser diodes and make the world a better place.
Physicians, however, who want to know "what holds the world together in its inmost folds", will seek an interpretation
of the wave function. And these physicians have been puzzling their brains for approximately 100 years without any success.
The same mathematics which helps quantum mechanics make their precise predictions, however, also provide a way out of this dilemma.
This approach frees us from interpreting wave-particle duality and explaining wave function collapse.
In return, however, it questions all differential calculus approaches used as well as our continuous space.
It calls for a search for a relativistic ether and for a structure of elementary particles.
"Auf der anderen Seite denke ich, es ist sicher zu sagen, niemand versteht Quantenmechanik."
Dies äußert Richard Feynman ca. 50 Jahre nach ihrer Entdeckung.
Und bis heute hat niemand eine gute Erklärung für den Welle-Teilchen-Dualismus,
die Nichtlokalität, den Kollaps der Wellenfunktion... gefunden. Die Diskussion scheint eher beigelegt und nicht mehr so wichtig.
Zu groß sind die Erfolge, zu hoch ist die Genauigkeit, mit der Vorhersagen in der Quantenmechanik und den Nachfolgetheorien
(Quantenelektrodynamik und Quantenchromodynamik) gemacht werden können.
Für einen Ingenieur ist dies vollkommen ausreichend. Er kann mit diesem Wissen Laserdioden bauen und die Welt verbessern.
Aber ein Physiker, der wissen will, "was die Welt im Innersten zusammenhält",
wird nach einer Interpretation der Wellenfunktion fragen. Und diese Physiker zerbrechen sich schon seit ca. 100 Jahren ergebnislos den Kopf.
Dabei liefert die gleiche Mathematik, die der Quantenmechanik zu ihren genauen Vorhersagen verhilft, auch einen Ausweg aus obigem Dilemma.
Dieser Ansatz befreit von einer Interpretation des Welle-Teilchen-Dualismus und einer Erklärung des Kollaps der Wellenfunktion.
Er stellt im Gegenzug aber die gesamte verwendete Differentialrechnung und unseren kontinuierlichen Raum in Frage.
Es wird zur Suche nach einem relativistischen Äther und einer Struktur der Elementarteilchen aufgefordert.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[513] **viXra:1404.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:10:24*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[512] **viXra:1404.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 08:21:37*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward “Volume density functional theory (VDFT).”

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[511] **viXra:1404.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 12:11:47*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two unsolved problems in quantum mechanics are addressed: a source of randomness and an origin of entanglement. These problems being hidden in the Schrödinger equations became transparent in its Madelung version. Special attention is concentrated on equivalence between the Schrodinger and the Madelung equations.
It has been demonstrated that randomness in quantum mechanics has the same mathematical source as that in turbulence and chaos, and the origin of entanglement is the global constraint imposed by the normalization constraint of the probability density that becomes an additional variable in the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[510] **viXra:1404.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-08 08:56:58*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on the improved design of Four-photon entanglement device and the definition of
Encoding rules, Decoding rules and Error correction rules, we could be able to achieve the
information transmission in the quantum channel directly, and lead to the superluminal
communication result.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[509] **viXra:1404.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 23:35:18*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is one thing to draw lobes for electrons with the understanding that one does not know what is going on inside those lobes. It is something entirely different to indicate that those lobes are filled with clouds or bits of electron presence! The wave approach to indicate an electron’s path is quite appropriate, however. Electron movement is well defined per the precise spectral data generated. Movement of electrons to and fro within and between atoms will be on well-defined pathways with their electrostatic fields moving with them. The movement of an electrostatic field is illustrated as its associated particle moves along an elliptical path.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[508] **viXra:1403.0962 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-29 03:04:16*

**Authors:** Keith Ferrer

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The quantization of electromagnetic radiation can be interpreted based on the relativistic properties of light waves given its constant velocity relative to bodies that are slower than them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[507] **viXra:1403.0960 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 11:27:39*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The bonding of the hydrogen atom in the B—H—B sequence of diborane is just a standard overlapping of atomic orbitals. With the MCAS model, hydrogen naturally has the capacity to form linear and non-linear bonds between two atoms, when necessary. There is no need for the nebulous 3-center, two-electron, bond that has been used to honor the unassailable s-orbital of the spdf-QM model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[506] **viXra:1403.0952 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 10:23:57*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I present an analysis of the quantum erasing effect which categorizes the effect into attenuating and non-attenuating phenomena. It is shown that the attenuating quantum eraser is typically explained in a spurious fashion, and insight is given concerning the real phenomenon of interference between distinguishable states that would properly explain the attenuating eraser.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[505] **viXra:1403.0950 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 12:09:57*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In classical electrodynamics the vacuum is defined as a region where there are no electric or magnetic fields. In such a region, a charged particle (such as an electron) will feel no effect — the Lorentz force is zero. The space external to a perfect (i.e., infinite) solenoid can be considered an electromagnetic vacuum, since E and B vanish there. While a non-zero vector potential A does exist outside the solenoid, it can exert no influence on the particle, and thus cannot be directly detected or quantified classically. However, in 1959 Aharonov and Bohm predicted that a vector field would exert a purely quantum-mechanical effect on the phase of the particle’s wave function, which
in principle should be detectable. The predicted phase shift was not observed experimentally until 1986, when Tonomura brilliantly verified the effect using a microscopic solenoid. This paper provides a simplified explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect using a path-integral approach that is suitable for the advanced undergraduate.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[504] **viXra:1403.0947 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 08:07:08*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven-page-letter

The particle-interference-experiments, with the photons and electrons have clearly shown that they are always detected as localized ‘particles’; and the density of their detections exhibit a pattern similar to the interference of waves. This experimental-observation is now explained here, making the current, ‘probabilistic interpretation’, a past history. The ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized as an ‘impulse function’ in space; and then Fourier-transformed into the wave-number-domain, as a wide band of constituent-waves as shown in the fig. 1&2. The ‘particle’ is explained as an ‘event’ of constructive-superimposition of a wide band of ‘pre-quantum-waves’. This ‘event’ occurs in space at regular distances; and at regular instances in time. We know that even the purest monochromatic laser source has a ‘line-width’ of a few Giga-Hertz, or at least a few kilo-Hertz. So in the particle-interference-experiments, they are these wide bands of waves which pass through both the slits, even in the case of single photon states, and interfere physically. This physical interference of the wide bands of pre-quantum-waves determines the position and time of emergence of the ‘particle’. Thus, form the theoretical view-point, there are only the waves, and waves alone; and the ‘particle’ is a specific situation of constructive-superimposition of all the spectral-components of pre-quantum-waves; so there is no wave-particle-duality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[503] **viXra:1403.0929 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-25 02:08:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page-letter

While the experiments have shown similar wave-nature of matter-particles and photons, there are two different formulae for finding Relativistic-increase of energy of massive-particles and photons. This paper presents a unification of the two different formulae, in terms of Doppler-shifts of waves; leading to an insight that the ‘particles-of-matter’ seem to be the ‘standing-waves’; and de-Broglie’s ‘matter-waves’, and ‘quantum-mechanical-waves’ are ‘envelop-variations’ of the actual, more-fundamental waves.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[502] **viXra:1403.0924 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 08:59:31*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 pages

We discuss whether the
Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories.
We discuss that the existence of
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out
the existence of probability space of
specific quantum measurement.
If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then measurement outcome is $+1$.
If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then measurement outcome is $-1$.
This hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory.
This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the specific
hidden-variables theory.
And we study whether quantum phase factor
accepts hidden-variables theories.
We use the transition probability for
two spin-1/2 pure states $(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$
and
$(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$.
It is $\cos^2(\theta/2)$.
We discuss that the phase factor does not accept another specific
hidden-variables theory.
We explore the phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical.
Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing
which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[305] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-27 02:02:51*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page paper

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has some “diameter”, in stead of being a ‘point-particle’ of mathematical zero dimension; and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its “diameter” experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c /∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the ‘expansion of spectrum’ in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction.] Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in ref. [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places. And the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide band of waves will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded wide band, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[304] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 01:55:36*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A five-page letter

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the expansion of spectrum in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places; and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves, contained in the expanded band ∆ω, will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded band by ∆ω, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[303] **viXra:1407.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 01:33:25*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A Single-page Note

Quantum mechanical wave function predicts probabilities of finding a ‘particle’ at different points in space, but at the time of detection a particle is detected only at one place. The question is: how this place gets decided, and can be predicted. To seek answer to this, we assume here that a ‘particle’ has a ‘diameter’ equal to its ‘Compton-wavelength’, and depending upon the relative velocity between this particle and observer, its Compton-wavelength experiences ‘Relativistic length-contraction’. Then we Fourier-transform this ‘length-contraction’ in ‘space-domain’ into ‘spectral-expansion’ ∆ω in ‘frequency-domain’, and find that momentum of a particle can be expressed as: m v = h ∆ω / 2 π c, and de Broglie’s wavelength, λB = 2 π c / ∆ω ; as was derived in [ref.1 and 2. In the ref-2 it was shown that: in fact it is the expansion of spectrum in the frequency-domain, which is the physical-cause for the Relativistic length-contraction]. Then we notice that the frequency-domain translation of the particle’s length in space-domain has a continuous spectrum; i.e. it contains a set of frequencies ranging from ωmax to ωmin . Therefore, as we found in my previous paper [3], this wide set of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space, and mutually nullify their amplitudes at rest of the places; and the place at which all the spectral-components of the wide set of waves, contained in the expanded band ∆ω, will add constructively, will depend on the relative phase of all the spectral components. It is proposed here, that we need to know the relative phase angles of every spectral-component contained in the wide set of waves contained in the expanded band by ∆ω, for predicting the exact place of detection of the ‘particle'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[302] **viXra:1407.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-17 14:30:56*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In 2012 I formulated the Scale Principle or Scale Law which was published electronically in May this year. The origins of the fine structure constant are unveiled along with the origins of several laws of physics. Three different observations suggest that there is a common origin behind them. Then the author proposes an answer to the question: Where do the laws of physics come from?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[301] **viXra:1407.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 17:53:34*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Earlier this year (May) I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In this paper I formulated a new law which describes a number of fundamental quantum mechanical laws. Since then I found that other quantum mechanical laws including the Bohr postulate and the De Broglie wavelength formula also obey the scale principle. Later I proved that this new law also describes the formula for the Schwarzschild radius, the equation for Einstein’s relativistic energy and Newton’s law of universal gravitation. Now I discovered that the Schrödinger’s equation can also be explained in terms of the present formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[300] **viXra:1407.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 23:57:07*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A six-page letter

This letter attempts to propose explanations for the century-old puzzle which thousands of physicists, including Einstein, Plank, Feynman …have been trying to resolve. A ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized here as an impulse-function in space; and then Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain; showing that a ‘particle’ contains a ‘set’ of waves, and not just a single frequency. Then a small ‘set’ of waves is taken and its sum is plotted showing that at most of the places the wave-amplitudes mutually nullify each-other and constructively add only at discrete points in space and time; agreeing with our mathematical characterization. Then we show that in the experiments performed so far the red lasers had at least a few thousand Hz wide line-width; means the sources have been producing a wide set of waves, and not just a pure single frequency. Similarly, in the single-particle interference-experiments incandescent filament-lamps were used with green filters inserted to isolate single photons; but it is obvious that at the frequencies of light very narrow-band-filters are not yet technically feasible, so the green filters used allowed significantly wide band of waves. This wide band of waves passed from both the slits, interfered like waves, and whenever and wherever they got coherently added, a ‘particle’ called ‘photon’ got detected.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[299] **viXra:1407.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-24 09:13:26*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Because of found mistakes, which we are lazy to correct, we need to check and recheck the foundations of Physics. As example of mistakes: "all" scientists used solution of dust collapse almost century, but it was wrong [Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1473-84, 2010]. Honest work on the errors, as I understand, has not begun. You postpone everything until the Second Coming? But God speaks: Matthew 25:26.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[298] **viXra:1407.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-21 00:40:57*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Because of found mistakes, which we are lazy to correct, we need to check and recheck the foundations of Physics. As example of mistakes: "all" scientists used solution of dust collapse almost century, but it was wrong [Journal of Cosmology, 6, 1473-84, 2010]. Honest work on the errors, as I understand, has not begun. You postpone everything until the Second Coming? But God speaks: Matthew 25:26.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[297] **viXra:1407.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 02:57:56*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 15 Pages. 15

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of Quantum Knots or Dark Matter particles with the characteristic of small fireballs or Ball Lightning often observed in the natural environment..
According to Quantum FFF Theory, Black holes (micro and macro) are the origin of all universal dark matter phenomena.
As a consequence the tunnelling energy bullets are also a first sign of microscopic Dark Matter in the Lab.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[296] **viXra:1406.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 05:01:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nearly all tools that quantum physicists use are in some way based on the concept of the wave function. This means that such tools deliver a blurred view of the fine grain structures and fine grain behavior that these tools describe. This appears no handicap for applied physics. The tools fill the complete need of applied quantum physics. However, the blurred view hampers the search for the origins of features and phenomena, because they must be sought in the fine grain structure and the fine grain behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[295] **viXra:1406.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-30 16:37:04*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Nearly all tools that quantum physicists use are in some way based on the concept of the wave function. This means that such tools deliver a blurred view of the fine grain structures and fine grain behavior that these tools describe. This appears no handicap for applied physics. The tools fill the complete need of applied quantum physics. However, the blurred view hampers the search for the origins of features and phenomena, because they must be sought in the fine grain structure and the fine grain behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[294] **viXra:1406.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-06 04:18:58*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 3pages. Chapter of "generalization for vector space" is added in v2.

Indefinite metric vectors are absolutely required as the physical states in Minkowski space because that is indefinite metric space and the physical space-time. For example, Maxwell equations are wave equations in Minkowski space.
However, traditional Quantum theory ordinarily has been studied only in definite metric space, i.e., Hilbert space. There are no clear expression for indefinite metric vectors.
Here we show a wave function example using Dirac's delta function for indefinite metric vectors in Minkowski space. In addition, we show the vectors can interfere with itself.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[293] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-10 12:49:32*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

a slideshow/presentation file outlining of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[292] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-01 09:50:03*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

an outline of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[291] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-26 09:33:05*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 50 Pages. a presentation file, 50 slides - powerpoint file available from the author

an outline of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[290] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-24 23:00:36*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 45 Pages. presentation file - 45 slides

Presentation outlining the history of generalized quantum impedances, and application of the impedance concept to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox (2013 Rochester Conference on Quantum Information and Measurement), time symmetry in QM (2014 Berlin Conference on QIM), quantum interpretation of the impedance model (ditto Berlin), the chiral anomaly, axions,...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[289] **viXra:1406.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-25 15:55:37*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present article introduces a numerological expression for the electron spin g-factor.
This formula is accurate to twelve decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[288] **viXra:1406.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 11:35:46*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect quantum mechanics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of an information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. It has been suggested that quantum mechanics should be complemented by the intelligent particle as an independent entity, and that will be the necessary step to physics of Life. At this stage, the intelligent particle is introduced as an abstract mathematical concept that is satisfied only mathematical rules and assumptions, and its physical representation is still an open problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[287] **viXra:1406.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 06:23:27*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Generalizing Bell 1964:(15) to realizable experiments, CHSH (1969) coined the term “Bell's theorem”. Despite loopholes, but as expected, the results of such experiments contradict Bell's theorem to our total satisfaction. Thus, for us, at least one step in Bell's supposedly commonsense analysis must be false. Using undergraduate maths and logic, we find a mathematical error in Bell (1964) --- a false equality, uncorrected and thus continuing, undermines all Bell-style EPRB-based analyses, rendering them false. We again therefore predict with certainty that all loophole-free EPRB-style experiments will also give the lie to Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[286] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 04:01:26*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 233 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is based on a selected set of first principles and this foundation is extended by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The target of this project is a model that shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality.
With other words the model is completely deduced. In advance the model is not called a model of physics. After a set of extension steps the model reaches some interesting results. At that instance a discussion might be started whether the model can be used as a model of physics. However, it is impossible to prove that this model gives a correct view of physical reality. In fact the models of contemporary physics face the same restriction.
For this reason the project is formatted as a game. The participants of the game start with formulating well selected first principles and extend this foundation with trustworthy methods such that the target model shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality. In this way the Hilbert Book Model is just an instance of this game.
The reader is invited to join the game or investigate and criticize the HBM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[285] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-26 17:01:10*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 228 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is based on a selected set of first principles and this foundation is extended by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The target of this project is a model that shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality.
With other words the model is completely deduced. In advance the model is not called a model of physics. After a set of extension steps the model reaches some interesting results. At that instance a discussion might be started whether the model can be used as a model of physics. However, it is impossible to prove that this model gives a correct view of physical reality. In fact the models of contemporary physics face the same restriction.
For this reason the project is formatted as a game. The participants of the game start with formulating well selected first principles and extend this foundation with trustworthy methods such that the target model shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality. In this way the Hilbert Book Model is just an instance of this game.
The reader is invited to join the game or investigate and criticize the HBM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[284] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-12 04:28:24*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 206 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[283] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-05 16:42:24*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 193 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[282] **viXra:1405.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 14:03:37*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** Contains 7 pages appendix

Quantum theory (QT) which is one of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider briefly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[281] **viXra:1405.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 22:55:30*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

FQXi 2014 asks, ‘How should humanity steer the future?' Recalling false obstacles to medical progress in humanity's recent past — eg, impeding Semmelweis (b.1818), McClintock (1902), Marshall (1951) — we reply, ‘Steer by Logic.' Then — with Logic in view and other scientific disciplines in mind — we amplify our answer via an online coaching-clinic/challenge based on Einstein's work. With the future mostly physical, this physics-based challenge shows how we best steer clear of false obstacles — unnecessary barriers that slow humanity's progress. Hoping to motivate others to participate, here's our position: we locate current peer-reviewed claims of ‘impossible' — like those from days of old — and we challenge them via refutations and experimental verifications. The case-study identifies an academic tradition replete with ‘impossibility-proofs' — with this bonus: many such ‘proofs' are challengeable via undergraduate maths and logic. So — at the core of this clinic/challenge; taking maths to be the best logic — we model each situation in agreed mathematical terms, then refute each obstacle in like terms. Of course, upon finding ‘impossibilities' that are contradicted by experiments, our next stride is easy: at least one step in such analyses must be false. So — applying old-fashioned commonsense; ie, experimentally verifiable Logic — we find that false step and correct it. With reputable experiments agreeing with our corrections, we thus negate the false obstacles. Graduates of the clinic can therefore more confidently engage in steering our common future: secure in the knowledge that old-fashioned commonsense — genuine Logic — steers well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[280] **viXra:1404.0450 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-30 22:20:40*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Updated version.

This paper was written for the general public and it outlines the basics of General Keplerian Dynamics (GKD). GKD is based on the work of Nikola Tesla (what is available under the FOIA) and it is the only publicly available GUT from which novel technology is currently being developed. Not only can GKD be proven experimentally [ctrl+click to open in a new tab], but it also has the power of prediction [ctrl+click]. If you are an experimental physicist who would like to prove/disprove GKD, please visit the pending predictions section within the links above. This document gets updated periodically and the latest date of publication was on 04/24/14.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[279] **viXra:1404.0285 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-29 08:43:30*

**Authors:** Koji Sugiyama

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

We derive the two-valuedness and the angular momentum of a spin-1/2 from a rotation of 3-dimensional surface of a sphere, in this paper.

We will derive the two-valuedness of the spin as follows.

We interpret the angle of rotation of the 3-sphere as the phase of a wave function. We interpret the 3-sphere as the absolute value of a wave function.

We can express 3-sphere as the manifold with a constant sum of squares of the radius of two circles. When one circle's radius becomes the maximum, the other circle's radius becomes zero. Therefore, we can turn the circle inside out naturally. If we combine the circle turned inside out with the original circle, the manifold becomes a torus with a node. If we rotate the node of the torus by 360 degrees, we can turn the torus inside out. If we rotate the node of the torus 720 degrees, we can return the torus to the original state. This property is consistent with the property of the spin.

We derive the angular momentum of the spin as follows.

We make 3-dimensional solid sphere by removing one point from 3-sphere. On the other hand, we can make boundary like a 3-sphere by removing one point from 3-dimensional space. We combine the boundaries of them. By repeating this, we can construct 3-dimensional helical space.

The angle of rotation of the 3-sphere is the angle of rotation of 3-dimensional helical space. In addition, we can interpret the angle of the rotation in the helical space as the coordinates of the normal 3-dimensional space. Therefore, we can interpret the angular momentum of the 3-sphere as the angular momentum of normal space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[278] **viXra:1404.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-20 15:45:32*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

One of the most important open questions in physics is the possibility of reconciliation, and perhaps unification, between quantum theory and relativity theory. Here I show that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle, termed Complete Relativity, reconciles with quantum mechanics at significant meeting points: It explains the quantum criticality at the Golden Ratio. More importantly, it confirms with Planck's energy. These results are quite astounding, given the fact that Complete Relativity, like Special Relativity, is a deterministic model of the dynamics of moving bodies. An application of the theory to cosmology, discussed in a recent paper, revealed that it yields definitions of dark matter and dark energy, and predicts the contents of the universe with impressive accuracy. Taken together, these results raise the exciting possibility that physics at the quantum scale, and at the cosmological scale, are the two faces of one coin: The coin of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[277] **viXra:1404.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-15 08:15:41*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

put forward “Volume density functional theory (VDFT).”

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[276] **viXra:1404.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-10 14:29:44*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on the improved design of Four-photon entanglement device and the definition of Encoding rules, Decoding rules and Error correction rules, we could be able to achieve the information transmission in the quantum channel directly, and lead to the superluminal communication result.

**Category:** Quantum Physics