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Any replacements are listed further down

[1098] **viXra:1605.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 03:20:17*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 6 pages

We study the relation between the Kochen-Specker theorem (the KS theorem) and
quantum computing.
The KS theorem rules out a realistic theory of the KS type.
We consider the realistic theory of the KS type
that the results of
measurements are either $+1$ or $-1$.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between the realistic theory of the KS type
and the controllability of quantum computing.
We have to give up the controllability
if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between the realistic theory of the KS type
and the observability of quantum computing.
We discuss
the
inconsistency by using the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to a Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
the realistic theory of the KS type to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a significant specific case.
The realistic theory of the KS type can not depicture quantum detector.
In short, we have to give up both the observability and the controllability
if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type.
Therefore the KS theorem is a precondition for quantum computing, i.e.,
the realistic theory of the KS type should be ruled out.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1097] **viXra:1604.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 03:52:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1096] **viXra:1604.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 14:05:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It might be said that the most difficult part of building a quantum computer is not figuring out how to make it compute, but rather finding a way to deal with all of the errors that it inevitably makes. Errors arise because of the constant interaction between the qubits and their environment, which can result in photon loss, which in turn causes the qubits to randomly flip to an incorrect state. [16]
Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15]
University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1095] **viXra:1604.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 03:05:44*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 12 pages; German language – Deutsch: Quantentheorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Modell zur anschaulichen Erklärung quantentheoretischer Effekte

This paper describes a physical model to intuitively explain quantum theoretical effects. The developed model describes a mechanism, which gives a logical sense to the calculation of probability amplitudes. Hence the double-slit experiment and Schrödinger’s cat become understandable. The here described model is an extension of the physical model described in the prior manuscript “Theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave”. That paper describes a model which postulates a particle as a real matter wave in a 4-dimensional and absolute space. With that theory it is possible to describe the relativistic effects in qualitatively and quantitatively accuracy.
The quantum theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave shows that this model already presages a way to explain the quantum theoretical effects. From the introduction of the long extent in the 4th dimension it is not far to a model in which a particle uses many paths simultaneously. It is a conclusive derivation of the quantum theoretical effects using the model to describe the relativistic effects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1094] **viXra:1604.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-27 16:37:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note we are rewriting the reduced mass formula into a form that potentially gives more intuition on what is truly behind the reduced mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1093] **viXra:1604.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-27 17:42:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this note we are simplifying the Klein--Gordon Equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1092] **viXra:1604.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 02:47:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1091] **viXra:1604.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 17:10:47*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Hodge Experiment was designed to support the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) particle model of the photon. It also rejected the wave models of light. The general model of light waves within the Hodge Experiment's conditions is shown to lead to unobserved effects. It also provides an insight into inertia. The STOE model of particles and the wave model of a continuous medium yield indistinguishable results for the screen image in the traditional diffraction experiment. Therefore, the Hodge Experiment provides a method to distinguish between a direct wave caused diffraction pattern and a particle caused diffraction pattern that resolves the wave--particle duality conundrum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1090] **viXra:1604.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 13:16:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1089] **viXra:1604.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 14:39:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1088] **viXra:1604.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 04:10:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Publishing in Nature Physics April 25, the scientists, led by Professor of Physics Mingzhong Wu in CSU's College of Natural Sciences, are the first to demonstrate using non-polarized light to produce in a metal what's called a spin voltage - a unit of power produced from the quantum spinning of an individual electron. Controlling electron spins for use in memory and logic applications is a relatively new field called spin electronics, or spintronics, and the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics. [12]
Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1087] **viXra:1604.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 07:01:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Small objects like electrons and atoms behave according to quantum mechanics, with quantum effects like superposition, entanglement and teleportation. One of the most intriguing questions in modern science is if large objects – like a coffee cup-could also show this behavior. Scientists at the TU Delft have taken the next step towards observing quantum effects at everyday temperatures in large objects. They created a highly reflective membrane, visible to the naked eye, that can vibrate with hardly any energy loss at room temperature. The membrane is a promising candidate to research quantum mechanics in large objects. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1086] **viXra:1604.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 09:38:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1085] **viXra:1604.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 05:47:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Quantum Tunneling Water Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1084] **viXra:1604.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 03:51:49*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

We investigate the violation factor of the Bell-Mermin inequality.
Until now, we use an assumption that the results of measurement are $\pm 1$.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is $2^{(n-1)/2}$.
The quantum predictions by $n$-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)
state violate
the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with $n$.
Recently, a new measurement theory based on the truth values is proposed.
The values of measurement outcome are either $+1$ or 0.
Here we use the new measurement theory.
We consider multipartite GHZ state.
It turns out that the
Bell-Mermin inequality is violated
by the amount of $2^{(n-1)/2}$.
The measurement theory based on the truth values provides
the maximum violation of the Bell-Mermin inequality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1083] **viXra:1604.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 04:03:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In a proof-of-principle experiment, researchers at UNSW Australia have demonstrated that a small group of individual atoms placed very precisely in silicon can act as a quantum simulator, mimicking nature-in this case, the weird quantum interactions of electrons in materials. [9] Dartmouth College and Griffith University researchers have devised a new way to "sense" and control external noise in quantum computing. Quantum computing may revolutionize information processing by providing a means to solve problems too complex for traditional computers, with applications in code breaking, materials science and physics, but figuring out how to engineer such a machine remains elusive. [8] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1082] **viXra:1604.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-22 08:36:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Experiments provide evidence for one-way quantum steering—an effect by which distant entangled systems can influence one another in a directional way. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1081] **viXra:1604.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-21 12:36:30*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Abstract:

Between 2008 and 2010, Tomasz Paterek et al published ingenious work linking quantum randomness with logical independence. From a foundational point of view, this is evidence that quantum randomness, and therefore indeterminacy, have mathematical origins. The logical independence of Paterek et al is seen in a system of Boolean propositions. Here, I explain the origins of that logical independence in terms of standard quantum theory, showing it has symmetry foundations in a ‘unitary switch’ -- and whose logic originates in logically circular

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, pure eigenstates, mixed states, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1080] **viXra:1604.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 14:00:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from across the country, led by Alexander Spott, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA, have built the first quantum cascade laser on silicon. The advance may have applications that span from chemical bond spectroscopy and gas sensing, to astronomy and free-space communications. [14] A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1079] **viXra:1604.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 10:40:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Quantum physics has a reputation for being mysterious and mathematically challenging. That makes it all the more surprising that a new technique to detect quantum behaviour relies on a familiar tool: a "zip" program you might have installed on your computer. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1078] **viXra:1604.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 02:02:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Dartmouth College and Griffith University researchers have devised a new way to "sense" and control external noise in quantum computing. Quantum computing may revolutionize information processing by providing a means to solve problems too complex for traditional computers, with applications in code breaking, materials science and physics, but figuring out how to engineer such a machine remains elusive. [8] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1077] **viXra:1604.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 03:49:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

While Bell inequalities have been proven to be an optimal tool for ruling out local realism in quantum experiments, Lucas Clemente and Johannes Kofler from the Theory Division of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) in Garching, Germany, have now shown that inequalities can never be optimal for tests of macroscopic realism. [11] Physicists have developed a new protocol to detect entanglement of many-particle quantum states using a much easier approach. The new protocol is particularly interesting for characterizing entanglement in systems involving many particles. These systems could help us not only to improve our understanding of matter but to develop measurement techniques beyond current existing technologies. [10] Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1076] **viXra:1604.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 13:04:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1075] **viXra:1604.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 13:20:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

RMIT University researchers have trialled a quantum processor capable of routing quantum information from different locations in a critical breakthrough for quantum computing. [12] EPFL scientists have built a single-atom magnet that is the most stable to-date. The breakthrough paves the way for the scalable production of miniature magnetic storage devices. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1074] **viXra:1604.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 13:47:45*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany.

In contrast to many other physical theories quantum mechanics is generally regarded as above any theory we have ever had and perhaps the best candidate for a universal and fundamental de-scription of objective realty as such. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is not the only aspect of the conceptual difference between quantum and classical physics but is certainly one of the most important and famous aspects of quantum mechanics. As we will see, quantum mechanics as a theory and especially Heisenberg's uncertainty principle challenges not only our imagination but violates some fundamental principles of classical logic as such. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is refuted.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1073] **viXra:1604.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 06:20:03*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I want to show that the formulation of the theory of relativity in the form of an integrated four-dimensional complex time , provides new insights into the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1072] **viXra:1604.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 07:51:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

EPFL scientists have built a single-atom magnet that is the most stable to-date. The breakthrough paves the way for the scalable production of miniature magnetic storage devices. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1071] **viXra:1604.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 06:59:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Advances in quantum communication will come from investment in hybrid technologies, explain Stefano Pirandola and Samuel L. Braunstein. [9] A University of Oklahoma-led team of physicists believes chip-based atomic physics holds promise to make the second quantum revolution-the engineering of quantum matter with arbitrary precision-a reality. With recent technological advances in fabrication and trapping, hybrid quantum systems are emerging as ideal platforms for a diverse range of studies in quantum control, quantum simulation and computing. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1070] **viXra:1604.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 07:10:02*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 17

In Quantum FFF Theory, it is postulated that the Einstein Rosen (ER) “bridging wormholes” between entangled particles are the guiding channels .for Einstein Podolski and Rosen (EPR) non local entanglement even at universal distances.
So; ER=EPR in the Multiverse and in the lab
My Supersymmetric Multiverse interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on the idea that NOT ALL POSSIBLE ALTERNATE HISTORIES of OUR UNIVERSE need to exist if there is instant mirror symmetrical wavefunction collapse in at least two distant (Charge and Parity) mirror symmetric universes.
So I postulate that ALL POSSIBLE ALTERNATE HISTORIES of OUR MULTIVERSE exist because there is instant mirror symmetrical wavefunction collapse in at least two distant (Charge and Parity) mirror symmetric universes.
So, then all alternate histories exist but have the same anti-copy result (inside different charged anti-copy universes).
Dual entangled Cats and anti-Cats in both universes, die or live instantly (superpositioned) without looking at them: they (the nuclear decay trigger) look to each other by long distant instant Quantum entanglement.
The Super symmetric Multiverse interpretation of quantum mechanics is also reason to introduce a different electric charged dark matter based black hole, spewed by the trillions out of the big bang and able to pair and split into Herbig Haro systems as the accelerator of star and galaxy formation.
However there are indications that small supernova black hole tend to gather in the center of galaxies not able to form Herbig Haro systems but to feed the newly formed supermassive black hole as the start of the big crunch.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1069] **viXra:1604.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 17:33:33*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Larmor formula at the Planck scale is simply the Planck power multiplied by $\frac{1}{2\pi}$. The Larmor formula is used to describe the total power radiated by charged particles that are accelerating or decelerating. \citet{Hau16h} has recently shown that the Coulomb's electrostatic force is the same (at least mathematically) as the gravitational force at the Planck scale. The findings in this paper strengthen the argument that electricity is not so special and that at the Planck scale, we likely only have one force and thereby only one power as well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1068] **viXra:1604.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 14:30:14*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016. >I am very grateful for the possiblity to be able to boykot arXiv.org<

Both from the points of view of recognition and understanding, the knowledge of fallacies can arm us against many kinds of mistakes and can help us to overcome serious scientific disagreements in a reasonable way. Being able to avoid or to detect fallacies can been viewed as a supplement to criteria of good scientific reasoning. Fallacies can be identified in several different ways. One way is to derive a logical contradiction such as +0 = +1. Still, a unified theory of fallacies giving us a systematic framework for demarcating fallacies and other kinds of mistakes is to be achieved. The present inquiry focuses on the logical and mathematical content of Bell's theorem. As we shall see, Bell's theorem itself is a false but popular belief, a deceptively bad argument. Bell's theorem is the most profound logical fallacy of physics and of science as such.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1067] **viXra:1604.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 09:44:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1066] **viXra:1604.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 04:46:06*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the celebrated 1964 paper of John Bell, the statement that "Quantum systems violate the Bell inequalities", [1,2], has a very large support among quantum physicists as well as others claiming some knowledge about quanta. Amusingly, it has so far escaped the general notice that, if indeed, quanta do violate that Bell inequalities, then - due to elementary facts of Logic - they must also violate {\it all} other valid mathematical relations, thus among them, the equation 0 = 0. Here the respective elementary facts of Logic are presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1065] **viXra:1604.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 07:28:22*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

n a recent series of papers [1, 2, 3] of this author, we generalized
quantum field theory to any curved spacetime. More in particular, in
[1] we derived the spin statistics theorem without appealing to anything
isomorphic to the vanishing of the field (anti-)commutatation relations
at spacelike distances. The correct propagators were derived by means
of other principles and no reference towards an operational approach has
ever been made; this casts into doubt the operational principle of quantum
causality since up till now it is widely believed to constitute a necessity
rather than just an axiom added to the theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1064] **viXra:1604.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 18:18:14*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain an analogue of the Einstein equations for the metric of quantum information theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1063] **viXra:1604.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 13:24:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In phase transitions, for instance between water and water vapor, the motional energy competes with the attractive energy between neighboring molecules. Physicists at ETH Zurich have now studied quantum phase transitions in which distant particles also influence one another. [14] A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1062] **viXra:1604.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 17:52:55*

**Authors:** Pal Sahota

**Comments:** 59 Pages.

The hypothesis re-introduces the concept of the Aether through tiny spinning negatively charged particles called alpha-negatrons with large spaces in between. This compressed medium forms a three dimensional crystalline structure in the shape of "The flower of life" and as a result the speed of propagation is fixed. Electromagnetic and gravity waves propagate through this medium utilizing compression / rarefaction and through the spinning action of these particles. The negatively charged electron spins around the nucleus and also on its own axis, perpendicular to its rotation around the nucleus. The nucleus spins on its own axis and the phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is proof of that fact. The movement of the alpha-negatron particles in different directions as a result of the spins of electron and the spinning action of the nucleus is responsible for the phenomenon of magnetism, gravitism, electromagnetic and gravity waves. Time is caused by the vibration energy inherent in these particles which links time with the velocity of light. Consciousness is a separate dimension like time. Consciousness is a manifestation of the alpha-positron particle, the positive counterpart of the alpha-negatron. Consciousness and time move in opposite directions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1061] **viXra:1604.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 03:25:16*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Recently in [3] it was shown that the so called Bell Inequalities are {\it irrelevant} in physics, to the extent that they are in fact {\it not} violated either by classical, or by quantum systems. This, as well known, is contrary to the claim of John Bell that the mentioned inequalities {\it would be} violated in certain quantum contexts. The relevant point to note in [3] in this regard is that Bell's mentioned claim, quite of a wider acceptance among quantum physicists, is due to a most simple, elementary and trivial {\it mistake} in handling some of the involved statistical data. A brief presentation, simplified perhaps to the maximum that still presents the essence of that mistake, can be found in [10], see also [9]. The present paper tries to help in finding a way to the understanding of the above by quantum physicists, an understanding which, typically, is obstructed by an instant and immense amount and variety of ``physical intuitions" with their mix of ``physics + philosophy" considerations which - as an unstoppable avalanche - ends up making a hopeless situation from one which, on occasion, may in fact be quite simple and clear, as shown in [3] to actually happen also with the Bell Inequalities story. The timeliness of such an attempt here, needless to say not the first regarding the Bell Inequalities story, is again brought to the fore due to the no less than {\it three} most freshly claimed to be fundamental contributions to the Bell Inequalities story, [4,55,13], described and commented upon in some detail in [6].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1060] **viXra:1604.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 03:07:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Protons can tunnel in solutions and at temperatures above the boiling point of water, found scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1059] **viXra:1604.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 10:10:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1058] **viXra:1604.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 07:32:18*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The distinction of quantum measurements is one of the fundamentally important problems in quantum information science. In this paper we present a novel protocol for distinguishing local quantum measurement (DLQM) with multi-particle entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two spacelike separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-particle GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the DLQM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1057] **viXra:1604.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 12:37:51*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Atom size, the superstring theory by the elementary particle pulsation principle.
Size of "the strings" in the current superstring theory is 10-33cm Planck size.
The expanse of the cloud of measurable probability, "the string" of atom size, the superstring theory are 10-8cm size.
The figure of elementary particle pulsation principle energy wave pattern assumes the average energy density of dark energy the horizon and supposes the horizon to be energy zero.
I assume a place of the dark energy a general place, and the energy of the negative wave offsets it plus every pulsation 1 cycle, and the energy grand total of a place pulsating by the supersymmetry that it is offers zero and the supersymmetry that it is to zero.
I explain nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism by the physics of the material wave to express by Schrodinger equation and explain a film (three-dimensional space) equivalent to D brainy person as four dimensions space and the section and explain gravity as minus number energy space (equivalent to the ring of the super string) of a pulsating wave.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1056] **viXra:1604.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 08:30:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A team led by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has achieved a major breakthrough in magnetic interaction. By adding a special insulator, they make electrons "twirl" their neighbouring "dance partners" to transfer magnetic information over a longer range between two thin layers of magnetic materials. This novel technique enables magnetic information to make their way from one magnetic layer to another, synonymous to the encoding and transmission of data. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1055] **viXra:1604.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 05:03:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1054] **viXra:1604.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:00:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1053] **viXra:1604.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:10:04*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1], I introduced a novel way of
looking at and extending at quantum field theory to a general curved
spacetime satisfying mild geodesic conditions. The aim of this paper is
to further extend the theory and clarify the construction from a physical
point of view; in particular, we will study the example of a single particle
propagating in a general external potential from two different points of
view. The reason why we do this is mainly historical given that the
interacting theory is after all well defined by means of interaction vertices
and the Feynman propagator and therefore also applicable to this range
of circumstances. However, it is always a pleasure to study the same
question from different points of view and that is the aim of this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1052] **viXra:1604.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 03:38:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Spin-waves are promising candidates for future information processing schemes as there is almost no frictional heating in magnetic transport. Information encoding, however, is only possible in spin-wave packets. A group of CUI researchers has succeeded in creating and capturing such defined wave-packets in slow-motion videos. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1051] **viXra:1604.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 03:53:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Almost all electronic devices operate by using an electron charge controlled by electrical means. In addition to a charge, an electron has a spin as a magnetic property. A groundbreaking concept for information processing based on electron spins is proposed using electron spins in semiconductors. Quantum computing enables us to exceed the speed of conventional computing and a spin transistor reduces energy consumption. [14] Spin-waves are promising candidates for future information processing schemes as there is almost no frictional heating in magnetic transport. Information encoding, however, is only possible in spin-wave packets. A group of CUI researchers has succeeded in creating and capturing such defined wave-packets in slow-motion videos. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1050] **viXra:1604.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:40:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1049] **viXra:1604.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 14:46:33*

**Authors:** Ioannis Xydous

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The Author presents an alternative interpretation to Quantum phenomena based on a non-constant speed of light concept with fundamental consequences on quantum level. Besides its enormous significance about the interaction between charged particles, it leads ultimately to the complete description and unification of all fundamental forces as to the development of a new Mass-Energy equivalence that supplements Einstein’s original one. The technological implications of this discovery may actually open the “doors” for real gravito-inertial control (e.g. invisibility, antigravity, teleportation) through electromagnetic means.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1048] **viXra:1604.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 10:16:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A proposed interferometry experiment could test nonrelativistic quantum gravity theories by entangling two mirrors weighing as much as apples. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1047] **viXra:1604.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 10:54:35*

**Authors:** Sudhanva Joshi

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this paper, I have studied the properties of atomic and molecular world along with General and special theories of relativity. This is an attempt to merge Gravity into the standard model in order to complete the Grand Unification Theory. The merger of gravity into the other forces i.e. electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear forces should be well defined and in the boundaries of Gauge Group theory. The Lorentz transformations used in the theory too are invariant under SU(2) type of space. The relative force exerted on two separate quantum systems is also discussed along with Dark matter and Dark energy at a quantum level. I have also tried to solve the Banach-Tarski theorem by applications of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle in the later part of the paper. Detailed particle Chirality in standard model is redefined to fit in the criterion of operators used in the same process. Possible existence of a new quasi particle is also included in the paper along with its properties.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1046] **viXra:1604.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 04:06:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The distillation and dilution process allows measuring the strength of coherence of the initial state of superposition with experiments tailored to each particular case. [10] University of Vienna physicists have, for the first time, evaluated the almost 100-year long history of quantum delayed-choice experiments—from the theoretical beginnings with Albert Einstein to the latest research works in the present. The extensive study now appeared in the renowned journal Reviews of Modern Physics. [9] Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1045] **viXra:1604.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 15:21:20*

**Authors:** Fernando Arthur Tollendal Pacheco, Fernando Antônio Tollendal Pacheco

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There is no wave front collapse

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1044] **viXra:1604.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 11:54:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

University of Vienna physicists have, for the first time, evaluated the almost 100-year long history of quantum delayed-choice experiments—from the theoretical beginnings with Albert Einstein to the latest research works in the present. The extensive study now appeared in the renowned journal Reviews of Modern Physics. [9] Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1043] **viXra:1604.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 12:43:20*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

1) An elementary particle is the quantum which assumed darkness energy to meet outer space a place and repeats a particle trip, a wave trip, the pulsation of the minus number particle trip.
2)The pulsation is expressed in the wave function of the Schrodinger equation, and the real number axis of the equation is equivalent to horizon (mc²=0) of the pulsation model.
3)The wave packet representing the particle which an equation shows is elementary particle pulsation, and the natural collapse of the wave packet does not occur. It is not a pilot wave leading a particle.
4)The elementary particle has minus number mass by original mass, a minus number particle trip by a particle trip, and it is a particle having size intermittently, and it is by the wave trip with the point that there is not of the size.
5)All mass of the elementary particle converts it into energy by a pulsatile wave trip and are released in the horizon (three-dimensional space) and it is absorbed again and becomes the particle.
6)Negative energy is offset plus every pulsation 1 cycle, and the energy grand total of the place of the dark energy to pulsate becomes zero. (supersymmetry).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1042] **viXra:1604.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 08:34:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A University of Oklahoma-led team of physicists believes chip-based atomic physics holds promise to make the second quantum revolution-the engineering of quantum matter with arbitrary precision-a reality. With recent technological advances in fabrication and trapping, hybrid quantum systems are emerging as ideal platforms for a diverse range of studies in quantum control, quantum simulation and computing. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1041] **viXra:1603.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 04:02:07*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The experiments, conducted by the author; demonstrate the physical equivalence between the repulsion between two powerful Neodymium magnets and reverse Casimir effect (nanoscale) and macroscopic scale (The spherical shell of actual observable Universe); and as measuring weight on an electronic balance of this repulsive force, it causes the appearance of a fictitious mass; dependent on the repulsive force between the two magnets. One of these magnets is positioned above the balance; while the other slowly magnet is positioned right in the perpendicular axis that would link the centers of both circular magnets. (Circular disks). There is no difference between this experiment and the physical results of the experiments carried out at the microscopic level and measured experimentally: The reverse Casimir effect of a conducting spherical shell. The actual comportment of the Universe to macroscopic scales; with the manifestation of an accelerated expansion and the emergence of a fictitious mass, which does not exist; the so-called dark matter. The three physical phenomena with identical results are equivalent; so they could have a common physical origin. In the article, we have inserted links to videos uploaded to youtube that let you see the whole experimental process and its results. The last experiment is made with other balance; more shielded against interference magnetism and the magnet placed over the balance.
The videos are explained in Spanish. They are welcome English subtitles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1040] **viXra:1603.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 10:34:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1039] **viXra:1603.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 07:08:18*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We oﬀer a new look on multiparticle theory which was initiated in a recent philosophical paper [1] of the author. To accomplish such feature, we start by a revision and extension of the single particle theory as well relativistically as nonrelativistically. Standard statistics gets an interpre- tation in terms of symmetry properties of the two point function and any reference towards all existing quantization schemes is dropped. As I have repeatedly stated and was also beautifully explained by Weinberg, there is no a priori rationale why quantum ﬁeld theory should take the form it does in a curved spacetime; there is no reason why the straightforward generalizations of the Klein Gordon and Dirac theory should have some- thing to do with the real world. Perhaps, if we were to look diﬀerently at the ﬂat theory, a completely satisfactory class of relativistic quantum theories would emerge. These may not have anything to do with quantum ﬁelds at all except in some limit.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1038] **viXra:1603.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-30 03:31:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1037] **viXra:1603.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 15:21:45*

**Authors:** Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The problem of the true rate of time course in the field of gravity: time dilation or time acceleration in the gravitational field - what effect is valid? What physical measurements and arguments we really have, and do they satisfy the strictly scientific point of view?
To the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin.
According to the general theory of relativity (GTR), time goes slower in the field of gravity. The GTR uses several arguments to prove the postulate about gravitational time dilation.
We will look at all these arguments and we will show that all of them can’t be the direct evidence of time dilation in the field of gravity and that they are only indirect proof in the GTR’s paradigm.
We insist that till now there is no even one physical fact as the direct experimental or measurement data that can prove gravitational time dilation. Gravitational time dilation is just the hypothetical physical effect of GTR that does not have a valid measurement till the present time.
Without an exact physical measurement, gravitational time dilation has the status of the theoretical hypothesis as the opposite effect - gravitational time acceleration (the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin: an atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) is increased in a gravitational field - time goes faster in the field of gravity and the value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential).
Both hypotheses are based on their theoretical models, each of them has its theoretical and physical arguments. Only a valid measurement of a direct comparison of the clocks readings in conditions of different gravitational potentials will provide a physical fact (direct physical evidence) proving gravitational time dilation or gravitational time acceleration.
We will prove that in spite of different physical measurements there is no the direct proof of gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1036] **viXra:1603.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 07:52:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1035] **viXra:1603.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-29 02:41:29*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The essential part of the R computer algorithm is added in appendix A.

In this paper the design and coding of a local hidden variables model is presented that violates the |CHSH| ≤ 2 inequality. Numerically we have CHSH ≈ 1+√2.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1034] **viXra:1603.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-27 09:42:55*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 4, Issue 1 (2016), Page 66--73.

Rotational invariance of
physical laws is an accepted principle in Newton's theory. We show that
it leads to an additional constraint on local realistic theories with
mixture
of ten-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. This new constraint
rules out such theories even in some situations in which standard Bell
inequalities allow for explicit construction of such theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1033] **viXra:1603.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 17:29:38*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli, Magi Mageshwaran, Davide Fiscaletti

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The electromagnetic quantum vacuum of QED empowered with the Planck energy density is a model which comprehensively describes the origin of energy, mass, gravity and antigravity. A photon is a wave of quantum vacuum and has energy and so according to the mass-energy equivalence principle, a corresponding mass. A massive particle is a structure of quantum vacuum whose rest mass diminishes the energy density of the quantum vacuum, which generates mass and gravity. The kinetic energy of a relativistic particle originates from the quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1032] **viXra:1603.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 14:15:23*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 8 pages

In trial, we present quantum key distribution based on
Deutsch's algorithm
using an entangled state.
Alice and Bob have promised to use a function $f$
which is of one of two kinds; either the value of $f$ is constant or balanced.
To Eve, it is secret.
Alice's and Bob's goal is to determine with certainty whether they have
chosen a constant or a balanced function.
If the function is constant the output qubits are entangled,
otherwise separable.
Alice and Bob perform the Bell measurement.
Alice and Bob get one key if they determine the function $f$ by getting
a suitable measurement outcome.
Next, we discuss the relation between quantum communication and
the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm.
In classical theory, one communication
leads us to share one bit of information.
However, in quantum theory, the same communication, surprisingly,
leads us to share many bits containing much information,
even a function itself.
First, Alice and Bob have promised to select a function
$f(x_1,x_2,...,x_N)
=a_1 x_1\oplus a_2 x_2 \oplus a_3 x_3 \oplus\cdots\oplus a_N x_N$.
Alice does not know $a_1,a_2,...,a_N$.
Bob knows $a_1,a_2,...,a_N$.
Alice's goal is to determine with certainty what function
Bob has chosen.
In classical theory, Alice has to ask Bob $N$ times.
In quantum theory, Alice has to ask Bob one time.
Alice prepares suitable $N+1$ partite uncorrelated state, performs
the Hadamard transformation to the state,
and sends the output state to Bob.
And Bob performs the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and inputs the information of the function into the finall state.
Alice asks him what state is.
Alice measures the finall state and she knows the function.
If the function is determined, Alice and Bob share $N$ bits of information,
by one communication with each other.
The speed to share $N$ bits improves by a factor of
$N$ by comparing the classical case.
This shows
quantum communication overcomes classical communication
by a factor of $N$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1031] **viXra:1603.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 04:59:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The values of two inherent properties of one photon – its spin and its orbital angular momentum – have been transferred via quantum teleportation onto another photon for the first time by physicists in China. Previous experiments have managed to teleport a single property, but scaling that up to two properties proved to be a difficult task, which has only now been achieved. The team's work is a crucial step forward in improving our understanding of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and the result could also play an important role in the development of quantum communications and quantum computers. [10] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. For the first time, researchers have demonstrated the precise requirements for secure quantum teleportation – and it involves a phenomenon known 'quantum steering', first proposed by Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger. [9] In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1030] **viXra:1603.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-25 03:17:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum superposition has been used to compare data from two different sources more efficiently than is possible, even in principle, on a conventional computer. The scheme is called "quantum fingerprinting" and has been demonstrated by physicists in China. It could ultimately lead to better large-scale integrated circuits and more energy-efficient communication. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1029] **viXra:1603.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 11:08:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1028] **viXra:1603.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 04:40:02*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The concept of "potentia" as proposed by Heisenberg to understand the structure of quantum mechanics, has just remained a
fanciful speculation as of now. In this paper we provide a physically consistent and a mathematically justified ontology
of this model based on a fundamental role played by the discrete subgroups of the relevant
Lie groups. We show that as such, the space of "potentia" arises as a coexisting dual space to the real three dimensional space,
while these two sit piggyback on each other, such that the collapse of wave function can be understood in a natural manner.
Quantum nonlocality and quantum jumps arise as a natural consequence of this model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1027] **viXra:1603.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-24 04:41:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists have developed a new protocol to detect entanglement of many-particle quantum states using a much easier approach. The new protocol is particularly interesting for characterizing entanglement in systems involving many particles. These systems could help us not only to improve our understanding of matter but to develop measurement techniques beyond current existing technologies. [10] Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1026] **viXra:1603.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 12:27:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1025] **viXra:1603.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-23 05:20:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1024] **viXra:1603.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-22 12:45:42*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle
By the wave trip that electromagnetic willpower acts on, the elementary particle "is the point" that does not have size.
By a particle trip and the minus number particle trip, the elementary particle has size.
The elementary particle of the particle trip has size, but the electric charge does not last.
An electric charge is not distributed over the inside such as an electron or the proton with size.
The power that acted in the end of the elementary particle because the elementary particle of the particle trip with size is not a rigid body does not act more than velocity of light in the end of the other side.
The elementary particle is not rigid, but it is not disintegrated by outside action such as the enlargement.
Around an electron or a proton with an electric charge, a cloud of the photon group is distributed as a pulsatile ripple, but, as for the wave (material wave) of the dark energy, as for the energy grand total, it is with zero by offset (supersymmetry) of the energy with a mountain and the valley of the wave every pulsation 1 cycle, and it is not with infinite energy, the infinite mass.
The gravitation is similar and a virtual gravity baby and the outbreak with the gravitational field continue like a chain reaction and do not become infinite energy, the infinite mass. The energy grand total of a pulsating place is zero.
It is equivalent to what it adds only the original energy of the material wave to it adopts only modulus squared of the equation of the material wave (dark energy), and to calculate, and it is a proper result that an energy grand total becomes infinite.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1023] **viXra:1603.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-21 11:12:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1022] **viXra:1603.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 08:27:57*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The elementary particle is a wave of the dark energy to pulsate in fo ur-dimensional space.
It is energy aggregate appearing as a lump of the light to rotate in the three-dimensional space.
In this report, I show that it is the energy aggregate that three dimensions of spins of the elementary particle appear in the space as a lump of the light to rotate.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1021] **viXra:1603.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 10:43:20*

**Authors:** Mihai Grumazescu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3346.6005

The model of gravity based on the nuclear kinetic dipole states that each atomic nucleus constantly generates a pushing force which imparts a linear momentum to the atom. The direction of that force can be changed through gravitational polarization, a macroscopic body being pushed from within in the direction of surrounding bodies by the cumulative force of its nuclei.
The pushing force of a single nucleon is thought to be the gravitational force quanta, its value being derived from the Avogadro program for a new definition of the kilogram. The gravitational force quanta is found to be ≈ 2 x 10-19 a.u. (atomic unit of force) which could be confirmed through a proposed experiment.
An alternative definition of the kilogram is also proposed, along with multiple possibilities to build kilogram etalons. Particularly, subdivisions of the kilogram (e.g. gram, milligram, microgram) can be accurately reproduced onsite through nano-3D printing for the purpose of calibrating high-precision scales and balances.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1020] **viXra:1603.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 18:19:00*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The present article proposes an epistemic approach to relativity, termed information relativity theory, and utilizes it to infer about two quantum phenomena: quantum phase-transition and matter-wave duality. We propose a theoretical model of physical systems in which two an observer in the "rest" reference-frame receives information on measurements taken in another frame moving with constant velocity v relative to the observer's "rest" frame. We avoid questions pertaining to the true state of Nature. We only ask how physical measurements taken in the "moving" frame are transformed when they are received in the observer's "rest" frame. We constrain the analysis to simple one-dimensional, one-body inertial systems, in which information in communicated between the reference frames using an information carrier with known velocity v_c (v_c > v). We make no other assumptions, thus our approach is completely epistemic. For systems of the above described type we derive the relativistic time, distance, mass, and energy transformations, relating measurements transmitted by the information sender, to the corresponding information registered by the receiver. The resulting terms are simple and beautiful with Golden Ratio symmetries. For β = v/v_c << 1, all the derived transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton terms. For bodies approaching the observer, the theory predicts time and length contraction, and increase in mass density, while for bodies distancing from the observer, it predicts time and length extension, and decrease in mass density. Strikingly, the relativistic kinetic energy density of a distancing body as a function of velocity β displays a non-monotonic pattern, with a unique maximum at a normalized velocity β = Φ, where Φ is the golden ratio (≈ 0.618). For v_c = c, where c is the velocity of light, we show that the theory could not be forbidden by Bell's Inequality and demonstrate its power in predicting and explaining two key quantum phenomena: quantum phase-transition, and matter-wave duality. We conclude by summarizing the theory's main features and alluding to its applications in various fields of physics, including cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1019] **viXra:1603.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-18 04:18:08*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 19

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field.
After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs filed particles from the vacuum.
These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law.
However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, (and not- as normal- in opposition due to the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field)
.As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron powder atoms.
This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets.
Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet platings with a spiralling electric coils in between.
The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1018] **viXra:1603.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 11:21:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11] In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1017] **viXra:1603.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 15:55:32*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 6 Pages. one figure, one table

The theory developed by the author for the origin of mass in leptons and nucleons, in vixra 1511.0005, is now applied to the entire baryon octet. It is shown that mass for all these particles depends on two quantities ( within a factor of two accuracy), namely, the number of magnetic flux quanta trapped in an intrinsic vibrational motion, and the magnetic moment of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1016] **viXra:1603.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 04:34:33*

**Authors:** ir. Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages. 19

Abstract.
According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole components: a North- and a South component.
After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic particles from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as the result of two individual mutated Higgs particles, able to do the magnetic job and interlock temporarily with the Fermion, to give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right.
However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, the magnetic field strength locally drops down to zero.
This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the local dropping zone, which can be used for reaction less space propulsion and Levitation

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1015] **viXra:1603.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 09:20:11*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 78 Pages.

The road on the foundations of science in general consists in (a) making precise what the assumptions are one makes resulting from our measurements (b) holding a “good” balance between theoretical assumptions and genericity of predictions (c) saying as precisely as possible what you mean. Unfortunately, recent work where these three criteria are met is scarce and I often encounter situations where physicists talk about diﬀerent things in the same words or the other way around, identify distinct concepts (even without being aware of it), or introduce unnecessary hypothesis based upon a too stringent mathematical interpretation of some observation. In this work, I will be as critical as possible and give away those objections against modern theories of physics which have become clear in my mind and therefore transcend mere intuition. All these objections result from the use of unclear language or too stringent assumptions on the nature of reality. Next, we weaken the assumptions and discuss what I call process physics; it will turn out that Bell’s concerns do ﬁnd a natural solution within this framework.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1014] **viXra:1603.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-16 06:51:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1013] **viXra:1603.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 15:21:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1012] **viXra:1603.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-14 21:10:41*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 05 pages, 04 references, short note

Thompson’s Method is applied to a variational principle in order to treat the harmonic oscillator in one dimension. It is also used to link the de Broglie frequency to a harmonic oscillator model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1011] **viXra:1603.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-13 20:03:16*

**Authors:** Espen gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we suggest a new way to write the gravitational constant that makes all of the Planck constants; Planck length, Planck time, Planck mass, and Planck energy much more intuitive and simpler to understand. Most importantly this opens up the way for several new and simpler interpretations in physics. By writing the gravitational constant in a Planck functional form, we can rewrite all of the Planck constants (without changing their values) to a form that surprisingly is fully consistent with mathematical atomism. This strongly indicates that particles have a spatial dimension and that atomism is the correct interpretation of fundamental physics, including the physics of the quantum realm. Unfortunately very few physicists have studied mathematical atomism and we are afraid we may be speaking to deaf ears.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1010] **viXra:1603.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-12 09:10:51*

**Authors:** Zhang ChengGang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

shortcomings and difficulties which in Bohr’s theory and quantum mechanics imply a deeper theory after the quantum, a new way to touch the deeper theory is by analysis their premise thought foundation, analysis indicated that the force of microcosmic particle should different from classical mechanics, and microcosmic potential function(microscopic interaction) is a new discovery; the shortcomings and difficulties of Bohr’s theory and quantum mechanics can be understood or eliminated by microcosmic potential function, Bohr’s theory is the result of combining quantum phenomena of microscopic interaction and classical physics, quantum mechanics is established by directly using microscopic interaction’s "wave" apparent phenomenon, the microscopic interaction is more essential theory between the two particles, classical mechanics is only approximation results of microscopic interaction in macroscopic.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1009] **viXra:1603.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 12:48:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

An optical chip developed at INRS by Prof. Roberto Morandotti's team overcomes a number of obstacles in the development of quantum computers, which are expected to revolutionize information processing. An international research team has demonstrated that on-chip quantum frequency combs can be used to simultaneously generate multiphoton entangled quantum bit (qubit) states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1008] **viXra:1603.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 21:08:21*

**Authors:** J. M. Zhang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A distance between the eigenbasis of two different Hamiltonians is proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1007] **viXra:1603.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-09 02:24:23*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We unify the Bohr energy formula with the Leibniz continuity theorem in order to get
the aufbau of photon. During the electron transition in this model the photon is created by
the continual way. The oscillation of parity of K-meson is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1006] **viXra:1603.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 07:54:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1005] **viXra:1603.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 08:31:43*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Traditionally when we think of waves we think of 2d sine waves. For example, light waves, sound waves and the recently discovered gravity waves by LIGO. However, there exist a new form of waves called sphere-hyperboloid waves that has all the wave properties of 2d but in a 3d sphere and hyperboloid form. The new waveform is revolutionary because it has huge implications in mathematics and physics. If these new type of waves exist, then spherical particles are part of a sphere-hyperboloid propagation wave. This solves the particle wave-duality because it shows that the spherical electron is actually part of a newly discovered sphere-hyperboloid wave. The new wave theory will serve as basis for reconciling Q.M. with Relativity. This new wave discovery will revolutionize physics! The great aspect about this theory is that it can be tested and yield new technological applications.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1004] **viXra:1603.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-08 02:53:21*

**Authors:** CHong WANG

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Classifying particles three types: I) only pass through slit A; II) only pass through slit
B; III) the probability passing through A is c1(0<c1<1) and through B is c2(0<c2<1).This work give the particle's interference phenomenon a mathematical understanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1003] **viXra:1603.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 23:54:00*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

To elucidate the hidden structure of photons, if any, we critically examine the following fundamentals to our physics: (1) Why is the speed of light constant in all frames of reference? (2) What is the empty space? (3) Is the space-time continuous and not discrete?
To pursue the above, needless to say without contradicting any observed phenomena, we postulate the space is an ocean of the “Gamma elements” having small energy and mass with the size given by the wavelength of an assumed cutoff, the highest energy gamma rays. This ocean of the Gamma elements is the medium for the electromagnetic field. Time and distance are both discretized by the process of light propagation from one Gamma element to the next with an electrodynamic process, suggested to involve spins and polarizations. This process allows a relativistically boosted internal kinetic energy, hence mass, to be generated. This postulate provides us with a theoretical basis to explain why the speed of light, c, should remain constant regardless of the observer’s inertial frames of reference. The theory describes light energy propagating as “elemental waves” with the phase velocity, c, in a way that is indistinguishable from the apparent photon particles traveling in vacuum. A photon is no longer a single particle with the energy hν travelling with the velocity c, but a Gamma element energizing with a frequency, v, to become each time a Planck element with the energy Ep = h/s, substantially behaving like a particle propagating with the phase velocity c.
A visualized space-time and photon models are presented and the Compton experiment and the double slit experiment are re-validated by the theory. In particular, the Compton scattering suggests a case that may help to verify the theory by an experimental measurement.
The uncertainty principle applicable to light is a natural consequence of the wave behavior of light but after an initial uncertainty, the quantum state of light may be predicted to an almost certainty within the limit only restricted by the discreteness of the space-time. It is conjectured that the Gamma element space corresponds to the dark energy and to Einstein’s cosmological constant. In addition, a Gamma element itself may be characterized as spin zero massive boson. It is not identified as Higgs boson but possibly as an alternate Higgs boson since the conjectured energy level of a Gamma element is far lower than that of the Higgs.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1002] **viXra:1603.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 17:14:22*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We present the axiomatization of quantum mechanics which does not contain axioms concerning the measurement. Instead of the concept of measurement this axiomatization uses the concept of the observation of the individual state of the measuring system after the run of the experiment. It is proved that the resulting theory is empirically equivalent to the standard quantum mechanics but it is also shown that these two theories are (theoretically) different.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1001] **viXra:1603.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 18:23:32*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of all the tetraquarks and dimeson molecules (mesomesonic particles) there exist in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1000] **viXra:1603.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-05 05:08:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[999] **viXra:1603.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 07:56:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[998] **viXra:1603.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 03:42:29*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

The Hilbert book test model is a purely mathematical test model that starts from a solid foundation from which the whole model can be derived by using trustworthy mathematical methods. What is known about physical reality is used as a guidance, but the model is not claimed to be a proper reflection of physical reality. The mathematical toolkit still contains holes. These holes will be encountered during the development of the model and suggestions are made how those gaps can be filled. Some new insights are obtained and some new mathematical methods are introduced. The selected foundation is interpreted as part of a recipe for modular construction and that recipe is applied throughout the development of the model. This development is an ongoing project. The main law of physics appears to be a commandment: “Thou shalt construct in a modular way”.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[997] **viXra:1603.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-02 06:20:53*

**Authors:** XiaoLin Li

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Old version paper,http://vixra.org/abs/1401.0014

Special Relativity Theory can be derived out from quantum mechanics. Special Relativity Theory is not a independent theory. Special Relativity Theory is included in the quantum mechanics.There exist a new physics view. Real physical world is 5-dimensional space-time.Human world is 4-dimensional space-time,it’s only the projection of real physics world.Quantum mechanical particle-wave is present in 5-dimensional space-time.So we can derive out Mass-energy equation.So we can derive out Special Relativity Theory.In 5-dimensional space-time,all the particles speed is the light speed c.That is reason that the light speed c is very special.Discuss some questions in the new physics view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[996] **viXra:1603.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 17:26:03*

**Authors:** Anton A. Lipovka

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nature of the deBroglie-Bohm quantum potential is revealed. It is shown to be the energy of oscillating electromagnetic field coupled with moving charged particle. As an example, the zero - energy of harmonic oscillator is obtained from classical equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[995] **viXra:1603.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-01 10:26:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, the scientists went one step further. They trapped a pair of atoms with well-defined relative positions in such a resonator and scattered light from this "double slit". They observed interference phenomena that contradict well-established intuition. These results were enabled by the development of a technique that allows for position control of the atoms with an accuracy well below the wavelength of the scattered light. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[994] **viXra:1602.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 14:07:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[993] **viXra:1602.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 14:58:34*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A kinetic energy-operated quantum wave equation is used to formulate alternate quantum fields: an alternate Klein-Gordon field, an alternate Dirac field, an alternate Proca field, and an alternate Higgs field.
The alternate Dirac field equations include a vacuum plane wave solution apart from the electron and positron solutions, lending support to the present formulation. The alternate Klein-Gordon field shows scalar bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charge state at a particular scalar potential level. The alternate Klein-Gordon Lagrangian directly leads to both the alternate Proca field and the alternate Higgs field by a local U(1) gauge transformation. The result shows vector bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charge state by a spontaneous breakdown of symmetry at a minimum potential trough similar to that of a Mexican hat or wine bottle potential in the Brout, Englert, and Higgs (BEH) mechanism, but more generally leaving open a possible presence of entirely different or many alternate Higgs bosons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[992] **viXra:1602.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 06:45:52*

**Authors:** PV Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper describes a huge mistake, it tells us why scientists (theoretical physics) cannot find or explain anything. Scientists don't realize that theoretical physics is based on a fallacy, Einstein claimed that time and space are merged in a fictional space fabric (spaxe-time) but by saying that he claimed that space and time don't exist. Scientists know that space and time are real, so that means that they can never be a part of a fictional thing. A fictional space fabric (space-time) can only be found in the fourth dimension and nobody can say or prove that it exists, so it can never affect something in reality. We only know reality and that is the third dimension, Einstein made a hugh mistake by thinking that the fourth dimension exists and that fallacy was devastating to theoretical physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[991] **viXra:1602.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 08:47:28*

**Authors:** A. Laidlaw

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

De Broglie waves were originally derived from the Lorentz Transformation of a standing wave, $e^{-i \omega t}$, that has no space dependence. It is shown here that a suitable, physically reasonable, standing wave can be constructed from physical waves that propagate at c, subject to the condition that any field line of the wave vector exists on the surface of a sphere at rest in the comoving frame. This result contradicts the classical picture of a point particle emitting a far field that propagates radially away from it, and it is argued that, while the present construction of de Broglie waves is both local and realistic, Bell Inequalities cannot be derived in de Broglie's context.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[990] **viXra:1602.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 11:52:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A team of quantum physicists managed to tame a so-called "dark state", created in a superconducting qubit. A superconducting qubit is an artificial atom fabricated on a silicon chip as an electrical circuit made of capacitors and tunnel junctions. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[989] **viXra:1602.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 05:37:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[988] **viXra:1602.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-20 01:44:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8]
Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7]
A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[987] **viXra:1602.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 13:23:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[986] **viXra:1602.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-19 04:06:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[985] **viXra:1602.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 08:47:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[984] **viXra:1602.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 07:57:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Theoretical physicists at MIT recently reported a quantum computer design featuring an array of superconducting islands on the surface of a topological insulator. They propose basing both quantum computation and error correction on the peculiar behavior of electrons at neighboring corners of these islands and their ability to interact across islands at a distance. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[983] **viXra:1602.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 12:07:56*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I presented my hypothesis, in 1980.
I announced at the physical society of Japan of Fukushima University.
Dark energy discovery 18 years ago, I announced the pulsation principle of particle hypothesis JPs annual meeting was held in Fukushima University in 1980, no dark energy term,. The concept of rarefied energy rallied and even to each other, was named energy atmospheric in the hypothesis space to meet the equivalent as the dark energy was named after.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[982] **viXra:1602.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 14:39:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In quantum entanglement, two particles are correlated in such a way that any action on one of them affects the other even when they are far apart. The traditional methods of measuring the degree of quantum entanglement were originally developed for nonidentical particles, such as between an electron and a proton, or two atoms of different types. [7] For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[981] **viXra:1602.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 14:36:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Scientists have created a crystal structure that boosts the interaction between tiny bursts of light and individual electrons, an advance that could be a significant step toward establishing quantum networks in the future. [10] Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8] As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won't be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we've replaced all of the Internet's present security-critical infrastructure. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[980] **viXra:1602.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 11:06:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, which relies on the separation of right-and left-"handed" particles, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[979] **viXra:1602.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 14:53:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[978] **viXra:1602.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 05:06:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[977] **viXra:1602.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 14:06:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Although in theory it may seem possible to divide time up into infinitely tiny intervals, the smallest physically meaningful interval of time is widely considered to be the Planck time, which is approximately 10-43 seconds. This ultimate limit means that it is not possible for two events to be separated by a time smaller than this. [14] A team of researchers working at Stanford University has extended the record for quantum superposition at the macroscopic level, from 1 to 54 centimeters. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[976] **viXra:1602.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 07:11:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[975] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 17:49:32*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[974] **viXra:1602.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 19:46:01*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

E8 Physics AQFT is constructed from an E8 Physics Lagrangian (viXra 1508.0157) by embedding E8 into the Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) = Cl(8)xCl(8) and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of copies of Cl(16) which forms a generalized hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor algebra AQFT
(Algebraic Quantum Field Theory) that by Periodicity retains underlying E8 symmetry. The World-Line of a Particle in E8 Physics is a String connecting the Cl(16) copies that make up points / events in the History of the Particle. Interaction among those History World-Line Strings by String Theory produces a Force / Potential that is similar to Gravity but the Local Lagrangian of E8 Physics in each copy of Cl(16) in the AQFT
already contains Gravity (as well as the Standard Model).
The purpose of this paper is to describe the Physical Interpretation of the E8 AQFT String Gravity-like Force / Potential as the Sarfatti-Bohm Quantum Potential with Back-Reaction that permits Free Will and is the fundamental Force of Quantum Consciousness that is described as Gravity by Penrose and Hameroff (Physics of Life Reviews 11 (March 2014) 39-78).
The Quantum Potential of this paper is a Bohm internal energy of a quantum system whose total force does not fall off with distance since it depends on the form of the quantum state rather than its magnitude. The form is described in terms of Cl(16) which is related (see viXra 1512.0300) to the Tensor Product Quantum Reed-Muller code [[ 256 , 0 , 24 ]] x [[ 256 , 0 , 24 ]] and which contains not only 248-dim E8 but a total of 65,536 elements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[973] **viXra:1602.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 02:15:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[972] **viXra:1602.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 12:37:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[971] **viXra:1602.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 08:34:02*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the cause and process of small galaxies merger.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[970] **viXra:1602.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 13:45:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Research conducted by the Quantum Dynamics Unit at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology graduate University (OIST) could represent an important step in understanding two-dimensional semiconductors. The Unit's latest paper, published in Physical Review Letters, describes anomalies in the behaviour of electrons in electrons on liquid helium two-dimensional system. [28]
The work in correlated electrons looks at a subset of electrons. Metals, as an example, have an unfilled outermost orbital and electrons are free to move from atom to atom. Thus, metals are good electrical conductors. When metal atoms are tightly packed into lattices (or crystals) these electrons mingle together into a "sea" of electrons. The metallic element mercury is liquid at room temperature, in part due to its electron configuration, and shows very little resistance to electric current due to its electron configuration. At 4 degrees above absolute zero (just barely above -460 degrees Fahrenheit), mercury's electron arrangement and other properties create communal electrons that show no resistance to electric current, a state known as superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[969] **viXra:1601.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 11:11:45*

**Authors:** Nikolay Dementev

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The notes explicitly describe unification of Special Relativity with Quantum Mechanics based on fundamental similarities between interval and Heisenberg’s relation. Outline for unification of General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[968] **viXra:1601.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 11:43:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Interconnecting different quantum systems is important for future quantum computing architectures, but has proven difficult to achieve. Researchers from the TU Delft and the University of Vienna have now realized a first step towards a universal quantum link based on quantum-mechanical vibrations of a nanomechanical device. [9]
Nanotechnologists at the University of Twente research institute MESA+ have discovered a new fundamental property of electrical currents in very small metal circuits. They show how electrons can spread out over the circuit like waves and cause interference effects at places where no electrical current is driven. The geometry of the circuit plays a key role in this so called nonlocal effect. The interference is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical wave character of electrons and the specific geometry of the circuit. For designers of quantum computers it is an effect to take account of. The results are published in the British journal Scientific Reports. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[967] **viXra:1601.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 09:19:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[966] **viXra:1601.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 18:23:01*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using a new concept of the truth in quantum mechanics we show that the individual superposition principle is scientifically unfounded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[965] **viXra:1601.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 02:08:56*

**Authors:** Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published on PHILICA - ISSN 1751-3030 - 11th January, 2016

In quantum statistical mechanics, the extension of the classical Gibbs entropy is the von Neumann entropy, obtained from a quantum-mechanical system described by means of its density matrix. Here we shortly discuss this entropy and the use of generalized entropies instead of it.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[964] **viXra:1601.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 13:21:55*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Errors in the paper "Black-body laws derived from a minimum knowledge
of Physics" are described. The paper claims that the density of the thermal current
in any number of spatial dimensions is proportional to the temperature to the power
of 2(n-1)/(n-2), where n represents the number of spatial dimensions. However, it
is actually proportional to the temperature to the power of n + 1. The source of this
error is in the claim that the known formula for the fine-structure constant is valid
for any number of spatial dimensions, and in the subsequent error that the physical
dimensions of Planck's constant become dependent on n.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[963] **viXra:1601.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 09:18:28*

**Authors:** Nicolas Gisin

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Talkpresented at the Conference "Time in Physics" at the ETH-Zurich, September 2015.

Today's science provides quite a lean picture of time as a mere geometric evolution parameter. I argue that time is much richer. In particular, I argue that besides the geometric time, there is creative time, when objective chance events happen. The existence of the latter follows straight from the existence of free-will. Following the french philosopher Lequyer, I argue that free-will is a prerequisite for the possibility to have rational argumentations, hence can't be denied. Consequently, science can't deny the existence of creative time and thus that time really passes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[593] **viXra:1604.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-29 07:02:29*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Abstract:

Between 2008 and 2010, Tomasz Paterek et al published ingenious work linking quantum randomness with logical independence. Following up on that work, this paper develops a full mathematical theory of quantum indeterminacy. Paterek exposes the revelation that, if information conveyed in experiments is to be fully represented, then the faithful, isomorphic representation of pure eigenstates --- and of mixed states --- must be acknowledged as distinct isomorphisms. Only mixed states are necessarily unitary. Here, I show that self‑referentially generated unitarity permits transition between those isomorphisms, from pure states to mixed. The self-referent information is logically independent of the pure states. Indeterminacy is the deficiency of definite quantitative information, inherent in the self-referent system. The profound finding is that indeterminacy becomes a visible feature of quantum mathematics when unitarity (or self-adjointness) imposed: --- by Postulate --- is given up.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, pure eigenstates, mixed states, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[592] **viXra:1604.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 11:20:18*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Abstract:

Between 2008 and 2010, Tomasz Paterek et al published ingenious work linking quantum randomness with logical independence. From a foundational point of view, this is evidence that quantum randomness, and therefore indeterminacy, have mathematical origins. The logical independence of Paterek et al is seen in a system of Boolean propositions. Here, I explain the origins of that logical independence in terms of standard quantum theory, showing it has symmetry foundations in a ‘unitary switch’ -- and whose logic originates in logically circular self-reference. The profound finding is that indeterminacy becomes a visible feature of quantum mathematics when unitarity (or self-adjointness) --- by Postulate --- is given up.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, pure eigenstates, mixed states, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[591] **viXra:1604.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 07:13:57*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the celebrated 1964 paper of John Bell, the statement that "Quantum systems violate the Bell inequalities", [1,2], has a very large support among quantum physicists as well as others claiming some knowledge about quanta. Amusingly, it has so far escaped the general notice that, if indeed, quanta do violate that Bell inequalities, then - due to elementary facts of Logic - they must also violate {\it all} other valid mathematical relations, thus among them, the equation 0 = 0. Here the respective elementary facts of Logic are presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[590] **viXra:1604.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-13 11:27:57*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the celebrated 1964 paper of John Bell, the statement that "Quantum systems violate the Bell inequalities", [1,2], has a very large support among quantum physicists as well as others claiming some knowledge about quanta. Amusingly, it has so far escaped the general notice that, if indeed, quanta do violate that Bell inequalities, then - due to elementary facts of Logic - they must also violate {\it all} other valid mathematical relations, thus among them, the equation 0 = 0. Here the respective elementary facts of Logic are presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[589] **viXra:1604.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-23 12:39:04*

**Authors:** Pal Sahota

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

The hypothesis re-introduces the concept of the Aether through tiny spinning negatively charged particles called alpha-negatrons with large spaces in between. This compressed medium forms a three dimensional crystalline structure in the shape of "The flower of life" and as a result the speed of propagation is fixed. Electromagnetic and gravity waves propagate through this medium utilizing compression / rarefaction and through the spinning action of these particles. The negatively charged electron spins around the nucleus and also on its own axis, perpendicular to its rotation around the nucleus. The nucleus spins on its own axis and the phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is proof of that fact. The movement of the alpha-negatron particles in different directions as a result of the spins of electron and the spinning action of the nucleus is responsible for the phenomenon of magnetism, gravitism, electromagnetic and gravity waves. Time is caused by the vibration energy inherent in these particles which links time with the velocity of light. Consciousness is a separate dimension like time. Consciousness is a manifestation of the alpha-positron particle, the positive counterpart of the alpha-negatron. Consciousness and time move in opposite directions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[588] **viXra:1604.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 05:36:01*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Recently in [3] it was shown that the so called Bell Inequalities are {\it irrelevant} in physics, to the extent that they are in fact {\it not} violated either by classical, or by quantum systems. This, as well known, is contrary to the claim of John Bell that the mentioned inequalities {\it would be} violated in certain quantum contexts. The relevant point to note in [3] in this regard is that Bell's mentioned claim, quite of a wider acceptance among quantum physicists, is due to a most simple, elementary and trivial {\it mistake} in handling some of the involved statistical data. A brief presentation, simplified perhaps to the maximum that still presents the essence of that mistake, can be found in [10], see also [9]. The present paper tries to help in finding a way to the understanding of the above by quantum physicists, an understanding which, typically, is obstructed by an instant and immense amount and variety of ``physical intuitions" with their mix of ``physics + philosophy" considerations which - as an unstoppable avalanche - ends up making a hopeless situation from one which, on occasion, may in fact be quite simple and clear, as shown in [3] to actually happen also with the Bell Inequalities story. The timeliness of such an attempt here, needless to say not the first regarding the Bell Inequalities story, is again brought to the fore due to the no less than {\it three} most freshly claimed to be fundamental contributions to the Bell Inequalities story, [4,5,13], described and commented upon in some detail in [6].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[587] **viXra:1604.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-10 16:56:41*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Recently in [3] it was shown that the so called Bell Inequalities are {\it irrelevant} in physics, to the extent that they are in fact {\it not} violated either by classical, or by quantum systems. This, as well known, is contrary to the claim of John Bell that the mentioned inequalities {\it would be} violated in certain quantum contexts. The relevant point to note in [3] in this regard is that Bell's mentioned claim, quite of a wider acceptance among quantum physicists, is due to a most simple, elementary and trivial {\it mistake} in handling some of the involved statistical data. A brief presentation, simplified perhaps to the maximum that still presents the essence of that mistake, can be found in [10], see also [9]. The present paper tries to help in finding a way to the understanding of the above by quantum physicists, an understanding which, typically, is obstructed by an instant and immense amount and variety of ``physical intuitions" with their mix of ``physics + philosophy" considerations which - as an unstoppable avalanche - ends up making a hopeless situation from one which, on occasion, may in fact be quite simple and clear, as shown in [3] to actually happen also with the Bell Inequalities story. The timeliness of such an attempt here, needless to say not the first regarding the Bell Inequalities story, is again brought to the fore due to the no less than {\it three} most freshly claimed to be fundamental contributions to the Bell Inequalities story, [4,5,13], described and commented upon in some detail in [6].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[586] **viXra:1604.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-10 15:47:37*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Recently in [3] it was shown that the so called Bell Inequalities are {\it irrelevant} in physics, to the extent that they are in fact {\it not} violated either by classical, or by quantum systems. This, as well known, is contrary to the claim of John Bell that the mentioned inequalities {\it would be} violated in certain quantum contexts. The relevant point to note in [3] in this regard is that Bell's mentioned claim, quite of a wider acceptance among quantum physicists, is due to a most simple, elementary and trivial {\it mistake} in handling some of the involved statistical data. A brief presentation, simplified perhaps to the maximum that still presents the essence of that mistake, can be found in [10], see also [9]. The present paper tries to help in finding a way to the understanding of the above by quantum physicists, an understanding which, typically, is obstructed by an instant and immense amount and variety of ``physical intuitions" with their mix of ``physics + philosophy" considerations which - as an unstoppable avalanche - ends up making a hopeless situation from one which, on occasion, may in fact be quite simple and clear, as shown in [3] to actually happen also with the Bell Inequalities story. The timeliness of such an attempt here, needless to say not the first regarding the Bell Inequalities story, is again brought to the fore due to the no less than {\it three} most freshly claimed to be fundamental contributions to the Bell Inequalities story, [4,5,13], described and commented upon in some detail in [6].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[585] **viXra:1603.0392 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-16 08:20:52*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper the design and coding of a local hidden variables model is presented that violates the Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt, $|$CHSH$|$ $\leq 2$ inequality. Numerically we find with our local computer program, CHSH $\approx 1 + \sqrt{2}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[584] **viXra:1603.0253 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-22 03:39:32*

**Authors:** ir. Leo Vuyk bi.

**Comments:** 20 Pages. 20

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field.
After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs filed particles from the vacuum.
These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law.
However, based on observation of iron powder patterns around wires, it is assumed that if these monopole particle/ wave dualities travel parallel to each other inside the Higgs field, (and not- as normal- in opposition due to the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field)
.As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron powder atoms.
This is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric energized wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets.
Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet platings with a spiralling electric coils in between.
The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[583] **viXra:1603.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-19 17:04:41*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 7 Pages. one table and one figure

A.O.Barut in the late 1970s put forth an alternative theory for the inner constitution of baryons and mesons, in which the basic pieces would be the stable particles, namely the proton, the electron, and the neutrino, rather than quarks with fractionary charges. At the same time Barut proposed also that the short range strong interactions between such internal constituents would be magnetic in nature. Quite recently, in vixra 1511.0005, we developed a phenomenological model based upon the concept that the magnetodynamic energy of zitterbewegung intrinsic motion is the source for the rest energies, and therefore, the source of mass in particles. In the present paper we show that assuming Barut´s ideas are correct, our recently proposed model can be applied to leptons and to the full baryon octet with almost perfect accuracy. It is shown that mass for all these particles depends on two quantities, namely, the number of magnetic flux quanta trapped in an intrinsic vibrational motion, and the magnetic moment of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[582] **viXra:1603.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-21 15:05:21*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, I suggest a new way to write the gravitational constant that makes all of the Planck units: Planck length, Planck time, Planck mass, and Planck energy much more intuitive and simpler to understand. Most importantly, this potentially opens up the way for several new interpretations in physics. By writing the gravitational constant in a Planck functional form, we can rewrite all of the Planck units (without changing their values) in a form that is much simpler and more intuitive.
The structural form given by the rewritten Planck constants is somewhat surprisingly also the same structural form as what recently has been derived by Haug 2014 from scratch from atomism. In atomism, the most fundamental particles have spatial dimension. This is in strong contrast to the view of modern physics that assumes the existence of point particles. It is not so long ago that the indivisible particles with spatial dimensions (used by Newton, for example) were abandoned by modern physics in favor of point particles. We will not conclude in this paper if the most fundamental subatomic particles are point-like or have spatial dimension, but we will mainly focus on how we can simplify the Planck units within the framework of mainstream modern physics. Hopefully this can help us get one step further in the interpretation of the quantum world.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[581] **viXra:1603.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-17 07:37:07*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I suggest a new way to write the gravitational constant that makes all of the Planck constants: Planck length, Planck time, Planck mass, and Planck energy much more intuitive and simpler to understand. Most importantly this opens up the way for several new interpretations in physics. By writing the gravitational constant in a Planck functional form, we can rewrite all of the Planck constants (without changing their values) to a form that surprisingly is fully consistent with mathematical atomism. Further I have quantized the escape velocity to Planck scale and shows that it gives the correct value for planets. This strongly indicates that particles have a spatial dimension and that atomism is the correct interpretation of fundamental physics, including the physics of the quantum realm. Unfortunately very few physicists have studied mathematical atomism and we are afraid we may be speaking to deaf ears.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[580] **viXra:1603.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 06:56:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we suggest a new way to write the gravitational constant that makes all of the Planck constants; Planck length, Planck time, Planck mass, and Planck energy much more intuitive and simpler to understand. Most importantly this opens up the way for several new and simpler interpretations in physics. By writing the gravitational constant in a Planck functional form, we can rewrite all of the Planck constants (without changing their values) to a form that surprisingly is fully consistent with mathematical atomism. This strongly indicates that particles have a spatial dimension and that atomism is the correct interpretation of fundamental physics, including the physics of the quantum realm. Unfortunately very few physicists have studied mathematical atomism and we are afraid we may be speaking to deaf ears.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[579] **viXra:1603.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-15 03:53:04*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we suggest a new way to write the gravitational constant that makes all of the Planck constants; Planck length, Planck time, Planck mass, and Planck energy much more intuitive and simpler to understand. Most importantly this opens up the way for several new and simpler interpretations in physics. By writing the gravitational constant in a Planck functional form, we can rewrite all of the Planck constants (without changing their values) to a form that surprisingly is fully consistent with mathematical atomism. This strongly indicates that particles have a spatial dimension and that atomism is the correct interpretation of fundamental physics, including the physics of the quantum realm. Unfortunately very few physicists have studied mathematical atomism and we are afraid we may be speaking to deaf ears.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[578] **viXra:1603.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-15 16:54:17*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Traditionally when we think of waves we think of 2d sine waves. For example, light waves, sound waves and the recently discovered gravity waves by LIGO. However, there exist a new form of waves called sphere-hyperboloid waves that has all the wave properties of 2d but in a 3d sphere and hyperboloid form. The new waveform is revolutionary because it has huge implications in mathematics and physics. If these new type of waves exist, then spherical particles are part of a sphere-hyperboloid propagation wave. This solves the particle wave-duality because it shows that the spherical electron is actually part of a newly discovered sphere-hyperboloid wave. The new wave theory will serve as basis for reconciling Q.M. with Relativity. This new wave discovery will revolutionize physics! The great aspect about this theory is that it can be tested and yield new technological applications.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[577] **viXra:1603.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-13 15:17:53*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Traditionally when we think of waves we think of 2d sine waves. For example, light waves, sound waves and the recently discovered gravity waves by LIGO. However, there exist a new form of waves called sphere-hyperboloid waves that has all the wave properties of 2d but in a 3d sphere and hyperboloid form. The new waveform is revolutionary because it has huge implications in mathematics and physics. If these new type of waves exist, then spherical particles are part of a sphere-hyperboloid propagation wave. This solves the particle wave-duality because it shows that the spherical electron is actually part of a newly discovered sphere-hyperboloid wave. The new wave theory will serve as basis for reconciling Q.M. with Relativity. This new wave discovery will revolutionize physics! The great aspect about this theory is that it can be tested and yield new technological applications.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[576] **viXra:1603.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-12 12:18:48*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[575] **viXra:1603.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-11 10:23:28*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[574] **viXra:1603.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-10 12:42:14*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[573] **viXra:1603.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-09 15:59:43*

**Authors:** Jason cole

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[572] **viXra:1603.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-08 16:52:43*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

We deduce that the speed of light is constant in all inertial frames of reference because both time and space are discretized. To provide a theoretical basis for this discreteness, we postulate our space to be an ocean of the “Gamma elements” having extremely small size and energy (or mass) density. The relativistic relationship between time and space with respect to the constant speed of light is then determined by the process of light propagation in this medium.
The theory finds light energy propagating as “elemental waves” with the phase velocity, c. Here a photon is no longer a particle traveling with the velocity, c, but a Gamma element transforming into a Planck element, an energized state carrying an angular momentum, h, with a frequency, v, substantially behaving like a particle with the energy, Eph = hν, traveling with the velocity, c. The lifetime of each Planck element is on the order of the elemental time, tp. A possible mechanism for this transformation is proposed by the use of the quantum field process involving a vector boson transforming between a massive state (Planck element) and a massless, charged state (Gamma element.) We note that the vacuum state in the quantum field theory is approximately equivalent to the Gamma element state.
A visualized space-time and photon models are presented and the Compton experiment and the double slit experiment are re-validated by the theory. In particular, the Compton scattering suggests a case that may help to verify the theory by an experimental measurement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[571] **viXra:1603.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-28 07:52:19*

**Authors:** Hans van Leunen

**Comments:** 132 Pages.

The Hilbert book test model is a purely mathematical test model that starts from a solid foundation from which the whole model can be derived by using trustworthy mathematical methods. What is known about physical reality is used as a guidance, but the model is not claimed to be a proper reflection of physical reality. The mathematical toolkit still contains holes. These holes will be encountered during the development of the model and suggestions are made how those gaps can be filled. Some new insights are obtained and some new mathematical methods are introduced. The selected foundation is interpreted as part of a recipe for modular construction and that recipe is applied throughout the development of the model. This development is an ongoing project. The main law of physics appears to be a commandment: “Thou shalt construct in a modular way”.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[570] **viXra:1603.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-10 03:26:31*

**Authors:** Hans van Leunen

**Comments:** 114 Pages. The paper is available as .docx document at http://www.e-physics.eu/TheHilbertBookTestModel.docx

The Hilbert book test model is a purely mathematical test model that starts from a solid foundation from which the whole model can be derived by using trustworthy mathematical methods. What is known about physical reality is used as a guidance, but the model is not claimed to be a proper reflection of physical reality. The mathematical toolkit still contains holes. These holes will be encountered during the development of the model and suggestions are made how those gaps can be filled. Some new insights are obtained and some new mathematical methods are introduced. The selected foundation is interpreted as part of a recipe for modular construction and that recipe is applied throughout the development of the model. This development is an ongoing project. The main law of physics appears to be a commandment: “Thou shalt construct in a modular way”.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[569] **viXra:1603.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 14:05:10*

**Authors:** Hans van Leunen

**Comments:** 112 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[568] **viXra:1603.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-25 05:56:29*

**Authors:** Hans van Leunen

**Comments:** 98 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[567] **viXra:1603.0021 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-19 17:00:56*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[566] **viXra:1603.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-16 02:01:59*

**Authors:** Anton A. Lipovka

**Comments:** 8 Pages. submitted to journal

In this paper we suggest a natural interpretation of the de Broglie-Bohm quantum potential, as the energy due to the oscillating electromagnetic
field (virtual photon) coupled with moving charged particle. Generalization of the Schr\"{o}dinger equation is obtained. The wave function is shown to be the eigenfunction of the Sturm - Liouville problem in which we expand virtual photon to include it implicitly into consideration. It is shown the non - locality of quantum mechanics is related only with virtual photon. As an example, the zero - energy of harmonic oscillator is obtained from classical equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[565] **viXra:1603.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-15 15:03:08*

**Authors:** Anton A. Lipovka

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we suggest a natural interpretation of the de Broglie-Bohm
quantum potential, as the energy of oscillating electromagnetic field
(virtual photon) coupled with moving charged particle. Generalization of the
Schr\"{o}dinger equation is obtained from classical field theory. The wave
function is shown to be the eigenfunction of the Sturm - Liouville problem in which we expand virtual photon to include it implicitly into
consideration. It is shown the non - locality of quantum mechanics is related only with virtual photon. As an example, the zero - energy of
harmonic oscillator is obtained from classical equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[564] **viXra:1603.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-07 21:29:53*

**Authors:** Anton A. Lipovka

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nature of the deBroglie-Bohm quantum potential is revealed. It is shown to be the energy of oscillating electromagnetic field coupled with moving charged particle. As an example, the zero - energy of harmonic oscillator is obtained from classical equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[563] **viXra:1603.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-04 11:37:56*

**Authors:** Anton A. Lipovka

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nature of the deBroglie-Bohm quantum potential is revealed. It is shown to be the energy of oscillating electromagnetic field coupled with moving charged particle. As an example, the zero - energy of harmonic oscillator is obtained from classical equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[562] **viXra:1602.0375 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 16:07:58*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A kinetic energy-operated quantum wave equation is used to formulate alternate quantum fields: an alternate Klein-Gordon field, an alternate Dirac field, an alternate Proca field, and an alternate Higgs field.
Unlike the original Dirac field equations, the alternate Dirac field equations are shown to include a vacuum state solution apart from the particle and anti-particle solutions, lending support to the alternate formulation. The alternate Klein-Gordon field shows scalar bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state whenever the vector potential vanishes. A local U(1) gauge transformation of the alternate Klein-Gordon Lagrangian directly leads to both the alternate Proca field and the alternate Higgs field. These fields show vector bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state by a spontaneous breakdown of symmetry at a minimum potential trough similar to that of a Mexican hat or wine bottle potential in the Brout, Englert, and Higgs (BEH) mechanism, but more generally leaving open a possible presence of entirely different or many alternate Higgs bosons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[561] **viXra:1602.0375 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 11:15:04*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Revised to simplify the title with minor revisions in the abstract and main text.

A kinetic energy-operated quantum wave equation is used to formulate alternate quantum fields: an alternate Klein-Gordon field, an alternate Dirac field, an alternate Proca field, and an alternate Higgs field.
Unlike the original Dirac field equations, the alternate Dirac field equations are shown to include a vacuum state solution apart from the particle and anti-particle solutions, lending support to the alternate formulation. The alternate Klein-Gordon field shows scalar bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state whenever the vector potential vanishes. A local U(1) gauge transformation of the alternate Klein-Gordon Lagrangian directly leads to both the alternate Proca field and the alternate Higgs field. These fields show vector bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state by a spontaneous breakdown of symmetry at a minimum potential trough similar to that of a Mexican hat or wine bottle potential in the Brout, Englert, and Higgs (BEH) mechanism, but more generally leaving open a possible presence of entirely different or many alternate Higgs bosons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[560] **viXra:1602.0375 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-17 15:18:02*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A kinetic energy-operated quantum wave equation is used to formulate alternate quantum fields: an alternate Klein-Gordon field, an alternate Dirac field, an alternate Proca field, and an alternate Higgs field.
Unlike the original Dirac field equations, the alternate Dirac field equations are shown to include a vacuum plane wave solution apart from the electron and positron solutions, lending support to the alternate formulation. The alternate Klein-Gordon field shows scalar bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state whenever the vector potential vanishes. A local U(1) gauge transformation of the alternate Klein-Gordon Lagrangian directly leads to both the alternate Proca field and the alternate Higgs field. These fields show vector bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state by a spontaneous breakdown of symmetry at a minimum potential trough similar to that of a Mexican hat or wine bottle potential in the Brout, Englert, and Higgs (BEH) mechanism, but more generally leaving open a possible presence of entirely different or many alternate Higgs bosons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[559] **viXra:1602.0375 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-07 16:25:46*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Simplified the title with minor revisions for abstract and main text.

A kinetic energy-operated quantum wave equation is used to formulate alternate quantum fields: an alternate Klein-Gordon field, an alternate Dirac field, an alternate Proca field, and an alternate Higgs field.
Unlike the original Dirac field equations, the alternate Dirac field equations are shown to include a vacuum plane wave solution apart from the electron and positron solutions, lending support to the alternate formulation. The alternate Klein-Gordon field shows scalar bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state whenever the vector potential vanishes. A local U(1) gauge transformation of the alternate Klein-Gordon Lagrangian directly leads to both the alternate Proca field and the alternate Higgs field. These fields show vector bosons transforming between a massive state and a massless, charged state by a spontaneous breakdown of symmetry at a minimum potential trough similar to that of a Mexican hat or wine bottle potential in the Brout, Englert, and Higgs (BEH) mechanism, but more generally leaving open a possible presence of entirely different or many alternate Higgs bosons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[558] **viXra:1602.0360 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-29 18:19:57*

**Authors:** PV Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper describes a huge mistake, it tells us why scientists (theoretical physics) cannot find or explain anything. Scientists don't realize that theoretical physics is based on a fallacy, it is based on something that doesn't exist. Einstein claimed that time and space are merged in a fictional space fabric (space-time), but by saying that he claimed that space and time don't exist. Scientists know that space and time are real, so that means that those real things can never be a part of a fictional thing. A fictional space fabric (space-time) can only be found in the fourth dimension and nobody can say or prove that it exists, so it can never affect something in reality. We only know reality and that is the third dimension, Einstein made a hugh mistake by thinking that the fourth dimension exists and that fallacy was devastating to theoretical physics. Everybody knows that something cannot exist if it's based on fiction, so I don't understand why scientists believe that Einstein's gravity can exist.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[557] **viXra:1602.0360 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-28 15:57:48*

**Authors:** PV Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper describes a huge mistake, it tells us why scientists (theoretical physics) cannot find or explain anything. Scientists don't realize that theoretical physics is based on a fallacy, Einstein claimed that time and space are merged in a fictional space fabric (space-time) but by saying that he claimed that space and time don't exist. Scientists know that space and time are real, so that means that they can never be a part of a fictional thing. A fictional space fabric (space-time) can only be found in the fourth dimension and nobody can say or prove that it exists, so it can never affect something in reality. We only know reality and that is the third dimension, Einstein made a hugh mistake by thinking that the fourth dimension exists and that fallacy was devastating to theoretical physics. Everybody knows that something cannot exist if it's based on fiction, so I don't understand why scientists believe that Einstein's gravity can exist.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[556] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-11 18:00:09*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[555] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-06 05:19:30*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[554] **viXra:1601.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-31 05:38:46*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using a new concept of the truth in quantum mechanics we show that the individual superposition principle is scientifically unfounded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics