**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(8) - 0703(11) - 0705(1) - 0708(1) - 0711(1)

2008 - 0802(1) - 0804(6) - 0807(1) - 0812(1)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(10) - 0908(9) - 0909(4) - 0910(6) - 0911(4) - 0912(4)

2010 - 1001(5) - 1002(3) - 1003(29) - 1004(9) - 1005(7) - 1006(5) - 1007(5) - 1008(4) - 1009(3) - 1011(1) - 1012(1)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(6) - 1104(7) - 1105(3) - 1106(8) - 1107(9) - 1108(7) - 1109(11) - 1110(10) - 1111(11) - 1112(9)

2012 - 1201(1) - 1202(3) - 1203(11) - 1204(5) - 1205(8) - 1206(6) - 1207(4) - 1208(9) - 1209(8) - 1210(11) - 1211(12) - 1212(7)

2013 - 1301(16) - 1302(11) - 1303(6) - 1304(9) - 1305(16) - 1306(20) - 1307(16) - 1308(10) - 1309(15) - 1310(2) - 1311(13) - 1312(26)

2014 - 1401(9) - 1402(7) - 1403(19) - 1404(14) - 1405(13) - 1406(20) - 1407(22) - 1408(17) - 1409(19) - 1410(15) - 1411(23) - 1412(17)

2015 - 1501(7) - 1502(20) - 1503(19) - 1504(12)

Any replacements are listed further down

[720] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 15:30:54*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[719] **viXra:1504.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 16:57:30*

**Authors:** Vedat Tanriverdi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. spin, quantum mechanics

The historical development of spin and Stern-Gerlach experiment are summarized.
Then some questions on spin are stated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[718] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 15:24:54*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 pages, in spanish

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then.
Results: Four solutions to the gravitomagnetic wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[717] **viXra:1504.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 11:41:04*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We study the relation between hidden variables theories and
quantum computation.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between a hidden variables theory and controllability of quantum computation.
To derive the inconsistency, we use the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We propose a solution of the problem by using new hidden variables theory.
Also
we discuss
an
inconsistency
between hidden variables theories and the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
hidden variables theories to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a specific case.
Hidden variables theories may not depicture quantum detector.
This is a quantum measurement theoretical profound problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[716] **viXra:1504.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:55:26*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new relativistic quantum wave equation has been derived by applying the quantum prescription to the momentum and the kinetic energy rather than to the momentum and the total energy, since after all it is the kinetic energy that generates the momentum. The resulting equation reduces to the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit and to the Klein-Gordon equation for “massless particles” in the relativistic limit, i.e., if the velocity of the particle approaches that of light, c. For massive particles in general, the new equation deviates from the Klein-Gordon equation. The same equation is shown to decouple according to the Dirac formalism, yielding a modified form of Dirac equation. When applied to a rest particle, the modified Dirac equation is shown to avoid a negative energy solution and instead include a constant solution. The other, the time-dependent particle solution of the modified Dirac equation, has the characteristic frequency Mc2/(ћ/2) , i.e., twice those of the Dirac solutions, Mc2/ћ.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[715] **viXra:1504.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 09:31:52*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[714] **viXra:1504.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 14:35:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I derive the lepto-baryonic formula for the electric charge. The formula is based on
the lepto-baryonic formula for the fine-structure constant that I published recently. This paper
shows that the electrical charge is a function of the ratio of the mass difference between the two
lightest charged leptons: the electron and the electrino; and the mass difference between the two
lightest baryons: the proton and the neutron. Thus the formula for the elementary charge is a
function of the mass of four elementary particles. Two of these particles (the electron and the electrino) control the sign of the electric charge. This allow us to derive the electric charge of the positron from the electric charge of the electron by interpreting the positron, as Feynman did, as an electron of negative energy travelling backward in time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[713] **viXra:1504.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 13:54:17*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article we consider the variant of quantum mechanics (QM) which is based on the non-realism. There exists the theory of the modified QM introduced in [1] and [2] which is based on the non-realism, but it contains also other changes with respect to the standard QM (stQM). We introduce here the other non-realistic modification of QM (n-rQM) which contains the minimal changes with respect to stQM. The change consists in the replacement of the von Neumann`s axiom (ensembles which are in the pure state are homogeneous) by the anti-von Neumann`s axiom (any two different individual states must be orthogonal). This introduces the non-realism into n-rQM. We shall show that experimental consequences of n-rQM are the same as in stQM, but these two theories are substantially different. In n-rQM it is not possible to derive (using locality) the Bell inequalities. Thus n-rQM does not imply the non-locality (in contrast with stQM). Because of this the locality in n-rQM can be restored. The main purpose of this article was to show what could be the minimal modification of QM based on the non-realism, i.e. that the realism of stQM is completely contained in the von Neumann's axiom.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[712] **viXra:1504.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 00:32:12*

**Authors:** Richard D. Gill

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper describes the first and second versions of Joy Christian's model for the singlet correlations, working through the mathematical core of two of Christian's shortest, least technical, and most accessible works. The aim of the paper is to show that from the start, the model depended both on a conceptual error and on an algebraic error. For this purpose we start by giving an introduction to geometric algebra using the fact that the basic geometric algebra of 3D geometry is actually isomorphic to the algebra of the complex two-by-two matrices over the real numbers. Thus the reader who is already familiar with the Pauli spin matrices will find him- or herself in a completely familiar environment. This helps avoid the kind of beginner's errors which plague Christian's opus, and gives rapid access to (and understanding of) the so-called bivector algebra: the even subalgebra of Cl_{3, 0}(R), itself isomorphic to the quaternions.
Getting the basic facts of geometric algebra out front and crystal clear helps demystify Christian's project and hopefully is useful in its own right. We will see how Christian apparently realised, if only at a subconscious level, that there was a major gap in his first, 2007, paper, and attempted to patch this in 2011, making things, however, only worse.
Apart from providing a quick-start guide to geometric algebra, and a hopefully very accessible post-mortem analysis of Christian's project, the purpose of the paper is to discuss the psychology and sociology of Bell deniers: how can very clever people make such elementary mistakes, and persist so long in maintaining their illusion that they have created a major breakthrough?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[711] **viXra:1504.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 11:43:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[710] **viXra:1504.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 06:34:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[709] **viXra:1504.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 04:33:14*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Old comment letter, placed up here to show ongoing struggle by author to understand FTL signaling, if it is at all possible.

The author muses on precursor ideas on a mechanism for superluminal signaling via entanglement correlation and comes to the conclusion that, whatever it is, it would be highly unusual, if superluminal signaling is to be believed. (Date of publication Sept/Oct 2011).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[708] **viXra:1503.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 15:52:01*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new quantum-cosmological principle that I shall call the 'electro-gravitational principle'. Based on this principle I shall derive a formula for the age of the Universe. The formula coincides with formula I published in a previous paper in 2014 and that I derived from the Scale Law. The age of the Universe obtained through this formulation agrees with the latest measurements carried out in 2013 by the Planck mission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[707] **viXra:1503.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 17:37:38*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with a new particle with a mass of
approximately 55.6 eV /c^2 . One of the possibilities is that this elusive particle to be
either a new type of neutrino or a completely new type of particle with sufficiently large abundance to account for most of the predicted dark matter content in the Universe. If this formulation were correct then the dark matter mystery, at least to a large extent, would have been solved.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[706] **viXra:1503.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:28:19*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Part 2 of the answer to the critique of Ghirardi.

This paper follows on from the author’s previous thoughts on the subject of the “No-communication Theorem” and Ghirardi’s critique of a communication scheme by the author and then his response to this. It is an addendum to lay bare the inadequate use of the formalism by Ghirardi, Hall et-al. To make our argument convincing, we find it necessary to explicitly lay out the machinery of the density matrix formulated argument, so that it can be seen by the incredulous, the gapping hole in the Ghirardi-Hall belief. We shall see that phase information, crucial to the interferometer setup in previous papers, is lost when: the joint evolution of the system is not considered, superposition is not explicitly brought in as an operation itself and finally, when the act of taking the reduced trace is taken too early (the act of exclusion of one system). This has lead to the limiting belief that components of entangled systems considered in isolation, are only ever in a mixed state. We shall see that when the reduced trace is taken at the right point in the analysis, phase information pertaining to the remote system is still present and this concurs with the state vector approach used to analyse the same problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[705] **viXra:1503.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 11:57:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[704] **viXra:1503.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 08:11:52*

**Authors:** Christina Munns

**Comments:** 24 Pages. All rights reserved 2013

ABSTRACT
ABSTRACT
This paper serves to explain how the four tensors within Einstein’s field equations (EFE) of scalar curvature, metric tensor, Ricci curvature tensor and stress-energy tensor can each be exactly correlated to the phenomena of unitary symmetry groups, quantum number, dark phenomena, 5D regular polytopes and universal number. The paper also explains how these four EFE tensors find expression in the Unified Standard Model which is the graphical depiction of Unified Field Theory. The conclusion is that the four tensors of Einstein’s field equations can now be applied to real life phenomena such as space, light, gravity and time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[703] **viXra:1503.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 06:24:19*

**Authors:** Nikolai V. Volkov

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Keywords: Virtual proper time – Virtual scalar-electric field - Elimination of the infrared catastrophe - Field origin of the electron mass - Single-particle wave Dirac equation.

With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the metric of the physical Minkowski
space we pass to the four-dimensional bimetric space-time. Now a complete description
of the occurring physical processes includes both physical (observable) and virtual
(unobservable) objects that enter in the physical expressions. In classical electrodynamics
this conversion leads to the appearance of the virtual scalar-electric field that complements
the physical electromagnetic field and is a massive in the presence of sources. This allows
to eliminate the infrared catastrophe and to proof the field origin of the virtual (bare)
electron mass and self-energy. With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the classical
quantum theory we obtain the single-particle wave Dirac equation for which the electron
wave function retains the simple probabilistic interpretation. In the single-particle Dirac
theory the virtual scalar-electric field shifts the physical energy levels for the hydrogen
atom in an external field and this leads to two additional amendments.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[702] **viXra:1503.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 19:06:38*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Constructing an E8 Based Standard Model (SM): An approach to a Theory of Everything (ToE)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[701] **viXra:1503.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 18:36:42*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Proof and apparatus showing No-communication Theorem is wrong.

This short letter is a response to an analysis by Ghirardi of a supposed flaw in a communication scheme involving entangled state collapse. We find his analysis entirely correct but missing the point, which is subtle, the no communication theorem merely expresses the truth of the locality of quantum state information on measurement but surprisingly says nothing about the particle being present or not by dint of the communication scheme itself. Ghirardi’s analysis using the density matrix approach does not deal correctly with the analysis of superposition in the interferometer and as such, doesn’t even correctly replicate the case for non-entanglement, as did the state vector method used by Cornwall.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[700] **viXra:1503.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-18 23:31:03*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We show that the complex number structure of the probability allows
to express explicitly the relationship between the energy function H and
the Laplace principle of equal ignorance (LPEI). This nonlinear relation-
ship reflecting the measurement properties of the considered systems, to-
gether with the principle of causality and Newton principle separating the
dynamics from initial conditions, lead to the linear Schrodinger equation
with the Max Born interpretation, for micro and macro systems!

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[699] **viXra:1503.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 17:22:51*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The formula presented in this paper predicts the masses of 17 baryons, one lepton and 6 other particles. The formula uses non-consecutive quantum numbers. The maximum accuracy of the formula is 3 decimal places and the minimum is 2. This paper predicts a new particle with a rest mass between 4557.2 MeV /c^2 and 4658.2 MeV /c^2 . The formula suggests the existence of a more general formula for the masses of all known particles, which is yet, to be discovered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[698] **viXra:1503.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 10:15:19*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven-page Letter

Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G . Tank showed that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle; and his unit of mass is a geometric-mean of two un-equal masses, namely total mass of the universe and the smallest conceivable mass h H0 / c2 ; so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of four fundamental-constants, ( h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant), so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different ones. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a strong possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[697] **viXra:1503.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 00:28:54*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

From the dichotomy "nonlocality vs non-realism" which is the consequence of Bell Inequalities (BI) we shall choose the non-realism. We shall present here the modified Quantum Mechanics (modQM) in the axiomatic form. ModQM was introduced in [5] and we shall show its non-realism in the description of an internal measurement process. ModQM allows the restoration of locality, since BI cannot be derived in it. In modQM it is possible to solve: the measurement problem, the collapse problem, the problem of a local model for EPR correlations (see[5]). ModQM is a unique explicit realization of non-realism in QM. ModQM should be preferred as an alternative to the standard QM mainly since it restores the locality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[696] **viXra:1503.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-13 10:09:11*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages. This is a valid unified theory

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[695] **viXra:1503.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-11 10:07:30*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I give a short explanation of how mathematics representing pure states
is logically distinct from mixed states. This is intended as understandable to the
undergraduate.
Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information,
prepared state, wave packet, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, mathematical
logic, arithmetic, formal system, axioms, Soundness Theorem, Completeness
Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, semantics, syntax.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[694] **viXra:1503.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 15:17:06*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted for Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest on Physics and Math, Feb. 4, 2015: http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2338

It is widely believed that mathematics provides the fundamental basis for physics. On the contrary, it is argued here that pictures of real objects moving in real space provide the proper basis for physics, and that mathematics merely provides quantitative models for calculating the dynamics of these objects. Such models may distort or even hinder the development of new physics, particularly if a consistent physical picture is lacking. This is discussed in connection with quantum mechanics, which discarded realism in favor of mathematical abstraction almost a century ago. A realistic, spin-quantized wave picture of quantum mechanics is presented that avoids the paradoxes and abstractions of the orthodox quantum theory. Quantum indeterminacy stems from an inappropriate application of a statistical point-particle model to extended soliton-like wave packets. Quantum transitions are continuous, rather than the abrupt transitions of the Hilbert space model. Quantum entanglement is an artifact of mathematical constructions incompatible with local realism. These are not merely matters of philosophical interpretation; several experimental implications are presented. It is time to remove the mathematical blinders that have prevented consideration of realistic quantum pictures.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[693] **viXra:1503.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 05:41:04*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We review the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.
We suggest that
the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm may
improve quantum key distribution.
Alice sends input $N$ partite uncorrelated state to
a black box. Bob measures output state.
Now, Alice and Bob has promised to use a function $f$
which is of one of two kinds; either the value of $f$ is constant or balanced.
To Eve, it is secret.
Alice's and Bob's goal is to determine with certainty whether they have
chosen a constant or a balanced function.
Alice and Bob get one bit if they determine the function $f$.
The speed to get one bit improves by a factor of $2^{N}$.
This may improve the speed to establish quantum key distribution by a factor of $2^{N}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[692] **viXra:1503.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-02 11:24:40*

**Authors:** Asim M. Babikr

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

● The theory in this stage is merely a proposal, an attempt to start looking and find the missing variables of Quantum Mechanics raised by Einstein in his papers, where he stated that "Quantum Mechanics is correct indeed, but it is not the complete way of describing reality", we try to continue after his footsteps here.
● I am not saying or considering the theory as an empirical fact yet, -even if the style of writing would give such an impression, the style meant to help readers to live the possibility of the hypothesis and also for the purpose of convergence of views- but what I'm really saying, it deserves the investigation.
● The theory is intending to build upon the current theories and complete them, and it is not intending to replace them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[691] **viXra:1503.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 14:18:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper explores the exponential formula for the fine-structure constant that I published in a
previous paper entitled: Exponential Formula for the Fine Structure Constant. Unlike the formula
presented there, this paper introduces an exact formula in terms of the masses of the two lightest
leptons: the electron and the electrino (new lepton); and the lightest baryons: the neutron and the proton. The electrino is a new lepton predicted by the author in a previous paper entitled: Is the Electron Unstable?. This investigation suggests that the mass of this particle, if exists, is 529.3 times lighter than that of the electron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[690] **viXra:1503.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 10:52:36*

**Authors:** V.Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The paper was published in the site vps137.narod.ru/phys/ at 20/01/2013.

In the frame of the model of 4D matter («4D medium» or «4D ether») it is given the description of some basic notions of the quantum mechanics such as the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg, the atomic spectrum, the wave function, the de Broglie's wave
and some other.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[689] **viXra:1502.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 10:45:13*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page Note

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser forceps. To avoid this anomaly, new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can let the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2 , interfere in double-slit interference experiment. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at predictable points.
Detailed description will follow soon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[688] **viXra:1502.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 08:28:50*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we create a self similar
analogous image of spiral structure
of elementary particles with that of
sea shells, using the mathematical
description of pigmentation pattern
of sea shells, which describes the
various potentials of the spiral
structure of elementary particles. It
also introduces the sea shells
analogous parameters for spiral
structure of elementary particles for
quantising the property of the
elementary particles. It applies the
Reaction-Diffusion equation for
Activator-Inhibitor model to produce
the ingredient activated potential
which once after the formation of the
spiral structure of elementary
particles is being described by the
Activator- Substrate model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[687] **viXra:1502.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-27 12:17:17*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article applies a simplified calculation of the effect of quantum entanglement of virtual particles in vacuum on electron motion

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[686] **viXra:1502.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 05:38:39*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Templeton Prize winner wrote: „In the second half of the eighteenth century, the deterministic character of Newton’s equations encouraged many people to see the physical world in strictly mechanical terms, as if the universe is a gigantic piece of cosmic clockwork.” Such wrong view comes from the believe, that the energy and momentum are always conserve.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[685] **viXra:1502.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-24 12:21:26*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime of about 1.7645×1033 years.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[684] **viXra:1502.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 15:30:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of leptons.
After proposing a formula for the lifetime of the tau particle and following two rules, I build a formula for the lifetime of the muon. Based on these two formulas and based on the same rules, I derived the formula for the mean lifetime of the electron. The formula I found through this extrapolation process indicates that the electron is unstable and that its mean lifetime is, approximately, (π /2)×10^90 years, which is about 10^80 times the age of the universe. Thus according to this formulation the lifetime of the electron is extraordinarily long but not infinite as previously thought.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[683] **viXra:1502.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 15:15:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

For nearly half a century, theoretical physicists have made a series of discoveries that certain constants in fundamental physics seem extraordinarily fine-tuned to allow for the emergence of a life-enabling universe. [9]
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[682] **viXra:1502.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 09:35:01*

**Authors:** Lori-Anne Gardi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Yes

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[681] **viXra:1502.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-19 18:28:48*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we shall show that the standard derivation of the non-locality
contains the logical error which invalidates the whole derivation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[680] **viXra:1502.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 02:09:59*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Experimental realization of Gedanken experiments on Quantum Mechanics continue to suggest inferences of action at a distance, action into the future or past as reported in Delayed choice Quantum entanglement experiments recently by Ma et al (2012). Is it possible to read through this and investigate through simple logic and experiments whether control of the past or future is possible? A set of experiments are suggested here to do the same whose results may be interesting.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[679] **viXra:1502.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 09:10:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper introduces a new exponential formula for the fine-structure constant. This approximate
formula is expressed in terms of the masses of the electron, the neutron and the proton. The error of
the formula is less than 1%. This accuracy suggests that there is an unknown parameter which has not been taken into account.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[678] **viXra:1502.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 09:12:30*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is derived from a lepton mass factor, a Koidean ratio for quarks and a dimensionless factor based on the fine-structure constant. If this formula were correct it would prove a profound relationship between the masses of leptons and quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[677] **viXra:1502.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 17:41:53*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The possibility of the locality of quantum mechanics is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[676] **viXra:1502.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 23:08:31*

**Authors:** Chris Thron

**Comments:** 11 pages, 3 figures

For a general quantum theory that is describable by a path integral formalism, we construct a mathematical model of an accumulation-to-threshold process whose outcomes give predictions that are nearly identical to the given quantum theory. The model is neither local nor causal in spacetime, but is both local and causal is in a non-observable path space. The probabilistic nature of the squared wavefunction is a natural consequence of the model. We verify the model
with simulations, and we discuss possible discrepancies from conventional quantum theory that might be detectable via experiment. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of the model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[675] **viXra:1502.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 17:51:22*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is argued that the lesson we should learn from Bell inequalities (BI) is not that Quantum Mechanics (QM) is nonlocal, but that QM contains an error which must be corrected.
1

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[674] **viXra:1502.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 02:15:11*

**Authors:** Robert Mereau

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper illustrates a family of 2-dimensional graphs that admit pretty good state transfer over arbitrary distances.
ramereau@gmail.com

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[673] **viXra:1502.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 05:44:52*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

In this paper we identify the superposition principle as a main source of problems in QM (measurement, collapse, non-locality etc.). Here
the superposition principle for individual systems is substituted by the antisuperposition
principle: no non-trivial superposition of states is a possible individual state (for ensembles the superposition principle is true).
The modified QM is based on the anti-superposition principle and on the new type of probability theory (Extended Probability Theory [1]), which allows the reversible Markov processes as models for QM.
In the modified QM the measurement is a process inside of QM and the concept of an observation of the measuring system is defined. The outcome
value is an attribute of the ensemble of measured systems. The collapse of the state is substituted by the Selection process. We show that the derivation of Bell’s inequalities is then impossible and thus QM remains a local theory.
Our main results are: the locality of the modified QM, the local explanation of EPR correlations, the non-existence of the wave-particle duality, the solution of the measurement problem. We show that QM can be understood as
a new type of the statistical mechanics of many-particle systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[672] **viXra:1502.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-08 20:27:05*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a consequence of the postulate that coordinate
and momentum representations are related
to each other by the Fourier transform. This postulate has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory by analogy with classical electrodynamics. We argue that the postulate is based neither on strong theoretical arguments nor on experimental data. A position operator proposed in our recent publication
resolves inconsistencies of standard approach and sheds a new light on important problems of quantum theory. We do not assume that the reader is an expert in the given field and believe that the content of the paper can be understood by a wide audience of physicists

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[671] **viXra:1502.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 11:52:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Building a quantum computer can sometimes yield unexpected benefits — like providing the right environment to demonstrate that Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity is, in fact, correct. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[670] **viXra:1502.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-02 04:27:50*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I propose a model for indeterminate information in a mixed state.
Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information,prepared state, mixed state, superposition, wave packet, measurement problem, epistemology, perfect symmetry, broken symmetry, symmetry breaking.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[669] **viXra:1501.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 05:39:13*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract I comment on the background meaning, beneath Boolean encodings,
used in the paper by Tomasz Paterek et al.
Keywords foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum
randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state,
measured state, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, mathematical logic, logical
independence, mathematical undecidability.
DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4703.4883

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[668] **viXra:1501.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-14 13:40:15*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

Recently, violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty relation
in spin measurements is
discussed {[J. Erhart {\it et al.},
Nature Physics {\bf 8}, 185 (2012)]}
and {[G. Sulyok {\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. A {\bf 88}, 022110 (2013)]}.
We derive the optimal limitation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
in a specific two-level system (e.g., electron spin, photon
polarizations, and so on).
Some physical situation is that we would measure $\sigma_x$ and $\sigma_y$,
simultaneously.
The optimality is certified by the Bloch sphere.
We show that a violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle means
a violation of the Bloch sphere in the specific case.
Thus, the above experiments show a violation of the Bloch sphere when we use
$\pm 1$ as measurement outcome.
This conclusion agrees with recent
researches {[K. Nagata,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 48}, 3532 (2009)]} and
{[K. Nagata {\it et al.},
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)]}.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[667] **viXra:1501.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-11 13:37:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

New research from Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. [9]
A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time.
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[666] **viXra:1501.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-09 05:33:04*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we have tried to describe a gauge group for gravitational potential associated with the elementary particle as described by their spiral structure in accordance with the standard model. It relates to the framework of quantum field theory considering the Dark Potential Waves which constitutes the Universe to be destructively interfering through Symmetry which breaks spontaneously through autocatalysis to initiate the Higgs Mechanism which consecutively defines the gravitational potential resulting in various spiral forms of particles. It also redefines the formation of Spiral Structure of Elementary Particles in context to formation of Sea Shells.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[665] **viXra:1501.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 09:26:08*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The puzzles of quantum mechanics are: 1. what is the medium for the photon and for the electron wave? i.e. what is waving? 2. particle interference pattern 3. observer effect. 4. entanglement. In Quantum Erasure and Double-Slit experiments, how does the emitter know to direct the photon two both slits or only to one slit? And how does the detector know where to detect the photons to form an interference pattern and not a bell-shaped (Gaussian) pattern or vice versa? This paper proposes a few, closely related, simple and subtle laws of nature governing quantum phenomena. Some of the findings in this paper are: 1. A photon is emitted in two steps: the creation of photon path and the emission of the photon 2. Although (almost) all of the energy of the photon is localized in space, the photon extends to infinity. An extremely small energy of the photon, which we call the 'precursor wave' in this paper, extends to infinity. The instant the photon is emitted, its precursor wave creates a path to infinity; it appears instantaneously in all its path to infinity, with infinitely small energy density. The precursor wave serves as the 'highway' for the propagation of the main energy packet. However, to conserve the principle of causality, we assume that the tip of the photon propagates at a speed billions times the speed of light. Thus, there are two speeds associated with the photon: the speed we know as c and the speed at which the photon length increases. 2. A photon will be emitted only towards an absorber. A photon is emitted by the interaction of the emitter and a detector. It is obvious that a photon will not be emitted if there is no emitter. Nor will a photon be emitted if there is no detector . Once a photon is emitted, however, it exists objectively, autonomously. The photon is emitted only after its path is determined by the interaction of the emitter and the absorber, at the instant of emission. 3. The photon energy will be concentrated where there is higher wave amplitude, i.e higher intensity of oscillation of electric and magnetic fields. This results in 'dragging' of the electromagnetic energy by the wave, hence eliminating the need for any medium. It is also proposed that single photon interference is a quantum phenomenon whereas two photon interference is a classical phenomenon. Similar laws hold for the electron. The 'medium' for the electron wave is the electron (the electron mass density field) itself. Where there is higher intensity of electron wave/oscillation, there will be higher electron mass density. This means that the electron wave 'drags' the electron with itself. Therefore, no exotic 'medium' is required for the photon and for the electron wave.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[664] **viXra:1501.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 01:28:37*

**Authors:** Lane M Davis

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

By modeling both the atom and the photon as capacitors, the correct energy levels are easily produced via extrapolation from Maxwell's, Gauss', Coulomb's and Ohm's laws — without the need to inject Planck's constant into the equation ad-hoc. In the case of the photon, Einstein's photoelectric equation is formulated as a result, with Planck's constant consequently occurring as an aggregate of fundamental constants. Analysis of these equations lends credence to Planck's fervent and controversial personal dogma that the constant which he himself had discovered is nothing but “a mathematical trick”. Further analysis shows that this model reconciles the wave-particle duality; wherein the wave properties of light and matter produce the particle-like aspects as a result of the laws of electrical engineering in conjunction with the uncertainty principle and Schrödinger's wave equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[663] **viXra:1501.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 21:47:46*

**Authors:** M. Pitkänen

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Quantum criticality is one of the corner stone assumptions of TGD. The value of Kähler coupling strength fixes quantum TGD and is analogous to critical temperature. TGD Universe would be quantum critical. What does this mean is however far from obvious and I have pondered the notion repeatedly both from the point of view of mathematical description and phenomenology. Superfluids exhibit rather mysterious looking effects such as fountain effect and what looks like quantum coherence of superfluid containers which should be classically
isolated. These findings serve as a motivation for the proposal that genuine superfluid portion of superfluid corresponds to a large h_{eff} phase near criticality at least and that also in other phase transition like phenomena a phase transition to dark phase occurs near the vicinity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[662] **viXra:1412.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-30 09:47:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Prospects of developing computing and communication technologies based on quantum properties of light and matter may have taken a major step forward thanks to research by City College of New York physicists led by Dr. Vinod Menon. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[661] **viXra:1412.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-30 04:39:53*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page note

Quantum entanglement of pair of particles is now an established fact as described in [1]. But its theoretical explanation is yet to be found. So this letter attempts to propose one possible explanation, based on this author’s previous works: In a paper titled: “Some conjectures on the nature of energy and matter”[2] and its latest version “ On the emergence of physical world from the ultimate reality” [3] it was proposed that ‘space’ or ‘vacuum’ can be viewed as a ‘super flexible continuum (SFC), and ‘particles’ of ‘matter’ as ‘spherical standing wave patterns’ of fluctuations generated in SFC. Since, in a continuum, when a labeled dot moves from point A to A’ the point B behind it has to move from B to B’; and this chain of displacements has to complete a closed circular path, whose radius can be as small as a few nano-meters or as large as a few thousand kilometers. This motion of point A completes a small circle on the surface of a spherical shell in a time t , giving rise to a wave in the radial direction. The propagation of this wave in the radial direction is at the speed of light; whereas the displacements of points on the surface of spherical shell are instantaneous; because of the continuum nature of ‘space’. When such a wave of fluctuations moves in radial direction, it mirror-wave, of the same frequency and amplitude, has to move in radially opposite direction, giving rise to a pair of pulses moving apart in r adial directions. Since, the spin and polarization of ‘photons’ are in perpendicular to the direction of their motion, they are in the tangential-direction of the spherical shell, on which displacements of points take place instantaneously. This is what is known as ‘entanglement’ of ‘photons’. The observed entanglement of photons, and other particles, imply the presence of an underlying ‘super flexible continuum’ (SFC) , as was anticipated in [1] in the year 1988.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[660] **viXra:1412.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-29 08:51:26*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

the Planck’s energy quantum hypothesis will be deduced by ‘basic force interpretation’ in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[659] **viXra:1412.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-26 11:33:23*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Abstract
A biological model of elementary particles with many resemblances with DNA.
More precisely, with a circular supercoiled DNA, or as supercoiled rods.
The model is isomorphic with the quark model.
It justifies all the elementary particles, and only these. A particle is a closed wire, a single strand, a helix. Quarks are twisted pieces of this helix, having its own charge Q, but also isospin projection I3 and hypercharge Y.
I put charge Q, isospin projection I3 and hypercharge Y in one-to-one correspondence with a physical model, in which each quark, each piece of helix, has its own Linking number Lk, Twist Tw and Writhe Wr. As a consequence, any elementary particle is modelled by a closed wire, with its own internal Twist, Writhe Wr and Linking number (charge).
For any closed cord Lk is invariant, so the alteration of the Twist will absorbed as Writhe and viceversa. Each couple Tw / Wr corresponds to different conformation.
The lowest-energy conformation will have the lowest mass, and the others will have much more mass.
As I know, the model is just “picturesque”, but may lead to some idea

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[658] **viXra:1412.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 22:54:52*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Bell oversimplified his model based on confusing a provisional precession eigenvalue equation with Dirac's fundamental helicity eigenvalue equation. I derive a local classical model based on energy-exchange physics that Bell intentionally suppressed and I show that Bell's constraints determine whether the model is local or non-local. The physical theory upon which the model is based can be tested experimentally; if valid, Bell's claims of non-locality will be proved wrong.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[657] **viXra:1412.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 08:25:50*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

This letter proposes an explanation for the century-old puzzle of the wave-particle-duality of light, which thousands of physicists, including Einstein, Plank, Feynman …, have been trying to resolve. Since a ‘particle’ is localized in space, it is mathematically characterized here as an impulse-function in space. Then it is argued that if this ‘particle’ has anything to do with waves then we can know it by taking Fourier-transform of the impulse-function in space. When Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain; we find that a ‘particle’ should contain a wide ‘set’ of waves, and not just a single frequency. Then we show that in the experiments performed so far [1] the red lasers had significantly wide line-width, means the sources have been producing a wide set of waves, and not just a pure single frequency. Similarly, in the single-particle interference-experiments incandescent filament-lamps were used with green filters inserted to isolate single photons; but it is obvious that at the frequencies of light very narrow-band-filters are not yet technically feasible, so the green filters used allowed significantly wide band of waves. So in the experiments performed so far we got ‘particles’ localized in space. And in the double-slit-interference-experiments this wide band of waves passed from both the slits, interfered like waves, and whenever and wherever they got coherently added, a ‘particle’ called ‘photon’ got detected. Atoms emit short-duration pulses of radiation, so their Fourier transform contains a wide band of frequencies. And at the time of detection, an atom needs only a small piece of continuous ‘wave’, of a suitable duration, amplitude and frequency, for ejection of an electron. So it is concluded here that: emission and detection of light is in the form of ‘photons’; whereas its propagation in space is in the form of a wide band of ‘waves’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[656] **viXra:1412.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 23:01:47*

**Authors:** Jia Yongxin, Jia Xiangyun, Jia Yuxuan

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

In the current optical theory, the moving mass of light quantum is usually studied as the basic mass where the photon energy is concerned. In the paper titled "The Relationship between light translation and fluctuation and ether energy and momentum", the relations between ether photon, energy of the ether field and its momentum can also be considered in light of the manifestation of the mass and momentum, This can show the situation of light quantum based on energy divergence, which has certain significance for an accurate understanding of ether. It can be seen that this method ignores systematicness and independent space of ether photon itself and only the overall relative manifested state of light quantum but not the essential state is revealed. In this context, it is difficult for us to understand the relationship between real photon mass and moving mass, which is quite unacceptable just like the principle of qualitative change in theory of relativity. From the perspective of quantum property of light quantum momentum, the relationship between the real mass of photon, moving mass and motion itself as well as the relationship between ether photon particle group and motion of astral body and hence the relationship with frequency are analyzed. Our discussion can accurately reflect the real conditions of mass, momentum and energy of light quantum. Many results conforming to the observation are obtained, which can provide explanations for the following relations: the relations between light radiation and motion of pulsating star, volume expansion and motion of astral body, nova eruption and motion, transverse Doppler effect, and the frequency difference in solar spherical radiation. The section can also be used as further development of the classical particle physics, and it can become the compressible fluid mechanics featured by failure of universal gravitation, no strength, non-viscosity and continuous media by changing the mechanics of a single mass point to the mechanics of mass point groups and the manifested group mechanics due to the energy expansion of the single mass point. By bypassing the too general concept of energy in theory of relativity, the energy is defined as the quantity of mass points and momentum points, so that the relationship between energy and momentum is analyzed more clearly.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[655] **viXra:1412.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 04:21:43*

**Authors:** C. Burton, H. Isaaks

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new variation on the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is introduced, and its
effects on the evolution of the Universe are reviewed. It is demonstrated that this modified
form of quantum mechanics will produce a habitable Universe with no required tuning of the
parameters, and without requiring multiple Universes or external creators.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[654] **viXra:1412.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 12:44:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[653] **viXra:1412.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-16 05:58:11*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5pages,1figure

It will be considered that microscopic particle does not have wave nature , diffraction experiment of microscopic particle should indirectly and objectively reflect the existence of one force which can lead to particle’s diffraction phenomenon , the force belongs to deeper theory under the quantum mechanics , and will be proved that it relates to electrostatic force in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[652] **viXra:1412.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 05:33:15*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Discussion about limits of no communication theorems

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[651] **viXra:1412.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 04:38:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[650] **viXra:1412.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 06:43:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[649] **viXra:1412.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 16:43:45*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2, from the universal uncertainty relations. These relations are a generalization of the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Thus, this approach unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of the quantum mechanical interpretation of the above formula, and, at the same time, provides
the proof of the correctness of the universal uncertainty relations that I found in 2012.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[648] **viXra:1412.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 11:09:38*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

When photons hit a material surface they exert a pressure on it. It was shown that this pressure has a negative component (opposite to the direction of propagation of the photons) due to the existence of the negative linear momentum transported by the photons. Here we show that, in the photoelectric effect, the electrons are ejected by the action of this negative component of the momentum transported by the light photons. It is still shown that, also the gravitational interaction results from the action of this negative component of the momentum transported by specific photons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[380] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-23 14:48:05*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. date of version and vixra link added

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[379] **viXra:1504.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-18 06:52:35*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[378] **viXra:1503.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 14:19:11*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new quantum-cosmological principle that I shall call the
'electro-gravitational principle'. Based on this principle I shall derive a formula for the age of the Universe. The formula coincides with formula I published in a previous paper in 2014 and that I derived from the Scale Law. The age of the Universe obtained through this formulation agrees with the latest measurements carried out in 2013 by the Planck
mission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[377] **viXra:1503.0272 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 14:22:07*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the prediction of a new particle with a mass of approximately 55.6 eV/c^2 . The prediction is based on a new equation that I called: the fermionic “alpha” formula. This elusive particle could be either a new type of neutrino or a completely new type of neutral particle with sufficiently large abundance to account for most of the observed dark matter content in the Universe. If this formulation is correct then the dark matter mystery, at least to a large extent, would have been solved.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[376] **viXra:1503.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-18 08:49:56*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Eight-page final version

Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G . Tank showed that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle; and his unit of mass is a geometric-mean of two un-equal masses, namely total mass of the universe and the smallest conceivable mass h H0 / c2 ; so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of four fundamental-constants, ( h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant), so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different ones. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a strong possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[375] **viXra:1503.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:42:58*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[374] **viXra:1503.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-31 15:55:54*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper explores the exponential formula for the fine-structure constant that I published in a
previous paper entitled: Exponential Formula for the Fine Structure Constant. Unlike the formula
presented there, this paper introduces an exact formula in terms of the masses of the two lightest
leptons: the electron and the electrino (new lepton); and the lightest baryons: the neutron and the proton. The electrino is a new lepton predicted by the author in a previous paper entitled: Is the Electron Unstable?. This investigation suggests that the mass of this particle, if exists, is 529.3 times lighter than that of the electron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[373] **viXra:1502.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 09:57:32*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page final version

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle [1], both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps [2]. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable simultaneously! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser tweezers. Based on this observation a new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can carefully observe the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at deterministically predictable points.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[372] **viXra:1502.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-01 08:38:26*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two-page Letter

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser forceps. To avoid this anomaly, new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can let the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2 , interfere in double-slit interference experiment. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at predictable points.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[371] **viXra:1502.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-02 01:50:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Templeton Prize winner wrote: „In the second half of the eighteenth century, the deterministic character of Newton’s equations encouraged many people to see the physical world in strictly mechanical terms, as if the universe is a gigantic piece of cosmic clockwork.” Such wrong view comes from the believe, that the energy and momentum are always conserve.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[370] **viXra:1502.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 14:16:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the
delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime of about 5.36×10^34 years.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[369] **viXra:1502.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-26 11:57:35*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime of about 5.36×10^34 years.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[368] **viXra:1502.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-25 16:53:40*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of leptons
(except neutrinos). Based on the hydrogen unit of time and following two simple rules I propose a formula for the lifetime of the tau particle. Then, based on the same rules I derive a formula for the lifetime of the muon. Finally, based on the two previous formulas and on the same rules, I derive the formula for the mean lifetime of the electron. The formula I found through this extrapolation process indicates that the electron is unstable and that its mean lifetime is, approximately, (π /2)×10^90 years, which is about 10^80 times the age of the universe. Thus according to this formulation the lifetime of the
electron is extraordinarily long but not infinite as previously thought. This is in accordance with the author's belief that all matter is unstable.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[367] **viXra:1502.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-15 11:49:54*

**Authors:** Lori-Anne Gardi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The challenge of this essay was to demonstrate that the units of Planck’s constant are not [J x s]. Borrowing from the logic of the calibration, an attempt was made to find a complete set of small scale measuring sticks for each of time, space, mass, charge and temperature. This however was not possible unless we let the units of Planck’s constant be [J]. It appears that Planck et al forgot to incorporate measure-time into the famous energy equation, E = hν. The extra unit of [s] that is normally assigned to h actually belongs to a previously hidden measure-time variable. This logic suggests that Planck’s constant is an energy constant and not an action constant. After correcting this error, a complete set of unit measuring sticks, calibrated to the time scale of the cycle was calculated. A self-similar unit set was then calibrated to the time scale of the second. The scalability and self-similarity of these unit sets opens the door to the fractal paradigm, one of the main motivations for this research. This small change to the units of Planck’s constant has far reaching implications. All equations that contain h need to be reevaluated. All interpretations founded in unit analysis need to be reexamined. Much work still needs to be done to vindicate this approach.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[366] **viXra:1502.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-26 11:51:54*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is derived from a lepton mass factor, a Koidean ratio for quarks and a dimensionless factor based on the fine-structure constant. If this formula were correct it would prove a profound relationship between the masses of leptons and quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[365] **viXra:1502.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-19 01:07:37*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a consequence of the postulate that coordinate
and momentum representations are related
to each other by the Fourier transform. This postulate has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory by analogy with classical electrodynamics. We argue that the postulate is based neither on strong theoretical arguments nor on experimental data. A position operator proposed in our recent publication resolves inconsistencies of standard approach and sheds a new light on important problems of quantum theory. We do not assume that the reader is an expert in the given field and the content of the paper can be understood by a wide audience of physicists.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[364] **viXra:1412.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-03 20:06:33*

**Authors:** Victor Paromov

**Comments:** 11 pages, 3 tables, 3 figures

In modern physics, the two most basic principles of interaction, the principal of space-time involvement of the General Relativity (GR) and the gauge transformation principle of the quantum field theories are incompatible due to the completely different understanding of the space-time. To solve this fundamental inconsistency, the General Principal of Interaction (GPI) is proposed. The GPI requires the Einstein’s principal of space-time involvement to be applied to all types of interaction assuming that the space-time is nine-dimensional with five extra spatial dimensions in addition to the ordinary space-time (OST). With the GPI, strong nuclear forces can be understood as geometrical alterations of the compactified three-dimensional “nuclear space” (NS), and electromagnetism and weak nuclear forces can be understood as geometrical alterations of the open two-dimensional “electromagnetic space” (EMS). Thus, the space-time includes three realms: OST, EMS and NS, which are geometrically separated due to the differences in their overall curvatures. The GPI provides a strong basis for the future theory unifying all four types of interaction as it naturally combines the space-time-based understanding of interaction with the quantization by describing all elementary particles as curvature waves in the multidimensional space-time. It is expected that the GPI-based theory will be a fully deterministic self-consistent non-renormalizable theory describing all types of interaction with low number of free parameters and no Higgs mechanism. The mathematical description of this theory is not given; only possible ways to construct suitable framework are being discussed. The GPI-based theory requires absence of gauge bosons and prohibits neutrino, H, W and Z bosons. Considering the fact that all these particles are proven experimentally the conjectured GPI-based theory will make no sense until strong experimental evidence of the opposite is found. Also, it is discussed: 1) why the main principals of the GR and gauge theories are mutually exclusive, 2) application of the GPI to the three interactions currently described by the SM, 3) expected advantages of the conjectured GPI-based theory, 4) possible explanations of the “dark matter” and “dark energy” phenomena, 5) the theory’s problems and 6) predictions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[363] **viXra:1412.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-03 06:06:35*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven page letter

Quantum entanglement of pair of particles is now an established fact as described in [1]. But its theoretical explanation is yet to be found. So this letter attempts to propose one possible explanation, based on the previous works. In a paper titled: “Some conjectures on the nature of energy and matter” [2], and its latest version titled: “ On the emergence of physical world from the ultimate reality” [3] it was proposed that ‘space’ or ‘vacuum’ can be viewed as a ‘super flexible continuum (SFC), and ‘particles’ of ‘matter’ as ‘spherical standing wave patterns’ of fluctuations generated in SFC. Einstein tried to do-away with ether in his special theory of relativity, but when he had to assign curvature to space, he told: " Well, in that sense, there exists an ether" But majority of scientists still stick to emptiness of space, and are facing understanding observations like quantum entanglement and collapse of the quantum-mechanical wave-function. In this manuscript space is assumed to be a super-flexible-continuum, and you will find that it helps gaining an insight into the quantum entanglement and collapse of q-m wave-function. Since, in a continuum, when a labeled dot moves from point A to A’, as shown in the figure1 here, the point B behind it has to move from B to B’; and this chain of displacements has to complete a closed circular path, whose radius can be as small as a few nano-meters or as large as a few thousand kilometers. Since there is no preferred axis about which the point A should orbit, it moves partly about x-axis, partly about y-axis and partly about z-axis; forming a small circle on the spherical shell. This motion of point A, of completing a small circle on the surface of a spherical shell, takes some time t, giving rise to a wave in the radial directions. The propagation of this wave in the radial directions is at the speed of light; whereas the displacements of points on the surface of spherical shell are instantaneous and simultaneous; because of the continuum nature of ‘space’. When such a wave of fluctuations moves in radial direction its mirror-wave, of the same frequency and amplitude, has to move in radially opposite direction, giving rise to a pair of pulses moving apart in radial directions. Since, the spin and polarization of ‘photons’ are perpendicular to the direction of photon’s motion, they are in the tangential-direction of the spherical shell, on which displacements of points take place instantaneously. Therefore, when spin, or polarization, of one photon is measured the spin and polarization of the mirror-particle gets instantaneously affected, because of the instantaneous displacement of points on the surface of the spherical shell. Similarly, when a photon is absorbed by one atom on the spherical shell, the wave collapses, because of simultaneous displacement of points on the spherical shell. Thus, the observed entanglement of photons, and other particles, imply the presence of an underlying ‘super flexible continuum’ (SFC), as was anticipated in [2] in the year 1988.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[362] **viXra:1412.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-30 09:36:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Six page letter

Quantum entanglement of pair of particles is now an established fact as described in [1]. But its theoretical explanation is yet to be found. So this letter attempts to propose one possible explanation, based on this author’s previous works. In a paper titled: “Some conjectures on the nature of energy and matter”[2] and its latest version “ On the emergence of physical world from the ultimate reality” [3] it was proposed that ‘space’ or ‘vacuum’ can be viewed as a ‘super flexible continuum (SFC), and ‘particles’ of ‘matter’ as ‘spherical standing wave patterns’ of fluctuations generated in SFC. Since, in a continuum, when a labeled dot moves from point A to A’ the point B behind it has to move from B to B’; and this chain of displacements has to complete a closed circular path, whose radius can be as small as a few nano-meters or as large as a few thousand kilometers. This motion of point A completes a small circle on the surface of a spherical shell in a time t, giving rise to a wave in the radial direction. The propagation of this wave in the radial direction is at the speed of light; whereas the displacements of points on the surface of spherical shell are instantaneous; because of the continuum nature of ‘space’. When such a wave of fluctuations moves in radial direction its mirror-wave, of the same frequency and amplitude, has to move in radially opposite direction, giving rise to a pair of pulses moving apart in radial directions. Since, the spin and polarization of ‘photons’ are perpendicular to the direction of photon’s motion, they are in the tangential-direction of the spherical shell, on which displacements of points take place instantaneously. Therefore, when spin, or polarization, of one photon is measured the spin and polarization of the mirror-particle gets instantaneously affected, because of the instantaneous displacement of points on the surface of the spherical shell. This is what is known as ‘entanglement’ of ‘photons’. The observed entanglement of photons, and other particles, imply the presence of an underlying ‘super flexible continuum’ (SFC), as was anticipated in [1] in the year 1988.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[361] **viXra:1412.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 19:39:41*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It will be considered that microscopic particle does not have wave nature , diffraction experiment of microscopic particle should indirectly and objectively reflect the existence of one force which can lead to particle’s diffraction phenomenon , the force belongs to deeper theory under the quantum mechanics , and will be proved that it relates to electrostatic force in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[360] **viXra:1412.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 14:45:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2 , from the universal uncertainty relations. These relations are a generalization of the original uncertainty relations developed by Werner Heisenberg in 1927. Thus, this approach unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of a) the quantum mechanical nature of the above
formula, and, b) the correctness of the universal uncertainty relations that I found in 2012.

**Category:** Quantum Physics