Quantum Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[4066] viXra:2001.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-24 10:01:08

The Way to Quantum Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Physicists at LMU, together with colleagues at Saarland University, have successfully demonstrated the transport of an entangled state between an atom and a photon via an optic fiber over a distance of up to 20 km-thus setting a new record. [34] A scientist involved in expanding quantum communication to a network of users, is continuing his work at the University of Bristol. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4065] viXra:2001.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-24 11:25:19

Photonic Band Gap Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

A crystal with a 3-D photonic band gap is a powerful tool to control light, with applications for new types of solar cells, sensors and miniature lasers. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4064] viXra:2001.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-24 03:26:19

Light for Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A team from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has conducted a series of experiments to gain a better understanding of quantum mechanics and pursue advances in quantum networking and quantum computing, which could lead to practical applications in cybersecurity and other areas. [42] Counter to intuition, in a new counterfactual communication protocol published in NPJ Quantum Information, scientists from the University of Vienna, the University of Cambridge and the MIT have experimentally demonstrated that in quantum mechanics this is not always true, thereby contradicting a crucial premise of communication theory. [41] One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the fragile quantum information, the other, as a messenger to provide prior notification of its twin. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4063] viXra:2001.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-24 03:46:48

Superfluid Helium Under Confinement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Physicists have been studying superfluid 3He under nanoscale confinement for several years now, as this unique liquid presents a rich variety of phases with complex order parameters that can be stabilized. [26] Researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science, the University of Rome, CNRS and the University of Helsinki have recently carried out a study investigating the difference between 3-D anisotropic turbulence in classical fluids and that in superfluids, such as helium. [25] The term "superfluid quasicrystal" sounds like something a comic-book villain might use to carry out his dastardly plans. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4062] viXra:2001.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-24 04:28:02

The Proton Radius Solved

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 3 Pages.

The electron-proton scattering experiment by the PRad (proton radius) team using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab measured the root mean square (rms) charge radius of the proton to be 0.831 fm, with a (statistical) STD of 0.007 fm. Assuming all of the charge in the proton is packed into a single pointlike (elementary) charge and applying the ring current model to a proton, one gets a proton radius equal to 0.587 fm. The difference between the two values is the √2 factor and may be explained by the fact that the magnetic field of the ring current is expected to extend beyond the current ring and/or the intricacies related to the definition of an rms charge radius. We feel the measurement lends credibility to attempts to extend the Zitterbewegung hypothesis from electrons to also incluce protons and other elementary particles. In contrast, the measurement is hard to fit into a model of oscillating quarks that have partial charge only.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4061] viXra:2001.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-24 04:43:07

Generating Ultraviolet Vortices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

An international group of scientists, including Skoltech Professor Sergey Rykovanov, has found a way to generate intense "twisted" pulses. [25] A new technique developed by a team at MIT can map the complete electronic band structure of materials at high resolution. [24] Correlations between the radial positions and radial momenta of entangled pairs of photons have been measured for the first time by physicists in China, Canada and the US. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4060] viXra:2001.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 01:07:44

Photonic Bound State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Applying bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic integrated circuits enables low-loss light guidance and routing in low-refractive-index waveguides on high-refractive-index substrates. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4059] viXra:2001.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 07:13:51

Ghostly Particles of Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Exciton-polariton condensates can be tuned from more matter-like (excitonic) to more light-like (photonic), allowing for comparison with theories of equilibrium atomic (matter) condensate and of nonequilibrium quantum fluids of light. [30] Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground March 15 on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4058] viXra:2001.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-23 08:13:43

Metasurfaces Shape Laser Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

A team of researchers in France and China has now augmented the VCSEL’s capabilities by integrating a nano-patterned beam-shaping structure into each laser during wafer-scale processing. [45] NASA counted down Saturday to the launch of its $1 billion ICESat-2 mission, using advanced lasers to uncover the true depth of the melting of Earth's ice sheets. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4057] viXra:2001.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 12:56:38

Ibm Q System One

Authors: Ayah Ramahi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The objective of this survey paper is to talk about the newly released quantum computer by IBM known as Q System One, to explain its use of quantum physics principles, restrictions on its design and implementation, and its packaging. Then it talks about a particular implementation of a quantum computer core and the needed cooling system for its operation. After that, it talks about the effects of creating a quantum computer on humanity and the world, its advantages on science and other fields, but also its disadvantages regarding the security of online information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4056] viXra:2001.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 05:16:03

Materials Quantum Simulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

A new technique to study the properties of molecules and materials on a quantum simulator has been discovered. [44] Quantum simulation plays an irreplaceable role in diverse fields, beyond the scope of classical computers. [43] In a cooperative project, theorists from the the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching anf the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) have now developed a new toolbox for quantum simulators and published it in Science Advances. [42] An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers. [41] The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) introduces a novel technique to detect entanglement even in large-scale quantum systems with unprecedented efficiency. [39] Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4055] viXra:2001.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 09:40:05

Electron Nematic Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Recently, physicists have observed that the two families of known high-temperature superconductors-copper-and iron-based compounds-both exhibit a unique phenomenon in which electronic degrees of freedom can break the overall crystal rotational symmetry and form what is known as the electronic nematic phase. [31] Now, Sadashige Matsuo of the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science and colleagues have created a device called a Josephson junction, which can efficiently split these Cooper pairs as they travel from a superconductor into two one-dimensional normal conductors. [30] Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road" for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4054] viXra:2001.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 09:57:28

Current Vortices in 2-D Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Laboratory have developed a new method to measure how photocurrents flow in a 2-D material-a result that could have implications for developing quantum sensors and next-generation electronics. [38] NIMS and Hokkaido University jointly discovered that proton transfer in electrochemical reactions is governed by the quantum tunneling effect (QTE) under the specific conditions. [37] Researchers at the University of Vienna study the relevance of quantum reference frames for the symmetries of the world. [36] Researchers in Singapore have built a refrigerator that's just three atoms big. This quantum fridge won't keep your drinks cold, but it's cool proof of physics operating at the smallest scales. [35] Researchers have created a new testing ground for quantum systems in which they can literally turn certain particle interactions on and off, potentially paving the way for advances in spintronics. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4053] viXra:2001.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-22 10:21:07

Nanoresonators Trap Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

An international team of researchers from ITMO University, the Australian National University, and Korea University have experimentally trapped an electromagnetic wave in a gallium arsenide nanoresonator a few hundred nanometers in size for a record-breaking time. [33] An international research team has found a way to make light frequency conversion at the nanoscale 100 times more efficient. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4052] viXra:2001.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 09:46:33

The Metaphysics of Physics: the Concepts of Force, Charge, and Mass

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper complements earlier papers on the metaphysics of physics by offering some thoughts and reflections on the most fundamental physical concepts: the idea of force, energy and mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4051] viXra:2001.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 11:03:29

Photon Frequency Doubler

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A way of using light to convert a normal optical material into a frequency doubler has been developed by Mohammad Taghinejad and colleagues at the Georgia Institute of Technology. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4050] viXra:2001.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 11:27:05

Nickelate Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

The discovery last year of the first nickel oxide material that shows clear signs of superconductivity set off a race by scientists around the world to find out more. [31] Now, Sadashige Matsuo of the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science and colleagues have created a device called a Josephson junction, which can efficiently split these Cooper pairs as they travel from a superconductor into two one-dimensional normal conductors. [30] Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road" for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4049] viXra:2001.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 11:45:26

Distributed Sensing Quantum Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Inspired by these studies, researchers at the Technical University of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen have recently carried out an experiment investigating the advantages of using an entangled quantum network to sense an averaged phase shift among multiple distributed nodes. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4048] viXra:2001.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 12:39:11

Spins of Light Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A laser system that generates spinning light particles could lead to the strong kind of computational power needed to solve complex biological problems. [34] Inspired by these studies, researchers at the Technical University of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen have recently carried out an experiment investigating the advantages of using an entangled quantum network to sense an averaged phase shift among multiple distributed nodes. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4047] viXra:2001.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 07:12:54

Physics Imperfections Make Perfect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Northwestern University researchers have added a new dimension to the importance of diversity. For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated that certain systems with interacting entities can synchronize only if the entities within the system are different from one another. [29] It may seem surprising, but theories and formulas derived from physics turn out to be useful tools for understanding the ways democratic elections work, including how these systems break down and how they could be improved. [28] Electrons whizzing around each other and humans crammed together at a political rally don't seem to have much in common, but researchers at Cornell are connecting the dots. [27] Now a group of actual physicists from Australia and Switzerland have proposed a device which uses the quantum tunneling of magnetic flux around a capacitor, breaking time-reversal symmetry. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4046] viXra:2001.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-21 07:32:29

The Photoelectric X-Ray Experiment and Possible Proof of De-Broglie Bohm Theory

Authors: Ajinkya Naik
Comments: 13 Pages.

Photoelectric effect and the production of X-Rays in Cathode Ray Tube are two correlated phenomena. It is quite surprising to note that there has been no substantial attention given to this correlation. It is possible to bridge these two separate processes, enabling us to study the quantum interactions which occur naturally. A modified version of Photoelectric setup can be used, in which the ejected photoelectrons with high energies travel to the anode. A heavy metal viz. Tungsten is used as anode, which produces X-Rays due to photoelectronic collisions with anode. The photoelectrons are assumed to be non-relativistic and a relation is obtained between the De-Broglie Wavelength of the photoelectrons (λ_e) and the wavelength of X-Rays (λ_x) such that λ_x=Ψ〖λ_e〗^2. The connection of results with a possible proof of De-Broglie Bohm Hypothesis is then discussed in Final Discussion.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4045] viXra:2001.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:33:21

Laser Diode UV Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Nagoya University scientists, in cooperation with Asahi Kasei Corporation, have designed a laser diode that emits deep-ultraviolet light, and have published a paper in the journal Applied Physics Express. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4044] viXra:2001.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:54:29

Laser Based on Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

"The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4043] viXra:2001.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:07:59

Camera Takes 1 Trillion Frames

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A little over a year ago, Caltech's Lihong Wang developed the world's fastest camera, a device capable of taking 10 trillion pictures per second. It is so fast that it can even capture light traveling in slow motion. [45] "The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36] Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4042] viXra:2001.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:28:14

Terahertz Laser Beam Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Terahertz radiation is used for security checks at airports, for medical examinations and also for quality checks in industry. [45] "The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4041] viXra:2001.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 04:12:43

Chemical Bond with Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4040] viXra:2001.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 04:44:46

Photo-Excited Mott Insulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Assistant Professor Ohmura Shu and Professor Takahashi Akira of the Nagoya Institute of Technology and others have developed a charge model to describe photo-excited states of one-dimensional Mott insulators under the JST Strategic Basic Research Programs. [37] The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4039] viXra:2001.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 06:07:32

Relativity and Absolute Laws

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper adds some thoughts on relativity theory and geometry to our one-cycle photon model. We basically highlight what exactly we should think of as being relative in this model (energy, wavelength, and the related force and field values), as opposed to what is absolute (the geometry of spacetime and the geometry of the photon).
Category: Quantum Physics

[4038] viXra:2001.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 09:47:29

Spin Currents for Advanced Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could be used to design ultra-compact and low-energy electronic devices and magnetic memory devices, according to a study led by ICREA Prof. Sergio O. Valenzuela, head of the ICN2 Physics and Engineering of Nanodevices Group. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4037] viXra:2001.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 12:04:55

Force I. the One and Only Fundamental Interaction

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 4 Pages.

The world's first thought power meter is present. Its first result is that thought force with no electric field is able to change the current and voltage in an electric circuit . This result has conclusions. The most important is the following one: there is only one fundamental interaction, because every known interaction can be explained by one ultimate fundamental interaction called Force I of All. (Pronunciation: “Force the First”.) Force I is the interaction between space and matter. Thought force is one existing form of Force I and though force measured is the first evidence that Force I exists.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4036] viXra:2001.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 02:54:09

Billions Quantum Entangled Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

In a new study, U.S. and Austrian physicists have observed quantum entanglement among "billions of billions" of flowing electrons in a quantum critical material. [36] Researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt have recently demonstrated the defect-free assembly of versatile target patterns of up to 111 single-atom quantum systems. [35] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have teleported a computer circuit instruction known as a quantum logic operation between two separated ions (electrically charged atoms), showcasing how quantum computer programs could carry out tasks in future large-scale quantum networks. [34] Scientists have developed a topological photonic chip to process quantum information, promising a more robust option for scalable quantum computers. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4035] viXra:2001.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 03:32:23

Measure Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Experimental physicists have combined several measurements of quantum materials into one in their ongoing quest to learn more about manipulating and controlling the behavior of them for possible applications. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4034] viXra:2001.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 04:01:55

Semiconductor Green Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Scientists and Engineers have used surface-emitting semiconductor lasers in data communications, for sensing, in FaceID and within augmented reality glasses. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4033] viXra:2001.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 05:47:47

Colloidal Quantum Dot Photodetectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

In their experiment, the researchers used a technique to electronically dope the quantum dots robustly and permanently. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4032] viXra:2001.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:20:40

Quantum Detector Sensitivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

One of the open questions in quantum research is how heat and thermodynamics coexist with quantum physics. [39] But one lesser-known field is also starting to reap the benefits of the quantum realm-medicine. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4031] viXra:2001.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 11:26:31

Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

As researchers develop clever approaches to achieve that goal, this subject alone could be a theme of another exciting symposium." [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4030] viXra:2001.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 12:35:06

Self-Organized Quantum Criticality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Writing in Nature, researchers describe the first-time observation of 'self-organized criticality' in a controlled laboratory experiment. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4029] viXra:2001.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 04:17:31

On Improper Integrals

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 4 Pages.

The writing intends to point out aspects of conflict regarding some standard improper integrals
Category: Quantum Physics

[4028] viXra:2001.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 07:48:18

Quantum Dots Spinning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4027] viXra:2001.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 08:28:28

Diabolical Quantum Emitters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Diabolical points (DPs) introduce ways to study topological phase and peculiar energy dispersion. Scientists in China and partners from the United Kingdom demonstrated DPs in strongly coupled active microdisks. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4026] viXra:2001.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 10:14:38

Representing Basic Physical Fields by Quaternionic Fields

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 31 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Basic physical fields are dynamic fields like our universe and the fields that are raised by electric charges. These fields are dynamic continuums. Most physical theories treat these fields by applying gravitational theories or by Maxwell equations. Mathematically these fields can be represented by quaternionic fields. Dedicated normal operators in quaternionic non-separable Hilbert spaces can represent these quaternionic fields in their continuum eigenspaces. Quaternionic functions can describe these fields. Quaternionic differential and integral calculus can describe the behavior of these fields and the interaction of these fields with countable sets of quaternions. All quaternionic fields obey the same quaternionic function theory. The basic fields differ in their start and boundary conditions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4025] viXra:2001.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 10:14:00

AlphaZero Rule the Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The chess world was amazed when the computer algorithm AlphaZero learned, after just four hours on its own, to beat the best chess programs built on human expertise. Now a research group at Aarhus University in Denmark has used the very same algorithm to control a quantum computer. [39] Researchers have discovered that input-output maps, which are widely used throughout science and engineering to model systems ranging from physics to finance, are strongly biased toward producing simple outputs. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4024] viXra:2001.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 09:43:04

Post-Moore Brain-Inspired Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

In their paper published this week in Applied Physics Reviews authors Jack Kendall, of Rain Neuromorphics, and Suhas Kumar, of Hewlett Packard Labs, present a thorough examination of the computing landscape, focusing on the operational functions needed to advance brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. [22] A computer built to mimic the brain's neural networks produces similar results to that of the best brain-simulation supercomputer software currently used for neural-signaling research, finds a new study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4023] viXra:2001.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 02:21:09

Einstein Mass–energy Equivalence Equation E=mc^2 is Wrong Because Does not Contains Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 486 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Einstein mass–energy equivalence equation E=mc^2 is wrong because does not contains Dark Matter Einstein in 1905 did not formulate exactly the equation E=mc^2 but he said: ’if a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c^2’. Thus means for Einstein the inertial mass of an object changes if the object absorbs or emits energy. “We do not see Dark Matter energy because at light speed the Dark Matter electron energy is not released” ‘The Ferent factor is the Lorentz factor where the speed of the photon is replaced by the Dark photon speed” “Ferent’s Dark Matter mass-energy equivalence equation: E = md × vp^2” “The electron energy is the sum of the photon energy and the Dark Matter electron energy” “The particle energy E, is the sum of Matter energy and Dark Matter energy: E = Em + Edm” ”Ferent’s mass–energy equivalence equation: E=mc^2 + md × vp^2 “ “We do not see Dark Matter energy because at light speed the Dark Matter energy is not released”
Category: Quantum Physics

[4022] viXra:2001.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 06:58:20

A Toroidal or Disk-Like Zitterbewegung Electron?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present Oliver Consa’s classical calculations of the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron, pointing out some of what we perceive to be weaker arguments, and adding comments and questions with a view to possibly arrive at a more elegant approach to the problem on hand in the future.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4021] viXra:2001.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 08:03:04

Quantum Dot Laser Diodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Los Alamos scientists have incorporated meticulously engineered colloidal quantum dots into a new type of light emitting diodes (LEDs) containing an integrated optical resonator, which allows them to function as lasers. [31] Tiny, easy-to-produce particles, called quantum dots, may soon take the place of more expensive single crystal semiconductors in advanced electronics found in solar panels, camera sensors and medical imaging tools. [30] North Carolina State University researchers have developed a microfluidic system for synthesizing perovskite quantum dots across the entire spectrum of visible light. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4020] viXra:2001.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 11:41:44

Extremely Fast Quantum Calculations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Transistors based on germanium can perform calculations for future quantum computers. This discovery by the team of Menno Veldhorst is reported in Nature. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4019] viXra:2001.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 12:02:52

Quantum Loop Communication Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago launched a new testbed for quantum communication experiments from Argonne last week. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4018] viXra:2001.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 12:44:09

Quantum Chips Computing Correctly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

In a step toward practical quantum computing, researchers from MIT, Google, and elsewhere have designed a system that can verify when quantum chips have accurately performed complex computations that classical computers can't. [41] Researchers at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a quantum communication chip that is 1,000 times smaller than current quantum setups, but offers the same superior security quantum technology is known for. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4017] viXra:2001.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 13:02:24

Complex Problems at Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Many of the most challenging optimization problems encountered in various disciplines of science and engineering, from biology and drug discovery to routing and scheduling can be reduced to NP-complete problems. [28] AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4016] viXra:2001.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 02:48:08

Infrared Silicon Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

In a new report published on Scientific Reports, Milan M. Milošević and an international research team at the Zepler Institute for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Etaphase Incorporated and the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, in the U.S. and the U.K. Introduced a hyperuniform-disordered platform to realize near-infrared (NIR) photonic devices to create, detect and manipulate light. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4015] viXra:2001.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 03:21:35

Optical Resonators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

In the quantum realm, under some circumstances and with the right interference patterns, light can pass through opaque media. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4014] viXra:2001.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 03:43:02

Super Cold Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have experimentally demonstrated a novel cryogenic, or low temperature, memory cell circuit design based on coupled arrays of Josephson junctions, a technology that may be faster and more energy efficient than existing memory devices. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4013] viXra:2001.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 11:24:56

Influential Electrons Quantum Relationship

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

A team of physicists has mapped how electron energies vary from region to region in a particular quantum state with unprecedented clarity. [47] Observation of Spin-Charge Deconfinement in Fermionic Hubbard Chains"), they used a so-called quantum simulator. [46] From raindrops rolling off the waxy surface of a waterlily leaf to the efficiency of desalination membranes, interactions between water molecules and water-repellent "hydrophobic" surfaces are all around us. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4012] viXra:2001.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 07:59:23

One-Dimensional Quantum Divorce

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Observation of Spin-Charge Deconfinement in Fermionic Hubbard Chains"), they used a so-called quantum simulator. [46] From raindrops rolling off the waxy surface of a waterlily leaf to the efficiency of desalination membranes, interactions between water molecules and water-repellent "hydrophobic" surfaces are all around us. [45] The ever-more-humble carbon nanotube may be just the device to make solar panels—and anything else that loses energy through heat—far more efficient. [44] When traversing a solid material such as glass, a light wave can deposit part of its energy in a mechanical wave, leading to a color change of the light. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4011] viXra:2001.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 07:46:45

Energy Efficient Computers and Smartphones

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

With enhanced properties such as greater strength, lighter weight, increased electrical conductivity and chemical reactivity, nanomaterials (NMs) are widely used in areas like ICT, energy and medicine. [35] Scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have developed a light-based device that can act as a biosensor, detecting biological substances in materials; for example, harmful pathogens in food samples. [34] A tightly focused, circularly polarized spatially phase-modulated beam of light formed an optical ring trap. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4010] viXra:2001.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 06:03:26

Laser Explore Supramolecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Curtis Menyuk, professor of computer science and electrical engineering at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), has collaborated with a team directed by Philip Russell at the Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPI) in Erlangen, Germany, to gain insight into naturally-occurring molecular systems using optical solitons in lasers. [41] Researchers have developed a compact laser that emits light with extreme spectral purity that doesn't change in response to environmental conditions. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4009] viXra:2001.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 06:21:09

Laser Pulse of a Light Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) have developed a novel type of detector that enables the oscillation profile of light waves to be precisely determined. [41] Researchers have developed a compact laser that emits light with extreme spectral purity that doesn't change in response to environmental conditions. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4008] viXra:2001.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 08:10:40

Twist in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Physicists at ETH Zurich have observed a surprising twist in a quantum system caused by the interplay between energy dissipation and coherent quantum dynamics. [35] Cloning of quantum states is used for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. [34] Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4007] viXra:2001.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 08:37:47

Photons Protons and Quarks, Hypotheses Contrary to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Bruce A. Lutgen
Comments: 30 Pages.

What is presented in the following pages is somewhat of a straightforward engineering approach to quantum particle physics. This approach is integrated to an extent with the considerable work done by those in the physics community. I became aware of what I would call conundrums in what was being presented in the literature on quantum particle physics. My engineering approach to resolving these alleged conundrums is seemingly ideal (to me anyway), but then surely time and others will tell.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4006] viXra:2001.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 09:37:40

Controlling Qubits via Microwave Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In order to reduce error rates even further and provide reliable operations much faster, researchers at Leibniz University Hannover and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now developed a new method. [45] Scientists with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago have made two breakthroughs in the quest to develop quantum technology. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4005] viXra:2001.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 11:40:08

Randomness AttoPhotography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

One of the last obstacles hindering the photography and filming of processes occurring on a scale of attoseconds, i.e. billionths of a billionth of a second, has disappeared. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4004] viXra:2001.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 11:58:05

Milestone in Advanced Light Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

An upgrade of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has passed an important milestone that will help to maintain the ALS' world-leading capabilities. [33] One of the last obstacles hindering the photography and filming of processes occurring on a scale of attoseconds, i.e. billionths of a billionth of a second, has disappeared. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4003] viXra:2001.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 03:21:40

Structure Model of Atomic Nuclei

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

Neutrons are the particles that move on circular orbits inside the nuclei (with the remaining half of their kinetic energy) around immobilized protons which have spin only. If protons were rotating they would cause orbital magnetism, which has never been observed, beyond magnetic dipole moment of nucleons spin. In addition, no regression of proton has occurred, because it would cause alternating magnetism, which has also never been observed. The first nuclear units are the deuterium, the tritium, the helium-3 and the, so-called, upper-order nuclear unit the helium-4, which is the basic structure unit of the large nuclei. The spin, the magnetic moment and the mass deficit of the above units and of the bonding neutrons are the three experimental constants on which the nuclei structure is based.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4002] viXra:2001.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 08:00:06

Quantum Computer with up to 61 Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory significantly reduced this gap by using data compression techniques to fit a 61-qubit simulation of Grover's quantum search algorithm on a large supercomputer with 0.4 percent error. [57] Quantum computation represents a fundamental shift that is now under way. What is most exciting is not what we can do with with a quantum computer today, but the undiscovered truths it will reveal tomorrow. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4001] viXra:2001.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 09:18:16

Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect can combine topology and magnetism to produce precisely quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field (an environment carefully screened from magnetic fields). [12] Using ultracold atoms trapped in a periodically modulated two-dimensional superlattice potential, the scientists could observe a dynamical version of a novel type of quantum Hall effect that is predicted to occur in four-dimensional systems. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4000] viXra:2001.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 10:14:30

Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team headed by Professor Frank Stienkemeier at Freiburg's Institute of Physics and Dr. Marcel Mudrich, professor at the University of Aarhus in Denmark, has observed the ultrafast reaction of nanodroplets of helium after excitation with extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) using a free-electron laser in real time. [15] Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3999] viXra:2001.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 02:30:23

Atomic Electron Cloud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers at SAGA Light Source, the University of Toyama, Hiroshima University and the Institute for Molecular Science have demonstrated a method to control the shape and orientation of an electron cloud in an atom by tuning the attosecond spacing in a double pulse of synchrotron radiation. [39] Experiments with ultra-cold atoms at the TU Wien have shown surprising results: coupled atom clouds synchronize within milliseconds. This effect cannot be explained by standard theories. [38] Scientists forged quantum connections between separate regions within clouds of ultracold atoms, demonstrating entanglement between thousands of particles in two different locations. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3998] viXra:2001.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 03:15:46

Probability of Electron Capture

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A large international team of researchers has empirically measured the probability of electron capture by the neon-20 isotope (20 Ne) for the first time. [40] Researchers at SAGA Light Source, the University of Toyama, Hiroshima University and the Institute for Molecular Science have demonstrated a method to control the shape and orientation of an electron cloud in an atom by tuning the attosecond spacing in a double pulse of synchrotron radiation. [39] Experiments with ultra-cold atoms at the TU Wien have shown surprising results: coupled atom clouds synchronize within milliseconds. This effect cannot be explained by standard theories. [38] Scientists forged quantum connections between separate regions within clouds of ultracold atoms, demonstrating entanglement between thousands of particles in two different locations. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3997] viXra:2001.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 08:41:08

Moving Domain Walls in Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have shown that the motion of domain walls can be detected by monitoring voltage generated in superconducting devices. [38] Northeastern researchers have used a powerful computer model to probe a puzzling class of copper-based materials that can be turned into superconductors. [37] A NIMS-Ehime University joint research team succeeded in discovering new materials that exhibit superconductivity under high pressure using materials informatics (MI) approaches (data science-based material search techniques). [36] Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3996] viXra:2001.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 03:24:29

Protons and Neutrons: What Are They?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 10 Pages.

This article revisits the main arguments against an alternative explanation of nuclear processes - alternative to quark theory, that is. We will want to further expand this article in the future so as to arrive at a more comprehensive self-critique of some of the material we presented in previous papers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3995] viXra:2001.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 06:04:24

Laser Creates Frequency Doubling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3994] viXra:2001.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 07:11:04

Cutting Through with Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Research from The University of Queensland aimed at controlling light in scattering materials, such as fog or biological tissues, will benefit future biomedical imaging and telecommunications. [15] Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3993] viXra:2001.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 07:50:36

Indeterministic Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Classical physics is characterized by the precision of its equations describing the evolution of the world as determined by the initial conditions of the Big Bang—meaning there is no room for chance. [34] There was a period in the very early universe—known as the "cosmic dark ages"—when elementary particles, formed in the Big Bang, had combined to form neutral hydrogen but no stars or galaxies existed yet to light up the universe. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3992] viXra:2001.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 07:58:42

Quantum Cryptography Through Some Algorithm for Quantum Computers

Authors: Koji Nagata, Do Ngoc Diep, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Volume 4, Issue 1, (2020) Page 7--13

We propose quantum cryptography based on an algorithm of determining a function. The security of our cryptography is based on the Ekert 1991 protocol, that is, we use an entangled state. Eve must destroy the entangled state. Consider a function. Alice knows all the mappings concerning the function. Bob knows none of them. His aim is of obtaining all of them without Eve's attack. In classical case, Bob needs some queries. In quantum case, Bob needs just a query. By measuring the single entangled state, which is sent by Alice, Bob can obtain all the mappings concerning the function, simultaneously. This is faster than classical cryptography.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3991] viXra:2001.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 03:11:45

Elusive Majorana Quasiparticle Still a Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

"When the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana predicted the possibility of a new fundamental particle which is its own antiparticle, little could he have envisioned the long-lasting implications of his imaginative idea," said Nitin Samarth, Downsbrough Department Head and professor of physics at Penn State. [34] As mysterious as the Italian scientist for which it is named, the Majorana particle is one of the most compelling quests in physics. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3990] viXra:2001.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 03:48:24

Superconducting Quantum Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Northeastern researchers have used a powerful computer model to probe a puzzling class of copper-based materials that can be turned into superconductors. [37] A NIMS-Ehime University joint research team succeeded in discovering new materials that exhibit superconductivity under high pressure using materials informatics (MI) approaches (data science-based material search techniques). [36] Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3989] viXra:2001.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 02:56:59

From Astronomy to the Nano-Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers at Columbia University and University of California, San Diego, have introduced a novel "multi-messenger" approach to quantum physics that signifies a technological leap in how scientists can explore quantum materials. [39] This inherent flexibility should enable many interesting applications in, for instance, computation and health care. [38] New research from Washington University in St. Louis and Argonne National Laboratory coaxes electrons down the track that they typically don't travel-advancing understanding of the earliest light-driven events of photosynthesis. [37] UK researchers have developed world-leading Compound Semiconductor (CS) technology that can drive future high-speed data communications. [36] "Regarding new perspectives, this could lead to similar fantastic developments as in the field of magnetism, such as electronic coherence in quantum computing," says Schultze hopefully, who now leads a working group focusing on attosecond physics A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3988] viXra:2001.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 03:32:06

Performance Benchmark for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 91 Pages.

Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a quantum chemistry simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of quantum devices and guide the development of applications for future quantum computers. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3987] viXra:1912.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-31 13:39:59

Gravitational Wave Explanation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 14 Pages.

A deterministic interpretation of quantum mechanics is given where the non-local hidden variables of Bell’s theorem are in reality Watt-less high-energy gravitational waves with an energy well above the Greisen-Zapetsin-Kuzmin (GZK) cosmic ray energy limit of 5 ⋅ 1010������. The gravitational waves are emitted by Schrödinger’s “Zitterbewegung” (quivering motion) from pole-dipole particles, where a large positive mass ��+ is gravitationally bound to a likewise large negative mass ��−, with a small excess in the positive mass equal to the positive gravitational binding energy of ��+ to ��−. Setting this mass equal to the mass of an electron, one obtains for the oscillating energy of the Zitterbewegung 3.31 ⋅ 1011������, well above the GZK limit. Support for this hypothesis are the rare cosmic ray events of about the same energy, coming from the Ursa Major constellation which have been detected by the Dugway Proving Ground Cosmic Ray Observatory in Utah
Category: Quantum Physics

[3986] viXra:1912.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-31 09:01:37

Rewriting Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Working as a hobby alongside their jobs in the Finnish government, and Lindgren's Ph.D. work in systems analysis at Aalto, the researchers devised a new method for expressing the laws of quantum mechanics using stochastic methods, a type of mathematics that deals with random chance and probability. [49] Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics-yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] A groundbreaking study conducted by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has revealed a method of using quantum mechanical wave theories to "lock" heat into a fixed position. [47] Researchers at the University of Konstanz have recently carried out a study exploring the quantum states of light and vacuum fluctuations, as well as their interplay with time. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3985] viXra:1912.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-31 09:51:56

Quantized Iron-Based Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

When a semiconducting nanowire is coupled to a superconductor, it can be tuned to topological quantum states thought to host localized quasiparticles known as Majorana Zero Modes (MZM). [31] Ultimately, Li said, the combination of a superconducting and a magnetic system allows for precise coupling and decoupling of the magnon and photon, presenting opportunities for manipulating quantum information. [30] Great hope rests on so-called cuprates, copper and oxygen based compounds also called high-temperature superconductors, where the scientific community is focusing its efforts. [29] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24] Researchers at the Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute and the Southern Scientific Center of RAS, in Russia, have recently fabricated quasi-2-D superconductors at the interface between a ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 film and an insulating parent compound of La2CuO4. [23] Scientists seeking to understand the mechanism underlying superconductivity in "stripe-ordered" cuprates-copper-oxide materials with alternating areas of electric charge and magnetism-discovered an unusual metallic state when attempting to turn superconductivity off. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3984] viXra:1912.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-27 08:50:36

Spintronic RAMs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) report a new material combination that sets the stage for magnetic random access memory based on spin, an intrinsic property of electrons. [34] The team utilized analytical and ab-initio theories to establish a link between this spin engine concept and room-temperature experiments on a solid-state spintronic device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3983] viXra:1912.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-27 09:17:44

Superconducting Electron Pairs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Now, Sadashige Matsuo of the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science and colleagues have created a device called a Josephson junction, which can efficiently split these Cooper pairs as they travel from a superconductor into two one-dimensional normal conductors. [30] Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road" for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3982] viXra:1912.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-26 02:44:23

Long-Distance Silicon Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Now a team based at Princeton University has overcome this limitation and demonstrated that two quantum-computing components, known as silicon "spin" qubits, can interact even when spaced relatively far apart on a computer chip. [32] Scientists from the University of Bristol, in collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), have successfully developed chip-scale devices that are able to harness the applications of quantum physics by generating and manipulating single particles of light within programmable nanoscale circuits. [31] Physicists in China and Austria have shown for the first time they can teleport multi-dimensional states of photons. [30] A workshop on exploring extreme-field QED and the physics phenomena it creates will be held at SLAC in late summer. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3981] viXra:1912.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-25 01:24:04

Chip-to-Chip Quantum Teleportation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists from the University of Bristol, in collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), have successfully developed chip-scale devices that are able to harness the applications of quantum physics by generating and manipulating single particles of light within programmable nanoscale circuits. [31] Physicists in China and Austria have shown for the first time they can teleport multi-dimensional states of photons. [30] A workshop on exploring extreme-field QED and the physics phenomena it creates will be held at SLAC in late summer. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3980] viXra:1912.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-25 03:19:14

Photons on a 2-D Quantum Walk

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

"This work is an important step toward more practical photonic-based quantum random walks," says Waks. "Exploring how these systems behave and how we can control them will allow us to perform more complex quantum simulations." [12] Now, researchers at Caltech and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which is managed by Caltech for NASA, have come up with a new design for an optical atomic clock that holds promise to be the most accurate and precise yet (accuracy refers to the ability of the clock to correctly pin down the time, and precision refers to its ability to tell time in fine detail). [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3979] viXra:1912.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-25 04:30:50

Computing with Molecular Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Spintronics or spin electronics in contrast to conventional electronics uses the spin of electrons for sensing, information storage, transport, and processing. [37] With the advantage of small size and long-lived spins, it is only a matter of time before they cement their spot in the roadmap for quantum technologies. [36] The characteristics of a new, iron-containing type of material that is thought to have future applications in nanotechnology and spintronics have been determined at Purdue University. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3978] viXra:1912.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-25 04:50:48

Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A research team led by Prof TAN Zhi Kuang from the Department of Chemistry and the Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), NUS has developed high-efficiency, near-infrared LEDs that can cover an area of 900 mm 2 using low-cost solution-processing methods. [39] Physicists at the University of Alberta have created a molecular colourant that can emit light in a wider range of colours than any other molecule currently available. [38] When molecules interact with the oscillating field of a laser, an instantaneous, time-dependent dipole is induced. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3977] viXra:1912.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-24 02:14:22

Speed of Light Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A European team of researchers including physicists from the University of Konstanz has found a way of transporting electrons at times below the femtosecond range by manipulating them with light. [24] You've felt the heat before-the smartphone that warms while running a navigation app or the laptop that gets too hot for your lap. [23] A team of scientists from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), in collaboration with researchers from Monash University Australia, has succeeded in significantly increasing the stability and biocompatibility of special light-transducing nanoparticles. [22] Diagnosing diseases and understanding the processes that take place within cells at the molecular level require sensitive and selective diagnostic instruments. [21] A single-molecule DNA "navigator" that can successfully find its way out of a maze constructed on a 2D DNA origami platform might be used in artificial intelligence applications as well as in biomolecular assembly, sensing, DNA-driven computation and molecular information and storage. [20] The way DNA folds largely determines which genes are read out. John van Noort and his group have quantified how easily rolled-up DNA parts stack. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase-a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3976] viXra:1912.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-24 02:46:12

Objects Absorb and Emit Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Princeton researchers have uncovered new rules governing how objects absorb and emit light, fine-tuning scientists' control over light and boosting research into next-generation solar and optical devices. [25] A European team of researchers including physicists from the University of Konstanz has found a way of transporting electrons at times below the femtosecond range by manipulating them with light. [24] You've felt the heat before-the smartphone that warms while running a navigation app or the laptop that gets too hot for your lap. [23] A team of scientists from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), in collaboration with researchers from Monash University Australia, has succeeded in significantly increasing the stability and biocompatibility of special light-transducing nanoparticles. [22] Diagnosing diseases and understanding the processes that take place within cells at the molecular level require sensitive and selective diagnostic instruments. [21] A single-molecule DNA "navigator" that can successfully find its way out of a maze constructed on a 2D DNA origami platform might be used in artificial intelligence applications as well as in biomolecular assembly, sensing, DNA-driven computation and molecular information and storage. [20] The way DNA folds largely determines which genes are read out. John van Noort and his group have quantified how easily rolled-up DNA parts stack. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3975] viXra:1912.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-24 05:14:23

Tweezer Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Now, researchers at Caltech and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which is managed by Caltech for NASA, have come up with a new design for an optical atomic clock that holds promise to be the most accurate and precise yet (accuracy refers to the ability of the clock to correctly pin down the time, and precision refers to its ability to tell time in fine detail). [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3974] viXra:1912.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-24 06:18:13

Non-Hermitian Topological Invariants

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

So far, most constructions of non-Hermitian topological invariants have been based on a nice geometrical object known as the generalized Brillouin zone (GBZ), which was first introduced last year by a team of researchers at Tsinghua University in China. [12] Now, researchers at Caltech and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which is managed by Caltech for NASA, have come up with a new design for an optical atomic clock that holds promise to be the most accurate and precise yet (accuracy refers to the ability of the clock to correctly pin down the time, and precision refers to its ability to tell time in fine detail). [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3973] viXra:1912.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-23 09:54:40

Quantized Speeds Hidden Within the Relativistic Dirac Energy Levels of the H Atom

Authors: John Suss
Comments: 18 Pages.

There is a hidden construction scheme within the relativistic Dirac energy levels of the H atom. Internal quantized speeds appear in the expression for the levels so that they have the form of mass times quantized speeds. It is possible to represent the levels in terms of normals to a hyperboloid of one-sheet or normals to a hyperboloid of two-sheet in Minkowski space-time. The energy levels reside in the tangent space of either hyperboloids, depending on the choice of representation. The normals do not have defined directions, they really represent entire cone-like regions making quantized hyperbolic angles with the axis of either hyperboloid. The projections of the normals quantize the time-like direction in integral or optionally, half integral units of 1/α if the hyperboloid of two-sheet is chosen. It quantizes any space-like direction in integral or optionally, half integral units of 1/α if the hyperboloid of one-sheet is chosen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3972] viXra:1912.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-22 11:07:02

Particle Wave Duality

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 25 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, 2019, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved.

Objective: In spite of countless attempts, the considerable efforts on relativistic wave equations for particles and waves were not crowned with an ultimate success, the book on this topic is still not closed completely. Methods: In this publication, Einstein’s relativistic energy momentum relation has been re-analyzed again. An entirely novel approach has been adopted to solve the problem of relativistic wave equations. Results: In particular, a normalized relativistic energy momentum relation is derived. The derived normalized relativistic energy momentum relation has been combined together with the Schrödinger equation to establish a wave equation consistent with special relativity theory. Conclusions: A special relativity theory consistent wave equation as the mathematical foundation of relativistic quantum theory has been derived. Keywords: Special theory of relativity, Schrödinger equation, Relativistic quantum theory. E-mail: Barukcic@t-online.de Received: December 22th, 2019; Accepted December 22th, 2019; Published: December 22th, 2019
Category: Quantum Physics

[3971] viXra:1912.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-22 06:18:38

Space-Time Metasurface Reflect Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Recently, scientists developed a new type of optical metasurface with which phase modulation in both space and time is imposed on the reflected light, leading to different paths for the forward and backward light propagation. [38] Physicists in the US have shown that light hitting a conductive metal surface at an angle can cause free electrons in the metal to move either in the same direction or in the opposite direction as the photons, depending on its surrounding environment. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3970] viXra:1912.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-22 09:10:22

Doppler Effect and the Law of Conservation of Energy-Momentum.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 8 Pages.

Using the law of conservation of energy-momentum and the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light, the dependences for the length of the electromagnetic wave with red and blue shift when the Doppler effect are derived. Moreover, using this approach, general formulas for the gravitational shift (red and blue) are derived, and the Compton effect is explained from these positions. It is also shown that for any redshift, galaxies will always have a speed lower than the speed of light in a vacuum. Taking the speed of light in vacuum, as the escape velocity for the visible part of the Universe, the mass of the Universe is calculated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3969] viXra:1912.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-21 01:40:57

The Schrodinger and the Heisenberg Operators

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 4 Pages.

This brief article brings out the fact that if the partial derivative of the Heisenberg operator with respect to time is zero then the Heisenberg and the Schrodinger operators become identical.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3968] viXra:1912.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-21 01:59:44

Counting Photons Need Standards

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Single-photon detectors (SPDs) are now key to research areas ranging from optical communications and astrophysics to cutting-edge information technologies based on quantum physics, such as quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3967] viXra:1912.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-21 04:50:09

Light Encrypt Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Researchers of the UT found a new way to protect data from attacks with quantum computers. [39] Available to download as a free e-book now, the anthology presents 37 stories shortlisted in three editions of the international Quantum Shorts competition. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3966] viXra:1912.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-21 06:21:50

Intrinsic Magnetic Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

The team that includes DIPC researchers Mikhail Otrokov (CFM Ikerbasque Research Fellow), Evgueni Chulkov (UPV/EHU, Euskadi Research Prize 2019), María Blanco Rey (UPV/EHU) and Pedro M. Echenique (UPV/EHU, DIPC President), has predicted theoretically the first intrinsic magnetic topological insulator, with chemical formula MnBi2Te4. [35] Since their discovery in 2006, topological insulators have been widely discussed as a promising avenue for energy efficient electronics. [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3965] viXra:1912.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-21 06:38:44

Cyclone on a Silicon Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The paper, "Coherent vortex dynamics in a strongly interacting superfluid on a silicon chip," is published today in Science. [15] ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"-that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3964] viXra:1912.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-20 13:23:14

Measuring Light Power

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Always on the lookout for better ways to measure all kinds of things, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have published a detailed study suggesting an "elegant" improved definition for the standard unit of light power, the optical watt. [36] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have fabricated a multiplexer/demultiplexer module based on a property of light that was not being exploited in communications systems: the optical vortex. [35] Optical chips are still some way behind electronic chips, but we're already seeing the results and this research could lead to a complete revolution in computer power. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3963] viXra:1912.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-20 03:03:15

Single Photon Experiment on the Proof of Pilot Wave Existence

Authors: V.A. Skrebnev
Comments: 9 Pages.

The experiment measured the absorption of single photons by absorbers with various absorption coefficients, in one of the beams, after the photons interacted with the beam splitter. The measurements showed that the absorption corresponds to single photon traveling in either one or another beam. The results of our measurements and of singlephoton interference experiments, combined together, demonstrate the existence of the pilot wave. The need to perform further experiments is emphasized.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3962] viXra:1912.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-20 03:34:37

Exceptional Surface Points

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Working in collaboration with the Imperial College London, for example, they have conducted research on a phenomenon in information processing systems called "exceptional points." [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3961] viXra:1912.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-19 09:17:46

The Vacuum Catastrophe

Authors: Eran Sinbar
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle leads us to the conclusion that even the vacuum has fluctuations of energy (zero point energy) which increases as the measurement time decreases. This energy is assumed to be generated by virtual particle pairs of matter and anti-matter that pop in and out of existence. This strange phenomena was demonstrated through the Casimir effect. This vacuum energy is supposed to be represented by Einstein’s cosmological constant and assumed to be the source for the dark energy which was measured by the accelerating expansion of the universe.When integrating all the expected energy due to vacuum fluctuations we receive an expected dark energy which is larger in 120 orders of magnitude from the observed expansion of the universe. This prediction failure of the theory versus observations leads to the vacuum catastrophe. This paper will suggest an approach that will enable to solve this major failure between predictions and observations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3960] viXra:1912.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-19 11:13:12

The Uncertainty Principle (Revised)

Authors: Matthew Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Original work. All rights reserved.

This paper will argue for the expansion of the (Heisenberg) Uncertainty Principle (UP). Also, this paper will explore the cause of the UP based upon a general context not through any specific application thereof.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3959] viXra:1912.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-19 12:18:58

MRI on the Atomic Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 99 Pages.

Researchers at QuTech, a collaboration of TU Delft and TNO, have developed a new magnetic quantum sensing technology that can image samples with atomic-scale resolution. [59] Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience (QNS) within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) at Ewha Womans University have made a major scientific breakthrough by performing the world's smallest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). [58] Researchers at the University of Southampton and the Korea Institute for Advanced Study have recently showed that supersymmetry is anomalous in N=1 superconformal quantum field theories (SCFTs) with an anomalous R symmetry. [57] Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a method that allows them to characterize the fluctuations in detail. [56] A team of researchers from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Griffith University in Australia have constructed a prototype quantum device that can generate all possible futures in a simultaneous quantum superposition. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3958] viXra:1912.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 08:32:59

Quantum Entangled Readers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Available to download as a free e-book now, the anthology presents 37 stories shortlisted in three editions of the international Quantum Shorts competition. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3957] viXra:1912.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 09:04:19

Quantum Dot Photodetector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Full-color photodetectors that can convert light to electric signals without sophisticated color filters and interferometric optics have gained considerable attention for widespread applications. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3956] viXra:1912.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 00:54:10

Cosmic Dance of Lord Shiva.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 12 Pages. PHILOSOPHY AND PHYSICS.

We look at our universe as the cosmic dance of LORD SHIVA.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3955] viXra:1912.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 02:31:26

Quantum Material Hide from Infrared Cameras

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Infrared cameras detect people and other objects by the heat they emit. Now, researchers have discovered the uncanny ability of a material to hide a target by masking its telltale heat properties. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25] Now, scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University report curious multi-state transitions of these superconductors in which they change from superconductor to special metal and then to insulator. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3954] viXra:1912.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 04:28:42

Photon Pairs of Different Colors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Physicists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and their colleagues have achieved a major new feat-creating a bizarre "quantum" interference between two photons of markedly different colors, originating from different buildings on the University of Maryland campus. [32] Physicists at C2N have demonstrated for the first time the direct generation of light in a state that is simultaneously a single photon, two photons, and no photon at all. [31] A team of researchers from Xiamen University, the University of Ottawa and the University of Rochester has shown that it is possible to entangle photons with correlations between their radial and momentum states. [30] In a new study, researchers demonstrate creative tactics to get rid of loopholes that have long confounded tests of quantum mechanics. [29] This is a very interesting quantum phenomenon called "magnon crystallization," in which the magnons are said to be in a "frustrated" state. [28] In a new paper, have proposed the first practical protocol for anonymous communication in quantum networks. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24] Recently, researchers have been investigating how these quantum fingerprints might one day be used as an inexpensive form of ID to protect users' personal information for technologies in the emerging network of internet-connected devices known as the Internet of Things. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3953] viXra:1912.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-17 08:58:12

Brain-Like Nanoscale Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

UCLA scientists James Gimzewski and Adam Stieg are part of an international research team that has taken a significant stride toward the goal of creating thinking machines. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3952] viXra:1912.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-17 10:33:42

Multidimensional Optical Tech

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A new design of optical chips enables light to experience multiple dimensions, which could underpin versatile platforms for advanced communications and ultra-fast artificial intelligence technologies. [39] Quantum computers, which use light particles (photons) instead of electrons to transmit and process data, hold the promise of a new era of research in which the time needed to realize lifesaving drugs and new technologies will be significantly shortened. [38] In the paper titled "Statistical Assertions for Validating Patterns and Finding Bugs in Quantum Programs," Huang and Margaret Martonosi, a professor of Computer Science at Princeton, identify three key difficulties in debugging quantum programs, and evaluate their solutions in addressing those difficulties. [37] Researchers at the University of Chicago published a novel technique for improving the reliability of quantum computers by accessing higher energy levels than traditionally considered. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3951] viXra:1912.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-17 02:13:01

Quantum Dot Atoms and Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Nanotechnology, is reinventing the concept of the periodic table but for artificial atoms, otherwise known as colloidal quantum dots. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3950] viXra:1912.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-17 07:56:27

Topological Insulator Band Gap

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Since their discovery in 2006, topological insulators have been widely discussed as a promising avenue for energy efficient electronics. [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3949] viXra:1912.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-16 13:36:55

Entanglement for Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Entanglement, once called "spooky action at a distance" by Einstein, is the phenomenon in which the quantum states of separated particles cannot be described independently. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3948] viXra:1912.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-14 05:06:44

Trapping Light in Photonic Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A new approach to trapping light in artificial photonic materials by a City College of New York-led team could lead to a tremendous boost in the transfer speed of data online. [31] The first system for reshaping the time-varying profiles of individual photons has been created by Olivier Morin and colleagues at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching, Germany. [30] Recently, the chemists Sebastian Mai and Leticia González from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna succeeded in simulating the extremely fast spin flip processes that are triggered by the light absorption of metal complexes. [29] University of Tokyo researchers have announced a new approach for electrical cooling without the need for moving parts. [28] When electrons that repel each other are confined to a small space, they can form an ordered crystalline state known as a Wigner crystal. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3947] viXra:1912.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-14 06:50:20

Single-Layer Graphene Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

In a new study published in The European Physical Journal B, Jacques Tempere and colleagues at the University of Antwerp in Belgium demonstrate that an existing technique is better suited for probing superconductivity in pure, single-layer graphene than previously thought. [29] Scientists at HZB have found evidence that double layers of graphene have a property that may let them conduct current completely without resistance. [28] US researchers studying high-temperature cuprate superconductors outside the superconducting regime have used cutting-edge X-ray scattering to detect long-predicted-but never previously observed-excitations called plasmons perpendicular to the material's atomic planes. [27] Using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered a new quantum criticality in a superconducting material, leading to a greater understanding of the link between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity. [26] Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3946] viXra:1912.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-13 03:12:26

Quantum Sensors Watch Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers from Berkeley Lab; UC Berkeley; Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität, Germany; Iowa State University; Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C.; and Ames Laboratory participated in the work. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3945] viXra:1912.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-13 03:27:18

A Classical Explanation of the Scattering of Photons by Electrons

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 10 Pages. N/A

In this paper, we bring the Zitterbewegung electron model and our photon model together to provide a classical explanation of the scattering of photons by electrons. We understand electron-photon interference (the scattering of photons by electrons) as two electromagnetic oscillations interfering (classically) with each other. While developing the model, we offer some reflections on the Uncertainty Principle (Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics). We conclude there is no need for it: God doesn’t play dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3944] viXra:1912.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 09:27:27

Ghost Imaging Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Researchers have used advanced imaging approaches to achieve super-resolution microscopy at unprecedented speeds. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3943] viXra:1912.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 09:47:30

Less Quantum Noise is More

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A group of researchers from Osaka University led by Prof. Masayuki Abe and Prof. Hiroshi Toki of the Graduate School of Engineering Science developed a high precision 3-D circuit simulator in the time-domain for quantifying electromagnetic (EM) noise and elucidated its origin, allowing for electronic and electrical circuit layout to reduce EM noise. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity-spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3942] viXra:1912.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 04:30:02

Maxwell's Electromagnetism at Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

On Dec. 11, 2019, a general framework for incorporating and correcting for nonclassical electromagnetic phenomena in nanoscale systems will be presented in the journal Nature. [28] Now, researchers at the University of Barcelona have presented the first theoretical and experimental solution of a continuous version of Maxwell's demon in a single molecule system. [27] Lensless microscopy with X-rays, or coherent diffractive imaging, is a promising approach. It allows researchers to analyse complex three-dimensional structures, which frequently exist in nature, from a dynamic perspective. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3941] viXra:1912.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 05:53:59

Quantum Weirdness Casimir Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

If you use a vacuum-insulated thermos to help keep your coffee hot, you may know it's a good insulator because heat energy has a hard time moving through empty space. [36] A team of researchers from the University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has found a way to make the Casimir effect attract or repulse depending on the size of the gap between two objects. [35] Researchers from the University of Maryland have for the first time measured an effect that was predicted more than 40 years ago, called the Casimir torque. [34] The properties of matter are typically the result of complex interactions between electrons. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3940] viXra:1912.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 06:12:25

Orbital Angular Momentum of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Currently, it is urgent to further develop novel devices that can reconfigure and switch between distinct OAM modes to fully exploit the extra degree of freedom provided by the OAM both for classical and quantum communications. [20] A compact and simple camera that can determine the full polarization of light has been developed by researchers in the US. [19] In their experiments, the researchers first transformed an ordinary laser beam into an accelerating one by reflecting the laser beam off of a spatial light modulator. [18] Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17] Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons-particles of light-interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3939] viXra:1912.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 10:40:35

Molecular Sensor Emit Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Alberta have created a molecular colourant that can emit light in a wider range of colours than any other molecule currently available. [38] When molecules interact with the oscillating field of a laser, an instantaneous, time-dependent dipole is induced. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3938] viXra:1912.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 05:04:54

Quantum World Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have been able to record, frame-by-frame, how an electron interacts with certain atomic vibrations in a solid. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3937] viXra:1912.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 07:33:19

Huge Bandwidth Communication Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Illinois have created sugar cube-sized blocks of an electromagnetic material with potential to transform communication networks. [42] Counter to intuition, in a new counterfactual communication protocol published in NPJ Quantum Information, scientists from the University of Vienna, the University of Cambridge and the MIT have experimentally demonstrated that in quantum mechanics this is not always true, thereby contradicting a crucial premise of communication theory. [41] One of these particles of light has the potential to serve as a carrier of the fragile quantum information, the other, as a messenger to provide prior notification of its twin. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3936] viXra:1912.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 04:01:16

The Time Evolution Operator

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we have devised a simpler alternative solution to the operator equation for the usual time evolution operator. This is based on an interesting commutator relation which has been derived valid subject to a weak condition that two specific operators should not be simultaneously non invertible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3935] viXra:1912.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 05:26:41

Spin on Perovskite Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The spin-filters developed here are another component of perovskite-based spintronic applications. [21] Perovskites may be the next material to get the full 2D makeover, according to studies by a team of researchers at Nanjing University in China and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and University of California, Irvine, in the US. [20] A new joint Tel Aviv University (TAU) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) study published in Nature Communications on February 28 demonstrates remarkable continuous lasing action in devices made from perovskites. [19] Efficient near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes of perovskite have been produced in a laboratory at Linköping University. The external quantum efficiency is 21.6 percent, which is a record. The results have been published in Nature Photonics. [18] Very recently, an NTU team lead by Assoc. Prof. Wang Hong, demonstrated high light extraction efficiency of perovskite photonic crystals fabricated by delicate electron-beam lithography. [17] A quasiparticle is a disturbance or excitation (e.g. spin waves, bubbles, etc.) that behaves as a particle and could therefore be regarded as one. Long-range interactions between quasiparticles can give rise to a 'drag,' which affects the fundamental properties of many systems in condensed matter physics. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission-a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3934] viXra:1912.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 06:01:19

Abrikosov Superconducting Vortices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated the possibility of detecting Abrikosov vortices penetrating through a superconductor-ferromagnet interface. [30] An international team led by researchers at Princeton University has directly observed a surprising quantum effect in a high-temperature iron-containing superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3933] viXra:1912.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 07:43:45

Charge Transport in Quantum Regime

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Caltech scientists for the first time have developed a way to predict how electrons interacting strongly with atomic motions will flow through a complex material. [18] An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire-the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3932] viXra:1912.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 08:34:39

Electrons Flowing like Water

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel have imaged electrons flowing viscously through a nanodevice, just like water flowing through a pipe. [19] Caltech scientists for the first time have developed a way to predict how electrons interacting strongly with atomic motions will flow through a complex material. [18] An international collaboration, including researchers from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Royal Holloway, University of London, has successfully demonstrated a quantum coherent effect in a new quantum device made out of continuous superconducting wire-the Charge Quantum Interference Device (CQUID). [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3931] viXra:1912.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 11:50:51

Quantum Effect in Water

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers at EPFL have discovered that the viscosity of solutions of electrically charged polymers dissolved in water is influenced by a quantum effect. [30] In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29] Engineers at MIT and Penn State University have found that under the right conditions, ordinary clear water droplets on a transparent surface can produce brilliant colors, without the addition of inks or dyes. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3930] viXra:1912.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 23:19:38

A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Four-Potential

Authors: James Conor O'Brien
Comments: 43 Pages.

This paper applies the Wheeler-Feynman time-symmetric theory to the electromagnetic four-potential and derives a wave equation that puts Matter on the same foundation as Maxwell's electromagnetic equation for Light waves. Applying the Wheeler-Feynman summation it derives the various physical properties for matter of mass, charge, spin, momentum, phase, electromagnetic mass, Hamiltonian action, and gives an explicit derivation of Cramer's Quantum Handshake as a standing wave of the advanced and retarded electromagnetic four-potentials. The Wheeler-Feynman summation is then applied to the derive the lepton masses of the Standard Model, this leads to the suggestion that the masses, charges and spins of all charged leptons are based on different configurations of the electromagnetic four-vector potential. Mach principle appears as a natural consequence of the free potentials of the Wheeler-Feynman summation acting on the resultant particle's charge. Gaussian units are used throughout.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3929] viXra:1912.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 08:31:50

Quantum States in Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

After decades of miniaturization, the electronic components we've relied on for computers and modern technologies are now starting to reach fundamental limits. Faced with this challenge, engineers and scientists around the world are turning toward a radically new paradigm: quantum information technologies. [50] Researchers have successfully used sound waves to control quantum information in a single electron, a significant step towards efficient, robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. [49] Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48] Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47] As reported in Nature Physics, a Berkeley Lab-led team of physicists and materials scientists was the first to unambiguously observe and document the unique optical phenomena that occur in certain types of synthetic materials called moire; superlattices. [46] Physicists at the University of Basel have now shown for the first time the combination with a third layer can result in new material properties also in a three-layer sandwich of carbon and boron nitride. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3928] viXra:1912.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-08 01:15:44

Self-Learning Computers Versus Quantum Computers

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we answer the following extremely important questions. Why, contrary to obvious experimental facts, is it denied that quantum entanglement carries information at superluminal speed? Why quantum mechanics is an illusion? Why self-learning (mental) computers based on the classical superposition will be most creative?
Category: Quantum Physics

[3927] viXra:1912.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 01:33:42

Superconducting Electronic Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Using a clever technique that causes unruly crystals of iron selenide to snap into alignment, Rice University physicists have drawn a detailed map that reveals the "rules of the road" for electrons both in normal conditions and in the critical moments just before the material transforms into a superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3926] viXra:1912.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 03:23:50

Gamma-Ray Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A physicist at the University of California, Riverside, has performed calculations showing hollow spherical bubbles filled with a gas of positronium atoms are stable in liquid helium. [15] During nuclear fusion two atomic nuclei fuse into one new nucleus. In the lab this can be done by particle accelerators, when researchers use fusion reactions to create fast free neutrons for other experiments. [15] A new 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation tool developed by researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and CEA Saclay is enabling cutting-edge simulations of laser/plasma coupling mechanisms that were previously out of reach of standard PIC codes used in plasma research. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3925] viXra:1912.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 04:58:43

Magnetic Resonance Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Physicists at University of California, Riverside, have designed an experiment to explain the concept of magnetic resonance. The project was carried out by undergraduate students in collaboration with local high school teachers. [43] Magnetic reconnection, a process in which magnetic field lines tear and come back together, releasing large amounts of kinetic energy, occurs throughout the universe. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3924] viXra:1912.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 12:55:20

Refutation of Voqc as a Verified Optimizer for Quantum Circuits in Coq as Bivalent

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the CNOT operator, seminal to voqc in the tool Coq, as not tautologous. This refutes the conjecture that voqc is “the first fully verified compiler for quantum circuits”, and further refutes Coq as a bivalent proof assistant. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3923] viXra:1912.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 01:21:50

Stable Quantum Computing Platform

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Harvard University researchers have demonstrated the first material that can have both strongly correlated electron interactions and topological properties. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3922] viXra:1912.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 03:22:10

Birth of Photoelectrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The creation of photoelectrons through ionisation is one of the most fundamental processes in the interaction between light and matter. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3921] viXra:1912.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 08:30:47

Diffusive Josephson Junctions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Understanding how microwave absorption changes the transport properties of diffusive Josephson junctions is at the forefront of interest in the quantum transport community. [43] The Josephson junction is one of the most important elements in turning quantum phenomena into usable technology. [42] The ultimate degree of control for engineering would be the ability to create and manipulate materials at the most basic level, fabricating devices atom by atom with precise control. [41] A team of researchers from the University of California and Fudan University has developed a way to use a single molecule magnet as a scanning magnetometer. [40] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology designed a new type of molecular wire doped with organometallic ruthenium to achieve unprecedentedly higher conductance than earlier molecular wires. [39] Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3920] viXra:1912.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:20:48

Atomic Music Listeners

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Atom music is a fun new way to explore the atomic world via musical synthesis techniques. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3919] viXra:1912.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 09:43:58

Neutron Insight into Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Bose-Einstein condensates are macroscopic quantum phases of matter which appear only under very particular conditions. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3918] viXra:1912.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 08:16:48

State of Solitary Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Scientists at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), working with the University of Latvia, the University of Berlin, Cambridge University and University College London, have developed a tomographic method to visualize the state of solitary electrons emitted from electron pumps. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3917] viXra:1912.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 09:06:53

Laser Evaluate Mental States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Scientists at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) along with international colleagues have studied the biomechanics of hand movements when writing and drawing and developed a unique method to evaluate the individual properties of writing speed and pencil pressure. [40] New research from the University of Rochester will enhance the accuracy of computer models used in simulations of laser-driven implosions. [39] By using an infrared laser beam to induce a phenomenon known as an electron avalanche breakdown near the material, the new technique is able to detect shielded material from a distance. [38] The light scattered by plasmonic nanoparticles is useful, but some of it gets lost at the surface and scientists are now starting to figure out why. [37] In a new review, researchers have described the fundamental physics that causes magnetoelectricity from a theoretical viewpoint. [36] Physicists at EPFL propose a new "quantum simulator": a laser-based device that can be used to study a wide range of quantum systems. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3916] viXra:1912.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 09:48:26

Josephson Circuit Quantum Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Superconducting circuits, which have zero electrical resistance, could enable the development of electronic components that are significantly more energy-efficient than most chips used today. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3915] viXra:1912.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 19:44:01

A Maximum Entropy Approach to Wave Mechanics

Authors: Juho Leppäkangas
Comments: 9 pages. Feel free to send an email about corrections or suggestions. Relevant references are to be included in the future versions.

We employ the maximum entropy principle, in the context of Bayesian inference by the impersonal physical interactions, together with the experimental Heisenberg's uncertainty principle for a simple construction of the general wave mechanical static state of a single, interacting mass particle with no internal degrees of freedom. Subsequently, this first principle approach allows to derive via Newtonian mechanics the dynamical equation of motion in the realm of non-relativistic wave mechanics, i.e., the Schrödinger equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3914] viXra:1912.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-02 09:25:07

Quantum Matrix Product Operators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

In quantum physics, scrambling is the dispersal of quantum information across a complex quantum system, such as chaotic quantum many-body systems. [28] At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3913] viXra:1911.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 09:13:10

Quantum Dot Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

(NTU Singapore) have developed a way to make Colloidal Quantum Dots produce laser light with the help of an electric field. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3912] viXra:1911.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 10:59:17

Quantum Dots Without Heavy Metals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A team at Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology has announced that they have improved quantum dot (QD) technology for use in large displays by developing QDs that are both more efficient and have no heavy metals. [30] Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a way to make Colloidal Quantum Dots produce laser light with the help of an electric field. [29] University of Toronto Engineering researchers have combined two emerging technologies for next-generation solar power-and discovered that each one helps stabilize the other. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3911] viXra:1911.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 11:23:25

Electro-Optical Computing Processors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

The first ever integrated nanoscale device which can be programmed with either photons or electrons has been developed by scientists in Harish Bhaskaran's Advanced Nanoscale Engineering research group at the University of Oxford. [47] So far, techniques for computing Hamiltonian eigenstates on quantum computers have been primarily based on phase estimation or variational algorithms, which are designed to approximate the lowest energy eigenstate (i.e., ground state) and a number of excited states. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3910] viXra:1911.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 03:36:02

Adiabatic Quantum Shortcuts

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In the quantum world 'adiabatic' processes are those in which the system controls are modified slowly. [30] In quantum physics, some of the most interesting effects are the result of interferences. [29] When Nebraska's Herman Batelaan and colleagues recently submitted a research paper that makes the case for the existence of a non-Newtonian, quantum force, the journal asked that they place "force" firmly within quotes. [28] Computing the dynamics of many interacting quantum particles accurately is a daunting task.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3909] viXra:1911.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-30 04:09:21

Superconducting Under Attack

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

"After thirty years, evidence is mounting that high Tc-superconductivity is pointing toward a radically new form of matter, which is governed by the consequences of quantum entanglement in the macroscopic world." [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3908] viXra:1911.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 12:59:18

Eigenstates on Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

So far, techniques for computing Hamiltonian eigenstates on quantum computers have been primarily based on phase estimation or variational algorithms, which are designed to approximate the lowest energy eigenstate (i.e., ground state) and a number of excited states. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45] Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3907] viXra:1911.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-29 04:27:31

Magnetic Waves for Efficient Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

MIT researchers have devised a novel circuit design that enables precise control of computing with magnetic waves-with no electricity needed. [38] Scientists have added a crucial tool to the atomic-scale manufacturing toolkit with major implications for today's data driven-carbon intensive-world, according to new research from the University of Alberta in Canada. [37] From books to floppy disks to magnetic memory, technologies to store information continue to improve. Yet threats as simple as water and as complex as cyberattacks can still corrupt our records. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3906] viXra:1911.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 10:51:26

Molecular Eraser for AI Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Scientists have added a crucial tool to the atomic-scale manufacturing toolkit with major implications for today's data driven-carbon intensive-world, according to new research from the University of Alberta in Canada. [37] From books to floppy disks to magnetic memory, technologies to store information continue to improve. Yet threats as simple as water and as complex as cyberattacks can still corrupt our records. [36] Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have come up with a way to manipulate tungsten diselenide (WSe2)-a promising two-dimensional material-to further unlock its potential to enable faster, more efficient computing, and even quantum information processing and storage. [35] The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3905] viXra:1911.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 04:06:09

Topological Metals Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Topological materials have become a hot topic in quantum materials research, as they have potential applications for quantum information and spintronics. [34] The team utilized analytical and ab-initio theories to establish a link between this spin engine concept and room-temperature experiments on a solid-state spintronic device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3904] viXra:1911.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 09:00:31

Refutation of the Ping Pong Thought Framework

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the ping pong thought framework in four probabilistic energy states of complete transition and complete reflection. While one state is a theorem, that is not sufficient to establish the schema of the ping pong thought framework, which is hence refuted. These results form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3903] viXra:1911.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 03:25:26

At What Velocity Does an Electron Emits a Photon. Another Proof for Ferent Quantum Gravity

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 457 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

At what velocity does an electron emits a photon? Another proof for Ferent Quantum Gravity “Because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter, the electron receives and emits photons with the speed of light” Adrian Ferent At what velocity does an electron emits a photon? The answer is another proof for Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG). In modern physics a charged particle emits and absorbs energy, but its mechanism was not discovered. All the Nobel Laureates, all the scientists, your professors…were not able to answer to this question: At what velocity does an electron emits a photon? If you want to have fun, just ask your professors these questions: At what velocity does an electron emits a photon? Does have photon an acceleration time? The internet is like a ‘comedy book’ with answers to these questions: Feynman's answer to the question: “An electron emits an ordinary photon in response to being struck by a reverse-time ("advanced") photon that has traveled backward in time from some point in the future.”Some point in the future" could range from femtoseconds (or less) away up to billions of years in the future. The real photon that is emitted in response to the recoil-inducing, backwards-in-time photon travels along the classical time path as a normal or "retarded" photon (no I did not make that up), and eventually strikes the very same target that emitted the advanced photon sometime in the future.” Another scientist said: “The opposite happens when an electron emits a photon. The photon is not selected from a "well" of photons living in the atom; it is created instantaneously out of the vacuum. The electron in the high energy level is instantly converted into a lower energy-level electron and a photon. There is no in-between state where the photon is being constructed. It instantly pops into existance.” 277. I am the first who discovered at what velocity an electron emits a photon 278. I am the first who discovered because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter, the electron receives and emits photons with the speed of light
Category: Quantum Physics

[3902] viXra:1911.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 14:23:59

On the Unit of Imaginary Number

Authors: Yuji Masuda
Comments: 1 Page.

This is the relationship.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3901] viXra:1911.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 15:44:51

Diophantine Physics

Authors: F.M. Sanchez
Comments: 26 Pages. In French. A resumed Letter is submited to Astrophysics and Space Science with 2 co-authors.

The diophantine interpretation of the third Kepler law directly implies the single electron cosmology and puts forward links between gravitation, quantum physics, cosmology, particle physics and the cristallography with the superstring 10 and 11- dimensions. The Nambu mass and the DNA codon mass play a central cosmic role, while the dissymetry proton-electron explains the matter relative density. The central rôle of the Atiyah constant and the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry are confirmed. Connexions reaching the ppb precisions are obtained with a prediction for G compatible with the BIPM value. The aberrations of the present scientic system are denounced.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3900] viXra:1911.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 03:19:54

Milestone in Quantum Standardization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 95 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have developed a method that could pave the way to establishing universal standards for measuring the performance of quantum computers. [57] A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realized. [56] In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3899] viXra:1911.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-25 09:36:23

Ultrafast Quantum Simulations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Billions of tiny interactions occur between thousands of particles in every piece of matter in the blink of an eye. Simulating these interactions in their full dynamics was said to be elusive but has now been made possible by new work of researchers from Oxford and Warwick. [19] "Digital quantum simulation is thus intrinsically much more robust than what one might expect from known error bounds on the global many-body wave function," Heyl says. [18] A new finding by researchers at the University of Chicago promises to improve the speed and reliability of current and next generation quantum computers by as much as ten times. [17] Ph. D candidate Shuntaro Okada and information scientist Masayuki Ohzeki of Japan's Tohoku University collaborated with global automotive components manufacturer Denso Corporation and other colleagues to develop an algorithm that improves the D-Wave quantum annealer's ability to solve combinatorial optimization problems. [16] D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3898] viXra:1911.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-25 09:53:28

Molecular Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A significant difference between the superconductivity in two important unconventional superconducting systems has been found by three theoretical physicists at RIKEN. [30] An international team led by researchers at Princeton University has directly observed a surprising quantum effect in a high-temperature iron-containing superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3897] viXra:1911.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-25 05:26:54

Laser Combo Futuristic Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers have created a new terahertz radiation emitter with highly-sought-after frequency adjustment capability. The compact source could enable the development of futuristic communications, security, biomedical and astronomical imaging systems. [13] Wi-Fi and cellular data traffic are increasing exponentially but, unless the capacity of wireless links can be increased, all that traffic is bound to lead to unacceptable bottlenecks. [12] While defects in a diamond are mostly undesirable, certain defects are a quantum physicist's best friend, having the potential to store bits of information that could one day be used in a quantum computing system. [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3896] viXra:1911.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 06:38:43

3D Foams Light Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Scientists at Princeton University in the US have discovered that a material known as a Weaire-Phelan foam can act as an optical filter. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23] Micro-computed tomography or "micro-CT" is X-ray imaging in 3-D, by the same method used in hospital CT (or "CAT") scans, but on a small scale with massively increased resolution. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12] Thumb through any old science textbook, and you'll likely find RNA described as little more than a means to an end, a kind of molecular scratch paper used to construct the proteins encoded in DNA. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3895] viXra:1911.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-22 10:36:52

Superconducting Quantum Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

An international team led by researchers at Princeton University has directly observed a surprising quantum effect in a high-temperature iron-containing superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3894] viXra:1911.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-22 11:02:56

Spin Waves in Magnetic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Münster (Germany) have now developed a new approach that eliminates unwanted damping and makes it easier to use spin waves. [34] The team utilized analytical and ab-initio theories to establish a link between this spin engine concept and room-temperature experiments on a solid-state spintronic device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3893] viXra:1911.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-22 11:35:02

Strange Metal Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Strange metals make interesting bedfellows for a phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity, which allows materials to carry electricity with zero loss. [30] An international team led by researchers at Princeton University has directly observed a surprising quantum effect in a high-temperature iron-containing superconductor. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3892] viXra:1911.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 10:55:49

QM intro (superseded)

Authors: Juho Leppäkangas
Comments: This page is inactive and to be removed. The current version of this original work can be found at viXra:1912.0063

See the comment below.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3891] viXra:1911.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 11:59:40

Time Crystalline Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

The quest to develop the understanding for time crystalline behaviour in quantum systems has taken a new, exciting twist. [26] Dreamt up by the physics Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012, the notion of "time crystals" is now moving from theory to experiment-and could also lead to applications such as a new kind of atomic clock. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3890] viXra:1911.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 08:02:36

Intrinsic Vector Potential and Electromagnetic Mass

Authors: Richard Shurtleff
Comments: 15 page article plus 10 page Mathematica notebook

Electric charges may have mass in part or in full because they charged. Supplying details is the electromagnetic mass problem. Here, the charge's mass is associated with intrinsic quantum mechanical quantities so that the classical problems with extended charge distributions, for example, are irrelevant. An intrinsic vector potential is defined, based on intrinsic linear momentum. The charge-electromagnetic field interaction energy is gauge-dependent and the needed mass term is placed with the interaction energy in the intrinsic gauge. Traditional electromagnetism retains its gauge invariance. The field equations make no new predictions since all dynamic dependence on intrinsic quantities can be gauged away. The field equations describe a massive, charged 4-spinor Dirac electron-like particle and an uncharged, massless neutrino-like particle, formulas that have been a part of physics for nearly a century.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3889] viXra:1911.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 09:17:37

Big Picture by Designer Lens

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Wang and his colleagues from the KAUSTVisual Computing Center, under the supervision of Wolfgang Heidrich, a professor of computer science, have now developed a new method for quantitative phase and intensity imaging. [34] In a breakthrough study published in OSA Continuum, a team of scientists led by Prof Eiji Tokunaga at the Tokyo University of Science shed light on the mechanism of the Pockels effect in a new type of light modulator. [33] Optical scintillation imaging is proving feasible as a quality assurance (QA) tool for small static beams and for pre-treatment verification of radiosurgery and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3888] viXra:1911.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 10:03:54

Motion Beyond the Quantum Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Colorado have recently developed a new technique to measure mechanical motion using simultaneous electromechanical amplification and cooling processes. [34] The global effect of quantum computing on economic and social life will depend on the use that will be made of this tool-and that stems from human decisions rather than being forced by knowledge itself. [33] Scientists claimed Wednesday to have achieved a near-mythical state of computing in which a new generation of machine vastly outperforms the world's fastest super-computer, known as "quantum supremacy". [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3887] viXra:1911.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 10:19:46

Straight Motion of Magnetic Skyrmions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated a formation and current-induced motion of synthetic antiferromagnetic magnetic skyrmions. [35] Researchers at the University of Colorado have recently developed a new technique to measure mechanical motion using simultaneous electromechanical amplification and cooling processes. [34] The global effect of quantum computing on economic and social life will depend on the use that will be made of this tool-and that stems from human decisions rather than being forced by knowledge itself. [33] Scientists claimed Wednesday to have achieved a near-mythical state of computing in which a new generation of machine vastly outperforms the world's fastest super-computer, known as "quantum supremacy". [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3886] viXra:1911.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 07:52:13

Quantum Fintech on Mainstream

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

The global effect of quantum computing on economic and social life will depend on the use that will be made of this tool-and that stems from human decisions rather than being forced by knowledge itself. [33] Scientists claimed Wednesday to have achieved a near-mythical state of computing in which a new generation of machine vastly outperforms the world's fastest super-computer, known as "quantum supremacy". [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3885] viXra:1911.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 08:38:33

Water-Based Optical Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

In a breakthrough study published in OSA Continuum, a team of scientists led by Prof Eiji Tokunaga at the Tokyo University of Science shed light on the mechanism of the Pockels effect in a new type of light modulator. [33] Optical scintillation imaging is proving feasible as a quality assurance (QA) tool for small static beams and for pre-treatment verification of radiosurgery and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3884] viXra:1911.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 08:37:04

Building Block for Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Nanooptical traps are a promising building block for quantum technologies. Austrian and German scientists have now removed an important obstacle to their practical use. [37] The experiments showed that quantum light can be used to probe enzyme activities in real time without perturbing the sample. [36] The biological technique of 'optogenetics' uses light to control cells within living tissues that have been genetically modified to be light-sensitive. [35] Not much is known about the course of events leading to Alzheimer’s disease, but the formation of toxic β-amyloid plaques and phosphorylated tau proteins have long been described as major hallmarks of the disease. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3883] viXra:1911.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 09:16:16

Magneto-Optic Dual-Comb Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Dual-comb spectroscopy is a new spectroscopy that uses two precisely controlled ultrashort pulse lasers, known as optical frequency combs (optical combs). [38] Nanooptical traps are a promising building block for quantum technologies. Austrian and German scientists have now removed an important obstacle to their practical use. [37] The experiments showed that quantum light can be used to probe enzyme activities in real time without perturbing the sample. [36] The biological technique of 'optogenetics' uses light to control cells within living tissues that have been genetically modified to be light-sensitive. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3882] viXra:1911.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:20:27

Quantum Computers Mark Their Work

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realized. [56] A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realized. [56] In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3881] viXra:1911.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:57:59

Hydrogen Tuning Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Researchers at TU Delft have discovered a method to stretch and compress quantum materials using hydrogen gas. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3880] viXra:1911.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 09:03:07

The Words Implicit and Explicit Seem to Describe All that "IS"

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 19 Pages.

I conceptually discuss what I consider the naturally occurring construct of universal reality might be. I talk about what I consider to be the random conditions, influences and effects that might help to conceptually explain how the universe might have come into being in the first place. I debate that there are two continuums in the universe. One of these is the implicit continuum and the other is the explicit continuum. I suggest that quantum non-locality theory in physics provides a useful tool in order to help to understand the concurrent relationship between both these continuums. I demonstrate that non-locality [metaphysical-implicitness] is real and that this is why science must learn to accommodate this notion if it is ever to be able to describe and demonstrate a theory of everything. Email: conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[3879] viXra:1911.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 07:16:29

The Inescapable Duality of All “things”

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 3 Pages.

I present the notion that our space time universe is “swimming” in a sea of sub-quantum [non-local] weirdness. I also conceptually postulate that all “things” and events in our universe are somehow in a dual and entangled relationship with each other. I imagine this relationship as being a concurrent one and that they are not materially connected to each other. However, I believe that they do influence and effect each other in some way. I refer to this sea of weirdness as being non-physical implicit phenomena and physical phenomena entangled within this sea as being explicit phenomena. I discuss what my concept of the duality of all that “IS” might mean in helping us to better understand the workings of the wider universe as well as what such a conceptual theory might mean for future scientific research and understanding. Email: conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[3878] viXra:1911.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:00:20

Better Light-Trapping Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A study published in Nature describes a new design for optical resonators that are more effective at trapping light, an important fundamental step towards making more efficient optical devices. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3877] viXra:1911.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 17:07:29

On the Neutrino Theory of Light

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a review article. We show that the mass of neutrinos in accelerating fields behaves radically differently than masses other particles. Abandonment of the idea that photons are systems of entangled neutrino-antineutrino (NAN) pairs creates great problems today in a coherent description of dark matter, dark energy, nuclear plasma and spin and mass of the proton. In fact, objects built from entangled or/and confined NAN pairs create the illusion of the existence of quarks. Here we calculated the neutrino charge and the lower and upper limits for photon mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3876] viXra:1911.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 16:36:39

Theory of God's Creation

Authors: Christopher L A Smith
Comments: 5 Pages. theory of everything would like it well handled

Pyramids they are everything’s particle constituent as I explain you will get to know the basic structure of the universe they are magnetic in nature and have both a field release and field return of magnetism as a force continuum. These Pyramid’s release and intake force into each other’s field continuum they stream force into each other’s field continuum force intake releases force into return fields force intake spirals into release into a vortex of motion spiraling around release. The force releases straight out the tip to return normally but can move slightly towards greater force of returning magnetism the release field of the base seeks the return field in release direction and the base can split into several release and return points. These Pyramids are gluons permeate as heat make up all particles when together as fields.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3875] viXra:1911.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 14:47:29

Nature Astronomy Journal Has Been Published Plagiarism of Leonov's Concept of a Quantized Ball-Shaped Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

In 1996, I developed and published the scientific concept of the quantized ball-shaped universe in Russian [1]. This concept was published a second time in English in 2010-2011 in my fundamental the theory of Superunification [2-4]. The concept of a quantized universe is my development. Our universe is a quantized universe and the universe is filled with quantons. Quanton is a quantum of space-time and it was discovered by me in 1996. Quanton has four integer quark two electric (±e) and two magnetic (±g). The calculated diameter of the quanton is 10^—25 m. The concentration of quantons is the quantum density (is an average ~10^75 q/m3) of the medium (space) and this is a variable function that describes the deformation (Einstein's analogue of curvature) of quantized space-time. A quantized universe can only have the shape of a ball and at the moment it is in a white hole state. Our universe is not flat. It is spherically deformed and the deformation (force) vector is directed to the periphery of the universe forcing the galaxies to run with acceleration. A quantized universe has no expansion and its diameter is a constant parameter. We are observing only the accelerated scattering (recession) of galaxies inside of the quantized deformed universe. This is a new physics; this is a new methodology for calculating the parameters of the universe and its state as at the present moment and for the future. I was glad when I read the article “Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology” in the “Nature Astronomy” [5], which once again confirms the correctness of the theory of Superunification. But I was surprised when I did not see a reference to my theory of Superunification and to the Leonov's concept of a quantized ball-shaped universe. We must make references to publications that were made earlier. This is customary in the scientific community. The lack of reference to the publication is plagiarism.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3874] viXra:1911.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 04:58:19

Hot Electrons Harvested

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Semiconductors convert energy from photons (light) into an electron current. However, some photons carry too much energy for the material to absorb. These photons produce "hot electrons," and the excess energy of these electrons is converted into heat. [26] Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3873] viXra:1911.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 07:04:28

Photoemission Electron Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A research group led by Prof. Fu Qiang and Prof. Bao Xinhe at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed near ambient pressure photoemission electron microscopy (AP-PEEM) with a tunable deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser source as the excitation source. [27] Semiconductors convert energy from photons (light) into an electron current. However, some photons carry too much energy for the material to absorb. These photons produce "hot electrons," and the excess energy of these electrons is converted into heat. [26] Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3872] viXra:1911.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 08:58:17

Complex Scenes from Long Distances

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3871] viXra:1911.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 02:58:53

Split Photons in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

"Perhaps quantum computers might one day use this method to communicate with each other and form a kind of quantum Internet," says Weitz with a view towards the future. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3870] viXra:1911.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 03:30:27

Reroute Light in Computer Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3869] viXra:1911.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 05:36:23

Terahertz Laser with Laughing Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Within the electromagnetic middle ground between microwaves and visible light lies terahertz radiation, and the promise of "T-ray vision." [15] A team of scientists from DESY and the University of Hamburg has achieved an important milestone in the quest for a new type of compact particle accelerator. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3868] viXra:1911.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 06:15:04

Spring and Gravity Laws of Vibration Energy Harvesting

Authors: Emmanuel F.C. Chimamkpam
Comments: 15 pages of texts/equations and 11 pages of figures. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3530639

Usual theory has it that large power is only attained by using large mass in harvesting of vibration energy. But can a heavy harvester be displaced at all or meaningfully under small vibration sources? Large mass means large materials with high costs, less ease of transportation and high difficulty of integration into portable technologies. Herein, a theory is proposed and validated for power as inversely proportional to mass but directly proportional to the stiffness of spring, meaning that large mass is not always needed. A further concept is established that more local gravity gives higher power but on condition that mass, spring stiffness and displacement amplitude of vibration source remain unchanged. Nonlinear multi-phase power spectrum arises when displacement amplitude of a vibration source is constant, whereas linear single-phase spectrum is the result when this amplitude fluctuates in non-zero gravity. All theoretical findings concur with results of real-life applications, giving new design pathways for high performance harvesters.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3867] viXra:1911.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 07:19:42

Quantum Transition Electron Lack Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

The phenomenon occurs at extremely low temperatures very close to absolute zero. When temperatures fall this low, thermodynamic fluctuations practically disappear, and quantum fluctuations are observed, constituting the "medium" in which interactions among electrons take place. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3866] viXra:1911.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 08:48:22

Spin Dynamics in Rydberg Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Rydberg molecules are giant molecules made up of tens or hundreds of atoms bound to a Rydberg atom. [39] The three-year Rydberg Quantum Simulators (RYSQ) project was set up to capitalize on the versatility of Rydberg atoms in order to address a variety of quantum simulations. [38] Using lasers, U.S. and Austrian physicists have coaxed ultracold strontium atoms into complex structures unlike any previously seen in nature. [37] A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do-but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3865] viXra:1911.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 09:45:02

Quantum Objective Reality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Clearly these are all deeply philosophical questions about the fundamental nature of reality. Whatever the answer, an interesting future awaits. [37] Researchers at the University of Vienna study the relevance of quantum reference frames for the symmetries of the world. [36] Researchers in Singapore have built a refrigerator that's just three atoms big. This quantum fridge won't keep your drinks cold, but it's cool proof of physics operating at the smallest scales. [35] Researchers have created a new testing ground for quantum systems in which they can literally turn certain particle interactions on and off, potentially paving the way for advances in spintronics. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3864] viXra:1911.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 15:07:54

Diffusion Gravity: An Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: DH Fulton
Comments: 13 Pages. Fourth paper in series on Diffusion Gravity

Diffusion Gravity is a theory based upon established physical principles including Newtonian mechanics, quantum mechanics, and the Principle of Least Action. Radial flows of virtual particles from all masses due to mass diffusion is proposed as the fundamental cause of gravity, along with the corresponding quantum mechanisms underlying the macroscopic phenomenon. The Poisson equation for gravity and the corresponding “sink” or depletion zone is presented as the attraction mechanism for gravity; this current research installment applies the equation to large scale gravitational equipotential point-surfaces in galactic star orbits, where the acceleration according to Newton-Kepler should fall to a0<10-10 m/sec2, but observationally does not. By steradial geometry and the Gaussian transform of volume virtual particle flows to equipotential surface fluxes, the diffusion gravity model demonstrates how a gravitational “locking” and “equipotential-locking” at galactic scale affects centripetal acceleration and velocity rotation curves of galaxies, without invoking dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3863] viXra:1911.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 12:27:00

Capture Objects with Ghost Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Researchers have developed a way to capture moving objects with the unconventional imaging method known as ghost imaging. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3862] viXra:1911.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 07:55:01

Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Oscillators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

With the demonstration of a sub-picosecond thin-disk laser oscillator delivering a record-high 350-watt average output power, physicists at ETH Zurich set a new benchmark and pave the path toward even more powerful lasers. [28] But in new experiments by physicists at MIT and elsewhere, the opposite happens: When a pattern called a charge density wave in a certain material is hit with a fast laser pulse, a whole new charge density wave is created-a highly ordered state, instead of the expected disorder. [27] Scientists from Universität Hamburg have united the two research fields and succeeded in observing the emergence of ions in ultracold atoms. [26] Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3861] viXra:1911.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 12:53:29

Massive Photons in Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An international research collaboration from Poland, the UK and Russia has created a two-dimensional system-a thin optical cavity filled with liquid crystal-in which they trapped photons. [26] This novel technology could be used to produce molecular junctions in a scalable fashion-allowing millions of them to be manufactured in parallel. [25] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have successfully generated controlled electron pulses in the attosecond range. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3860] viXra:1911.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 20:31:45

Minimal Fractal Manifold as Foundation of Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Derived from the mathematics of the Renormalization Group, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) represents a spacetime continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions. The geometrical structure of the MFM can be conveniently formulated using the concept of dimensional quaternion, a vector-like entity built from component deviations along the four spacetime coordinates. Our analysis shows that dimensional quaternions form a natural basis for qubit systems and Quantum Information Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3859] viXra:1911.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 03:17:24

Our Quantized Universe is a Spherical White Hole in the Shape of a Ball

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages, 6 Figures

Astronomers have found that galaxies in our universe move with acceleration in towards the periphery of the universe, creating the appearance that the universe is expanding. In fact, we are seeing an accelerated recession of galaxies. The paradox is that according to Newton, motion with acceleration is possible only under the influence of external force, gravitation and antigravitation. There are no other explanations for this paradox. Galaxies do not have engines to create an external force. Gravity is contrary to the effect of expansion. It remains only to consider the effect of antigravitation that explains the movement of galaxies with acceleration (recession of galaxies). I have explained the antigravitation in 1996 when I discovered superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) - the global energy field in the form of a quantized space-time consisting of quantons. Antigravitation is created as a result of deformation (Einstein's curvature) of quantized space-time in the form of a gradient of the quantum density of the medium and the energy gradient of the SEI. For this, the space-time of our universe must be deformed and curved, it must not be flat. The deformation vector of the quantum density of the medium should be directed to the periphery of the universe providing accelerated movement of galaxies. Antigravitation is realized by the gravitational field of a white hole with minus-mass (negative mass). Our quantized universe is a spherical white hole in the shape of a ball. This fact was established by me and published in 1996 [1] and then published a second time in the theory of Superunification in 2010 [2].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3858] viXra:1911.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 07:24:18

Spin Atomic Transport

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

This regime is difficult to study otherwise, but is of considerable fundamental and practical interest, not least for applications in spintronic devices and to explore fundamental phases of matter. [31] Scientists find surprising way to affect information storage properties in metal alloy. [30] A new method allows the quantum state of atomic "qubits"—the basic unit of information in quantum computers—to be measured with twenty times less error than was previously possible, without losing any atoms. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3857] viXra:1911.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 03:41:48

Interference at the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

It also provides new theoretical frameworks and models for working with sophisticated electron microscopes, like the facilities present at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3856] viXra:1911.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:09:01

Energy Density of a Vacuum Observed by Background Radiation

Authors: Filip Kozarski
Comments: Four pages, no figures. Known physics, new results.

In the paper zero-point energy density of free photons is estimated for an empty space surrounded by — and observed by — a bath of thermal background photons. Interpreting the results, the outline of the cosmological arrow of time is suggested.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3855] viXra:1911.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:00:50

Quantum Internet Future

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

This proposal represents a new step towards quantum information networks, since it sets a solid theoretical framework on what is physically possible in the field of automated classification and distribution of quantum information. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3854] viXra:1911.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:29:41

Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics—yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] A ground-breaking study conducted by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has revealed a method of using quantum mechanical wave theories to "lock" heat into a fixed position. [47] Researchers at the University of Konstanz have recently carried out a study exploring the quantum states of light and vacuum fluctuations, as well as their interplay with time. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3853] viXra:1911.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:33:40

Imaging Limits by Information Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24] Citizen science is a boon for researchers, providing reams of data about everything from animal species to distant galaxies. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3852] viXra:1911.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:42:23

Speed of Light Mathematics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3851] viXra:1911.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:57:50

Frequency Combs Shape Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Today, optical frequency combs (OFCs) are routinely employed in applications as diverse as time and frequency metrology, spectroscopy, telecommunications, and fundamental physics. [28] AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3850] viXra:1911.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 08:46:50

Benefits and Harms of Relativism for Fundamental Science

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 6 Pages, 1 Figure

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Space” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 36-41. In this article, I drew attention to the controversial issue of the contradictions of relativism at that time. Then many physicists believed that the action of relativism is possible only in an absolutely empty vacuum of space. This was contrary to my concept of quantized space-time consisting of quantons. I had to unite relativity and the concept of quantized space-time. I came to the conclusion that the principle of relativity is a fundamental property of quantized space-time. I found that every object of the universe from an elementary particle to cosmological objects obeys the principle of spherical invariance and it behaves as an independent center a relatively of quantized space-time, being its part. This idea was set forth in detail by me in my monograph: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3849] viXra:1911.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 09:17:56

Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Space (Eqs)

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 41 Pages, 17 Figures

I have read these four reports at the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia. My reports were published as a separate brochure "Four reports on the theory of elastic quantized space (EQS)" in the conference proceedings. In this publication I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3848] viXra:1911.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 14:45:07

Relativism as a Special Case of Newton's Classical Mechanics

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages, 2 Figures

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 14-23. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs. In the theory of Superunification, I have unified relativism and classical mechanics as unique properties of quantized space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3847] viXra:1911.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 14:52:55

How does Measurement Affect the Real Result?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The real mass of the W boson is 80.423 GeV but we explain why experiments should give 80.388 GeV - this result is consistent with the PDG experimental value 80.379(12) GeV. We also answered the question of how measurements change the real masses of particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3846] viXra:1911.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 15:31:04

Spherical Invariance in the Development of Absolute Cosmological Model

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages, 6 Figures

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 24-35. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs. In the end, I came to the conclusion that the principle of relativity is a fundamental property of quantized space-time. I found that every object of the universe from an elementary particle to cosmological objects obeys the principle of spherical invariance and it behaves as an independent center a relatively of quantized space-time, being its part.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3845] viXra:1911.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 23:52:06

Quanglebit and Hopf Fiber Fields - Two Projects in Progress

Authors: Jennifer Lorraine Nielsen
Comments: 1 Page.

A description of two related proposed projects in mathematical quantum physics are presented, each involving the Hopf fibration, one providing steps towards defining a unit measure of quantum information, a quanglebit, and the other towards redefining the fields [EM and QFT] and Schrodinger equation on the Hopf fiber bundle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3844] viXra:1911.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 07:31:00

Role of Superstrong Interaction in Synthesis of Elementary Particles

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages, 8 Figures

This article was published by me in English in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 3-13. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3843] viXra:1911.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 07:37:42

Nanophotonic Synchrotron-Like Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Vacuum fluctuations just a few nanometres from the surface of a material can cause a passing beam of relativistic electrons to emit X-rays and other high-frequency electromagnetic radiation — according to calculations done by scientists in the US, Israel and Singapore. [31] A simple, passive photonic structure made only of glass and air bubbles could perform artificial neural computing for applications in areas like facial recognition. [30] Most artificial intelligence (AI) systems try to replicate biological mechanisms and behaviors observed in nature. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3842] viXra:1911.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 08:44:37

Floating Atoms Measure Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, has found a new way to measure gravity—by noting differences in atoms in a supposition state, suspended in the air by lasers. [20] An international group of astronomers, including physicists at the University of St Andrews, has revived a previously debunked theory of gravity, arguing that motions within dwarf galaxies would be slower if close to a massive galaxy. [19] While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3841] viXra:1911.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 09:32:49

Causality in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 96 Pages.

Two researchers at the University of Massachusetts and Universidade Federal Rural in Rio de Janeiro have recently carried out a study discussing and synthesizing some of the key aspects of causality in quantum field theory. [57] Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a method that allows them to characterize the fluctuations in detail. [56] A team of researchers from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Griffith University in Australia have constructed a prototype quantum device that can generate all possible futures in a simultaneous quantum superposition. [55]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3840] viXra:1911.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 15:06:59

The Higgs field and the Grid Dimensions

Authors: Eran Sinbar
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Higgs boson (or Higgs particle), that was confirmed on 2012 in the ATLAS detector at CERN is supposed to be a quantum excitation of the condensate field which fills our universe and is responsible for the mass of elementary particles and is named the Higgs field. In this paper I will explain why this Higgs field is part of new dimensions which I refer to as the Grid extra dimensions (or grid dimensions). This paper will explain what are the expected measurements regarding the Higgs boson (particle) based on this assumption. In this paper I will show what will be the future measured evidence that the Higgs particle measured at the particle accelerators is a quantum excitation of the Grid dimensions themselves. This exciting evidence will enable us for the first time to probe new dimensions and open our perspectives to accept the option of extra dimensions and many worlds staggered within our known universe. This understanding might enable future communication through these dimensions between the staggered worlds themselves. Modern Physics has two leading theories that contradict each other: (1) The Einstein’s deterministic, local “smooth” General Relativity theory for the large scale with the relativistic behavior and the limitation on the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. (2) Quantum theory with the quantized characteristics, non-local Schrodinger wave equations with its probabilistic behavior and the collapse of the wave function or the many worlds interpretation of Hugh Everett. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle which is dependent on the Planck constant, the photonic energy which is dependent on Planck constant, the chaotic behavior of physics below the Planck length and Planck time, the non-local behavior of entanglement, the delayed choice quantum eraser, the Bekenstein – Hawking black hole entropy calculation and the Einstein special relativity limitation on the speed of light in all the inertial frames of reference, lead me to look for a new disruptive structure of the space-time fabric. One option is to quantize space into three dimensional “space cells” in the size of Planck length l_P in each dimension and to quantize time into time pulses (Planck time).Our understanding of time is dependent on the number of Planck pulses that we count and for each Planck pulse, a physical step in the length of Planck length can occur with a probability between zero to one. A massless photon has a probability of one to pass one Planck length for each pulse of Planck time and that is the limitation of the velocity in each frame of reference and it is defined as the speed of light. An elementary particle which has mass has a probability lower than one to pass one Planck length for each pulse of Planck time. The exciting question is what divides our fabric of space-time to these space cells and time pulses, and my assumption is that there are extra non local space time dimensions stretched like a four dimensional greed between the space cells and the time pulses. Another way to imagine the space feature of the grid dimensions is by imagining a three dimensional extra non local space in which our known three dimensional space cells are floating ,vibrating, moving, turning, flipping or rotating like ice cubes(space cells) in water (grid extra dimensions) . The probability to move from one space cell to the next for each Planck pulse of time is correlated to the mass of the elementary particle, where a photon with zero mass has a probability of one. Based on that I assume that the Higgs field is part of the extra grid dimensions. This paper will show a way to test this thesis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3839] viXra:1911.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 15:13:30

Hidden Energy of a Particle (Body). Energy Balance

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

The energy of a particle (body) inside a quantized space-time has a hidden energy. When the speed of the particle is increased, the increase of the dynamic energy of the particle takes place as a result of the decrease of its hidden component, ensuring the balance of energy. As a result, the energy of a particle (body) is the energy turning into the real energy from its hidden form inside the quantized space-time. The hidden form of energy explains to us the reasons for the growth of energy when there is an increase in the speed of a particle (body). The source of energy of a particle (body) is the spherical deformation of quantized space-time which provides us with the equivalence of mass and energy. Mass has its birth from the quantized space-time. Mass is a bunch of energy of a spherically deformed quantized space-time. Mass is the energy of spherical deformation of the quantum density of the medium inside the quantized space-time. This fact was established and mathematically described by me in the theory of Superunification [1-7].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3838] viXra:1911.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 05:12:24

Hidden Mass of a Particle (Body). Mass Balance

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

The mass of a particle (body) inside a quantized space-time has a hidden mass and a hidden energy. When the speed of the particle is increased, the increase of the dynamic mass of the particle takes place as a result of the decrease of its imaginary component, ensuring the balance of mass. As a result, the mass of a particle (body) is the mass turning into the real mass from its hidden form inside the quantized space-time. The hidden form of mass explains to us the reasons for the growth of mass when there is an increase in the speed of a particle (body). The source of mass of a particle (body) is the spherical deformation of quantized space-time. Mass has its birth from the quantized space-time. This fact was established and mathematically described by me in the theory of Superunification [1-7].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3837] viXra:1911.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 22:29:11

The Balance of Gravitational Potentials

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

The gravitational state of a particle (body) is characterized by four parameters of the gravitational potentials of the medium inside the quantized space-time. We have: the gravitational potential of undeformed quantized space-time; the gravitational action potential of deformed quantized space-time outside of the particle (body); the gravitational potential of deformed quantized space-time inside a particle (body); the Newton potential of the quantized space-time. This is a fundamentally new method of gravitational analysis based on the quantum theory of gravity. The balance of the gravitational potentials of the gravitational field of a particle (body) inside the deformed quantized space-time is a constant. [1-8].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3836] viXra:1911.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 02:28:49

Ultrafast Quantum Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

KAIST researchers have reported the detection of a picosecond electron motion in a silicon transistor. [30] In quantum physics, some of the most interesting effects are the result of interferences. [29] When Nebraska's Herman Batelaan and colleagues recently submitted a research paper that makes the case for the existence of a non-Newtonian, quantum force, the journal asked that they place "force" firmly within quotes. [28] Computing the dynamics of many interacting quantum particles accurately is a daunting task. There is however a promising calculation method for such systems: tensor networks, which are being researched in the theory division at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3835] viXra:1911.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 08:16:39

Quaternionic Field Theory

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 37 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The correct specification of the concept of physical fields requires a platform in which these physical fields can be defined. This platform represents a base model that emerges from a Hilbert lattice, a vector space, and a number system. The number system must be an associative division ring. Dynamic fields require the selection of the quaternionic number system. Quaternionic fields are constructed eigenspaces of normal operators in a quaternionic Hilbert space. The base model supports symmetry-related fields and a field that always and everywhere exists. It acts as a repository for dynamic geometric data.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3834] viXra:1911.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 08:46:06

Microscope Snapshots of Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

This camera is currently the fastest electron detector in the world, capturing atomic snapshots at 87,000 frames per second: about 50 times faster than the current state of the art. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3833] viXra:1911.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 09:17:59

The Balance of the Quantum Density

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

The gravitational state of a particle (body) is characterized by four parameters of the quantum density of the medium inside the quantized space-time: p0, p1, p2, pn (1). Where 0 is quantum density of undeformed quantized space-time; p1 is quantum density of deformed quantized space-time outside of the particle (body); p2 is quantum density of deformed quantized space-time inside a particle (body); pn is imaginary quantum density of the quantized space-time. This is a fundamentally new method of gravitational analysis based on the quantum theory of gravity. The balance of the quantum density of the gravitational field of a particle (body) inside the quantized space-time is a constant: p0=p1+pn=Const [1-7].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3832] viXra:1911.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 15:30:58

The Balance of the Quantum Density of a Medium in Statics

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 1 Figures

The balance of the quantum density in dynamics is describing the state of a dynamic particle (body) in the entire range of speeds including the speed of light. The equations of dynamics are including the normalized relativistic factor. In the region of relativistic speeds, we observe a decrease in the quantum density of the medium around the particle (body) and the formation of a deeper gravitational well. Inside a particle (body) we observe an increase in the quantum density of the medium. Upon reaching the speed of light, the particle has the state of a black micro-hole. In this case, we will see that inside of the particle the quantum density doubles, and outside it there is a drop in the quantum density to zero [1-8].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3831] viXra:1911.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 02:43:32

Spooky Quantum Tunneling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 96 Pages.

This allowed the researchers to explore quantum tunneling, a phenomenon often used in undergraduate chemistry courses to demonstrate one of the "spookinesses" of quantum mechanics, Field says. [56] Measurements at the attosecond scale not only add an extra dimension for the future quantum technologies but also can fundamentally help in understanding the elephant of the quantum room: what is time? [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3830] viXra:1911.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 03:11:28

Light-Based Tractor Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

The team adapted a light-based technology employed widely in biology-known as optical traps or optical tweezers-to operate in a water-free liquid environment of carbon-rich organic solvents, thereby enabling new potential applications. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3829] viXra:1911.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 10:49:42

Theory of an Electro-Cordic Field in Quantum Systems. I. (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 17 Pages.

A theory of electro-cordic guidewaves is developed to supplement the standard acausal statistical laws of quantum mechanics and account for the growth of accurate information from apparently random quantum events. Every effort is made to reveal the physical reality of the guidewaves which organise photons or electrons into predictable states. Einstein’s equations of general relativity have also been applied to hydrogen to yield energy levels identical to those of Dirac’s theory. A companion paper covers applications of electro-cordic guidewaves to interference, entanglement and superconductivity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3828] viXra:1911.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 12:35:07

Quantum Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

In quantum physics, some of the most interesting effects are the result of interferences. [29] When Nebraska's Herman Batelaan and colleagues recently submitted a research paper that makes the case for the existence of a non-Newtonian, quantum force, the journal asked that they place "force" firmly within quotes. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3827] viXra:1911.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 17:48:26

Quantum Density of the Medium and Gravitational Potentials

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 2 Pages

The quantum theory of gravity characterizes the state of quantized space-time with a new parameter: the quantum density of the medium. The new parameter is the concentration of quantons in a unit volume of space. Quanton is a quantum of space-time is the basic particle in the quantum theory of gravity. The gravitational field inside the quantized space-time is characterized by four parameters of the quantum density of the medium: ρ0, ρ1 ρ2 ρn. The quantum density of the medium is an analogue of the gravitational potentials. Each parameter of the quantum density of the medium has its own analog of the gravitational potential: φ0, φ1 φ2 φn. Previously, the theory of gravity had only one gravitational potential: the Newtonian gravitational potential φn. Because of this, we had big problems for gravitational computing. The quantum density of the medium and additional gravitational potentials allowed us to solve many problems of the theory of gravity that were previously considered unsolvable. But we have the main thing: we created the quantum theory of gravity almost a quarter century ago [1, 2]. I am surprised when I see thousands of articles with the big names of the theory of quantum gravity, and inside these articles are empty and uninteresting. In theoretical physics, we have fierce competition between scientists. And only a few of them manage to say a newer word in physics once a century. I created the theory of Superunification, the theory of quantum gravity, quantum thermodynamics, quantum energy, a quantum engine and much more. The theory of Superunification is the basis of new energy and space technologies [1-6].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3826] viXra:1911.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 00:36:43

The Formula of the Speed of Light in a Quantized Space-Time

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

There is Einstein’s formula of 1911 which shows that the speed of light is not a constant, but it is a function of the gravitational potential [1]. This formula is not written correctly because the speed of light с enters the left and right sides of the formula. At that time, Einstein did not know that space-time is quantized space-time and it has its own gravitational potential equal to the square of the speed of light. This fact was established by me in 1996 [2, 3]. In the theory of Superunification, the formula of the speed of light is a very simple formula and it is equal to the square root of the gravitational action potential or it is equal to the square root of the quantum density of quantized space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3825] viXra:1911.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 09:43:03

Quantum Communication Randomness

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Random bit sequences are key ingredients of various tasks in modern life and especially in secure communication. In a new study researchers have determined that generating true random bit sequences, classical or quantum, is an impossible mission. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3824] viXra:1911.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 05:04:40

Printer Creates Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new printer that produces digital 3-D holograms with an unprecedented level of detail and realistic color. [14] A professor and head of the Quantum Gravity Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), he grapples with this conundrum on a daily basis. [13] A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3823] viXra:1911.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 15:14:11

Quantum Gravity Inside of the Gravitational Well

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 7 Pages, 3 Figures

Gravity is determined by the presence of a gravitational well around the gravitational mass. A gravitational well is a potential well that describes an inhomogeneous gravitational field of an energy gradient, a quantum density gradient of a medium, and a gravitational action potential gradient. The force of gravity is determined by the gradient of gravitational energy, the deformation vector of quantized space-time and the strength of the gravitational field. It should be noted that the force F of gravity is always directed to the bottom of the gravitational well in the direction of decreasing gravitational energy, quantum density of the medium and gravitational action potential [1-7].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3822] viXra:1911.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-02 09:16:26

The Energy Gradient is a Unified Formula for all Fundamental Forces

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

Scientists around the world have been looking for a unified physics formula for over a hundred years. But this formula has been known since the time of Newton. This formula is very simple - the force F is equal to the energy W gradient: F = gradW (1). This formula of the force (1) rarely used in the calculations. We use the calculations mainly according to Newton’s formula when the force F is equal to the mass m multiplied by the acceleration a: F=ma (2), where acceleration is the first derivative of velocity v with respect to time t or acceleration is the second derivative of the displacement x with respect to time t. Which formula is the main? The basic formula is: F = gradW (1). From the basic formula (1) all other formulas are derived including formula (2) and the law of universal gravitation. Formula (2) is secondary. Why the basic formula (1) is still in the shadows? The fact is that the energy gradient is based on the condition that energy fills all space-time like the ocean. This is an energy ocean. However, the Standard Model (SM) of Physics considers the zero energy level of a physical vacuum. But the zero energy gradients are zero. In a cosmic vacuum with a zero energy level should be no forces. But this contradicts the observed facts. In space there is a lot of forces and energy. It turns out that SM is a fake. In quantum the theory of Superunification I corrected all the errors of SM. In 1996, I discovered superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) - the fifth force (Superforce). SEI is the global energy field of the universe with the maximum level of energy. The SEI field has gradients of energy levels and it is heterogeneous. These energy gradients describe the action of all fundamental forces [1, 2].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3821] viXra:1911.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 00:44:07

Problems in Quantum Mechanics: Textbook. (In Russian)

Authors: Galitsky V. M., Karnakov B. M., Kogan V. I.
Comments: 648 Pages. in Russian. M.: Science, the Main edition of physical and mathematical literature, 1981.

The book contains 800 problems mainly on non-relativistic quantum mechanics, covering both the basic provisions and mathematical apparatus of the theory, as well as its numerous applications to atomic physics, nuclear and particle physics and physics of multiparticle systems. Considerable attention is paid to the computational methods of quantum mechanics: perturbation theory, quasiclassical approximation, variational method, sudden impact approximation, adiabatic method. Two chapters (out of a total of 16) include problems on elementary quantum radiation theory and relativistic wave equations. These problems are a useful introduction to the study of quantum field theory and particle physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3820] viXra:1911.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 02:22:29

The Normalized Relativistic Factor: the Leonov's Factor

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages

Relativistic factor relate to the theory of relativity. The fact of the unification of the theory of relativity and quantum theory takes place in the theory of quantum gravitation as a part of the theory of Superunification [1, 2]. Therefore, it became possible for us to relate the region of relativism to quantum physics. The main problem of relativism is the problem of infinite values of mass and energy during the acceleration of an elementary particle to the speed of light. We solved this problem by introducing a normalized relativistic factor - the Leonov's factor which was introduced into theoretical physics after the discovery of the quanton in 1996. The normalized relativistic factor limits the upper limit of the mass and energy of relativistic particles and excludes infinity. So, a proton when reaching the speed of light should have a limited mass equal to the mass of an iron asteroid with a diameter of 1 km. When the speed of light is reached, the relativistic particle passes into the state of the relativistic black micro-hole, limiting its parameters.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3819] viXra:1911.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 03:25:13

Evading Heisenberg Quantum Uncertainty

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 95 Pages.

EPFL researchers, with colleagues at the University of Cambridge and IBM Research-Zurich, unravel novel dynamics in the interaction between light and mechanical motion with significant implications for quantum measurements designed to evade the influence of the detector in the notorious 'back action limit' problem. [56] We don't have to get into what they claimed was the mechanism for destroying interference, because our experiment has shown there is an effect on the velocity of the particle, of just the size Heisenberg predicted. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3818] viXra:1911.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 07:31:17

Gravitational Diagram of a Non-Ideal Black Hole

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

In [1], we examined the parameters and properties of an ideal black hole. The ideal black holes characterized discontinuities of the quantized space-time on the surface of the black hole. Its formation is completed. Such a black hole is completely invisible. Non-ideal black holes do not have discontinuities of quantized space-time on the surface of a black hole. Its formation is not completed. Such a black hole has a visible glow due to the reflection of photons from its surface. We describe the state of a black hole by a system of equations in the form of a two-component solution of the Poisson equation for the quantum density of the medium and gravitational potentials. An analysis of the spherical deformation of quantized space-time allows us to look inside a black hole and describe its external gravitational field.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3817] viXra:1911.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 08:09:32

Hall Response in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A few months ago, a team of researchers led by Louis Taillefer at the University of Sherbrooke measured the thermal Hall conductivity in several compounds of copper, oxygen and other elements that are also high-temperature superconductors known as 'cuprates.' [26] Now, a new study in the journal Nature by scientists from Spain, the U.S., China and Japan shows that superconductivity can be turned on or off with a small voltage change, increasing its usefulness for electronic devices. [25] Superconducting nanowires could be used as both targets and sensors for the direct detection of dark matter, physicists in Israel and the US have shown. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3816] viXra:1911.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 08:24:40

Josephson Vortices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Josephson Vortices MIPT physicists have learned how to locally control Josephson vortices. The discovery can be used for quantum electronics superconducting devices and future quantum processors. [27] A few months ago, a team of researchers led by Louis Taillefer at the University of Sherbrooke measured the thermal Hall conductivity in several compounds of copper, oxygen and other elements that are also high-temperature superconductors known as 'cuprates.' [26] Now, a new study in the journal Nature by scientists from Spain, the U.S., China and Japan shows that superconductivity can be turned on or off with a small voltage change, increasing its usefulness for electronic devices. [25] Superconducting nanowires could be used as both targets and sensors for the direct detection of dark matter, physicists in Israel and the US have shown. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3815] viXra:1910.0652 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 00:06:21

An Entropy Perspective of the Pilot-Wave Theory in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Krishna RP
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article, a modified picture of de Broglie-Bohm (dBB) picture is presented from the perspective of information exchange. The vacuum zero-point energy (ZPE) fluctuations are incorporated into the entropy because the interactions between the particle and ZPE should be treated similar to measurements in that they result in a pilot- wave. The inclusion of a term in the entropy resulting from mutual exchange of information between the particle and the vacuum (through ZPE) necessarily leads to the dBB picture.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3814] viXra:1910.0651 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 01:28:44

Gravitational Diagram of an Ideal Black Hole

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

Black holes can only be inside quantized space-time. Without quantized space-time, black holes cannot exist. In this regard, all known work on black holes requires adjustment. We describe the state of a black hole by a system of equations in the form of a two-component solution of the Poisson equation for the quantum density of the medium and gravitational potentials. An analysis of the spherical deformation of quantized space-time allows us to look inside a black hole and describe its external gravitational field. We consider two types of black holes: black holes ideal and non-ideal black holes. The ideal black holes characterized discontinuities of the quantized space-time on the surface of the black hole. Its formation is completed. Such a black hole is completely invisible. Non-ideal black holes do not have discontinuities of quantized space-time on the surface of a black hole. Its formation is not completed. Such a black hole has a visible glow due to the reflection of photons from its surface. The quantum density of the medium inside the black hole is doubled due to its gravitational compression. Cosmic bodies falling into a black hole break up into quarks already on its surface. Only quarks can penetrate inside a black hole through its surface. Quarks can restore matter inside a black hole. The giant black hole inside may look like a new universe. The gravitational forces inside the black hole are determined by the gradient of the quantum density of the medium, which is characterized by the deformation vector of quantized space-time. It is possible that within a giant black hole can form star systems and planets with weak gravity like Earth where life is possible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3813] viXra:1910.0646 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 07:58:39

Switchable Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Now, a new study in the journal Nature by scientists from Spain, the U.S., China and Japan shows that superconductivity can be turned on or off with a small voltage change, increasing its usefulness for electronic devices. [25] Superconducting nanowires could be used as both targets and sensors for the direct detection of dark matter, physicists in Israel and the US have shown. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3812] viXra:1910.0643 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 10:46:11

Quantum Chip 1000 Times Smaller

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Researchers at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a quantum communication chip that is 1,000 times smaller than current quantum setups, but offers the same superior security quantum technology is known for. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3811] viXra:1910.0631 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 02:11:21

Light Promises Secure Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Structured light is a fancy way to describe patterns or pictures of light, but deservedly so as it promises future communications that will be both faster and more secure. [17] The experiment has managed to prepare a remote quantum state; i.e., absolutely secure communication was established with another, physically separated quantum computer for the first time in the microwave regime. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3810] viXra:1910.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 08:26:56

Microcavity Boosts Nonlinear Optics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Silica optical microcavities are mainstay photonic devices, valued for their intrinsically ultra-low loss in the broadband spectra and mature fabrication processes, but unfortunately, they suffer from low second-and third-order optical nonlinearity. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3809] viXra:1910.0625 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 09:05:52

Superconductor Remembers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

This discovery opens a new avenue of research into how these intriguing materials work, bringing scientists one step closer to a complete picture of electronic behavior in cuprates. [34] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity-considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3808] viXra:1910.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 09:25:01

Next-Generation Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Metasurfaces are optically thin metamaterials that can control the wavefront of light completely, although they are primarily used to control the phase of light. [37] Researchers from the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) have invented a new type of anti-counterfeiting technology called holographic colour prints for securing important documents such as identity cards, passports and banknotes. [36] Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/photon/" photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/information+processing/" information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3807] viXra:1910.0621 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 10:35:51

Gravitational Diagram of a Nucleon for Gravitational Potentials

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 7 Pages, 2 Figures

In [1], we examined the properties of the gravitational diagram for the quantum density of a medium. The gravity diagram clearly shows us the process of deformation of quantized space-time under the influence of gravitation. Up to this point, the theory of gravity has been limited to Einstein's curvature and its geometry of four-dimensional space-time. We retained Einstein's concept of gravity of curved space-time, and instead of its curvature, we introduced a deformation vector D into the theory of quantum gravity [2-5]. The theory of quantum gravity does not use probabilistic methods like wave mechanics. Einstein was right when he claimed that "God does not play dice." The quantum theory of gravity uses a new parameter - the quantum density of the medium and determinism [6]. This is the concentration of quantons per unit volume. The deformation of the quantum density of the medium is the basis of quantum gravity. Such models of deformation of the quantum density of the medium are very convenient for us for the analysis of gravity and the gravitational field. These models are visual and can avoid methodological errors in the calculations of the gravitational field and its energy. However, we are not used to new gravity models using the quantum density of the medium and the deformation vector D. But the quantum density of the medium is an analogue of the gravitational potentials familiar to us. We propose to do an analysis of the gravitational diagram for gravitational potentials.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3806] viXra:1910.0610 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 03:42:52

Gravitational Diagram of a Nucleon for Quantum Density of a Medium

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 6 Pages, 2 Figures

The gravity diagram shows a graphical distribution of the quantum density of the medium or gravitational potentials around the nucleon and inside it. The gravitational field of a proton is a gravitational well around a proton. This is a potential well. The presence of a gravitational well at a proton and atomic nucleus was not previously taken into account in the physics of elementary particles and the atomic nucleus. However, the gravitational pit around the atomic nucleus is fundamental in describing the properties of an orbital electron. On the surface of a proton at its gravitational boundary, we observe a jump in the quantum density of the medium. The quantum density of the medium is an analogue of the gravitational potential. However, the processes of deformation of quantized space-time are much more convenient and easier to study by analyzing the change in the quantum density of the medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3805] viXra:1910.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 03:46:19

Valleytronics Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 100 Pages.

An international research team led by physicists at the University of California, Riverside, has revealed a new quantum process in valleytronics that can speed up the development of this fairly new technology. [59] Scientists from the University of Bristol and the Technical University of Denmark have found a promising new way to build the next generation of quantum simulators combining light and silicon micro-chips. [58] Researchers at the University of Southampton and the Korea Institute for Advanced Study have recently showed that supersymmetry is anomalous in N=1 superconformal quantum field theories (SCFTs) with an anomalous R symmetry. [57] Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a method that allows them to characterize the fluctuations in detail. [56] A team of researchers from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Griffith University in Australia have constructed a prototype quantum device that can generate all possible futures in a simultaneous quantum superposition. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3804] viXra:1910.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 04:13:53

Topological Nanoelectronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The topological QPC, first implemented at JMU Würzburg, offers an exciting perspective in this respect. [27] A certain kind of material, called a topological insulator, acts partially like one and partially like the other-it behaves like a conductor at its surface and an insulator in its interior. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3803] viXra:1910.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 04:39:26

Quantum Supremacy Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

For the first time ever, a quantum computer has performed a computational task that would be essentially impossible for a conventional computer to complete, according to a team from Google. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3802] viXra:1910.0604 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 05:48:03

Energy Transmit with Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

On one end of the of the testing facility-one of the largest test facilities for model ships in the world-the receiver was converting the laser energy to DC power, which an inverter was turning into AC power to run lights, several laptops, and a coffeemaker that the organizers were using to make coffee for the attendees, or "laser lattes." [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3801] viXra:1910.0601 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 07:34:13

Light with Intrinsic Chirality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Light is the fastest way to distinguish right-and left-handed chiral molecules, which has important applications in chemistry and biology. [36] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have fabricated a multiplexer/demultiplexer module based on a property of light that was not being exploited in communications systems: the optical vortex. [35] Optical chips are still some way behind electronic chips, but we're already seeing the results and this research could lead to a complete revolution in computer power. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3800] viXra:1910.0599 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 08:41:08

Electromagnetic Duality of Maxwell Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers at the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI) and Tohoku University in Japan have recently identified an anomaly in the electromagnetic duality of Maxwell Theory. [37] Light is the fastest way to distinguish right-and left-handed chiral molecules, which has important applications in chemistry and biology. [36] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have fabricated a multiplexer/demultiplexer module based on a property of light that was not being exploited in communications systems: the optical vortex. [35] Optical chips are still some way behind electronic chips, but we're already seeing the results and this research could lead to a complete revolution in computer power. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3799] viXra:1910.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 02:58:48

Deformation Vector D of Quantum Density is the Basis of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 5 Pages

The fact of unification the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum theory takes place in the theory of Superunification. The Standard Model (SM) is an imperfect model of physics that is incapable of unification with gravity. Physicists have been searching for a new particle such as graviton, strings, Higgs boson and others particles to create the Superunification for many decades. But they could not do this. It was a difficult task and I solved it. I made the theory of Superunification [1]. Quanton is a new four-dimensional particle of time and space which forms the basis of the theory of Superunification. The quantum density of a medium is the concentration of quantons in a unit volume of quantized space-time. The deformation (Einstein's curvature) of quantized space-time is the basis of gravity. The deformation vector D of the quantum density of the medium determines the magnitude and direction of gravitational forces. Gravity occurs when there is a gradient of the quantum density of the medium inside the quantized space-time. The gradient of the quantum density of the medium characterizes the strength of the gravitational field and is described by the deformation vector D. This concerns the creation of artificial gravity (antigravity) forces in the development of non-reactive quantum engines for space. My company has created several types of Leonov's quantum engines that have been successfully tested. The test results of quantum engines were formalized in a protocol and published in scientific journals [1, 2, 3]. A quantum engine is 100 times more efficient than a liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE). We see the triumph of the theory of Superunification.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3798] viXra:1910.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 08:17:00

Optical Regimes using Spin Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A University of Wyoming researcher and his team have shown that the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) can be used to detect light across a broad optical range-ultraviolet through visible to near-infrared. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors-materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures-can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3797] viXra:1910.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 23:35:16

Derivation of Born's Rule as a Limiting Case of the Relative Frequency of Detection Using Single-Quamtum Events

Authors: N Gurappa
Comments: 18 pages, 1 figure, this paper is a completely rewritten version of the first part of the paper viXra:1908.0538

A new 'wave-particle non-dualistic interpretation of quantum mechanics at a single-quantum level' is presented by interpreting the Schrödinger wave function as an 'instantaneous resonant spatial mode' (IRSM) to which a quantum is confined and moves akin to the case of a test particle in the curved space-time of the general theory of relativity. This union of the wave and particle natures into a single entity is termed as non-duality. Using quantum formalism, the IRSM is shown to induce dual-vectors at the boundaries and interacts according to the inner-product. The overall phase associated with the state vector, which never contributes to the inner-product, is related to a particular eigenstate of an observable where the particle resides. This eigenstate becomes the natural outcome during observation of a single-quantum's single event. Observation over a large number of identical quanta, differing only by overall phases, results in the relative frequency of detection which yields Born's rule as a limiting case proving the absence of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The non-duality not only provides the actual mechanism for the 'wave function collapse' but also statistically becomes equivalent to the Copenhagen interpretation. An explicit derivation for the Born rule using individual quantum events is provided by considering an example of spin-1/2 particles in the Stern-Gerlach experiment. In this regard, a generalized representation for the SU (2) algebra, facilitating the description of single-quantum events, is constructed without any deviations from the quantum formalism.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3796] viXra:1910.0561 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 04:02:19

A Inconsistency in Modern Physics and a Simple Solution

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper, we will point out an important inconsistency in modern physics. When relativistic momentum and relativistic energy are combined with key concepts around Planck momentum and Planck energy, we find an inconsistency that has not been shown before. The inconsistency seems to be rooted in the fact that momentum as defined today is linked to the de Broglie wavelength. By rewriting the momentum equation in the form of the Compton wavelength instead, we get a consistent theory. This has a series of implications for physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3795] viXra:1910.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 07:49:52

The Universe Should Not Actually Exist, CERN Scientists Discover

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 24 Pages

CERN scientists cannot explain the absence of antimatter in the universe (Nature) [1]. An analysis of the methods of their experiments is not theoretically substantiated. They do not know the structure of the proton and antiproton. They measure the magnetism of proton and antiproton with the highest accuracy. But they did not find a difference in the magnetic properties of these particles. But they make strange statements to the media: “The Universe Should Not Actually Exist” [2]. But the universe existed and will exist regardless of the results of the CERN experiments. This only confirms the fact that these experiments are not theoretically substantiated. Scientists at CERN are required to study the theory of Superunification [3, 4] in order to correctly conduct their experiments. They need to know that in nature there is no antimatter but there is a quantized space-time that is characterized by electromagnetic symmetry [5] and electrical asymmetry [6]. All the diversity of animate and inanimate nature in the universe is determined by only four quarks: two electrical ±e and two magnetic ±g [3, 4].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3794] viXra:1910.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 11:35:11

Shortest Refutation of the Gaus, Rodrigues, and Hamilton Quaternion

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the definitions of the Gaus, Rodrigues, and Hamilton quaternion as not tautologous for the shortest refutation of the quaternion, to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3793] viXra:1910.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 13:04:20

Two-Component Solution of the Poisson Gravitational Equation

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages, 1 Figures

The theory of Superunification is a quantum theory of gravity or a theory of quantum gravity [1]. The theory of Superunification combines the general relativity (GR) and quantum theory. The theory of Superunification is a new quantum theory. Its basis is a new four-dimensional particle quanton - a quantum of space-time. The development of quantum theory is unthinkable without a quanton. The old quantum theory was limited by probabilistic parameters. Einstein was right when he claimed that "God does not play dice". The theory of Superunification as a new quantum theory is the theory of determinism which makes the description of complex quantum phenomena simple and understandable by classical methods. This is a new methodology in quantum theory. Two-Component Solution of the Poisson Gravitational Equation for the Quantum Density of a Medium there is an example of this new methodology. Einstein showed us that the basis of gravity is the curvature of four-dimensional space-time. But if we have a space curvature then this curvature should be compensated by its compression. Otherwise, we will have an unstable system capable of gravitational collapse. But four-dimensional space-time as a quantized medium is a stable system. And this stability of space-time gives us a two-component solution of the Poisson gravitational equation for the quantum density of the medium. So at the birth of the mass of an elementary particle inside quantized space-time, its spherical deformation occurs. We observe a compression of the quantum density of the medium inside the particle due to its extension from the outside. Thus was born the mass of an elementary particle. The two-component solution of the Poisson equation for the first time describes the process the birth of the mass of an elementary particle inside quantized space-time at the quantum level [1].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3792] viXra:1910.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 03:04:18

Hidden Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Imaging techniques that employ quantum light are increasing in importance nowadays, since their capabilities in terms of resolution and sensitivity can surpass classical limitations and, in addition, they do not damage the sample. [28] At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3791] viXra:1910.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 03:05:43

Electromagnetic Symmetry of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

Our universe has an electromagnetic symmetry and electrical asymmetry. These physical phenomena are described in detail in the theory of Superunification [1, 3]. I want to draw your attention once again to the fact that quantized space-time has an electromagnetic structure and it has electromagnetic symmetry. This symmetry manifests itself as the complete equivalence of the electric and magnetic forces acting between the quarks inside the quanton. Quanton consists of four quarks: two electrical and two magnetic. Quanton is a particle of the field that serves as a carrier of electromagnetism inside quantized space-time. Electromagnetic symmetry is observed experimentally in the electromagnetic wave in vacuum at equivalence its electrical and magnetic components.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3790] viXra:1910.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 04:30:42

Google's Quantum Supremacy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Google’s Sycamore quantum processor hit the headlines in September when a leaked draft paper suggested that the device is the first to have achieved quantum supremacy by solving a problem more than a billion times faster than a conventional (classical) supercomputer. [24] According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence—the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3789] viXra:1910.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 04:51:48

Hard Sell of Quantum Software

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Quantum computers certainly have potential. In theory, they can solve problems that classical computers cannot handle at all, at least in any realistic time frame. [25] Google’s Sycamore quantum processor hit the headlines in September when a leaked draft paper suggested that the device is the first to have achieved quantum supremacy by solving a problem more than a billion times faster than a conventional (classical) supercomputer. [24] According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence—the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3788] viXra:1910.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 05:53:00

Quantum Optics Experiment on the Test of Empty Wave Hypothesis

Authors: V.A. Skrebnev, M.V. Polski
Comments: 7 Pages.

The experiment measured the absorption of single photons by absorbers with various absorption coefficients, in one of the beams, after the photons interacted with the beam splitter. The measurements showed that the absorption corresponds to single photon traveling in either one or another beam. The measurements support the original empty wave hypothesis which has been advanced in a number of works.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3787] viXra:1910.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 08:20:20

Quantum Battery Doesn't Lose Charge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Scientists from the universities of Alberta and Toronto developed a blueprint for a new quantum battery that doesn't leak charge. [36] Researchers of the Institute of Photonic Integration of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) have developed a 'hybrid technology' which shows the advantages of both light and magnetic hard drives. [35] Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3786] viXra:1910.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 09:49:56

Single-Atom Qubits under Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Our team at IBM Research made a breakthrough in controlling the quantum behavior of individual atoms, demonstrating a versatile new building block for quantum computation. [23] The team showed that the single-atom magnets can endure relatively high temperatures and strong external magnetic fields. The work could lead to the development of extremely high-density data storage devices. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3785] viXra:1910.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 10:20:36

Rapid Laser Solve Phase Retrieval

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Physicists can explore tailored physical systems to rapidly solve challenging computational tasks by developing spin simulators, combinatorial optimization and focusing light through scattering media. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3784] viXra:1910.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 10:33:48

Two-Color Laser Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

When photons of light interact with particles of matter, a diverse variety of physical processes can unfold in ultrafast timescales. [40] Physicists can explore tailored physical systems to rapidly solve challenging computational tasks by developing spin simulators, combinatorial optimization and focusing light through scattering media. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3783] viXra:1910.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 15:25:25

Hidden Global Energy of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages, 2 Figures

Is the total energy measurable in the universe? I found this question on the Internet www.quora.com. No one answered this question. The zero-energy universe hypothesis proposes that the total amount of energy in the universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity [1, 2]. But is it really so? I have the opposite opinion. New physics in the form of the quantum theory of Superunification gives us new knowledge about the universe and its energy [3]. The theory of Superunification is physics on the contrary. The Standard Model (SM) of physics has a zero energy level of cosmic vacuum. The theory of Superunification, on the contrary, establishes the maximum energy level of the cosmic vacuum. This maximum energy level is due to the quantized space-time structure which consists of quantons. Quanton has a small diameter (Leonov's length) and it consists of four quarks: two electrical ±e and two magnetic ±g [4]. Such a system of quarks makes it possible to calculate the energy accumulated in it. We multiply the energy of one quanton by the quantum density of the medium [5] and obtain the energy accumulated in one cubic meter of space vacuum which is equivalent energy to the mass of the substance of the whole universe. These energy values are incomparable. So, the calculations showed that 100% of the energy is accumulated inside the quantized space-time. This is the hidden global energy of the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3782] viXra:1910.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 17:53:29

Tensioning of the Electromagnetic Superstring

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

We have a sign-alternating superstring composed of quantons inside quantized space-time. Quanton includes four quarks: two electrical ±e and two magnetic ±g. Quarks have attractive forces according to Coulomb's law. The diameter of the quanton is Leon's length. The quantons have a tight packing inside the superstring. We can calculate the attractive forces between the quantons inside the superstring. A thin superstring composed of quantons can alone hold the Earth in orbit around the Sun. The quantized space-time has tremendous elasticity and tensioning.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3781] viXra:1910.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 15:44:46

Electrical Asymmetry of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 5 Figures

Our universe is characterized by electromagnetic symmetry and electrical asymmetries. These new problems of symmetry and asymmetry of quantized space-time were raised for the first time in the theory of Superunification [1, 2]. We needed to understand how substance and its mass are born from quantized space-time. This applies to both elementary particles and cosmological objects (planets, stars, galaxies, black holes), as well as the state of the universe itself. We need to describe the parameters of elementary particles and cosmological objects in the language of mathematics from the standpoint of quantum theory. This is possible only after unification the general theory of relativity (GR) and the quantum theory that was made in the theory of Superunification. In this case, all events unfold in a single field in the form of quantized space-time and players in the role of which are the electrical charges-quarks. The field of quantized space-time is characterized by electromagnetic symmetry, and the players in this field are due to the appearance of the electrical asymmetry of the Universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3780] viXra:1910.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 22:09:17

Consciousness and the Problem of Quantum Measurement

Authors: Chris Allen Broka
Comments: Pages.

A variant of the von Neumann-Wigner Interpretation is proposed. It does not make use of the familiar language of wave functions and observers. Instead it pictures the state of the physical world as a vector in a Fock space and, therefore not, literally, a function of any spacetime coordinates. And, rather than segregating consciousness into individual points of view (each carrying with it a sense of its proper time), this model proposes only unitary states of consciousness, Q(t), where t represents a fiducial time with respect to which both the state of the physical world and the state of consciousness evolve. States in our world's Fock space are classified as either 'admissible' (meaning they correspond to definite states of consciousness) or 'inadmissible' (meaning they do not). The evolution of the state vector of the world is such as to always keep it restricted to 'admissible' states. Consciousness is treated very much like what Chalmers calls an "M-Property." But we try to show that problems with the quantum Zeno effect do not arise from this model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3779] viXra:1910.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 02:33:33

Basis of the Theory of Superunification

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

The basis of the theory of Superunification is electric e and magnetic g integer (whole) charges-quarks. Entire quarks have no mass. Entire electric quark has an electric charge e equal to the elemental charge of an electron. The elementary magnetic charge g is related to the elementary electric charge e by the ratio g=Ce and is measured in Leons, where C is the speed of light [2]. The value of the elementary electric charge e is verified with tremendous precision. Entire quarks are the most stable constants in the universe and are independent of pressure, temperature, speed, the quantum density of the medium, gravitation, and the entire range of natural factors. Entire quarks are part of a quanton and quantized space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3778] viXra:1910.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 04:41:56

Molecular Spintronics for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

With the advantage of small size and long-lived spins, it is only a matter of time before they cement their spot in the roadmap for quantum technologies. [36] The characteristics of a new, iron-containing type of material that is thought to have future applications in nanotechnology and spintronics have been determined at Purdue University. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3777] viXra:1910.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 06:52:25

Flexible, Transparent Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The interest in plastic electronics and photonics has experienced a significant increase in the last decades due to the exceptional optical, semiconducting and mechanical properties of these materials. [24] Although previous research shows that metal nanoparticles have properties useful for various biomedical applications, many mysteries remain regarding how these tiny materials form, including the processes that generate size variations. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3776] viXra:1910.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 07:16:46

Infrared Detectors for Night Vision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

Much like some snakes use infrared to "see" at night, University of Central Florida researchers are working to create similar viper vision to improve the sensitivity of night-vision cameras. [49] Plasmonic materials can uniquely control the electromagnetic spectrum due to nano-scale surface architecture. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3775] viXra:1910.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 11:31:43

Electromagnetic Quantization of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages, 4 Figures

We live in an electromagnetic universe. Electromagnetism it is the foundation of our universe. Galaxies, stars, planets and nature have arisen from this electromagnetism as primordial matter. This is the global electromagnetic field of the universe that I discovered in 1996 [1, 2]. Quanton is a new particle of the quantum of space-time and it is the carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). Quanton includes four quarks: two electrical ± e and two magnetic ± g and it unite electricity and magnetism in the global field SEI [1, 4]. The diameter of the quanton is very small; it is 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the diameter of the proton. It is an ultra microworld. This is an ultra microcosm at the level of fundamental Leonov's length [5, 6]. Therefore, we cannot observe the SEI field at the level of real dimensions. We can observe only a violation of the electromagnetic equilibrium of the SEI field as a manifestation of the laws of electromagnetic induction and Maxwell's equations. Gravity is a deformation of the SEI field (Einstein's curvature). Quantization of the universe is the physical process of filling quantons of its volume. But we don’t know who did it [1].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3774] viXra:1910.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 15:49:01

Fundamental Length - Leonov's Length

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 6 Figures

Physicists have searched for the fundamental length of nearly a hundred years. Physicists did not have a clear physical definition of the fundamental length. In my opinion, the fundamental length determines the linear boundary between the continuous spatial continuum and its transition to a discrete state. Namely, the diameter of a quanton characterizes the discreteness of quantized space-time. The diameter of a quanton is a fundamental length - Leon's length.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3773] viXra:1910.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 02:00:03

Quantum Density of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 1 Pages

Quantum density of the universe is one of the basic parameters that describe its condition. Our universe is heterogeneous and curved (it is not flat). Quantum density is the concentration of quantons in a unit volume of quantized space-time. This parameter was first introduced by me in the theory of Superunification [1]. Quantum theory now allows us to mathematically describe a quantized universe as a function of the distribution of the quantum density of a medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3772] viXra:1910.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 07:22:20

Quantum Leap in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Scientists claimed Wednesday to have achieved a near-mythical state of computing in which a new generation of machine vastly outperforms the world's fastest super-computer, known as "quantum supremacy". [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3771] viXra:1910.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 07:52:18

Quantum Material Explained

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

The characteristics of a new, iron-containing type of material that is thought to have future applications in nanotechnology and spintronics have been determined at Purdue University. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3770] viXra:1910.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 08:15:36

Bendable Light Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Bendable light beams have significant applications in optical manipulation, optical imaging, routing, micromachining and nonlinear optics. [26] Karimi's team has successfully built and operated the first-ever quantum simulator designed specifically for simulating cyclic (ringed-shaped) systems. [25] A new Tel Aviv University study explores the generation and propagation of excitons in 2D materials within an unprecedented small time frame and at an extraordinarily high spatial resolution. [24] An international team of researchers led out of Macquarie University has demonstrated a new approach for converting ordinary laser light into genuine quantum light. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3769] viXra:1910.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 08:29:03

Magnetic Image Spins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Cornell researchers have put a new spin on measuring and controlling spins in nickel oxide, with an eye toward improving electronic devices' speed and memory capacity. [27] Bendable light beams have significant applications in optical manipulation, optical imaging, routing, micromachining and nonlinear optics. [26] Karimi's team has successfully built and operated the first-ever quantum simulator designed specifically for simulating cyclic (ringed-shaped) systems. [25] A new Tel Aviv University study explores the generation and propagation of excitons in 2D materials within an unprecedented small time frame and at an extraordinarily high spatial resolution. [24] An international team of researchers led out of Macquarie University has demonstrated a new approach for converting ordinary laser light into genuine quantum light. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3768] viXra:1910.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 08:47:21

Excitons of Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Excitons are quasiparticles made from the excited state of electrons and-according to research being carried out EPFL-have the potential to boost the energy efficiency of our everyday devices. [30] After developing a method to control exciton flows at room temperature, EPFL scientists have discovered new properties of these quasiparticles that can lead to more energy-efficient electronic devices. [29] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3767] viXra:1910.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 15:20:26

Unit of Measurement of Magnetic Charge is Leon

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages, 3 Figures

The problem of magnetic charge is the main scientific problem in creating the theory of Superunification. I knew the Dirac formula of magnetic charge for a magnetic monopole. Dirac considered the magnetic monopole as a free magnetic charge similar to a free electric charge. We observe experimentally the electrical charges. But the magnetic monopole was not discovered experimentally. This meant that the magnetic monopole does not exist in nature. But we observed magnetic fields. I perfectly understood that there should be a material carrier of a magnetic field in the form of a magnetic charge. The existing explanation that the cause of magnetism is electric current did not suit me. I found the correct answer to the question "Where is hidden magnetic charge?" in 1996. There is no magnetic monopole but inside the quanton there are integers magnetic quarks connected in pairs into magnetic dipoles. Magnetic quarks were first introduced into physics by me. Quanton consists of two magnetic and two electric quarks forming an electromagnetic quadrupole. Analyzing the electromagnetic properties of the quanton, I derived in 1996 the formula g = Ce correctly connecting magnetic g and electric e charges in the SI system through the speed of light C. The unit of measurement for magnetic charge is Leon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3766] viXra:1910.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 01:40:33

Quantum World, Absolute Time , Schrodinger Equation and Pilot Waves.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 10 Pages. The meaning of Pilot wave in quantum world.

Modern physics is plagued by Copenhagen interpretation and relativistic space-time with a confusion on meaning of time . My pilot wave theory may give a direction to our misunderstanding from Copenhagen interpretation and a meaning of absolute time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3765] viXra:1910.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 02:21:51

Quantum Knots Untie

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3764] viXra:1910.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 02:53:23

Strong Interaction of Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. [18] Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3763] viXra:1910.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 04:05:49

Distribution of Accurate Time Signals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

JILA physicists and collaborators have demonstrated the first next-generation "time scale"-a system that incorporates data from multiple atomic clocks to produce a single highly accurate timekeeping signal for distribution. [19] Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. [18] Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3762] viXra:1910.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 05:10:11

Quantum Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

UC Santa Barbara engineer Galan Moody, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, has proposed a solution to overcome the poor efficiency and performance of existing quantum computing prototypes that use light to encode and process information. [20] JILA physicists and collaborators have demonstrated the first next-generation "time scale"-a system that incorporates data from multiple atomic clocks to produce a single highly accurate timekeeping signal for distribution. [19] Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. [18] Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3761] viXra:1910.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 06:25:15

Atomic-Scale Magnetic Signal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Probing the properties of a Mott insulator, a team of researchers from Boston College, MIT, and U.C. Santa Barbara has revealed an elusive atomic-scale magnetic signal in the unique material as it transitions from insulator to a metal, the team reported recently in the journal Nature Physics. [21] UC Santa Barbara engineer Galan Moody, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, has proposed a solution to overcome the poor efficiency and performance of existing quantum computing prototypes that use light to encode and process information. [20] JILA physicists and collaborators have demonstrated the first next-generation "time scale"-a system that incorporates data from multiple atomic clocks to produce a single highly accurate timekeeping signal for distribution. [19] Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. [18] Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3760] viXra:1910.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 06:39:31

A Computer Violation of the Chsh

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 11 Pages.

If a clear no-go for Einsteinian hidden parameters is real, it must be in no way possible to violate the CHSH with local hidden variable computer simulation. In the paper we show that with the use of a modified Glauber-Sudarshan method it is possible to violate the CHSH. The criterion value comes close to the quantum value and is $> 2$. The proof is presented with the use of an R computer program. The important snippets of the code are discussed and the complete code is presented in an appendix.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3759] viXra:1910.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 09:11:28

The Calculated Diameter of the Space-Time Quantum (Quanton)

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages, 4 Figures

The diameter of the quantum of space-time (quanton) cannot be found experimentally, given that the diameter of the quanton 10^—25 m is ten orders of magnitude smaller than the classical radius 10^—15 m of the electron. The region of such small sizes 10^—25 m belongs to the region of the ultra microworld. We do not have devices that could look inside the quantized space-time. We can penetrate into the region of the ultra microworld of quantons only by the power of our mind using mathematical calculations. To perform this work requires an ingenious theoretical physicst. Prior to this, no one has managed to penetrate the power of the mind into the interior of quantized space-time in the region of the ultra microworld of quantons 10^—25 m. The diameter of a quanton 10^–25 m is a new fundamental length — Leonov's length. It establishes the discreteness of quantized space-time, and it is 10 orders of magnitude greater than the Planck length of 10^–35 m.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3758] viXra:1910.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 13:10:19

Preface of the Vladimir Leonov to Volume 1 Quantum Energetics. Theory of Superunification

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages

I wrote the preface to Volume 1 in 2009 when I was preparing a translation into English of my main book Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages. This book in Russian was written by me in 1996...2000. Finally, the very fact of creating the theory of Superunification as the main physical theory of all times and nations was accomplished. However, the scientific community does not know practically anything about the theory of Superunification, because it does not read thick books, and I did not write small articles. I was always very busy and did not have time to write small articles in magazines. In addition, the editorial policy of magazines left much to be desired. If you have written a new theory that its publication in the magazine will have a problem. Given the existing editorial policy of magazines, even Einstein could not publish his articles. The theory of Superunification is a new quantum theory in which so far no one understands anything. But I am not only a theoretical physicist, but I am also an experimenter, inventor and entrepreneur in the field of new energy and new space technologies. My quantum engine (Leonov’s drive) without fuel is 100 times more efficient than a liquid rocket engine (LRE). The e-print viXra is a very convenient archive for quickly and freely posting new scientific discoveries and inventions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3757] viXra:1910.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 15:54:45

Ginzburg’s List and Leonov’s List

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 5 Pages

The possibilities of the theory of Superunification are unlimited. This is the most powerful analytical apparatus for studying matter. I am the author of the fundamental theory of Superunification and for me there is no unquestioned authority on science. As a theoretical physicist, I do not see any real competition in the world for me. For a quarter of a century now I have been working on complex scientific problems almost alone with my assistants. None of the physicists could even come close to understanding the theory of Superunification. I get a lot of scientific information, but do not find it interesting for myself. I do not see breakthrough discoveries in a fundamental way. Fundamental science stopped at the level of Newton and Einstein and without the theory of Superunification the further development of fundamental science and breakthrough technologies is unthinkable.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3756] viXra:1910.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 02:44:48

The Gravitational Potential of Quantized Space-Time Has a Maximum Value and is not Equal to Zero

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages, 2 Figures.

A quarter of a century ago, I found that cosmic vacuum has a maximum level of energy and it is characterized by a maximum value of the gravitational potential. One of Newton's potential is not enough to describe the state of gravitational mass in a quantized space-time. It is necessary to take into account the maximum gravitational potential (4) in the equation of the balance of gravitational potentials inside the quantized space-time [1, 4].
Category: Quantum Physics

[3755] viXra:1910.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 15:33:18

Gravitational Waves. Wave Equations

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 48 Pages, 13 Figures

This article was published like chapter 9 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 603-650. Waves in a cosmic vacuum can only form in an elastic medium that is a quantized space-time. This is a global electromagnetic field consisting of electromagnetic quantons whose concentration characterizes the quantum density of the medium. Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves of electromagnetic polarization of quantons and it does not lead to a change in the quantum density of the medium. Gravitational waves are longitudinal wave oscillations of a quantons inside quantized space-time and gravitational waves lead to changes in the density of the quantum medium, its compression and tension in the longitudinal direction. Such an understanding of the nature of gravitational waves allows us to create quantum generators of gravitational waves - grazers (Leonov’s patent). The fundamental problem is the experimental measurement of the speed of a gravitational wave in a vacuum. There is reason to believe that the elastic modulus of quantized space-time in the longitudinal direction is much larger than in the transverse direction. This means that the velocity of a longitudinal gravitational wave can be greater than the velocity of a transverse electromagnetic wave. It may turn out that the speed of the gravitational wave will depend on its frequency and amplitude. Only an experiment on measuring the speed of gravity can answer these questions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3754] viXra:1910.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 01:37:25

Two-Rotor Structure of the Photon. Photon Gyroscopic Effect

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 91 Pages, 18 Figures

This article was published like chapter 6 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 421-511. The structure of a photon as a wave particle has long remained incomprehensible to us. Analysis of the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field in the vacuum indicates that the spherical wave cannot expand in the relativistic region. This allows us to represent the electromagnetic field of a photon in the form of two rotors: electric and magnetic. These rotors are located in orthogonal planes with the possibility of rotation of the polarization planes. This ensures the constancy of the speed of the photon with the speed of light. Now that we know the two-rotor structure of a photon, we can analyze photon-photons interactions. This is a very important fundamental knowledge that is needed for the development of new quantum technologies: quantum computers, quantum entanglement, quantum generators (lasers) and others.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3753] viXra:1910.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 01:53:01

Quantum Processors out of Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

An international team of scientists from Australia, Japan and the United States has produced a prototype of a large-scale quantum processor made of laser light. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3752] viXra:1910.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 02:10:29

Blanket of Light Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

This makes it a potential candidate for the next generation of larger and more powerful quantum computers," adds Ulrik Lund Andersen. [23] An international team of scientists from Australia, Japan and the United States has produced a prototype of a large-scale quantum processor made of laser light. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3751] viXra:1910.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 03:58:38

Ultrasensitive Measure Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

A team of UO physicists has drummed up a new way of measuring light: using microscopic drums to hear light. [33] Rice University scientists have found revealing information where light from a molecule meets light from a nanoparticle. [32] A University of Wyoming researcher and his team have shown, for the first time, the ability to globally align single-wall carbon nanotubes along a common axis. [31] The fight against global antibiotic resistance has taken a major step forward with scientists discovering a concept for fabricating nanomeshes as an effective drug delivery system for antibiotics. [30] The solution consisting of colloidal quantum dots is inkjet-printed, creating active photosensitive layer of the photodetector. [29] I'm part of a group of nanotechnology and neuroscience researchers at the University of Washington investigating how quantum dots behave in the brain. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3750] viXra:1910.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 04:45:04

Ultrafast Particle Interaction Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Lengthening the time during which a system is capable of retaining energy before losing it to the local environment is a key goal for the development of quantum information. [28] At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3749] viXra:1910.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 06:16:25

Nature of Non-Radiation and Radiation of the Orbital Electron

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 71 Pages, 13 Figures

This article was published like chapter 7 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 512-582. The atomic nucleus is located inside the gravitational well which is created by the mass of the nucleus. The presence of a gravitational well around an atomic nucleus was never taken into account in theory. Ignorance of this fact created many problems in describing and explaining the behavior of the orbital electron. The fact that the orbital electron rotates inside the gravitational well of the atomic nucleus was first established in the theory of Superunification. When an orbital electron falls on an atomic nucleus inside a gravitational well, its gravitational energy decreases as much as its electric energy increases. In this case, the total energy of the orbital electron remains constant regardless of the complexity of its trajectory. Therefore, the orbital electron does not emit photons, no matter how complex its trajectory inside the electron cloud. An orbital electron emits a photon at the moment of transition from one complex trajectory to another complex trajectory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3748] viXra:1910.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 07:32:08

Thermal Photons. Molecule Recoil in Photon Emission

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 20 Pages, 3 Figures

This article was published like chapter 8 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 583-602. This article is the basis of quantum thermodynamics. The fact is that the molecular-kinetic theory of heat is morally outdated and does not reflect modern requirements. We cannot formulate the correct concept of temperature. We only state the fact that with increasing temperature the chaotic vibrations of molecules and atoms increase. But this is a consequence. The cause of the phenomenon is the recoil of the molecule (atom) upon emission of a photon. The recoil force of a molecule (atom) upon emission of a photon was first calculated only in the theory of Superunification. And here we are faced with another paradox of quantum theory. It turns out that the recoil force is inversely proportional to the energy of the photon when it is emitted. The maximum recoil force per molecule (atom) is produced by low-energy thermal (infrared) photons. High-energy photons do not produce thermal effects. The temperature of a substance is determined by the concentration of thermal photons in it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3747] viXra:1910.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 07:33:35

Quantum Simulator Spacetime

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Quantum simulation plays an irreplaceable role in diverse fields, beyond the scope of classical computers. [43] In a cooperative project, theorists from the the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching anf the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) have now developed a new toolbox for quantum simulators and published it in Science Advances. [42] An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers. [41] The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3746] viXra:1910.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 07:48:27

One-Dimensional Quantum Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The quantum mechanical equivalent consists of two charged ions which are immersed in a "liquid" formed by lighter neutral atoms. [15] ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"-that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3745] viXra:1910.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 02:58:00

Quantum Dots Revolutionize Healthcare

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The solution consisting of colloidal quantum dots is inkjet-printed, creating active photosensitive layer of the photodetector. [29] I'm part of a group of nanotechnology and neuroscience researchers at the University of Washington investigating how quantum dots behave in the brain. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3744] viXra:1910.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 06:45:04

Age Affects Perception of White LED Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Although LEDs are increasingly used in low-energy lighting and displays, consumers sometimes find their light harsh or unpleasant. [31] The fight against global antibiotic resistance has taken a major step forward with scientists discovering a concept for fabricating nanomeshes as an effective drug delivery system for antibiotics. [30] The solution consisting of colloidal quantum dots is inkjet-printed, creating active photosensitive layer of the photodetector. [29] I'm part of a group of nanotechnology and neuroscience researchers at the University of Washington investigating how quantum dots behave in the brain. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3743] viXra:1910.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 07:28:29

Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation. Antigravitation

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 95 Pages, 20 Figures

This article was published like chapter 3 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 167-261. The problem of unification of electromagnetism and gravitation was formulated by Einstein. But only I solved this problem in the theory of Superunification. For this, I had to find a common particle which is the carrier of electromagnetism and gravity at the same time. This particle is a quanton - a quantum of four-dimensional space-time. Gravity appears inside the quantized space-time as a result of its deformation (Einstein's curvature) under the influence of the gravitational mass of the body (particle). And vice versa, the mass of a body (particle) is born as a result of spherical deformation of quantized space-time. Mass is a cluster (bunch) of electromagnetic energy of deformed quantized space-time. The electromagnetic energy of deformation of this cluster is equivalent to mass according to Einstein’s formula mC’2. The movement of mass is the wave transfer of the spherical deformation of quantized space-time in accordance with the principle of wave-particle duality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3742] viXra:1910.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 10:22:10

The Quantized Structure of the Electron and the Positron. the Neutrino

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 90 Pages, 16 Figures

This article was published like chapter 4 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 262-351. What is an electron? Previously, we believed that an electron has an electric charge and mass that are inseparable from each other. In the theory of Superunification, an entire electric quark is used as the electron charge. An electric quark has no mass. The mass of an electron is formed as a result of spherical deformation of quantized space-time around a central electric charge-quark. Thus itself electric quark cannot be in a free state without mass inside the quantized space-time. Inside a quantized space-time an electric quark acquires mass. The same applies to the quantized positron structure. When the electron and positron approach each other, they annihilate. After annihilation, electric quarks form an electric dipole in the form of an electron neutrino that has no mass. The destruction of spherical deformation around the electron and positron leads to the release of the electromagnetic energy of their mass through the emission of gamma rays.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3741] viXra:1910.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 12:17:24

Quantized Structure of Nucleons. the Nature of Nuclear Forces

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 69 Pages, 18 Figures

This article was published like chapter 5 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 352-420. To solve the problem of nuclear forces, I had to destroy part of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). None of the physicists directly measured the fractional electric charge in QCD. Only an entire electric charge of physics was measured with the highest accuracy. Elementary electric charge e is the most stable constant in nature. Only entire electric quarks with a charge of ±1e make up the structure of nucleons to create a sing-alternating (sing-changing) shell with alternating charges in sign. The presence of a sing-alternating shell for nucleons provides spherical deformation of quantized space-time and the formation of mass. The sing-alternating shells of the nucleons create short-range electric forces, regardless of the presence of an excess charge on the nucleon. These short-range electrical forces are equivalent to nuclear forces.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3740] viXra:1910.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 16:42:02

Electromagnetic Nature and Structure of Cosmic Vacuum

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 99 Pages, 25 Figures

This article was published like chapter 2 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 68-166. Space vacuum is a specific electromagnetic field which in the region of the ultra microworld of Leonov’s length of 10-25 m can be considered as a static electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic phenomena (electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic waves) arise in a cosmic vacuum as a result of the violation of its electromagnetic equilibrium. Gravitational phenomena (gravitation and antigravity) arise in a cosmic vacuum as a result of its deformation (Einstein's curvature). The carrier of this electromagnetic field is quanton and quantized space-time. The analytical derivation of Maxwell's equations was first obtained by me as a result of electromagnetic polarization of the quantized space-time. The quantized space-time is carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) - fifth fundamental force (Superforce). SEI is a global electromagnetic field permeating our entire universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3739] viXra:1910.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 06:06:37

Skyrmions Dynamic Pattern

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Now a team has succeeded in measuring the dynamics of these skyrmions in detail for the first time using a single-crystal sample of Cu2OSeO3. [33] Skyrmions are formed in magnetic systems via a variety of mechanisms, some of which work together. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3738] viXra:1910.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 08:01:52

Quantum Light in Thin Layers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

When a current is applied to a thin layer of tungsten diselenide, it begins to glow in a highly unusual fashion. In addition to ordinary light, which other semiconductor materials can emit, tungsten diselenide also produces a very special type of bright quantum light, which is created only at specific points of the material. [30] Molecules that are involved in photosynthesis exhibit the same quantum effects as non-living matter, concludes an international team of scientists including University of Groningen theoretical physicist Thomas la Cour Jansen. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3737] viXra:1910.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 08:17:13

Quantum Photon-Style

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, working in partnership with Tehran's Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), have proved that this arrangement allows for a new form of quantum correlation in theory. [31] When a current is applied to a thin layer of tungsten diselenide, it begins to glow in a highly unusual fashion. In addition to ordinary light, which other semiconductor materials can emit, tungsten diselenide also produces a very special type of bright quantum light, which is created only at specific points of the material. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3736] viXra:1910.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 10:09:11

Trions at Room Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A University of Maryland-led team of researchers has discovered a method to reliably synthesize and trap trions that remain stable at room temperature. [32] Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, working in partnership with Tehran's Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), have proved that this arrangement allows for a new form of quantum correlation in theory. [31] When a current is applied to a thin layer of tungsten diselenide, it begins to glow in a highly unusual fashion. In addition to ordinary light, which other semiconductor materials can emit, tungsten diselenide also produces a very special type of bright quantum light, which is created only at specific points of the material. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3735] viXra:1910.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 10:48:30

Transmission Electron Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has built a high-voltage transmission electron microscope small enough to reside in a university lab. [38] Using a familiar tool in a way it was never intended to be used opens up a whole new method to explore materials, report UConn researchers in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3734] viXra:1910.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:06:13

Cryptography Without Secret Keys

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Using a physical unclonable key (PUK), which can be a stroke of white paint on a surface, and the quantum properties of light, researchers of the University of Twente and Eindhoven University of Technology have presented a new type of data security that does away with secret keys. [42] Cryptography is often used in information technology security environments to protect sensitive, high-value data that might be compromised during transmission or while in storage. [41] In a step forward for information security for the Internet of Things, a team of researchers has published a new paper in the online edition of Nano Letters in which they have engineered a new type of physically unclonable function (PUF) based on interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy (IAE). [40] Researchers from Linköping University and the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden have proposed a new device concept that can efficiently transfer the information carried by electron spin to light at room temperature-a stepping stone toward future information technology. [39] Now writing in Light Science & Applications, Hamidreza Siampour and co-workers have taken a step forward in the field of integrated quantum plasmonics by demonstrating on-chip coupling between a single photon source and plasmonic waveguide. [38] Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a proof-of-concept technology using nanoparticles that could offer a new approach for oral medications. [37] Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), extremely high resolution imaging of the molecule-covered surface structures of silver nanoparticles is possible, even down to the recognition of individual parts of the molecules protecting the surface. [36] A fiber optic sensing system developed by researchers in China and Canada can peer inside supercapacitors and batteries to observe their state of charge. [35] The idea of using a sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3733] viXra:1910.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:20:58

Ultrashort Flashes of Light Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Bayreuth and the University of Göttingen have now discovered a new method for adjusting the extremely short time intervals between laser flashes with exceptional speed and precision. [39] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has built a high-voltage transmission electron microscope small enough to reside in a university lab. [38] Using a familiar tool in a way it was never intended to be used opens up a whole new method to explore materials, report UConn researchers in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3732] viXra:1910.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:37:03

Fundamental Discoveries of the Space-Time Quantum (Quanton) and Superstrong Electromagnetic Interaction (Sei)

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 68 Pages, 24 Figures

The quantum of space-time (quanton) was discovered by me in 1996. Quanton is a real particle of time that sets the pace of the spatial clock. Quanton is a real particle of time that sets the pace (rhythm) of a spatial clock. It is a volume electromagnetic resonator with elastic properties like an oscillating clock spring. Quanton counts Leonov’s time, which are 10 orders of magnitude slower than Planck time. Quanton occupies an elementary volume in space and has dimensions (Leonov's length), establishing the discreteness of quantized space-time. Leonov's length is a new fundamental length that is 10 orders of magnitude greater than the Planck length. A quanton consists of four integers quarks: two electric and two magnetic, located at the vertices of the tetrahedron inside the spherical particle. These integer quarks have no mass but have a charge. The magnetic quark was introduced into physics for the first time in the theory of Superunification. Магнитный кварк был введен в физику впервые в теории Суперобъединения. Only four quarks inside a quanton determine the electromagnetic structure of quantized space-time and its electromagnetic symmetry between electricity and magnetism. Colossal electromagnetic energy is accumulated inside the quanton. If you activate one cubic meter of quantized space-time (space vacuum), then this energy will be equivalent to the energy of the material part of our universe. We have finally found the source of energy for the Big Bang, if this fact has take place in reality. But we do not know who quantized our universe? The colossal energy of the quanton confirms that the quanton and quantized space-time is the carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). SEI is the fifth fundamental force (Superforce) that unifies gravity, electromagnetism, nuclear and electroweak forces.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3731] viXra:1910.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:44:38

A Resolution to the Vacuum Catastrophe

Authors: Siamak Tafazoli
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper presents a theoretical estimate for the vacuum energy density which turns out to be near zero and thus much more palatable than an infinite or a very large theoretical value obtained by imposing an ultraviolet frequency cut-off. This result helps address the "vacuum catastrophe" and the "cosmological constant problem".
Category: Quantum Physics

[3730] viXra:1910.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 22:28:07

Fraudulent Theories

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

When a theory (physics) is based on an unrealistic/unknown/impossible term then it becomes an unrealistic theory, such a theory cannot describe something in nature/reality. So if you act as if that unrealistic theory is realistic then you are a fraud, and if your grant application is based on that unrealistic theory then it's a fraudulent grant application.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3729] viXra:1910.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 04:31:09

Friction in Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3728] viXra:1910.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 10:29:57

Quantum Computing Diversity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 91 Pages.

In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3727] viXra:1910.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 10:50:25

Photons Recover Interference

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

This interference is important for everything from fundamental tests of quantum physics to the speedy calculations of quantum computers, but creating it requires exquisite control over particles that are indistinguishable. [28] Scientists from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, in collaboration with the University of Oxford and NIST, have shown that quantum interference enables processing of large sets of data faster and more accurately than with standard methods. [27] Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3726] viXra:1910.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 14:24:34

A Proposed Basis for Quantum Uncertainty Effects

Authors: Richard Lawrence Norman, Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 14 Pages.

Quantum scale “uncertainty” effects limiting measurement accuracy appear to reflect the actual properties of quantum particles as has been well substantiated in numerous experimental examples. However, the concept of uncertainty appears to lack any clear physical basis and stands as an effects descriptor, not as a causal description of actual particulate physical properties. The famous EPR paradox is examined, assessed and placed into current perspective then new theory is presented defining the functional causal basis of observed uncertainty effects. Lastly, experimental evidence will be presented in support of this new model.
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1426] viXra:2001.0513 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-24 14:40:07

The Proton Radius Solved

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No of pages does not include title page.

The electron-proton scattering experiment by the PRad (proton radius) team using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab measured the root mean square (rms) charge radius of the proton to be 0.831 fm, with a (statistical) STD of 0.007 fm. Assuming all of the charge in the proton is packed into a single pointlike (elementary) charge and applying the ring current model to a proton, one gets a proton radius equal to 0.587 fm. The difference between the two values is the √2 factor and may be explained by the fact that the magnetic field of the ring current is expected to extend beyond the current ring and/or the intricacies related to the definition of an rms charge radius. We feel the measurement lends credibility to attempts to extend the Zitterbewegung hypothesis from electrons to also incluce protons and other elementary particles. In contrast, the measurement is hard to fit into a model of oscillating quarks that have partial charge only.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1425] viXra:2001.0453 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-23 14:51:08

The Metaphysics of Physics (II)

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 25 Pages.

This paper complements an earlier (Nov 2018) paper on the metaphysics of physics. The earlier paper focused on an alternative (realist) interpretation of quantum mechanics. While inspired by the previous one, this follow-up paper is a much simpler one: we just offer very basic thoughts on the most fundamental physical concepts, which are the idea of force, energy and mass. Based on the recent precision measurements of the (electric) charge radius of a proton, we also argue previous reflections on the zbw radius of a proton make more sense now. Needless to say, we also offer our usual reflections on the concept of fields and messenger particles. We think the first is very useful – even if fields are relative. In contrast, we argue that the latter (the idea of virtual photons, gluons or other messenger particles) is purely metaphysical. In other words, we continue to think the idea of messenger particles is a non-scientific successor to aether theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1424] viXra:2001.0453 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-23 08:05:26

The Metaphysics of Physics (II)

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 25 Pages.

This paper complements an earlier (Nov 2018) paper on the metaphysics of physics. The earlier paper focused on an alternative (realist) interpretation of quantum mechanics. While inspired by the previous one, this follow-up paper is a much simpler one: we just offer very basic thoughts on the most fundamental physical concepts, which are the idea of force, energy and mass. Based on the recent precision measurements of the (electric) charge radius of a proton, we also argue previous reflections on the zbw radius of a proton make more sense now. Needless to say, we also offer our usual reflections on the concept of fields and messenger particles. We think the first is very useful – even if fields are relative. In contrast, we argue that the latter (the idea of virtual photons, gluons or other messenger particles) is purely metaphysical. In other words, we continue to think the idea of messenger particles is a non-scientific successor to aether theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1423] viXra:2001.0453 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-22 03:27:59

The Metaphysics of Physics (II)

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper complements an earlier (Nov 2018) paper on the metaphysics of physics. The earlier paper focused on an alternative (realist) interpretation of quantum mechanics. While inspired by the previous one, this follow-up paper is a much simpler one: we just offer very basic thoughts on the most fundamental physical concepts, which are the idea of force, energy and mass. Needless to say, we also offer some reflections on the concept of fields and messenger particles. We think the first is very useful – even if fields are relative. In contrast, we argue that the latter (the idea of virtual photons, gluons or other messenger particles) is purely metaphysical. In other words, we should not use in physics, or in science in general.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1422] viXra:2001.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 06:38:25

Relativity, Light and Photons

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper adds some thoughts on relativity theory and geometry to our one-cycle photon model. We basically highlight what we should think of as being relative in this model (energy, wavelength, and the related force/field values), as opposed to what is absolute (the geometry of spacetime and the geometry of the photon). We also expand our photon model somewhat by introducing an electromagnetic vector combining electric and magnetic fields. Finally, we add a discussion on how we can think about photon-electron interactions and polarization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1421] viXra:2001.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 14:13:31

Relativity and Light

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages excludes title page.

This paper adds some thoughts on relativity theory and geometry to our one-cycle photon model. We basically highlight what we should think of as being relative in this model (energy, wavelength, and the related force/field values), as opposed to what is absolute (the geometry of spacetime and the geometry of the photon).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1420] viXra:2001.0308 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-23 10:24:21

On Improper Integrals.

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 5 Pages.

The writing intends to point out aspects of conflict regarding some standard improper integrals.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1419] viXra:2001.0308 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-22 11:03:37

On Improper Integrals

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 5 Pages.

The writing intends to point out aspects of conflict regarding some standard improper integrals.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1418] viXra:2001.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-22 08:03:56

Representing Basic Physical Fields by Quaternionic Fields

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 53 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Basic physical fields are dynamic fields like our universe and the fields that are raised by electric charges. These fields are dynamic continuums. Most physical theories treat these fields by applying gravitational theories or by Maxwell equations. Mathematically these fields can be represented by quaternionic fields. Dedicated normal operators in quaternionic non-separable Hilbert spaces can represent these quaternionic fields in their continuum eigenspaces. Quaternionic functions can describe these fields. Quaternionic differential and integral calculus can describe the behavior of these fields and the interaction of these fields with countable sets of quaternions. All quaternionic fields obey the same quaternionic function theory. The basic fields differ in their start and boundary conditions. The paper treats the mathematical and experimental underpinning of the Hilbert Book Model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1417] viXra:2001.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 11:00:23

Representing Basic Physical Fields by Quaternionic Fields

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 46 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Basic physical fields are dynamic fields like our universe and the fields that are raised by electric charges. These fields are dynamic continuums. Most physical theories treat these fields by applying gravitational theories or by Maxwell equations. Mathematically these fields can be represented by quaternionic fields. Dedicated normal operators in quaternionic non-separable Hilbert spaces can represent these quaternionic fields in their continuum eigenspaces. Quaternionic functions can describe these fields. Quaternionic differential and integral calculus can describe the behavior of these fields and the interaction of these fields with countable sets of quaternions. All quaternionic fields obey the same quaternionic function theory. The basic fields differ in their start and boundary conditions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1416] viXra:2001.0264 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-23 09:45:48

A Toroidal or Disk-Like Zitterbewegung Electron?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 9 Pages.

We present Oliver Consa’s classical calculations of the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron, pointing out some of what we perceive to be weaker arguments, and adding comments and questions with a view to possibly arrive at a more elegant approach to the problem on hand in the future.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1415] viXra:2001.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 11:13:23

Structure Model of Atomic Nuclei

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

Neutrons are the particles that move on circular orbits inside the nuclei (with the remaining half of their kinetic energy) around immobilized protons which have spin only. If protons were rotating they would cause orbital magnetism, which has never been observed, beyond magnetic dipole moment of nucleons spin. In addition, no regression of proton has occurred, because it would cause alternating magnetism, which has also never been observed. The first nuclear units are the deuterium, the tritium, the helium-3 and the, so-called, upper-order nuclear unit the helium-4, which is the basic structure unit of the large nuclei. The spin, the magnetic moment and the mass deficit of the above units and of the bonding neutrons are the three experimental constants upon which the nuclei structure is based.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1414] viXra:2001.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-17 06:41:00

Structure Model of Atomic Nuclei

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

Neutrons are the particles that move on circular orbits inside the nuclei (with the remaining half of their kinetic energy) around immobilized protons which have spin only. If protons were rotating they would cause orbital magnetism, which has never been observed, beyond magnetic dipole moment of nucleons spin. In addition, no regression of proton has occurred, because it would cause alternating magnetism, which has also never been observed. The first nuclear units are the deuterium, the tritium, the helium-3 and the, so-called, upper-order nuclear unit the helium-4, which is the basic structure unit of the large nuclei. The spin, the magnetic moment and the mass deficit of the above units and of the bonding neutrons are the three experimental constants upon which the nuclei structure is based.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1413] viXra:2001.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-10 03:51:40

Protons and Neutrons: What Are They?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article offers an alternative explanation of nuclear processes based on a discussion of the first steps in solar nuclear fusion: hydrogen combining into helium. With alternative, we mean an explanation that does not involve the concept of a weak force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1412] viXra:2001.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 07:47:37

The Atemporal Platonic World

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Added a comment (p. 5) on the invariant speed of light.

Introduction to the atemporal Platonic world, called 'It'.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1411] viXra:1912.0397 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-22 14:09:16

Doppler Effect and the Law of Conservation of Energy-Momentum.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 8 Pages.

Using the law of conservation of energy-momentum and the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light, the dependences for the length of the electromagnetic wave with red and blue shift when the Doppler effect are derived. Moreover, using this approach, general formulas for the gravitational shift (red and blue) are derived, and the Compton effect is explained from these positions. It is also shown that for any redshift, galaxies will always have a speed lower than the speed of light in a vacuum. Taking the speed of light in vacuum, as the escape velocity for the visible part of the Universe, the mass of the Universe is calculated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1410] viXra:1912.0391 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-28 19:13:28

The Schrodinger and the Heisenberg Operators

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 6 Pages.

This brief article in the first section brings out the fact that the Heisenberg and the Schrodinger operators become identical if the operators correspond to a conserved quantity. In Section II solutions we show that for time independent operators ���� that satisfy [����,��]=0 where �� satisfies the Schrodinger equation ��ℏ��������=���� we have ����=�� where ‘a’ is an eigen value of the stated equation. It is independent of space and time coordinates.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1409] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-14 19:41:05

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. Added note on spacetime engineering at pp. 6-7.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1408] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-09 17:04:30

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Adden note on spacetime engineering.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1407] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-07 07:38:24

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Final version.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1406] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-04 12:41:05

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Comments welcome.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1405] viXra:1911.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-01 08:37:08

Über Die Substanz Von Raum Und Zeit

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages.

My personal, and probably biased, opinion on the substance or spacetime, with wide-ranging implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1404] viXra:1911.0449 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-27 20:37:36

Diophantine Physics

Authors: F.M. Sanchez
Comments: 28 Pages. In French. A resume is submited to Astrophysics and Space Science

The Diophantine interpretation of the third Kepler law directly implies the single electron cosmology and puts forward links between gravitation, quantum physics, cosmology, particle physics and the cristallographic spaces with the superstring 10 and 11-dimensions. The Nambu mass and the DNA codon mass play a central cosmic role, while the asymetry proton-electron explains the matter relative density 0.047. The observed matter density is compatible with the trivial value 3/10, itself confirmed by the Eddington's large number. The holographic two-step interaction defines the proton and graviton masses, and confirms the Grandcosmos, which is, contrary to the non-scientific Multiverse, observable by its trace, the Cosmic Microwave Background. The central role of the Atiyah constant is confirmed in the Topological Axis which rehabilitates the bosonic string theory. The forgotten Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry is confirmed by the prolongation of the Kepler law (Holic Pronciple). Connections reaching the ppb precision are obtained with a prediction for G compatible with the BIPM value. The errors of the present scientific system are analyzed, resulting principally from the forgetting of the Cosmos concept, with its beauty and simplicity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1403] viXra:1911.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-14 17:59:07

Minimal Fractal Manifold as Foundation of Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Derived from the mathematics of the Renormalization Group, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) represents a spacetime continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions. The geometrical structure of the MFM can be conveniently formulated using the concept of dimensional quaternion, a vector-like entity built from component deviations along the four spacetime coordinates. Our analysis shows that dimensional quaternions form a natural basis for qubit systems and Quantum Information Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1402] viXra:1911.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-13 21:08:19

Minimal Fractal Manifold as Foundation of Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Derived from the mathematics of the Renormalization Group, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) represents a spacetime continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions. The geometrical structure of the MFM can be conveniently formulated using the concept of dimensional quaternion, a vector-like entity built from component deviations along the four spacetime coordinates. Our analysis shows that dimensional quaternions form a natural basis for qubit systems and Quantum Information Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1401] viXra:1911.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-14 07:51:24

Quaternionic Field Theory

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 44 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The correct specification of the concept of physical fields requires a platform in which these physical fields can be defined. This platform represents a base model that emerges from a Hilbert lattice, a vector space, and a number system. The number system must be an associative division ring. Dynamic fields require the selection of the quaternionic number system. Quaternionic fields are constructed eigenspaces of normal operators in a quaternionic Hilbert space. The base model supports symmetry-related fields and a field that always and everywhere exists. It acts as a repository for dynamic geometric data.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1400] viXra:1911.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-12 14:12:22

Quaternionic Field Theory

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 37 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The correct specification of the concept of physical fields requires a platform in which these physical fields can be defined. This platform represents a base model that emerges from a Hilbert lattice, a vector space, and a number system. The number system must be an associative division ring. Dynamic fields require the selection of the quaternionic number system. Quaternionic fields are constructed eigenspaces of normal operators in a quaternionic Hilbert space. The base model supports symmetry-related fields and a field that always and everywhere exists. It acts as a repository for dynamic geometric data.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1399] viXra:1910.0561 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-05 03:36:48

An Inconsistency in Modern Physics and a Simple Solution

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we will point out an important inconsistency in modern physics. When relativistic momentum and relativistic energy are combined with key concepts around Planck momentum and Planck energy, we find an inconsistency that has not been shown before. The inconsistency seems to be rooted in the fact that momentum, as defined today, is linked to the de Broglie wavelength. By rewriting the momentum equation in the form of the Compton wavelength instead, we get a consistent theory. This has a series of implications for physics and cosmology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1398] viXra:1910.0561 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-03 11:38:01

An Inconsistency in Modern Physics and a Simple Solution

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we will point out an important inconsistency in modern physics. When relativistic momentum and relativistic energy are combined with key concepts around Planck momentum and Planck energy, we find an inconsistency that has not been shown before. The inconsistency seems to be rooted in the fact that momentum, as defined today, is linked to the de Broglie wavelength. By rewriting the momentum equation in the form of the Compton wavelength instead, we get a consistent theory. This has a series of implications for physics and cosmology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1397] viXra:1910.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-08 01:25:53

Quantum Optics Experiment on the Test of Empty Wave Hypothesis

Authors: V.A. Skrebnev, M.V. Polski
Comments: 9 Pages.

The experiment measured the absorption of single photons by absorbers with various absorption coefficients, in one of the beams, after the photons interacted with the beam splitter. The measurements showed that the absorption corresponds to single photon traveling in either one or another beam. The measurements support the original empty wave hypothesis which has been advanced in a number of works.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1396] viXra:1910.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-23 09:15:18

Quantum Optics Experiment on the Test of Empty Wave Hypothesis

Authors: V.A. Skrebnev, M.V. Polski
Comments: 9 Pages.

The experiment measured the absorption of single photons by absorbers with various absorption coefficients, in one of the beams, after the photons interacted with the beam splitter. The measurements showed that the absorption corresponds to single photon traveling in either one or another beam. The measurements support the original empty wave hypothesis which has been advanced in a number of works.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1395] viXra:1910.0258 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-14 07:41:20

Fraudulent Theories

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

When a theory (physics) is based on an unrealistic/unknown/impossible term then it becomes an unrealistic theory, such a theory cannot describe something in nature/reality. So if you act as if that unrealistic theory is realistic while knowing that it contains an unrealistic/unknown/impossible term then you are a fraud, and if your grant application is based on that unrealistic/fraudulent theory then it's a fraudulent grant application.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1394] viXra:1910.0258 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-16 17:50:07

Fraudulent Theories

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

When a theory (physics) is based on an unrealistic/unknown/impossible term then it becomes an unrealistic theory, such a theory cannot describe something in nature/reality. So if you act as if that unrealistic theory is realistic then you are a fraud, and if your grant application is based on that unrealistic theory then it's a fraudulent grant application.
Category: Quantum Physics