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2015 - 1501(7) - 1502(20) - 1503(19) - 1504(14) - 1505(29) - 1506(26) - 1507(1)

Any replacements are listed further down

[775] **viXra:1507.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 08:25:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[774] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 23:37:33*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper will research one special function and it’s physics principle , the special function which has quantum properties ; Two hypothesis of quantum theory can be derived from the special function , and the special function also applies to atoms successfully；This paper proves that the special function is related to Coulomb force in the end , and reveals the essential reason .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[773] **viXra:1506.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 08:52:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A team of researchers led by UCLA electrical engineers has demonstrated a new way to harness light particles, or photons, that are connected to each other and act in unison no matter how far apart they are —a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[772] **viXra:1506.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 06:59:16*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

The exact nature of non-locality and entanglement is still a matter of an ongoing controversy. Especially, the concept of non-locality as postulated by the orthodox Copenhagen quantum mechanics is claiming to reflect any non-locality in the quantum realm. Attention should be called to the obvious but very disconcerting fact that the concept of non-locality cannot contradict the theory of special relativity, as long as the same is not refuted theoretically or by experiments. Another way of expressing the peculiar situation is, under conditions of the special theory of relativity it remains rather discomforting to alter the properties of a distant system instantaneously (i. e. no light signal can travel) by acting on a local system. The purpose of this publication is to solve the problem of non-locality and entanglement from the standpoint of the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[771] **viXra:1506.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 02:55:01*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[770] **viXra:1506.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 15:15:56*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The number 12 is found not only as a factor but also as a power in different equations. Thus, the
purpose of this article is to highlight the role of the number 12 in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[769] **viXra:1506.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 10:22:50*

**Authors:** Paul A. Titze

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In 2015 the answer is still no. However this paper will look at what current physics has to say on this topic and what further questions need to be put forward to advance our enquiries. This work is a modified compilation of several posts that were originally published in the author's blogsite [1] on Gravity Control Propulsion (GCP) looking at several papers that deal with related topics with some ideas and speculations for further research.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[768] **viXra:1506.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 08:39:20*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 78--89.

We discuss the fact that a single spin observable
$\sigma_x$ in a quantum state
does not have a counterpart in physical reality.
We consider whether a single spin-1/2 pure state
has a counterpart in physical reality.
It is an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$ or an
eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
We assume a state $|+_z\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$.
We assume also a state $|+_x\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
The value of transition probability $|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2$ is 1/2.
We consider the following physical situation.
If we detect $|+_z\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|+_x\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
The existence of a single classical probability space
for the transition probability
within the formalism of the measurement outcome
does not coexist with the value of
the transition probability
$|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2=1/2$.
We have to give up the existence of such a classical
probability space for the state $|+_z\rangle$ or
for the state $|+_x\rangle$, as they define the transition probability.
It turns out that
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_z\rangle$ or
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_x\rangle$ does not have
counterparts in physical reality, in general.
We investigate whether the
Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories.
We discuss that the existence of the
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out
the existence of probability space of
specific quantum measurement.
If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
This hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory.
This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the
hidden-variables theory.
A single spin-1/2 pure state (e.g., $|\uparrow \rangle\langle \uparrow|$)
is a single
one-dimensional projector.
In other word,
a single one-dimensional projector does not have
a counterpart in such physical reality, in general.
The one-dimensional projectors $|\uparrow\rangle\langle\uparrow|$ and $|\downarrow\rangle\langle \downarrow|$ are commuting with each other.
Our discussion shows that we cannot assign the specific definite values
($+1$ and $-1$) to the two commuting operators, simultaneously.
We study whether quantum phase factor
accepts a hidden-variables theory.
We discuss that the existence of
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|0\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$
and $|\theta\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ rules out
the existence of probability space of a
hidden-variables theory.
If we detect $|0\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|\theta\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
The hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle 0|\theta\rangle|^2=\cos^2(\theta/2)$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory
for quantum phase factor.
We explore phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical.
Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing
which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[767] **viXra:1506.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 04:19:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[766] **viXra:1506.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 13:37:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[765] **viXra:1506.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 04:30:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A University of Tokyo research group has successfully measured the spin Hall Effect in a superconductor for the first time. The spin Hall Effect is responsible for the conversion of magnetic flow to current flow and has not been thoroughly examined in superconductors. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[764] **viXra:1506.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 10:37:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine found that synchronized physiological interactions between remote brain regions have genetic underpinnings. [8]
Sometimes, you can picture something so vividly in your head that it feels as though you’re actually looking at what you’re imagining. But no matter how good your imagination is, information will flow through your brain in the opposite direction compared to when you actually perceive something. That’s the conclusion of a new study, published in NeuroImage, which looked at brain activity in participants when they were either watching clips or recalling them in their heads. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[763] **viXra:1506.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 07:10:49*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 9 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

The hottest and one of the major unresolved problems of today’s quantum mechanics is the physical meaning of the wave function. The debate about the physical meaning of the wave function raises broader issues as well. In brief, the difficulties stemmed from an apparent conflict about the existence of an objective reality existing independent of the human mind and consciousness. The purpose of this publication is to investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the relationship between the wave function and Einstein’s special theory of relativity and. As we will see, the wavefunction and “co-ordinate” time of Einstein’s special theory of relativity are identical.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[762] **viXra:1506.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-19 09:51:03*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 49--53.

We review the no-cloning theorem that relies on
the properties of the quantum theory.
Usually, the no-cloning theorem implies that
two quantum states are identical or orthogonal if we allow a cloning
to be on the two quantum states.
Here, we rely on the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We may result in the fact that
the two quantum states under consideration could not be orthogonal
if we consider the maximum value of
the square of the expected value.
The no-cloning theorem may imply that the
two quantum states under consideration may be identical
if we consider the maximum value of
the square of the expected value.
The no-cloning theorem itself has this character.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[761] **viXra:1506.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-17 15:27:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[760] **viXra:1506.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-14 06:33:57*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Two quite different forms of differential calculus exist that both have physical significance. The most simple version is quaternionic differential calculus. Maxwell based differential calculus is based on the equations that Maxwell and others have developed in order to describe electromagnetic phenomena. Both approaches can be represented by four component “fields” and four component differential operators. Both approaches result in a dedicated non-homogeneous wave equation. These wave equations differ and offer solutions that differ in details.
Maxwell based differential calculus uses coordinate time t, where quaternionic differential calculus uses proper time τ. The consequence is that also the interpretation of speed differs between the two approaches. A more intriguing fact is that these differences involve a different space-progression model and different charges and currents.
Physics formulated in Maxwell based differential calculus differs from physics formulated in quaternionic differential calculus. This choice influences the description of physical reality. It does not influence physical reality.
Quaternionic differential calculus fits better with the application of Hilbert spaces in quantum physics than Maxwell based differential calculus. However, Maxwell based differential calculus is the general trend in current physical theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[759] **viXra:1506.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 22:07:45*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez Nunez.

**Comments:** 42 Pages. This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence the DEPENDABILIDAD universal, by the fact that Unis de all the theories that there are on all Einstein's theory of gener

This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence the DEPENDABILIDAD universal, by the fact that Unis de all the theories that there are on all Einstein's theory of general relativity and the theory of gravity dynamics of tesla, and among others.
We are living in a giant time clock, with two different poles - one positive and one negative, that the turn gives us our time for life, that is our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[758] **viXra:1506.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-10 00:20:19*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The non-locality of quantum mechanics continues to be an unexplainable phenomenon. In a previous paper [1] I utilized a recently proposed relativity theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) to account, both qualitatively and quantitatively to the entanglement in an EPR type experiment. IR rests on two well accepted propositions: The relativity axiom, plus an axiom specifying the information carrier and its velocity. The theory is deterministic and local. It is also complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. Contrary to special relativity which predicts that an object's length will always contract along the direction of its relative motion with respect to an observer, IR predicts length contraction for approaching bodies and length stretching for departing bodies. In the present paper I demonstrate that IR is also successful in explaining and predicting de Broglie's matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, and the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Quite strikingly, I found that the critical "stretch" associated with a particle's wave phase transition is equal to the critical value of de Broglie wave length ζ(32) ≈ 2.612, where ζ(x) is the Riemann zeta function. This result enables to calculate the Planck's constant, the corner stone of all quantum mechanics, based on a completely deterministic and local theory. The unavoidable conclusion of the present analysis is that Einstein's intuition that "God does not play dice" is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[757] **viXra:1506.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-09 02:49:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

"A grin without a cat" is how Lewis Carroll describes the Cheshire Cat's mysterious way of disappearing while leaving its grin behind in his 1865 classic, Alice in Wonderland. The fanciful character raises a question that has captured physicists' attention over the past few years: can an object be separated from its properties? [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[756] **viXra:1506.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-08 14:02:57*

**Authors:** Wenliang Jin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We discuss at length the dynamical behavior of Grover's search algorithm for which all the Walsh-Hadamard transformations contained in this algorithm are exposed to their respective random
perturbations inducing the augmentation of the dimension of the search space. We give the concise and general mathematical formulations for approximately characterizing the maximum success probabilities of finding a unique desired state in a large unsorted database and their corresponding numbers of Grover iterations, which are applicable to the search spaces of arbitrary dimension and are used to answer a salient open problem posed by Grover [L. K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{80}, 4329 (1998)].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[755] **viXra:1506.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-08 14:58:01*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The No-communication Theorem has been seen as the bar to communication by quantum state collapse. The essence of this theory is the procedure of taking the partial trace on an entangled, hence inseparable multi-particle system. This mathematical procedure applied unthinkingly, strikes out the off-diagonal elements from the ensemble density matrix and renders the reduced trace matrix representative of a mixed state. Decoherence theory is able to justify this mathematical procedure and we review it to show: the partial trace results for both unitary and non-unitary processes (hence measurement) on one, several or all particles of the ensemble; and that a unitary process keeps interference terms in the trace reduced matrix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[754] **viXra:1506.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 06:54:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[753] **viXra:1506.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 08:41:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[752] **viXra:1506.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 23:30:26*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that Callen-Welton disregarded the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and, in this way, they produced the zero-point noise artifact.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[751] **viXra:1506.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 13:44:49*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the second part of the quantum gravitational formulation of
Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper presents another plausible solution to the problem
of length contraction introduced in Part I.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[750] **viXra:1505.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 18:57:18*

**Authors:** Blazej Kot

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Previously published in Prespacetime Journal, May 2015, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp. 470-481

The fundamental structure of the universe is posited to be a network of causal relationships. Coordinate systems are interpreted as a regular structure of causal links. The discrete nature of such coordinate systems and the associated aliasing gives rise to the existence of a phase factor. This in turn leads to an interpretation of the probabilistic nature of observation and the path integral approach to quantum field theory. The symmetry group of a coordinate system built from causal links is shown to match that of the Standard Model of particle physics. The metric of such a coordinate system has Lorentzian signature, while accounting for its curvature leads to a natural interpretation of the Hilbert action of general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[749] **viXra:1505.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 01:09:58*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The variables and parameters of the presented model for the generation of an arbitrary photon fit like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle and therefor justify the conclusion that the model eliminates the wave-particle duality of the photon by explicitly excluding the possibility that it can be a (massless) particle too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[748] **viXra:1505.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 06:05:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantum computers are inherently different from their classical counterparts because they involve quantum phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, which do not exist in classical digital computers. But in a new paper, physicists have shown that a classical analog computer can be used to emulate a quantum computer, along with quantum superposition and entanglement, with the result that the fully classical system behaves like a true quantum computer. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[747] **viXra:1505.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 12:31:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory. [5]
Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[746] **viXra:1505.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 13:04:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8]
As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[745] **viXra:1505.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 04:19:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The way creatures evolve in a quantum environment throws new light on the nature of life. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[744] **viXra:1505.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 17:19:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Time is something we are all familiar with but we struggle to define and understand. This paper introduces a novel treatment of time as a meta-property of the meta-universe that created all the baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy in the universe. However, when look at time from the perspective of time travel things appear to be easier to understand. According to Wheeler and Feynman antiparticles can be interpreted as particles with negative energy travelling backward in time. We see these time travellers as antiparticles simply because we are unable to move backward in time along with them. This means that time is not an illusion. But time travel has other mysteries waiting for us to discover.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[743] **viXra:1505.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 09:55:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[742] **viXra:1505.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-23 08:51:59*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 42 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

Under some well-defined conditions the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics enables physicists, chemists and other to calculate and predict the outcome of a vast number of experiments. In fact, especially the Schrödinger equation which involves an imaginary quantity describes how a quantum state of a physical system changes with time and is one of the main pillars of modern quantum mechanics. The wave function itself is a determining part of the Schrödinger equation, but the physical meaning of the wave function is still not clear. Altogether, does the wave function represent a new kind of reality? This publication will solve the problem of the physical meaning of the wave function by investigating the relationship between the wave function and the theory of special relativity. It is shown that the wave function is determined by notion co-ordinate time of the special theory of relativity. Moreover, the result of this investigation suggests a new understanding of the wave function, according to which the wave function and co-ordinate time of the theory of special relativity are equivalent. Apparently, based upon the close relationship between time and gravitational field and the normalized relativistic energy-momentum relation, this contribution provides a way to calculate the “mass-equivalent” of a photon in SI units as 7.372 503 726 490 51 * 10^-51 and the “mass-equivalent” of a graviton in SI units as 1.346053370*10^-136 . A necessary mathematical formalism for the quantization of the gravitational field is developed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[741] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 13:55:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is part of the quantum formulation of Einstein's theory of special relativity. The formulation is based on the assumption that both time and space are quantized. Thus, the Einstein's formula of length contraction, which is identical to the original Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction equation, is modified to account for the discrete nature of space. Although this formulation considers that both space and time are discrete physical entities, only the quantized nature of space will be considered in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[740] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 06:28:11*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format. The corresponding wave equation contains a striking curl term.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[739] **viXra:1505.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 18:55:47*

**Authors:** Lukas A. Saul

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment and the relevant predictions of quantum mechanics in theoretical and experimental forms are reinterpreted here with a locally realistic model. We demonstrate a consistent description based on probabilistic measurement for Mermin and Aspect EPR setups, and show how Bell's theorem applies. Quantum non-locality is shown to be an interpretation dependent on deterministic measurement and vanishes when a treatment of probabilistic measurement and relevant information theory is included.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[738] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 19:39:15*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the bases for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. At present there is a consensus among physicists that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including those of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement, is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts about the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's Inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell were intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[737] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 08:00:16*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and two hypotheses of quantum mechanics can be derived by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[736] **viXra:1505.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 06:49:16*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on exact theory of quantum transition and precise numerical calculations,
this paper demonstrates quantitatively that the Urbach tail in the
diagram of light absorption coefficient of semiconductor versus photon energy
are caused by energy nonconservation (ENC). This paper also points out
that the light absorption is a non-example of Fermi golden rule; due to ENC
the estimations on the dark energy and dark mass in our universe might be no
longer to have big significance; ENC is a non-example of the first and second
thermodynamic law.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[735] **viXra:1505.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-15 11:41:13*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

To demonstrate some of the laws of physics in the digital Universe Seth Lloyd, I will use two postulates. They are sufficient for the conclusions of some effects of quantum mechanics, relativity theory, holographic principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[734] **viXra:1505.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 15:28:08*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Comments welcome genebarbee@msn.com

Observations regarding unexpected connections in quantum mechanically entangled systems are revealing a new understanding of our position in the universe. Experiments known by the initials EPR (Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen) show a statistical correlation between separated particle properties. If two particles are produced with opposite spins and move in different directions, it is observed that changes induced in one particle cause immediate changes in its partner. The classic “dual slit experiment” demonstrates that quantum photons can either produce a spot pattern or an interference pattern depending on whether an observer can “measure” which of two slits the photon travels through. More recently, a Discovery Magazine article by Zeeva Merali (Aug 26, 2010) indicates that an entangled particle responds to future changes in its partner (called “back from the future” observations by Jack Sarfatti of Cornell University). The author discusses the implications of taking this data at face value. Three FQXi contest essays [5][6][9]lead up to what I believe to be the explanation for EPR results and back from the future observations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[733] **viXra:1505.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 07:38:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[732] **viXra:1505.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 02:34:18*

**Authors:** Chu-Jun Gu

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 3 figures

Abstract We propose a space-time interaction principle (StIP) which states any particle with mass m
will involve a random motion without friction, due to random impacts from space-time. Every impact changes the amount \hbar
for an action of the particle. According to the principle, firstly, we prove the interaction coefficient must be \Re=\frac{\hbar}{2m_{ST}}
deriving from Langevin's equation to the corresponding Fokker-Planck Hamiltonian, where m_{ST}
is a space-time sensible mass of the particle. We can derive that an equation of motion for the particle will be the Schr\ddot{o}
dinger equation, and prove that the space-time sensible mass m_{ST}
reduce to the inertial mass in the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Secondly, we show that there must exist the smallest mass \bar{m}_{ST}
as the minimum of space-time sensible mass, provided the speed of light in vacuum as the maximum speed due to the postulation of special relativity. Furthermore, we estimate a magnitude of this \bar{m}_{ST}
from microwave background radiation. Thirdly, an interpretation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is suggested, with a stochastic origin of Feynman's path integral formalism. It is shown that we can construct a physical picture distinct from Copenhagen interpretation, and reinvestigate the nature of space-time and reveal the origin of quantum behaviours from the materialistic point of view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[731] **viXra:1505.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 13:46:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[730] **viXra:1505.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 06:36:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[729] **viXra:1505.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 16:21:58*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we consider four versions of quantum mechanics (QM), which form four different theories and which have the same experimental consequences (one of them is the standard QM). We consider six fundamental problems as criteria for the evaluation of these theories. The most successful is the modified QM introduced in [1] and described in the axiomatic form in [2], which
solves all six problems. The least successful is the standard QM, which does not solve any of considered problems. (It seems that the standard QM is unable to solve any of these problems.) Other two theories solve some of problems and did not solve some other problems. On the base of this result we recommend to abandon the standard QM and to accept the modified QM as the right QM,
since both variants have the same experimental content and the differences rest only in theoretical considerations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[728] **viXra:1505.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-07 03:44:52*

**Authors:** Robert Mereau

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I determine how APST is accomplished through the effects of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, in the networks I previously determined.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[727] **viXra:1505.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 06:10:48*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[726] **viXra:1505.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 02:24:45*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The dielectric with index of refraction n is inserted in the Planck blackbody. The spectral
formula for photons in such dielectric medium and the equation for the temperature of
photons is derived. The new equation is solved for the constant index of refraction. The
photon flow
initiates the osmotic pressure of he Debye phonons. The dielectric crystal surface
works as the osmotic membrane with the Maxwell demonic refrigerator.
Key words: Thermodynamics, blackbody, photons, phonons, dielectric medium, dispersion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[725] **viXra:1505.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 17:16:03*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper introduces a new formula for the mass of the electron. The formula is based on the mass of the proton, the Planck mass and other fundamental physical constants. By calibrating the value of the Newton's gravitational constant so that to be G_calibrated = 6.67265565×10−11 N m^2/ Kg^2 we obtain the observed value for the mass of the electron. This result seems to indicate that the formula is a true law of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[724] **viXra:1505.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 02:03:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[723] **viXra:1505.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 18:05:21*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez nunez.

**Comments:** 21 Pages. This theory unifies the four forces, and can serach the maximun velocity of a neutrino.

This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence derives DEPENDABILITY universal, by the fact that unifies all the theories that exist, notably Einstein's general relativity and the theory of dynamic gravity of tesla, and among others

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[722] **viXra:1505.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 14:37:47*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Louis H. Kauffman, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, Peter Rowlands, Jean Pierre-Vigier

**Comments:** 26 Pages. From proceedings of the 7th symposium honoring J-P Vigier hels at Imperial College, London 2010

Recent attempts to consider isolated particles and real constitutive wave elements as localized,
extended spacetime structures (i.e., moving within time-like hypertubes or branes are developed within a causal
extension of the Feynman-Gell-Mann electron model. These extended structures contain real internal motions,
(i.e., internal hidden parameters) locally correlated with the "hidden parameters" describing the local collective
motions of the corresponding pilot-waves. Recent experimental evidence is briefly discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[721] **viXra:1505.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 06:41:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall ’91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11]
For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[720] **viXra:1504.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 10:08:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[719] **viXra:1504.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 12:00:18*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Entanglement is a special quantum state of two coupled particles: when the state of one changes, then changes the
state of the other. New research shows that this unique feature not only works through any distance, but also time.
This discovery changes some idea about quantum physics and is of practical importance. Quantum entanglement in
time may explain this effect as DEJAVU.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[718] **viXra:1504.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-25 05:11:40*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unfortunately the Bell's correlation formula violates the law of logic: it is not theoretically founded. Here is shown, that it hardly can be ever founded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[717] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 15:30:54*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[716] **viXra:1504.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 16:57:30*

**Authors:** Vedat Tanriverdi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. spin, quantum mechanics

The historical development of spin and Stern-Gerlach experiment are summarized.
Then some questions on spin are stated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[715] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 15:24:54*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 pages, in spanish

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then.
Results: Four solutions to the gravitomagnetic wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[714] **viXra:1504.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 11:41:04*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We study the relation between hidden variables theories and
quantum computation.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between a hidden variables theory and controllability of quantum computation.
To derive the inconsistency, we use the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We propose a solution of the problem by using new hidden variables theory.
Also
we discuss
an
inconsistency
between hidden variables theories and the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
hidden variables theories to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a specific case.
Hidden variables theories may not depicture quantum detector.
This is a quantum measurement theoretical profound problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[713] **viXra:1504.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:55:26*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new relativistic quantum wave equation has been derived by applying the quantum prescription to the momentum and the kinetic energy rather than to the momentum and the total energy, since after all it is the kinetic energy that generates the momentum. The resulting equation reduces to the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit and to the Klein-Gordon equation for “massless particles” in the relativistic limit, i.e., if the velocity of the particle approaches that of light, c. For massive particles in general, the new equation deviates from the Klein-Gordon equation. The same equation is shown to decouple according to the Dirac formalism, yielding a modified form of Dirac equation. When applied to a rest particle, the modified Dirac equation is shown to avoid a negative energy solution and instead include a constant solution. The other, the time-dependent particle solution of the modified Dirac equation, has the characteristic frequency Mc2/(ћ/2) , i.e., twice those of the Dirac solutions, Mc2/ћ.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[712] **viXra:1504.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 14:35:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I derive the lepto-baryonic formula for the electric charge. The formula is based on
the lepto-baryonic formula for the fine-structure constant that I published recently. This paper
shows that the electrical charge is a function of the ratio of the mass difference between the two
lightest charged leptons: the electron and the electrino; and the mass difference between the two
lightest baryons: the proton and the neutron. Thus the formula for the elementary charge is a
function of the mass of four elementary particles. Two of these particles (the electron and the electrino) control the sign of the electric charge. This allow us to derive the electric charge of the positron from the electric charge of the electron by interpreting the positron, as Feynman did, as an electron of negative energy travelling backward in time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[711] **viXra:1504.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 13:54:17*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article we consider the variant of quantum mechanics (QM) which is based on the non-realism. There exists the theory of the modified QM introduced in [1] and [2] which is based on the non-realism, but it contains also other changes with respect to the standard QM (stQM). We introduce here the other non-realistic modification of QM (n-rQM) which contains the minimal changes with respect to stQM. The change consists in the replacement of the von Neumann`s axiom (ensembles which are in the pure state are homogeneous) by the anti-von Neumann`s axiom (any two different individual states must be orthogonal). This introduces the non-realism into n-rQM. We shall show that experimental consequences of n-rQM are the same as in stQM, but these two theories are substantially different. In n-rQM it is not possible to derive (using locality) the Bell inequalities. Thus n-rQM does not imply the non-locality (in contrast with stQM). Because of this the locality in n-rQM can be restored. The main purpose of this article was to show what could be the minimal modification of QM based on the non-realism, i.e. that the realism of stQM is completely contained in the von Neumann's axiom.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[710] **viXra:1504.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 00:32:12*

**Authors:** Richard D. Gill

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper describes the first and second versions of Joy Christian's model for the singlet correlations, working through the mathematical core of two of Christian's shortest, least technical, and most accessible works. The aim of the paper is to show that from the start, the model depended both on a conceptual error and on an algebraic error. For this purpose we start by giving an introduction to geometric algebra using the fact that the basic geometric algebra of 3D geometry is actually isomorphic to the algebra of the complex two-by-two matrices over the real numbers. Thus the reader who is already familiar with the Pauli spin matrices will find him- or herself in a completely familiar environment. This helps avoid the kind of beginner's errors which plague Christian's opus, and gives rapid access to (and understanding of) the so-called bivector algebra: the even subalgebra of Cl_{3, 0}(R), itself isomorphic to the quaternions.
Getting the basic facts of geometric algebra out front and crystal clear helps demystify Christian's project and hopefully is useful in its own right. We will see how Christian apparently realised, if only at a subconscious level, that there was a major gap in his first, 2007, paper, and attempted to patch this in 2011, making things, however, only worse.
Apart from providing a quick-start guide to geometric algebra, and a hopefully very accessible post-mortem analysis of Christian's project, the purpose of the paper is to discuss the psychology and sociology of Bell deniers: how can very clever people make such elementary mistakes, and persist so long in maintaining their illusion that they have created a major breakthrough?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[709] **viXra:1504.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 11:43:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[708] **viXra:1504.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 06:34:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[707] **viXra:1504.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 04:33:14*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Old comment letter, placed up here to show ongoing struggle by author to understand FTL signaling, if it is at all possible.

The author muses on precursor ideas on a mechanism for superluminal signaling via entanglement correlation and comes to the conclusion that, whatever it is, it would be highly unusual, if superluminal signaling is to be believed. (Date of publication Sept/Oct 2011).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[706] **viXra:1503.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 15:52:01*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new quantum-cosmological principle that I shall call the 'electro-gravitational principle'. Based on this principle I shall derive a formula for the age of the Universe. The formula coincides with formula I published in a previous paper in 2014 and that I derived from the Scale Law. The age of the Universe obtained through this formulation agrees with the latest measurements carried out in 2013 by the Planck mission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[705] **viXra:1503.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-31 17:37:38*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with a new particle with a mass of
approximately 55.6 eV /c^2 . One of the possibilities is that this elusive particle to be
either a new type of neutrino or a completely new type of particle with sufficiently large abundance to account for most of the predicted dark matter content in the Universe. If this formulation were correct then the dark matter mystery, at least to a large extent, would have been solved.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[704] **viXra:1503.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:28:19*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Part 2 of the answer to the critique of Ghirardi.

This paper follows on from the author’s previous thoughts on the subject of the “No-communication Theorem” and Ghirardi’s critique of a communication scheme by the author and then his response to this. It is an addendum to lay bare the inadequate use of the formalism by Ghirardi, Hall et-al. To make our argument convincing, we find it necessary to explicitly lay out the machinery of the density matrix formulated argument, so that it can be seen by the incredulous, the gapping hole in the Ghirardi-Hall belief. We shall see that phase information, crucial to the interferometer setup in previous papers, is lost when: the joint evolution of the system is not considered, superposition is not explicitly brought in as an operation itself and finally, when the act of taking the reduced trace is taken too early (the act of exclusion of one system). This has lead to the limiting belief that components of entangled systems considered in isolation, are only ever in a mixed state. We shall see that when the reduced trace is taken at the right point in the analysis, phase information pertaining to the remote system is still present and this concurs with the state vector approach used to analyse the same problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[703] **viXra:1503.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 11:57:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[702] **viXra:1503.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 08:11:52*

**Authors:** Christina Munns

**Comments:** 24 Pages. All rights reserved 2013

ABSTRACT
ABSTRACT
This paper serves to explain how the four tensors within Einstein’s field equations (EFE) of scalar curvature, metric tensor, Ricci curvature tensor and stress-energy tensor can each be exactly correlated to the phenomena of unitary symmetry groups, quantum number, dark phenomena, 5D regular polytopes and universal number. The paper also explains how these four EFE tensors find expression in the Unified Standard Model which is the graphical depiction of Unified Field Theory. The conclusion is that the four tensors of Einstein’s field equations can now be applied to real life phenomena such as space, light, gravity and time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[701] **viXra:1503.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 06:24:19*

**Authors:** Nikolai V. Volkov

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Keywords: Virtual proper time – Virtual scalar-electric field - Elimination of the infrared catastrophe - Field origin of the electron mass - Single-particle wave Dirac equation.

With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the metric of the physical Minkowski
space we pass to the four-dimensional bimetric space-time. Now a complete description
of the occurring physical processes includes both physical (observable) and virtual
(unobservable) objects that enter in the physical expressions. In classical electrodynamics
this conversion leads to the appearance of the virtual scalar-electric field that complements
the physical electromagnetic field and is a massive in the presence of sources. This allows
to eliminate the infrared catastrophe and to proof the field origin of the virtual (bare)
electron mass and self-energy. With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the classical
quantum theory we obtain the single-particle wave Dirac equation for which the electron
wave function retains the simple probabilistic interpretation. In the single-particle Dirac
theory the virtual scalar-electric field shifts the physical energy levels for the hydrogen
atom in an external field and this leads to two additional amendments.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[700] **viXra:1503.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 19:06:38*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Constructing an E8 Based Standard Model (SM): An approach to a Theory of Everything (ToE)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[699] **viXra:1503.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 18:36:42*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Proof and apparatus showing No-communication Theorem is wrong.

This short letter is a response to an analysis by Ghirardi of a supposed flaw in a communication scheme involving entangled state collapse. We find his analysis entirely correct but missing the point, which is subtle, the no communication theorem merely expresses the truth of the locality of quantum state information on measurement but surprisingly says nothing about the particle being present or not by dint of the communication scheme itself. Ghirardi’s analysis using the density matrix approach does not deal correctly with the analysis of superposition in the interferometer and as such, doesn’t even correctly replicate the case for non-entanglement, as did the state vector method used by Cornwall.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[698] **viXra:1503.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-18 23:31:03*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We show that the complex number structure of the probability allows
to express explicitly the relationship between the energy function H and
the Laplace principle of equal ignorance (LPEI). This nonlinear relation-
ship reflecting the measurement properties of the considered systems, to-
gether with the principle of causality and Newton principle separating the
dynamics from initial conditions, lead to the linear Schrodinger equation
with the Max Born interpretation, for micro and macro systems!

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[697] **viXra:1503.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-16 17:22:51*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The formula presented in this paper predicts the masses of 17 baryons, one lepton and 6 other particles. The formula uses non-consecutive quantum numbers. The maximum accuracy of the formula is 3 decimal places and the minimum is 2. This paper predicts a new particle with a rest mass between 4557.2 MeV /c^2 and 4658.2 MeV /c^2 . The formula suggests the existence of a more general formula for the masses of all known particles, which is yet, to be discovered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[696] **viXra:1503.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 10:15:19*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven-page Letter

Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G . Tank showed that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle; and his unit of mass is a geometric-mean of two un-equal masses, namely total mass of the universe and the smallest conceivable mass h H0 / c2 ; so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of four fundamental-constants, ( h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant), so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different ones. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a strong possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[695] **viXra:1503.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 00:28:54*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

From the dichotomy "nonlocality vs non-realism" which is the consequence of Bell Inequalities (BI) we shall choose the non-realism. We shall present here the modified Quantum Mechanics (modQM) in the axiomatic form. ModQM was introduced in [5] and we shall show its non-realism in the description of an internal measurement process. ModQM allows the restoration of locality, since BI cannot be derived in it. In modQM it is possible to solve: the measurement problem, the collapse problem, the problem of a local model for EPR correlations (see[5]). ModQM is a unique explicit realization of non-realism in QM. ModQM should be preferred as an alternative to the standard QM mainly since it restores the locality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[694] **viXra:1503.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-13 10:09:11*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages. This is a valid unified theory

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[693] **viXra:1503.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-11 10:07:30*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I give a short explanation of how mathematics representing pure states
is logically distinct from mixed states. This is intended as understandable to the
undergraduate.
Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information,
prepared state, wave packet, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, mathematical
logic, arithmetic, formal system, axioms, Soundness Theorem, Completeness
Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, semantics, syntax.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[692] **viXra:1503.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 15:17:06*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted for Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest on Physics and Math, Feb. 4, 2015: http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2338

It is widely believed that mathematics provides the fundamental basis for physics. On the contrary, it is argued here that pictures of real objects moving in real space provide the proper basis for physics, and that mathematics merely provides quantitative models for calculating the dynamics of these objects. Such models may distort or even hinder the development of new physics, particularly if a consistent physical picture is lacking. This is discussed in connection with quantum mechanics, which discarded realism in favor of mathematical abstraction almost a century ago. A realistic, spin-quantized wave picture of quantum mechanics is presented that avoids the paradoxes and abstractions of the orthodox quantum theory. Quantum indeterminacy stems from an inappropriate application of a statistical point-particle model to extended soliton-like wave packets. Quantum transitions are continuous, rather than the abrupt transitions of the Hilbert space model. Quantum entanglement is an artifact of mathematical constructions incompatible with local realism. These are not merely matters of philosophical interpretation; several experimental implications are presented. It is time to remove the mathematical blinders that have prevented consideration of realistic quantum pictures.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[691] **viXra:1503.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-03 05:41:04*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We review the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.
We suggest that
the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm may
improve quantum key distribution.
Alice sends input $N$ partite uncorrelated state to
a black box. Bob measures output state.
Now, Alice and Bob has promised to use a function $f$
which is of one of two kinds; either the value of $f$ is constant or balanced.
To Eve, it is secret.
Alice's and Bob's goal is to determine with certainty whether they have
chosen a constant or a balanced function.
Alice and Bob get one bit if they determine the function $f$.
The speed to get one bit improves by a factor of $2^{N}$.
This may improve the speed to establish quantum key distribution by a factor of $2^{N}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[690] **viXra:1503.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-02 11:24:40*

**Authors:** Asim M. Babikr

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

● The theory in this stage is merely a proposal, an attempt to start looking and find the missing variables of Quantum Mechanics raised by Einstein in his papers, where he stated that "Quantum Mechanics is correct indeed, but it is not the complete way of describing reality", we try to continue after his footsteps here.
● I am not saying or considering the theory as an empirical fact yet, -even if the style of writing would give such an impression, the style meant to help readers to live the possibility of the hypothesis and also for the purpose of convergence of views- but what I'm really saying, it deserves the investigation.
● The theory is intending to build upon the current theories and complete them, and it is not intending to replace them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[689] **viXra:1503.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 14:18:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper explores the exponential formula for the fine-structure constant that I published in a
previous paper entitled: Exponential Formula for the Fine Structure Constant. Unlike the formula
presented there, this paper introduces an exact formula in terms of the masses of the two lightest
leptons: the electron and the electrino (new lepton); and the lightest baryons: the neutron and the proton. The electrino is a new lepton predicted by the author in a previous paper entitled: Is the Electron Unstable?. This investigation suggests that the mass of this particle, if exists, is 529.3 times lighter than that of the electron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[688] **viXra:1503.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 10:52:36*

**Authors:** V.Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The paper was published in the site vps137.narod.ru/phys/ at 20/01/2013.

In the frame of the model of 4D matter («4D medium» or «4D ether») it is given the description of some basic notions of the quantum mechanics such as the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg, the atomic spectrum, the wave function, the de Broglie's wave
and some other.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[687] **viXra:1502.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 10:45:13*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Single-page Note

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser forceps. To avoid this anomaly, new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can let the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2 , interfere in double-slit interference experiment. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at predictable points.
Detailed description will follow soon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[686] **viXra:1502.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 08:28:50*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we create a self similar
analogous image of spiral structure
of elementary particles with that of
sea shells, using the mathematical
description of pigmentation pattern
of sea shells, which describes the
various potentials of the spiral
structure of elementary particles. It
also introduces the sea shells
analogous parameters for spiral
structure of elementary particles for
quantising the property of the
elementary particles. It applies the
Reaction-Diffusion equation for
Activator-Inhibitor model to produce
the ingredient activated potential
which once after the formation of the
spiral structure of elementary
particles is being described by the
Activator- Substrate model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[685] **viXra:1502.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-27 12:17:17*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article applies a simplified calculation of the effect of quantum entanglement of virtual particles in vacuum on electron motion

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[684] **viXra:1502.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-25 05:38:39*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Templeton Prize winner wrote: „In the second half of the eighteenth century, the deterministic character of Newton’s equations encouraged many people to see the physical world in strictly mechanical terms, as if the universe is a gigantic piece of cosmic clockwork.” Such wrong view comes from the believe, that the energy and momentum are always conserve.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[683] **viXra:1502.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-24 12:21:26*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime of about 1.7645×1033 years.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[682] **viXra:1502.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-21 15:30:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of leptons.
After proposing a formula for the lifetime of the tau particle and following two rules, I build a formula for the lifetime of the muon. Based on these two formulas and based on the same rules, I derived the formula for the mean lifetime of the electron. The formula I found through this extrapolation process indicates that the electron is unstable and that its mean lifetime is, approximately, (π /2)×10^90 years, which is about 10^80 times the age of the universe. Thus according to this formulation the lifetime of the electron is extraordinarily long but not infinite as previously thought.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[681] **viXra:1502.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 15:15:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

For nearly half a century, theoretical physicists have made a series of discoveries that certain constants in fundamental physics seem extraordinarily fine-tuned to allow for the emergence of a life-enabling universe. [9]
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[680] **viXra:1502.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 09:35:01*

**Authors:** Lori-Anne Gardi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Yes

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[679] **viXra:1502.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-19 18:28:48*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we shall show that the standard derivation of the non-locality
contains the logical error which invalidates the whole derivation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[678] **viXra:1502.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 02:09:59*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Experimental realization of Gedanken experiments on Quantum Mechanics continue to suggest inferences of action at a distance, action into the future or past as reported in Delayed choice Quantum entanglement experiments recently by Ma et al (2012). Is it possible to read through this and investigate through simple logic and experiments whether control of the past or future is possible? A set of experiments are suggested here to do the same whose results may be interesting.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[677] **viXra:1502.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 09:10:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper introduces a new exponential formula for the fine-structure constant. This approximate
formula is expressed in terms of the masses of the electron, the neutron and the proton. The error of
the formula is less than 1%. This accuracy suggests that there is an unknown parameter which has not been taken into account.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[676] **viXra:1502.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 09:12:30*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is derived from a lepton mass factor, a Koidean ratio for quarks and a dimensionless factor based on the fine-structure constant. If this formula were correct it would prove a profound relationship between the masses of leptons and quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[675] **viXra:1502.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 17:41:53*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The possibility of the locality of quantum mechanics is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[674] **viXra:1502.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 23:08:31*

**Authors:** Chris Thron

**Comments:** 11 pages, 3 figures

For a general quantum theory that is describable by a path integral formalism, we construct a mathematical model of an accumulation-to-threshold process whose outcomes give predictions that are nearly identical to the given quantum theory. The model is neither local nor causal in spacetime, but is both local and causal is in a non-observable path space. The probabilistic nature of the squared wavefunction is a natural consequence of the model. We verify the model
with simulations, and we discuss possible discrepancies from conventional quantum theory that might be detectable via experiment. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of the model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[419] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 10:14:52*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

文中将研究一个具有量子化特征的特殊函数，和其所包含的物理学原理；量子理论中两个基本假设的形式可以通过这个特殊函数推导得到，特殊函数可以被应用到原子领域，最终发现并证明特殊函数与已知的库仑力形式相关，其揭示了量子化的真正本质。

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[418] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 06:42:42*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[417] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-17 05:20:54*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[416] **viXra:1506.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-15 11:59:46*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two quite different forms of differential calculus exist that both have physical significance. The most simple version is quaternionic differential calculus. Maxwell based differential calculus is based on the equations that Maxwell and others have developed in order to describe electromagnetic phenomena. Both approaches can be represented by four-component “fields” and four-component differential operators. Both approaches result in a dedicated non-homogeneous wave equation. These wave equations differ and offer solutions that differ in details.
Maxwell based differential calculus uses coordinate time t, where quaternionic differential calculus uses proper time τ. The consequence is that also the interpretation of speed differs between the two approaches. A more intriguing fact is that these differences involve a different space-progression model and different charges and currents. The impact of these differences are not treated in this paper.
Physics formulated in Maxwell based differential calculus differs from physics formulated in quaternionic differential calculus. This choice influences the description of physical reality. It cannot not influence physical reality.
Quaternionic differential calculus fits better with the application of Hilbert spaces in quantum physics than Maxwell based differential calculus. However, Maxwell based differential calculus is the general trend in current physical theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[415] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 13:34:35*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The theory presented here is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's
special theory of relativity. I shall derive two new relativistic formulas. Firstly, based on 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational length contraction equation introduced without proof in Part I. Secondly, based on 'quantum time interval to classical time interval transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational time dilation equation. I have shown, in Part I, that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate, and consequently, a new quantum gravitational equation was introduced. If the second postulate I put forward in Part I turns out to be correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction counterpart. On the other hand, Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This means that when we apply the same technique to time we obtain a new time dilation formula that differs from that of Einstein. But then the question arises: which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that I do not have solid arguments in favour of either of them, except for a feeling in favour of Einstein's equation. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question beyond reasonable doubt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[414] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 12:07:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory presented here is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. I shall derive two new relativistic formulas. Firstly, based on 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational length contraction equation introduced without proof in Part I. Secondly, based on 'quantum time interval
to classical time interval transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational time dilation equation. I have shown, in Part I, that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate, and consequently, a new quantum gravitational equation was introduced. If the second postulate I put forward in Part I turns out to be correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction
counterpart. On the other hand, Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time
quantization postulate. This means that when we apply the same technique to time we obtain a new time dilation formula that differs from that of Einstein. But then the question arises: which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that I do not have solid arguments in favour of either of them, except for a feeling in favour of Einstein's equation. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question beyond reasonable doubt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[413] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-18 15:11:43*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory presented here is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. I shall derive two new relativistic formulas. Firstly, based on 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational length contraction equation introduced without proof in Part I. Secondly, based on 'quantum time interval
to classical time interval transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational time dilation equation. I have shown, in Part I, that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate, and consequently, a new quantum gravitational equation was introduced. If the second postulate I put forward in Part I turns out to be correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction
counterpart. On the other hand, Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time
quantization postulate. Thus means that when we apply the same technique to time we obtain a new time dilation formula that differs from that of Einstein. But then the question arises: which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that I do not have solid arguments in favour of either of them, except for a feeling in favour of Einstein's equation. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question beyond reasonable doubt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[412] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-15 12:19:16*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. Based on new and simple 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive two formulas: (a) the quantum gravitational length contraction formula, introduced without proof in Part I; and (b) the quantum gravitational time dilation formula. In Part I, I showed that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate and therefore a new quantum gravitational equation was required. If the second postulate introduced in Part I is correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction counterpart. In contrast I showed that the Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This is a striking difference between space and time. However, if we apply the 'quantum time to classical time transformations', we obtain a new formula for time dilation. But then the question arises of which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that we do not have any arguments to deciding which of the two time dilation formulas should be the preferred one. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[411] **viXra:1506.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-10 07:35:43*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The non-locality of quantum mechanics continues to be an unexplainable phenomenon. In a previous paper [1] I utilized a recently proposed relativity theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) to account, both qualitatively and quantitatively for the entanglement in an EPR type experiment. IR rests on two well accepted propositions: The relativity axiom, plus an axiom specifying the information carrier and its velocity. The theory is deterministic and local. It is also complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. Contrary to special relativity which predicts that an object's length will always contract along the direction of its relative motion with respect to an observer, IR predicts length contraction for approaching bodies and length stretching for departing bodies. In the present paper I demonstrate that IR is also successful in explaining and predicting de Broglie's matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, and the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Quite strikingly, I found that the critical "stretch" associated with a particle's wave phase transition is equal to the critical value of de Broglie wave length ζ(3/2) ≈ 2.612, where ζ(x) is the Riemann zeta function. This result enables to calculate the Planck's constant, the corner stone of all quantum mechanics, based on a completely deterministic and local theory. The unavoidable conclusion of the present analysis is that Einstein's intuition that "God does not play dice" is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[410] **viXra:1506.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-30 21:49:34*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Refuted on arXiv

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that the Callen-Welton derivation has conceptual errors such as neglecting phonon scattering, disregarding the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and using bosonic (linear oscillator) energies leading to the zero-point noise artifact. Following Kleen's proposal, the possible origin of the heterodyne (Koch - van Harlingen - Clark) experimental results are also discussed in terms of Heffner theory of quantum noise of frequency/phase-sensitive linear amplifiers. Experiments that failed to see the zero-point noise term are also mentioned.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[409] **viXra:1505.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-23 01:22:23*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The variables and parameters of the presented model for the generation of an arbitrary photon fit like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle and therefor justify the conclusion that the model eliminates the wave-particle duality of the photon by explicitly excluding the possibility that it can be a (massless) particle too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[408] **viXra:1505.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 12:03:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is something we are all familiar with but we struggle to define and understand. This paper introduces a novel treatment of time as a meta-property of the meta-universe that created all the baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy in the universe. However, when look at time from the perspective of time travel things appear to be easier to understand. According to Wheeler and Feynman antiparticles can be interpreted as particles with negative energy travelling backward in time. We see these time travellers as antiparticles simply because we are unable to move backward in time along with them. This means that time is not an illusion. But time travel has other mysteries
waiting for us to discover.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[407] **viXra:1505.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-18 15:08:10*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Time is something we are all familiar with but we struggle to define and understand. This paper introduces a novel treatment of time as a meta-property of the meta-universe that created all the baryonic matter, dark matter and dark energy in the universe. However, when look at time from the perspective of time travel things appear to be easier to understand. According to Wheeler and Feynman antiparticles can be interpreted as particles with negative energy travelling backward in time. We see these time travellers as antiparticles simply because we are unable to move backward in time along with them. This means that time is not an illusion. But time travel has other mysteries waiting for us to discover.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[406] **viXra:1505.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-27 04:24:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[405] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 12:00:03*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the first part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The formulation is based on two postulates which take into account the discrete nature of space and time. Because the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formula violates the space quantization postulate, this formula is modified to avoid the violation. However Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This
seems to indicate that we cannot treat time the same way we treat space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[404] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-06 12:12:07*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the first part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The formulation is based on two postulates which take into account the discrete nature of space and time. Because the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formula violates the space quantization postulate, this formula is modified to avoid the violation. However Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This
seems to indicate that we cannot treat time the same way we treat space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[403] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-02 13:00:41*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. If we use proper time rather than coordinate time, then these equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format. The equation for the electron and the equation for the positron differ in the sign of a curl term. This means that the solutions differ in the handedness of the external vector product. This results in special considerations for the corresponding quaternionic wave equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[402] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-22 10:55:58*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format. The equation for the electron and the equation for the positron differ in the sign of a curl term. This results in a special way for constructing the corresponding wave equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[401] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-22 04:36:52*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[400] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 13:12:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[399] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 21:36:09*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms, or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the basis for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. The current consensus among physicists is that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including the reasoning and intuitions of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper, I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts on the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell are intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[398] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 15:43:51*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms, or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the basis for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. The current consensus among physicists is that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including the reasoning and intuitions of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper, I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts on the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell are intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[397] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 07:10:44*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and the difficult of quantum mechanics can be solved by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[396] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-17 23:51:26*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and the difficult of quantum mechanics can be solved by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[395] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-13 21:46:31*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and two hypotheses of quantum mechanics can be derived by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[394] **viXra:1505.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-16 15:58:33*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper introduces a new quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron. The formula is based on the mass of the proton, the Planck mass and other fundamental physical constants. When we calibrate the value of Newton's gravitational constant to G_calibrated = 6.67265565×10^−11 N m^2/Kg^2, we obtain the observed value for the mass of the electron. The fact that the calibrated value is very close to the value published by NIST in 1986: G_NIST 1986 = 6.67259×10^−11 N m^2/Kg^2, suggests that the formula presented in this paper is a true
law of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[393] **viXra:1505.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-02 13:05:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall ’91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[392] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-01 11:58:44*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. arxiv link added

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[391] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-27 13:24:20*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. small polishing of text

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[390] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-23 14:48:05*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. date of version and vixra link added

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[389] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-29 03:03:32*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 pages, in spanish

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then. Results: Four solutions to the gravitational wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[388] **viXra:1504.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-05 09:31:28*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[387] **viXra:1504.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-18 06:52:35*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[386] **viXra:1504.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 08:09:15*

**Authors:** Richard D. Gill

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Revised version: added discussion of Doran and Lasenby's attempt to geometrize quantum information; more neutral, less extensive, evaluation of Christian's model

Geometric algebra has been proposed as an alternative framework to the quantum mechanics of interacting qubits in a number of pioneering papers by Chris Doran, Anthony Lasenby and others, building on the foundations laid by David Hestenes. This line of work is summarised in two chapters of the book Doran and Lasenby (2003). Since then however, the approach has been pretty much completely neglected, with one exception: in 2007 Joy Christian published the first of a series of works, culminating in a book Christian (2014), which took off in a completely different direction: he claimed to have refuted Bell's theorem and to have obtained a local realistic model of the famous singlet correlations by taking account of the geometry of space, as expressed through geometric algebra. His geometric algebraic model of the singlet correlations is completely different from that of Doran and Lasenby.
One of the aims of the paper is to explore geometric algebra as a tool for quantum information and to explain why it did not live up to its early promise. The short answer is: because the mapping between 3D geometry and the mathematics of one qubit is already thoroughly understood, while the extension to a system of entangled qubits does not bring in new geometric insights but on the contrary merely reproduces the usual complex Hilbert space approach in a slightly clumsy way. We also work through the mathematical core of two of Christian's shortest, least technical, and most accessible works (Christian 2007, 2011), exposing both a conceptual and an algebraic error at their heart.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[385] **viXra:1503.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 14:19:11*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new quantum-cosmological principle that I shall call the
'electro-gravitational principle'. Based on this principle I shall derive a formula for the age of the Universe. The formula coincides with formula I published in a previous paper in 2014 and that I derived from the Scale Law. The age of the Universe obtained through this formulation agrees with the latest measurements carried out in 2013 by the Planck
mission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[384] **viXra:1503.0272 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 14:22:07*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the prediction of a new particle with a mass of approximately 55.6 eV/c^2 . The prediction is based on a new equation that I called: the fermionic “alpha” formula. This elusive particle could be either a new type of neutrino or a completely new type of neutral particle with sufficiently large abundance to account for most of the observed dark matter content in the Universe. If this formulation is correct then the dark matter mystery, at least to a large extent, would have been solved.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[383] **viXra:1503.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-18 08:49:56*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Eight-page final version

Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G . Tank showed that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle; and his unit of mass is a geometric-mean of two un-equal masses, namely total mass of the universe and the smallest conceivable mass h H0 / c2 ; so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of four fundamental-constants, ( h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant), so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different ones. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a strong possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[382] **viXra:1503.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:42:58*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[381] **viXra:1503.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-04 17:15:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I estimate the mass of the electrino (new lepton) through two formulas. The first formula we shall explore is the lepto-baryonic formula for the fine-structure constant which I published in a previous paper entitled: Exponential Formula for the Fine Structure Constant. Unlike the formula presented there, this paper introduces an exact formula which is given as a function of the masses of the two lightest charged leptons: the electron and the electrino; and the lightest baryons: the neutron and the proton. The second formula we shall explore is the “alpha-23” formula for the mass of the electron. Both formulas suggest the existence of a new super-light lepton which I have called: electrino. I predicted the existence of this particle in a previous paper entitled: Is the Electron Unstable?. This investigation suggests that the mass of the electrino, if this elusive particle exists, must have a value between me /529.3 and me /517.8 approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[380] **viXra:1502.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 09:57:32*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page final version

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle [1], both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps [2]. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable simultaneously! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser tweezers. Based on this observation a new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can carefully observe the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at deterministically predictable points.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[379] **viXra:1502.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-01 08:38:26*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two-page Letter

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser forceps. To avoid this anomaly, new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can let the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2 , interfere in double-slit interference experiment. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at predictable points.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[378] **viXra:1502.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-02 01:50:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Templeton Prize winner wrote: „In the second half of the eighteenth century, the deterministic character of Newton’s equations encouraged many people to see the physical world in strictly mechanical terms, as if the universe is a gigantic piece of cosmic clockwork.” Such wrong view comes from the believe, that the energy and momentum are always conserve.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[377] **viXra:1502.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-28 15:51:17*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime between 5×10^34 and 7×10^34 years, approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[376] **viXra:1502.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-25 16:53:40*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of leptons
(except neutrinos). Based on the hydrogen unit of time and following two simple rules I propose a formula for the lifetime of the tau particle. Then, based on the same rules I derive a formula for the lifetime of the muon. Finally, based on the two previous formulas and on the same rules, I derive the formula for the mean lifetime of the electron. The formula I found through this extrapolation process indicates that the electron is unstable and that its mean lifetime is, approximately, (π /2)×10^90 years, which is about 10^80 times the age of the universe. Thus according to this formulation the lifetime of the
electron is extraordinarily long but not infinite as previously thought. This is in accordance with the author's belief that all matter is unstable.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[375] **viXra:1502.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-15 11:49:54*

**Authors:** Lori-Anne Gardi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The challenge of this essay was to demonstrate that the units of Planck’s constant are not [J x s]. Borrowing from the logic of the calibration, an attempt was made to find a complete set of small scale measuring sticks for each of time, space, mass, charge and temperature. This however was not possible unless we let the units of Planck’s constant be [J]. It appears that Planck et al forgot to incorporate measure-time into the famous energy equation, E = hν. The extra unit of [s] that is normally assigned to h actually belongs to a previously hidden measure-time variable. This logic suggests that Planck’s constant is an energy constant and not an action constant. After correcting this error, a complete set of unit measuring sticks, calibrated to the time scale of the cycle was calculated. A self-similar unit set was then calibrated to the time scale of the second. The scalability and self-similarity of these unit sets opens the door to the fractal paradigm, one of the main motivations for this research. This small change to the units of Planck’s constant has far reaching implications. All equations that contain h need to be reevaluated. All interpretations founded in unit analysis need to be reexamined. Much work still needs to be done to vindicate this approach.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[374] **viXra:1502.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-06 14:41:14*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is derived from a lepton mass factor, a Koidean ratio for
quarks and a dimensionless factor based on the fine-structure constant. If this formula were
found to be correct it would prove a profound relationship between the masses of leptons and
quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[373] **viXra:1502.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-26 11:51:54*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is derived from a lepton mass factor, a Koidean ratio for quarks and a dimensionless factor based on the fine-structure constant. If this formula were correct it would prove a profound relationship between the masses of leptons and quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[372] **viXra:1502.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-15 12:47:00*

**Authors:** Christopher Thron

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

For a general quantum theory that is describable by a path integral formalism, we construct a mathematical model of an accumulation-to-threshold process whose outcomes give predictions that are nearly identical to the given quantum theory. The model is neither local nor causal in spacetime, but is both local and causal is in a non-observable path space. The probabilistic nature of the squared wavefunction is a natural consequence of the model. We verify the model with simulations, and we discuss possible discrepancies from conventional quantum theory that might be detectable via experiment. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of the model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics