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Any replacements are listed further down

[832] **viXra:1508.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-29 04:42:22*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What is the cause of the masses of particles? Clearly an enigmatic question. This paper proposes that it could be the result of the loss of energy with collisions of particles. When particles collide, velocities change, and then there is always a sum loss of energy in the particles. If this energy loss is in seven dimensions, thirteen dimensions, or whatever, it makes the discovery of the mechanism more difficult. Herein we show how this particle collision could cause the mass of particles as we know them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[831] **viXra:1508.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-29 05:23:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[830] **viXra:1508.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 11:53:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The pursuit of an understanding of the base machinery of the mind led early researchers to anatomical exhaustion. With neuroscience now in the throes of molecular mayhem and a waning biochemical bliss, physics is spicing things up with a host of eclectic quantum, spin, and isotopic novelties. While increases in electron spin content have been linked to anesthetic effects, nuclear spins have recently been implicated in a more rarefied and subtle phenomenon— neural quantum processing. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[829] **viXra:1508.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-27 03:30:07*

**Authors:** Mojtaba Mahmoudi Fard

**Comments:** 6 pages

It is thought that in accordance with the quantum uncertainty, energy could be extracted from the empty space. However, space nowadays could be considered as a material sui generis entity, a collection of indivisible small particles, and in a grainy fabric. So this paper asserts that the vacuum is not a concept other than the space-time itself related to its microscopic structure and the underlying ether.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[828] **viXra:1508.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 13:44:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6]
Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[827] **viXra:1508.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-25 13:46:36*

**Authors:** Kunle Adegoke, Henry Otobrise, Tolulope Famoroti, Adenike Olatinwo, Afees Tiamiyu, Funmi Akintujoye

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

We give an explicit matrix representation for the Hamiltonian of the Ising model in mutually orthogonal external magnetic fields, using as basis the eigenstates of a system of non-interacting spin~$1/2$ particles in external magnetic fields. We subsequently apply our results to obtain an analytical expression for the ground state energy per spin, to the fourth order in the exchange integral, for the Ising model in perpendicular external fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[826] **viXra:1508.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 11:14:35*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article criticises the phenomenon “wave-like-behaviour” of matter and shows that the Davisson-Germer experiment, considered as the validation of De Broglie’s hypothesis, can be interpreted in another way too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[825] **viXra:1508.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-24 03:29:59*

**Authors:** Amrit Sorli

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Idea that time can have origin in entanglement is based on the preposition that “internal observer”, “external observer”, “coordinate time” and “proper time” are theoretical models of the world which have counterpart in physical universe. Bijective epistemology based on bijective function of set theory confirms these models have no counterpart in physical universe; they are pure theoretical inventions on which we cannot build a consistent scientific theory. Idea that time could have origin in entanglement has no enough theoretical and experimental basis to be taken seriously as an adequate model of physical world.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[824] **viXra:1508.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-23 10:03:40*

**Authors:** PV Raktoe

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper discribes several mistakes in (theoretical) physics, it explains why most mysteries in the universe cannot be solved. Scientists claim that a black hole is massive, but there is no proof that it is. They think a black hole is massive because they think it needs to be (because of Einstein's gravity), otherwise the stars wouldn't stay in their orbit. They looked at the stars and their speed and used mathematics to calculate how massive a black hole needed to be, but if there is no proof that a black hole is massive you also need to look at another option; an empty black hole. A massive black hole remains a mystery because they cannot see what's inside, but when you remove that mass it's not a mystery anymore. But more important, the origin of gravity reveals itself. And once you understand what gravity is, you will immediately understand that most mysteries in space are in fact man-made. You will find that Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, massive black holes, dark matter and dark energy don't exist, and that is why they cannot find or explain it. You will find that some mysteries can easily be solved, because you will understand what the universe is.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[823] **viXra:1508.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 10:24:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

One thing that all chemical reactions have in common—whether they are the reactions that take place inside a battery, the metabolic reactions inside a living organism, or the combustion reactions that cause an explosion—is that they all involve some kind of change in energy. On a large scale, the changes in energy of a reaction can usually be measured in various ways for practical purposes, but attempting to understand the fundamental origins of this energy at smaller and smaller scales becomes more complicated, especially as chemistry enters the quantum realm. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[822] **viXra:1508.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-22 08:19:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Per Delsing and his team want to combine theoretical calculations with experiments on superconducting circuits to gain an understanding of how things fit together at the nano level. Among other things, they plan to simulate objects that move very rapidly, almost at the speed of light, and demonstrate the "twin paradox" on a microchip. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[821] **viXra:1508.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 06:44:30*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Unification of strong force, weak force, and electromagnetism is provided via higgs mechanism. Thus, gluons, W+, W-, and Z particles can acquire mass. All green related gluons then have mass. This theory links U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) for a general unification theory which extends from Weinberg's electroweak interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[820] **viXra:1508.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-21 13:16:51*

**Authors:** Antonio Cardoso

**Comments:** 6 pages, 1 figure

In this paper we discuss a recent double-slit experiment where which-path information is obtained without disturbing the photons in their path to the detector, and, as a consequence, an interference pattern is observed on the far screen even if it is known which slit the photons go through. We argue that this result is in clear contradiction with a fundamental principle in orthodox quantum mechanics – Bohr’s complementarity principle – and also point out that, on the other hand, the results of this experiment are the expected ones in the framework of de Broglie’s pilot wave theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[819] **viXra:1508.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 20:27:34*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this note we shall show that the proof of the nonlocality of Quantum Mechanics given in [1] contains a gap. We also show that Bell inequalities cannot be derived in the modified QM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[818] **viXra:1508.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-18 15:39:33*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The mass ratio calculation for the elementary particles of the proton, electron, muon, and tau(tauon) are shown below. It is shown that these particles are all ratios with the neutron. It is shown that the electron, muon, and tau are all derived from the proton neutron mass ratio. It is shown that the muon and tau are complimentary lepton particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[817] **viXra:1508.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 06:38:09*

**Authors:** A. Furtado Neto

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Speed of the wavefunction collapse is calculated assuming the universe is a vast cellular
automaton.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[816] **viXra:1508.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 07:46:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[815] **viXra:1508.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 08:02:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

It is unusual for a pure-theory physics paper to make it into the journal Science. So when one does, it’s worth a closer look. In the new study, researchers bring together one of physics' most venerable set of equations – those of James Clerk’s Maxwell’s famous theory of light – with one of the hot topics in modern solid-state physics: the quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[814] **viXra:1508.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 05:03:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

For any computer, being able to manipulate information is essential, but for quantum computing, singling out one data location without influencing any of the surrounding locations is difficult. Now, a team of Penn State physicists has a method for addressing individual neutral atoms without changing surrounding atoms. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[813] **viXra:1508.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 06:56:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We often use phrases such as “think from the head” and “feel from the heart” which implies that the brain does all the logical thinking and our heart is where we respond from emotionally. The logical mind often takes control over the best of us and very rarely do we understand the power we hold within our hearts. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[812] **viXra:1508.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-14 03:05:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Bristol in the UK and Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) in Japan, have pulled off the same feat for light in the quantum world by developing an optical chip that can process photons in an infinite number of ways. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[811] **viXra:1508.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-13 14:43:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A team of physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated a new quantum computation scheme in which operations occur without a well-defined order. The researchers led by Philip Walther and Caslav Brukner used this effect to accomplish a task more efficiently than a standard quantum computer. Moreover, these ideas could set the basis for a new form of quantum computing, potentially providing quantum computers with an even larger computational speed-up. Their results will be published in an upcoming issue of "Nature Communications". [8]
Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[810] **viXra:1508.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-11 10:34:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

MIT physicists have created a superfluid gas, the so-called Bose-Einstein condensate, for the first time in an extremely high magnetic field. The magnetic field is a synthetic magnetic field, generated using laser beams, and is 100 times stronger than that of the world's strongest magnets. Within this magnetic field, the researchers could keep a gas superfluid for a tenth of a second—just long enough for the team to observe it. The researchers report their results this week in the journal Nature Physics. [9]
Phonons—the elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound—have magnetic properties, according to a landmark study supported by Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) services and recently published by a researcher group from The Ohio State University. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[809] **viXra:1508.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-10 08:42:29*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In intimate cooperation, symmetry centers and coherent stochastic mechanisms recurrently recreate elementary physical objects. Symmetry centers are dedicated subspaces of separable quaternionic Hilbert spaces. As such they are no more and no less than structured storage places that feature special properties. The coherent stochastic mechanisms are the actors that generate and control coherent dynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[808] **viXra:1508.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-10 09:43:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The work in correlated electrons looks at a subset of electrons. Metals, as an example, have an unfilled outermost orbital and electrons are free to move from atom to atom. Thus, metals are good electrical conductors. When metal atoms are tightly packed into lattices (or crystals) these electrons mingle together into a "sea" of electrons. The metallic element mercury is liquid at room temperature, in part due to its electron configuration, and shows very little resistance to electric current due to its electron configuration. At 4 degrees above absolute zero (just barely above -460 degrees Fahrenheit), mercury's electron arrangement and other properties create communal electrons that show no resistance to electric current, a state known as superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[807] **viXra:1508.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-09 00:27:15*

**Authors:** Peter F Coin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Rough draft "paper" to present this idea. Needs love.

A popular objection to the Many-worlds interpretation of Quantum Mechanics is that it allows for quantum suicide where an experimenter creates a device that instantly kills him or leaves him be depending the output of a quantum measurement, since he has no experience of the device killing him he experiences quantum immortality. This is considered counterintuitive and absurd. Presented here is a speculative argument that accepts counterintuitiveness and proposes it as a new approach to physical theory without accepting some of the absurd conclusions of the thought experiment. The approach is based on the idea that the Universe is Fragile in that only a fraction of the time evolved versions retain the familiar structures of people and planets, but the fractions that do not occur are not observed. This presents to us as a skewed view of physics and only by accounting for this fact (which I propose calling the Continual Anthropic Principle) can we understand the true fundamental laws.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[806] **viXra:1508.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-05 13:44:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[805] **viXra:1508.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-03 05:40:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Using a magnetic field, internal states of each ion are tailored to represent a qutrit, with a (+) state, (-) state and (0) state denoting the three available energy levels. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[804] **viXra:1508.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 04:20:23*

**Authors:** Richard D. Gill

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Also posted on arXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.00106

In this note, I analyse the data generated by M. Fodje’s simulation programs epr-simple and epr-clocked using appropriate modified Bell-CHSH type inequalities: the Larsson detection loophole adjusted CHSH, and the Larsson-Gill coincidence loophole adjusted CHSH. The experimental efficiencies turn out to be η ≈ 81% and γ ≈ 55% respectively, and the observed value of CHSH is (of course) well within the adjusted bounds.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[803] **viXra:1508.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-02 06:13:26*

**Authors:** Binyamin Tsadik

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What if we were not actually testing spin, but aligning our measuring system to detect a specific spin.
This is possible in DTL because we postulate that spin is really just particle phase relationships and not exclusively a pole/dipole moment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[802] **viXra:1508.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-01 11:16:30*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We present here our quantum propagation and entanglement system for virtual reality remote
space computers and TVs with photonic displays in laser activated imagery. This concept is
based on 1935 Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument in Quantum Theory. Einstein maintains
(Bacciagaluppi and Valentini 2009, p. 488) “the interpretation, according to which |ψ|² expresses
the probability that this particle is found at a given point, assumes an entirely peculiar
mechanism of action at a distance, which prevents the wave continuously distributed in space
from producing an action in two places on the screen. Einstein continues: “in my opinion, one
can remove this objection only in the following way, that one does not describe the process
solely by the Schrödinger wave, but that at the same time one localizes the particle during
propagation

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[801] **viXra:1507.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-30 09:37:56*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper the design and coding of a local hidden variables model is presented that violates the CHSH criterion in size larger than $1+\sqrt{2}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[800] **viXra:1507.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-28 07:24:38*

**Authors:** Jacob Biemond

**Comments:** 12 Pages, including 2 tables

An expression for the magnetic moment of a massive Dirac neutrino was deduced in the context of the electroweak interactions at the one-loop level in 1977. A linear dependence on the neutrino mass was found. In addition, a magnetic moment for a massive neutrino arising from gravitational origin is predicted by the so-called Wilson-Blackett law. The latter relation may also be deduced from a gravitomagnetic interpretation of the Einstein equations. Both formulas for the magnetic moment can be combined, yielding the value of the neutrino mass.

The gravitomagnetic moment, i.e., the magnetic moment from gravitational origin, may contain different *g*-factors for the massive neutrino eigenstates *m*_{1}, *m*_{2} and *m*_{3}, respectively. Starting from the Dirac equation, a *g*-factor *g* = 2 has been deduced for a neutrino in first order, related to the derivation of the g-factor of charged leptons. When a value *g* = 2 is inserted, a value 1.530 meV results for the lightest neutrino mass *m*_{1}, the main result of this work. In addition, the remaining neutrino masses can be calculated from observed neutrino oscillations.

Our results for the neutrino masses are compatible with the three-parameter semi-empirical neutrino mass formulas obtained by Królikowski. In addition, an empirical relation between the three neutrino masses proposed by Sazdović yields neutrino masses in fair agreement with our results.

[799] **viXra:1507.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-24 05:04:06*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

By starting from a quaternionic separable Hilbert space as a base model the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of the electric charge and the electric fields. Also other discrete properties such as color charge and spin are considered.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus rather than Maxwell based differential calculus.
The paper presents fields as mostly continuous quaternionic functions. The electric field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[798] **viXra:1507.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-23 14:52:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A big part of the burgeoning science of quantum computation is reliably storing and processing information in the form of quantum bits, or qubits. One of the obstacles to this goal is the difficulty of preserving the fragile quantum condition of qubits against unwanted outside influence even as the qubits interact among themselves in a programmatic way. [8]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[797] **viXra:1507.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-22 20:25:03*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Interference experiments with only one photon in the experiment at a time have also showed interference patterns. A previous paper that studied photon diffraction and interference (IntellectualArchive, Vol.1, No. 3, P. 20, ISSN 1929-4700, Toronto, July 2012.) required several photons in the experiment at the same time. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of photon, plenum, screen and mask; the Bohm Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics; and the Transaction Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics are combined. The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of photons/light. The reverse wave required by the Transaction Interpretation is provided by a reflected plenum wave rather than a reverse time wave. The photon distribution on a screen results in an intensity pattern well fit by the Fraunhofer diffraction equation. The resultant mathematical model corresponds to the Fraunhofer mathematical model without the peculiar assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[796] **viXra:1507.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 10:51:52*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Volume 3, No.7 (2015), Page 898--902.

We investigate the violation factor of the original Bell-Mermin inequality.
Until now, we have used an assumption
that the results of measurement are $\pm 1$.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows:
$2^{(n-2)/2}(n={\rm even})$ and $2^{(n-1)/2}(n={\rm odd})$.
The quantum predictions by $n$-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger
state violate
the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with $n$.
Recently, a new measurement theory is proposed
[{K. Nagata and T. Nakamura,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)}].
The values of measurement outcome are $\pm 1/\sqrt{2}$.
Here we use the new measurement theory.
We consider a multipartite GHZ state.
We use the original Bell-Mermin inequality.
It turns out that the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied irrespective of the number of particles.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows:
$1/2(n={\rm even})$ and $1/\sqrt{2}(n={\rm odd})$.
Thus the original
Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied by the new measurement theory.
We propose the following conjecture: {\it All
the two-orthogonal-settings experimental correlation functions
admit local realistic theories irrespective of a state
if we use the new measurement theory.}

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[795] **viXra:1507.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-21 08:07:57*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note we shall give the simple formulation of the local explanation of EPR correlations [1] based on [2]. We also show that Bell inequalities cannot be derived in the modified Quantum Mechanics (QM).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[794] **viXra:1507.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 13:33:19*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We present here our quantum propagation system for virtual reality remote space computers and TVs with photonic displays in laser activated imagery.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[793] **viXra:1507.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 09:33:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research.
The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[792] **viXra:1507.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-17 09:44:22*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We discuss the three options: the psi-ontic position, the psi-epistemic position and the novel psi-hybrid position.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[791] **viXra:1507.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 16:40:17*

**Authors:** Antonio Cardoso

**Comments:** 5 pages, 1 figure. Talk given at the International Symposium - Eurhythmy, Complexity and Rationality in an Interdisciplinary Perspective

In this paper we will discuss a recent double-slit experiment with quantum particles where an interference pattern is observed even when which-path information is available, and argue that this result is in clear contradiction with orthodox quantum mechanics but perfectly understandable in the framework of a nonlinear quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[790] **viXra:1507.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-16 05:46:38*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Our quantum harmonics electronic system will be based on jump-resonance phenomena of nonlinear feedback control systems of any order. The nonlinearities are those whose outputs are single-valued odd functions of the inputs and are independent of frequencies of the photonic inputs. The general conditions under which jump-resonance occurs will be given and the system with saturation nonlinearity will be analyzed. The essential objective is to define the contours on the complex plane for the constant values of system variables, e.g., input amplitude, amplitude ratio, and phase shift.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[789] **viXra:1507.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-15 14:55:08*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics (QM) is primarily a probabilistic theory. The standard Kolmogorov probability theory is not suitable for this goal since it does not offer the possibility of the reversible time evolution. This implies the need to construct a new probability theory which is able to model the reversible time evolution. I have proposed such an Extended probability theory. The main goal of this project is to understand what QM is. In this note I shall describe the program of the research which is already partially realized.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[788] **viXra:1507.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-14 10:52:24*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to find out the physical meaning of the product pc in Einstein's Total Relativistic Energy Formula.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[787] **viXra:1507.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 15:40:52*

**Authors:** Valeri V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. http://www.emph.com.ua/4/pdf/dvoeglazov.pdf

It has long been claimed that the antisymmetric tensor field of the second rank is longitudinal after quantization. In my opinion, such a situation produces speculations about the violation of the Correspondence Principle. On the basis of the Lagrangian formalism I calculate the Pauli-Lubanski vector of relativistic spin for this field. Even at the classical level it can be equal to zero after applications of well-known constraints. The correct quantization procedure permits us to propose a solution of this puzzle in the modern field theory. Obtained results develop the previous consideration Physica A 214 (1995) 605-618.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[786] **viXra:1507.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-13 15:44:13*

**Authors:** V. V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. http://www.emph.com.ua/5/pdf/dvoeglazov.pdf

We continue to study the "fermion - 4-vector potential" interactions in the framework of the McLennan-Case construct which is a reformulation of the Majorana theory of the neutrino. This theory is shown after applying Majorana-like anzatzen to give rise to appearance of unusual terms as σ · [A × A*], which were recently discussed in non-linear optics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[785] **viXra:1507.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 15:08:38*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the standard Quantum Mechanics there exists certain assumption (which I call the von Neuman axiom) stating that an ensemble in the pure state is homogeneous. This means that all members of this ensemble are in the same individual state. In this note I am going to show that the von Neumann axiom is false. This also means that the standard interpretation of the wave function as
the state of the individual system is in general false. In the ontic/epistemic terminology this means that the ontic interpretation of the wave function cannot be true. As a solution I propose the modified Quantum Mechanics which can be local.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[784] **viXra:1507.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-12 09:34:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

How does the brain - a lump of 'pinkish gray meat' - produce the richness of conscious experience, or any subjective experience at all? Scientists and philosophers have historically likened the brain to contemporary information technology, from the ancient Greeks comparing memory to a 'seal ring in wax,' to the 19th century brain as a 'telegraph switching circuit,' to Freud's sub-conscious desires 'boiling over like a steam engine,' to a hologram, and finally, the computer. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[783] **viXra:1507.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-11 13:24:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to solve the mystery of the large imbalance between matter and antimatter
of the Universe. Some people think the Universe was created with equal amounts of matter and
antimatter. However today's observations indicate that there is not enough antimatter to match the
amount of matter observed. Thus, it seems that matter has, for some reason, taken over. Putting
together an idea from two lead physicists: John Wheeler and Richard Feynman and the theory of
the Pre-universe that I developed in 2012, I found not only the possible cause of the imbalance but
also that the imbalance took place at the very beginning of universal time (normal time). This is
exactly when our Universe began to exist.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[782] **viXra:1507.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-11 04:04:55*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our quantum harmonics electronic system will be based on jump-resonance phenomena of nonlinear feedback control systems of any order. The nonlinearities are those whose outputs are single-valued odd functions of the inputs and are independent of frequencies of the photonic inputs. The general conditions under which jump-resonance occurs will be given and the system with saturation nonlinearity will be analyzed. The essential objective is to define the contours on the complex plane for the constant values of system variables, e.g., input amplitude, amplitude ratio, and phase shift.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[781] **viXra:1507.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 09:44:31*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

There are many ways and whats to quantize. Here we seek to explain some of the whys and hows of the impedance model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[780] **viXra:1507.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 09:44:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Combining the vast processing power of quantum computers with cognitive computing systems like IBM's Watson will lead to huge advances in artificial intelligence, according to a C-level executive at the US software giant. [10]
Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[779] **viXra:1507.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-09 00:58:51*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Please visit http://www.energyfieldtheory.com

The Wave/Particle duality of particles in Physics is well known. Particles have
properties that uniquely characterize them from one another, such as mass,
charge and spin. Charged particles have associated Electric and Magnetic
fields. Also every moving particle has a De Broglie wavelength determined by
its mass and velocity. In this paper I show that all of these properties of a
particle can be derived from a single wave function equation for that particle. I
present wave functions for the Electron and the Positron and provide
principles that can be used to calculate the wave functions of all the
fundamental particles in Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[778] **viXra:1507.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-07 14:38:52*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of powers of 2 in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[777] **viXra:1507.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-07 08:18:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A combined team of researchers from Israel's Hebrew University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology and Germany's Universität Kassel has succeeded in demonstrating coherent control of bond-forming between atoms using a laser beam. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes their experiments with molecule-making and outlines future possible applications. [6]
Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[776] **viXra:1507.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 07:18:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10]
Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[775] **viXra:1507.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-03 04:14:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team from the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, along with collaborators from several Japanese institutions, have successfully produced pairs of spin-entangled electrons and demonstrated, for the first time, that these electrons remain entangled even when they are separated from one another on a chip. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[774] **viXra:1507.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 08:25:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[773] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 23:37:33*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper will research one special function and it’s physics principle , the special function which has quantum properties ; Two hypothesis of quantum theory can be derived from the special function , and the special function also applies to atoms successfully；This paper proves that the special function is related to Coulomb force in the end , and reveals the essential reason .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[772] **viXra:1506.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-30 08:52:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A team of researchers led by UCLA electrical engineers has demonstrated a new way to harness light particles, or photons, that are connected to each other and act in unison no matter how far apart they are —a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement. [6]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[771] **viXra:1506.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 06:59:16*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

The exact nature of non-locality and entanglement is still a matter of an ongoing controversy. Especially, the concept of non-locality as postulated by the orthodox Copenhagen quantum mechanics is claiming to reflect any non-locality in the quantum realm. Attention should be called to the obvious but very disconcerting fact that the concept of non-locality cannot contradict the theory of special relativity, as long as the same is not refuted theoretically or by experiments. Another way of expressing the peculiar situation is, under conditions of the special theory of relativity it remains rather discomforting to alter the properties of a distant system instantaneously (i. e. no light signal can travel) by acting on a local system. The purpose of this publication is to solve the problem of non-locality and entanglement from the standpoint of the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[770] **viXra:1506.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-28 02:55:01*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[769] **viXra:1506.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 15:15:56*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The number 12 is found not only as a factor but also as a power in different equations. Thus, the
purpose of this article is to highlight the role of the number 12 in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[768] **viXra:1506.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-27 10:22:50*

**Authors:** Paul A. Titze

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

In 2015 the answer is still no. However this paper will look at what current physics has to say on this topic and what further questions need to be put forward to advance our enquiries. This work is a modified compilation of several posts that were originally published in the author's blogsite [1] on Gravity Control Propulsion (GCP) looking at several papers that deal with related topics with some ideas and speculations for further research.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[767] **viXra:1506.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 08:39:20*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 78--89.

We discuss the fact that a single spin observable
$\sigma_x$ in a quantum state
does not have a counterpart in physical reality.
We consider whether a single spin-1/2 pure state
has a counterpart in physical reality.
It is an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$ or an
eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
We assume a state $|+_z\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$.
We assume also a state $|+_x\rangle$, which can be described
as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$.
The value of transition probability $|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2$ is 1/2.
We consider the following physical situation.
If we detect $|+_z\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|+_x\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
The existence of a single classical probability space
for the transition probability
within the formalism of the measurement outcome
does not coexist with the value of
the transition probability
$|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2=1/2$.
We have to give up the existence of such a classical
probability space for the state $|+_z\rangle$ or
for the state $|+_x\rangle$, as they define the transition probability.
It turns out that
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_z\rangle$ or
the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_x\rangle$ does not have
counterparts in physical reality, in general.
We investigate whether the
Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories.
We discuss that the existence of the
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out
the existence of probability space of
specific quantum measurement.
If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
This hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory.
This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the
hidden-variables theory.
A single spin-1/2 pure state (e.g., $|\uparrow \rangle\langle \uparrow|$)
is a single
one-dimensional projector.
In other word,
a single one-dimensional projector does not have
a counterpart in such physical reality, in general.
The one-dimensional projectors $|\uparrow\rangle\langle\uparrow|$ and $|\downarrow\rangle\langle \downarrow|$ are commuting with each other.
Our discussion shows that we cannot assign the specific definite values
($+1$ and $-1$) to the two commuting operators, simultaneously.
We study whether quantum phase factor
accepts a hidden-variables theory.
We discuss that the existence of
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|0\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$
and $|\theta\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ rules out
the existence of probability space of a
hidden-variables theory.
If we detect $|0\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$.
If we detect $|\theta\rangle$,
then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$.
The hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle 0|\theta\rangle|^2=\cos^2(\theta/2)$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory
for quantum phase factor.
We explore phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical.
Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing
which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[766] **viXra:1506.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-26 04:19:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[765] **viXra:1506.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-25 13:37:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5]
Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[764] **viXra:1506.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 04:30:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A University of Tokyo research group has successfully measured the spin Hall Effect in a superconductor for the first time. The spin Hall Effect is responsible for the conversion of magnetic flow to current flow and has not been thoroughly examined in superconductors. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[763] **viXra:1506.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 10:37:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine found that synchronized physiological interactions between remote brain regions have genetic underpinnings. [8]
Sometimes, you can picture something so vividly in your head that it feels as though you’re actually looking at what you’re imagining. But no matter how good your imagination is, information will flow through your brain in the opposite direction compared to when you actually perceive something. That’s the conclusion of a new study, published in NeuroImage, which looked at brain activity in participants when they were either watching clips or recalling them in their heads. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[762] **viXra:1506.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-20 07:10:49*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 9 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

The hottest and one of the major unresolved problems of today’s quantum mechanics is the physical meaning of the wave function. The debate about the physical meaning of the wave function raises broader issues as well. In brief, the difficulties stemmed from an apparent conflict about the existence of an objective reality existing independent of the human mind and consciousness. The purpose of this publication is to investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the relationship between the wave function and Einstein’s special theory of relativity and. As we will see, the wavefunction and “co-ordinate” time of Einstein’s special theory of relativity are identical.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[761] **viXra:1506.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-19 09:51:03*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 49--53.

We review the no-cloning theorem that relies on
the properties of the quantum theory.
Usually, the no-cloning theorem implies that
two quantum states are identical or orthogonal if we allow a cloning
to be on the two quantum states.
Here, we rely on the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We may result in the fact that
the two quantum states under consideration could not be orthogonal
if we consider the maximum value of
the square of the expected value.
The no-cloning theorem may imply that the
two quantum states under consideration may be identical
if we consider the maximum value of
the square of the expected value.
The no-cloning theorem itself has this character.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[760] **viXra:1506.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-17 15:27:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[759] **viXra:1506.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-14 06:33:57*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Two quite different forms of differential calculus exist that both have physical significance. The most simple version is quaternionic differential calculus. Maxwell based differential calculus is based on the equations that Maxwell and others have developed in order to describe electromagnetic phenomena. Both approaches can be represented by four component “fields” and four component differential operators. Both approaches result in a dedicated non-homogeneous wave equation. These wave equations differ and offer solutions that differ in details.
Maxwell based differential calculus uses coordinate time t, where quaternionic differential calculus uses proper time τ. The consequence is that also the interpretation of speed differs between the two approaches. A more intriguing fact is that these differences involve a different space-progression model and different charges and currents.
Physics formulated in Maxwell based differential calculus differs from physics formulated in quaternionic differential calculus. This choice influences the description of physical reality. It does not influence physical reality.
Quaternionic differential calculus fits better with the application of Hilbert spaces in quantum physics than Maxwell based differential calculus. However, Maxwell based differential calculus is the general trend in current physical theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[758] **viXra:1506.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 22:07:45*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez Nunez.

**Comments:** 42 Pages. This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence the DEPENDABILIDAD universal, by the fact that Unis de all the theories that there are on all Einstein's theory of gener

This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence the DEPENDABILIDAD universal, by the fact that Unis de all the theories that there are on all Einstein's theory of general relativity and the theory of gravity dynamics of tesla, and among others.
We are living in a giant time clock, with two different poles - one positive and one negative, that the turn gives us our time for life, that is our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[757] **viXra:1506.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-10 00:20:19*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The non-locality of quantum mechanics continues to be an unexplainable phenomenon. In a previous paper [1] I utilized a recently proposed relativity theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) to account, both qualitatively and quantitatively to the entanglement in an EPR type experiment. IR rests on two well accepted propositions: The relativity axiom, plus an axiom specifying the information carrier and its velocity. The theory is deterministic and local. It is also complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. Contrary to special relativity which predicts that an object's length will always contract along the direction of its relative motion with respect to an observer, IR predicts length contraction for approaching bodies and length stretching for departing bodies. In the present paper I demonstrate that IR is also successful in explaining and predicting de Broglie's matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, and the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Quite strikingly, I found that the critical "stretch" associated with a particle's wave phase transition is equal to the critical value of de Broglie wave length ζ(32) ≈ 2.612, where ζ(x) is the Riemann zeta function. This result enables to calculate the Planck's constant, the corner stone of all quantum mechanics, based on a completely deterministic and local theory. The unavoidable conclusion of the present analysis is that Einstein's intuition that "God does not play dice" is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[756] **viXra:1506.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-09 02:49:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

"A grin without a cat" is how Lewis Carroll describes the Cheshire Cat's mysterious way of disappearing while leaving its grin behind in his 1865 classic, Alice in Wonderland. The fanciful character raises a question that has captured physicists' attention over the past few years: can an object be separated from its properties? [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[755] **viXra:1506.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-08 14:02:57*

**Authors:** Wenliang Jin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We discuss at length the dynamical behavior of Grover's search algorithm for which all the Walsh-Hadamard transformations contained in this algorithm are exposed to their respective random
perturbations inducing the augmentation of the dimension of the search space. We give the concise and general mathematical formulations for approximately characterizing the maximum success probabilities of finding a unique desired state in a large unsorted database and their corresponding numbers of Grover iterations, which are applicable to the search spaces of arbitrary dimension and are used to answer a salient open problem posed by Grover [L. K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{80}, 4329 (1998)].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[754] **viXra:1506.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-08 14:58:01*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The No-communication Theorem has been seen as the bar to communication by quantum state collapse. The essence of this theory is the procedure of taking the partial trace on an entangled, hence inseparable multi-particle system. This mathematical procedure applied unthinkingly, strikes out the off-diagonal elements from the ensemble density matrix and renders the reduced trace matrix representative of a mixed state. Decoherence theory is able to justify this mathematical procedure and we review it to show: the partial trace results for both unitary and non-unitary processes (hence measurement) on one, several or all particles of the ensemble; and that a unitary process keeps interference terms in the trace reduced matrix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[753] **viXra:1506.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-05 06:54:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[752] **viXra:1506.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-03 08:41:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[751] **viXra:1506.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 23:30:26*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that Callen-Welton disregarded the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and, in this way, they produced the zero-point noise artifact.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[750] **viXra:1506.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-01 13:44:49*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the second part of the quantum gravitational formulation of
Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper presents another plausible solution to the problem
of length contraction introduced in Part I.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[749] **viXra:1505.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 18:57:18*

**Authors:** Blazej Kot

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Previously published in Prespacetime Journal, May 2015, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp. 470-481

The fundamental structure of the universe is posited to be a network of causal relationships. Coordinate systems are interpreted as a regular structure of causal links. The discrete nature of such coordinate systems and the associated aliasing gives rise to the existence of a phase factor. This in turn leads to an interpretation of the probabilistic nature of observation and the path integral approach to quantum field theory. The symmetry group of a coordinate system built from causal links is shown to match that of the Standard Model of particle physics. The metric of such a coordinate system has Lorentzian signature, while accounting for its curvature leads to a natural interpretation of the Hilbert action of general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[748] **viXra:1505.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-30 01:09:58*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The variables and parameters of the presented model for the generation of an arbitrary photon fit like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle and therefor justify the conclusion that the model eliminates the wave-particle duality of the photon by explicitly excluding the possibility that it can be a (massless) particle too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[747] **viXra:1505.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 06:05:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Quantum computers are inherently different from their classical counterparts because they involve quantum phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement, which do not exist in classical digital computers. But in a new paper, physicists have shown that a classical analog computer can be used to emulate a quantum computer, along with quantum superposition and entanglement, with the result that the fully classical system behaves like a true quantum computer. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[746] **viXra:1505.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-27 12:31:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory. [5]
Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[745] **viXra:1505.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 13:04:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8]
As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[744] **viXra:1505.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 04:19:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The way creatures evolve in a quantum environment throws new light on the nature of life. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[743] **viXra:1505.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 09:55:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[742] **viXra:1505.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-23 08:51:59*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 42 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

Under some well-defined conditions the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics enables physicists, chemists and other to calculate and predict the outcome of a vast number of experiments. In fact, especially the Schrödinger equation which involves an imaginary quantity describes how a quantum state of a physical system changes with time and is one of the main pillars of modern quantum mechanics. The wave function itself is a determining part of the Schrödinger equation, but the physical meaning of the wave function is still not clear. Altogether, does the wave function represent a new kind of reality? This publication will solve the problem of the physical meaning of the wave function by investigating the relationship between the wave function and the theory of special relativity. It is shown that the wave function is determined by notion co-ordinate time of the special theory of relativity. Moreover, the result of this investigation suggests a new understanding of the wave function, according to which the wave function and co-ordinate time of the theory of special relativity are equivalent. Apparently, based upon the close relationship between time and gravitational field and the normalized relativistic energy-momentum relation, this contribution provides a way to calculate the “mass-equivalent” of a photon in SI units as 7.372 503 726 490 51 * 10^-51 and the “mass-equivalent” of a graviton in SI units as 1.346053370*10^-136 . A necessary mathematical formalism for the quantization of the gravitational field is developed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[741] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-22 13:55:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is part of the quantum formulation of Einstein's theory of special relativity. The formulation is based on the assumption that both time and space are quantized. Thus, the Einstein's formula of length contraction, which is identical to the original Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction equation, is modified to account for the discrete nature of space. Although this formulation considers that both space and time are discrete physical entities, only the quantized nature of space will be considered in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[740] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 06:28:11*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format. The corresponding wave equation contains a striking curl term.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[739] **viXra:1505.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 18:55:47*

**Authors:** Lukas A. Saul

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment and the relevant predictions of quantum mechanics in theoretical and experimental forms are reinterpreted here with a locally realistic model. We demonstrate a consistent description based on probabilistic measurement for Mermin and Aspect EPR setups, and show how Bell's theorem applies. Quantum non-locality is shown to be an interpretation dependent on deterministic measurement and vanishes when a treatment of probabilistic measurement and relevant information theory is included.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[738] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 19:39:15*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the bases for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. At present there is a consensus among physicists that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including those of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement, is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts about the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's Inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell were intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[737] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-20 08:00:16*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and two hypotheses of quantum mechanics can be derived by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[736] **viXra:1505.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-18 06:49:16*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Based on exact theory of quantum transition and precise numerical calculations,
this paper demonstrates quantitatively that the Urbach tail in the
diagram of light absorption coefficient of semiconductor versus photon energy
are caused by energy nonconservation (ENC). This paper also points out
that the light absorption is a non-example of Fermi golden rule; due to ENC
the estimations on the dark energy and dark mass in our universe might be no
longer to have big significance; ENC is a non-example of the first and second
thermodynamic law.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[735] **viXra:1505.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-15 11:41:13*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

To demonstrate some of the laws of physics in the digital Universe Seth Lloyd, I will use two postulates. They are sufficient for the conclusions of some effects of quantum mechanics, relativity theory, holographic principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[734] **viXra:1505.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 15:28:08*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Comments welcome genebarbee@msn.com

Observations regarding unexpected connections in quantum mechanically entangled systems are revealing a new understanding of our position in the universe. Experiments known by the initials EPR (Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen) show a statistical correlation between separated particle properties. If two particles are produced with opposite spins and move in different directions, it is observed that changes induced in one particle cause immediate changes in its partner. The classic “dual slit experiment” demonstrates that quantum photons can either produce a spot pattern or an interference pattern depending on whether an observer can “measure” which of two slits the photon travels through. More recently, a Discovery Magazine article by Zeeva Merali (Aug 26, 2010) indicates that an entangled particle responds to future changes in its partner (called “back from the future” observations by Jack Sarfatti of Cornell University). The author discusses the implications of taking this data at face value. Three FQXi contest essays [5][6][9]lead up to what I believe to be the explanation for EPR results and back from the future observations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[733] **viXra:1505.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-14 07:38:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[732] **viXra:1505.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 02:34:18*

**Authors:** Chu-Jun Gu

**Comments:** 29 Pages. 3 figures

Abstract We propose a space-time interaction principle (StIP) which states any particle with mass m
will involve a random motion without friction, due to random impacts from space-time. Every impact changes the amount \hbar
for an action of the particle. According to the principle, firstly, we prove the interaction coefficient must be \Re=\frac{\hbar}{2m_{ST}}
deriving from Langevin's equation to the corresponding Fokker-Planck Hamiltonian, where m_{ST}
is a space-time sensible mass of the particle. We can derive that an equation of motion for the particle will be the Schr\ddot{o}
dinger equation, and prove that the space-time sensible mass m_{ST}
reduce to the inertial mass in the non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Secondly, we show that there must exist the smallest mass \bar{m}_{ST}
as the minimum of space-time sensible mass, provided the speed of light in vacuum as the maximum speed due to the postulation of special relativity. Furthermore, we estimate a magnitude of this \bar{m}_{ST}
from microwave background radiation. Thirdly, an interpretation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is suggested, with a stochastic origin of Feynman's path integral formalism. It is shown that we can construct a physical picture distinct from Copenhagen interpretation, and reinvestigate the nature of space-time and reveal the origin of quantum behaviours from the materialistic point of view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[731] **viXra:1505.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 13:46:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[730] **viXra:1505.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 06:36:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[729] **viXra:1505.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 16:21:58*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we consider four versions of quantum mechanics (QM), which form four different theories and which have the same experimental consequences (one of them is the standard QM). We consider six fundamental problems as criteria for the evaluation of these theories. The most successful is the modified QM introduced in [1] and described in the axiomatic form in [2], which
solves all six problems. The least successful is the standard QM, which does not solve any of considered problems. (It seems that the standard QM is unable to solve any of these problems.) Other two theories solve some of problems and did not solve some other problems. On the base of this result we recommend to abandon the standard QM and to accept the modified QM as the right QM,
since both variants have the same experimental content and the differences rest only in theoretical considerations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[728] **viXra:1505.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-07 03:44:52*

**Authors:** Robert Mereau

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I determine how APST is accomplished through the effects of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, in the networks I previously determined.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[727] **viXra:1505.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 06:10:48*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[726] **viXra:1505.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 02:24:45*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The dielectric with index of refraction n is inserted in the Planck blackbody. The spectral
formula for photons in such dielectric medium and the equation for the temperature of
photons is derived. The new equation is solved for the constant index of refraction. The
photon flow
initiates the osmotic pressure of he Debye phonons. The dielectric crystal surface
works as the osmotic membrane with the Maxwell demonic refrigerator.
Key words: Thermodynamics, blackbody, photons, phonons, dielectric medium, dispersion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[725] **viXra:1505.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 17:16:03*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper introduces a new formula for the mass of the electron. The formula is based on the mass of the proton, the Planck mass and other fundamental physical constants. By calibrating the value of the Newton's gravitational constant so that to be G_calibrated = 6.67265565×10−11 N m^2/ Kg^2 we obtain the observed value for the mass of the electron. This result seems to indicate that the formula is a true law of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[724] **viXra:1505.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 02:03:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[723] **viXra:1505.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 18:05:21*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez nunez.

**Comments:** 21 Pages. This theory unifies the four forces, and can serach the maximun velocity of a neutrino.

This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence derives DEPENDABILITY universal, by the fact that unifies all the theories that exist, notably Einstein's general relativity and the theory of dynamic gravity of tesla, and among others

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[722] **viXra:1505.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 14:37:47*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso, Louis H. Kauffman, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, Peter Rowlands, Jean Pierre-Vigier

**Comments:** 26 Pages. From proceedings of the 7th symposium honoring J-P Vigier hels at Imperial College, London 2010

Recent attempts to consider isolated particles and real constitutive wave elements as localized,
extended spacetime structures (i.e., moving within time-like hypertubes or branes are developed within a causal
extension of the Feynman-Gell-Mann electron model. These extended structures contain real internal motions,
(i.e., internal hidden parameters) locally correlated with the "hidden parameters" describing the local collective
motions of the corresponding pilot-waves. Recent experimental evidence is briefly discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[721] **viXra:1505.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 06:41:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall ’91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11]
For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[720] **viXra:1504.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 10:08:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[719] **viXra:1504.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 12:00:18*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Entanglement is a special quantum state of two coupled particles: when the state of one changes, then changes the
state of the other. New research shows that this unique feature not only works through any distance, but also time.
This discovery changes some idea about quantum physics and is of practical importance. Quantum entanglement in
time may explain this effect as DEJAVU.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[718] **viXra:1504.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-25 05:11:40*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unfortunately the Bell's correlation formula violates the law of logic: it is not theoretically founded. Here is shown, that it hardly can be ever founded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[717] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 15:30:54*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[716] **viXra:1504.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 16:57:30*

**Authors:** Vedat Tanriverdi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. spin, quantum mechanics

The historical development of spin and Stern-Gerlach experiment are summarized.
Then some questions on spin are stated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[715] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 15:24:54*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 pages, in spanish

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then.
Results: Four solutions to the gravitomagnetic wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[714] **viXra:1504.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 11:41:04*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We study the relation between hidden variables theories and
quantum computation.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between a hidden variables theory and controllability of quantum computation.
To derive the inconsistency, we use the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We propose a solution of the problem by using new hidden variables theory.
Also
we discuss
an
inconsistency
between hidden variables theories and the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
hidden variables theories to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a specific case.
Hidden variables theories may not depicture quantum detector.
This is a quantum measurement theoretical profound problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[713] **viXra:1504.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:55:26*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new relativistic quantum wave equation has been derived by applying the quantum prescription to the momentum and the kinetic energy rather than to the momentum and the total energy, since after all it is the kinetic energy that generates the momentum. The resulting equation reduces to the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit and to the Klein-Gordon equation for “massless particles” in the relativistic limit, i.e., if the velocity of the particle approaches that of light, c. For massive particles in general, the new equation deviates from the Klein-Gordon equation. The same equation is shown to decouple according to the Dirac formalism, yielding a modified form of Dirac equation. When applied to a rest particle, the modified Dirac equation is shown to avoid a negative energy solution and instead include a constant solution. The other, the time-dependent particle solution of the modified Dirac equation, has the characteristic frequency Mc2/(ћ/2) , i.e., twice those of the Dirac solutions, Mc2/ћ.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[712] **viXra:1504.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 14:35:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I derive the lepto-baryonic formula for the electric charge. The formula is based on
the lepto-baryonic formula for the fine-structure constant that I published recently. This paper
shows that the electrical charge is a function of the ratio of the mass difference between the two
lightest charged leptons: the electron and the electrino; and the mass difference between the two
lightest baryons: the proton and the neutron. Thus the formula for the elementary charge is a
function of the mass of four elementary particles. Two of these particles (the electron and the electrino) control the sign of the electric charge. This allow us to derive the electric charge of the positron from the electric charge of the electron by interpreting the positron, as Feynman did, as an electron of negative energy travelling backward in time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[442] **viXra:1508.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-24 17:00:31*

**Authors:** PV Raktoe

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper discribes several mistakes in (theoretical) physics, it explains why most mysteries in the universe cannot be solved. Scientists claim that a black hole is massive, but there is no proof that it is. They think a black hole is massive because it needs to be (because of Einstein's gravity), otherwise the stars wouldn't stay in their orbit. They looked at the stars and their speed and used mathematics to calculate how massive a black hole needed to be, but if there is no proof that a black hole is massive you also need to look at another option; an empty black hole. A massive black hole remains a mystery because they cannot see what's inside, but when you remove that mass it's not a mystery anymore. But more important, the origin of gravity reveals itself. And once you understand what gravity is, you will immediately understand that most mysteries in space are in fact man-made. You will find that Einstein's gravity, gravitational waves, massive black holes, dark matter and dark energy don't exist, and that is why they cannot find or explain it. You will find that some mysteries can easily be solved, because you will understand what the universe is.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[441] **viXra:1508.0176 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-28 00:53:33*

**Authors:** Wan-Jiung Hu

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unification of strong force, weak force, and electromagnetism is provided via higgs mechanism. Thus, gluons, W+, W-, and Z particles can acquire mass. All green related gluons then have mass. This theory links U(1), SU(2), and SU(3) for a general unification theory which extends from Weinberg's electroweak interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[440] **viXra:1508.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-20 18:04:46*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages. added electron neutrino mass calculation.

The mass ratio calculation for the elementary particles of the proton, electron, muon, and tau(tauon) are shown below. It is shown that these particles are all ratios with the neutron. It is shown that the electron, muon, and tau are all derived from the proton neutron mass ratio. It is shown that the muon and tau are complimentary lepton particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[439] **viXra:1508.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-17 05:04:06*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In intimate cooperation, symmetry centers and coherent stochastic mechanisms recurrently recreate elementary physical objects. Symmetry centers are dedicated subspaces of separable quaternionic Hilbert spaces. As such they are no more and no less than structured storage places that feature special properties. The coherent stochastic mechanisms are the actors that generate and control coherent dynamics. Tri-state flavor switching appears to fit similar quaternionic representation as dynamic geometry does.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[438] **viXra:1507.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-03 03:03:30*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

By starting from a quaternionic separable Hilbert space as a base model the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of the electric charge and the electric fields. Also other discrete properties such as color charge and spin are considered.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus rather than Maxwell based differential calculus.
The paper presents fields as mostly continuous quaternionic functions. The electric field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum. The behavior of photons is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[437] **viXra:1507.0185 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-29 13:14:57*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

By starting from a quaternionic separable Hilbert space as a base model the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of the electric charge and the electric fields. Also other discrete properties such as color charge and spin are considered.
The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus rather than Maxwell based differential calculus.
The paper presents fields as mostly continuous quaternionic functions. The electric field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum. The behavior of photons is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[436] **viXra:1507.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-18 12:58:39*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We discuss the three options: the psi-ontic option, the psi-epistemic option and the novel psi-hybrid option.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[435] **viXra:1507.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-03 09:45:52*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to solve the mystery of the large imbalance between matter and antimatter
of the Universe. Some people think the Universe was created with equal amounts of matter and
antimatter. However today's observations indicate that there is not enough antimatter to match the
amount of matter observed. Thus, it seems that matter has, for some reason, taken over. Putting
together an idea from two lead physicists: John Wheeler and Richard Feynman and the theory of
the Pre-universe that I developed in 2012, I found not only the possible cause of the imbalance but
also that the imbalance began at the very beginning of universal time (normal time). Because
matter and antimatter were created by a gradual and very fast process known as Metatransformation,
it is possible that most of the imbalance took place during the first seconds or minutes after the Big Bang.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[434] **viXra:1507.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-14 10:47:56*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The goal of this paper is to solve the mystery of the large imbalance between matter and antimatter of the Universe. Some people think the Universe was created with equal amounts of matter and antimatter. However today's observations indicate that there is not enough antimatter to match the amount of matter observed. Thus, it seems that matter has, for some reason, taken over. Putting together an idea from two lead physicists: John Wheeler and Richard Feynman and the theory of the Pre-universe that I developed in 2012, I found not only the possible cause of the imbalance but
also that the imbalance took place at the very beginning of universal time (normal time). This is exactly when our Universe began to exist.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[433] **viXra:1507.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-11 12:38:41*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

There are many ways and whats to quantize. Here we seek to explain some of the whys and hows of the impedance model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[432] **viXra:1507.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-10 08:31:42*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There are many ways and whats to quantize. Here we seek to explain some of the whys and hows of the impedance model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[431] **viXra:1507.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-09 13:16:51*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 1 Page.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[430] **viXra:1507.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-12 23:55:04*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Please visit http://www.energyfieldtheory.com

The Wave/Particle duality of particles in Physics is well known. Particles have
properties that uniquely characterize them from one another, such as mass,
charge and spin. Charged particles have associated Electric and Magnetic
fields. Also every moving particle has a De Broglie wavelength determined by
its mass and velocity. In this paper I show that all of these properties of a
particle can be derived from a single wave function equation for that particle. I
present wave functions for the Electron and the Positron and provide
principles that can be used to calculate the wave functions of all the
fundamental particles in Physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[429] **viXra:1507.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-03 09:43:06*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The purpose of this article is to highlight the role of powers of 2 in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[428] **viXra:1507.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-17 06:51:55*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Omega 0 numerical consistency

In the paper it is demonstrated that the particular form of CHSH S=E{A(1)[B(1)-B(2)]-A(2)[B(1)+B(2)]} with S maximally 2 and minimally -2, for A and B functions in {-1,1}, is not generally valid for local models. The nonzero probability that local hidden extra parameters violate the CHSH, is not eliminated with basic principles derived from the CHSH.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[427] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-18 07:44:11*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper will research one special function and it’s physics principle , the special function which has quantum properties ; Two hypothesis of quantum theory can be derived from the special function , and the special function also applies to atoms successfully；This paper proves that the special function is related to Coulomb force in the end , and reveals the essential reason .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[426] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-03 10:10:31*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper will research one special function and it’s physics principle , the special function which has quantum properties ; Two hypothesis of quantum theory can be derived from the special function , and the special function also applies to atoms successfully；This paper proves that the special function is related to Coulomb force in the end , and reveals the essential reason .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[425] **viXra:1506.0214 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 10:14:52*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

文中将研究一个具有量子化特征的特殊函数，和其所包含的物理学原理；量子理论中两个基本假设的形式可以通过这个特殊函数推导得到，特殊函数可以被应用到原子领域，最终发现并证明特殊函数与已知的库仑力形式相关，其揭示了量子化的真正本质。

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[424] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 06:42:42*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[423] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-17 05:20:54*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[422] **viXra:1506.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-15 11:59:46*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two quite different forms of differential calculus exist that both have physical significance. The most simple version is quaternionic differential calculus. Maxwell based differential calculus is based on the equations that Maxwell and others have developed in order to describe electromagnetic phenomena. Both approaches can be represented by four-component “fields” and four-component differential operators. Both approaches result in a dedicated non-homogeneous wave equation. These wave equations differ and offer solutions that differ in details.
Maxwell based differential calculus uses coordinate time t, where quaternionic differential calculus uses proper time τ. The consequence is that also the interpretation of speed differs between the two approaches. A more intriguing fact is that these differences involve a different space-progression model and different charges and currents. The impact of these differences are not treated in this paper.
Physics formulated in Maxwell based differential calculus differs from physics formulated in quaternionic differential calculus. This choice influences the description of physical reality. It cannot not influence physical reality.
Quaternionic differential calculus fits better with the application of Hilbert spaces in quantum physics than Maxwell based differential calculus. However, Maxwell based differential calculus is the general trend in current physical theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[421] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-02 13:34:35*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The theory presented here is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's
special theory of relativity. I shall derive two new relativistic formulas. Firstly, based on 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational length contraction equation introduced without proof in Part I. Secondly, based on 'quantum time interval to classical time interval transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational time dilation equation. I have shown, in Part I, that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate, and consequently, a new quantum gravitational equation was introduced. If the second postulate I put forward in Part I turns out to be correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction counterpart. On the other hand, Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This means that when we apply the same technique to time we obtain a new time dilation formula that differs from that of Einstein. But then the question arises: which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that I do not have solid arguments in favour of either of them, except for a feeling in favour of Einstein's equation. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question beyond reasonable doubt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[420] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 12:07:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory presented here is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. I shall derive two new relativistic formulas. Firstly, based on 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational length contraction equation introduced without proof in Part I. Secondly, based on 'quantum time interval
to classical time interval transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational time dilation equation. I have shown, in Part I, that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate, and consequently, a new quantum gravitational equation was introduced. If the second postulate I put forward in Part I turns out to be correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction
counterpart. On the other hand, Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time
quantization postulate. This means that when we apply the same technique to time we obtain a new time dilation formula that differs from that of Einstein. But then the question arises: which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that I do not have solid arguments in favour of either of them, except for a feeling in favour of Einstein's equation. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question beyond reasonable doubt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[419] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-18 15:11:43*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory presented here is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. I shall derive two new relativistic formulas. Firstly, based on 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational length contraction equation introduced without proof in Part I. Secondly, based on 'quantum time interval
to classical time interval transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational time dilation equation. I have shown, in Part I, that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate, and consequently, a new quantum gravitational equation was introduced. If the second postulate I put forward in Part I turns out to be correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction
counterpart. On the other hand, Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time
quantization postulate. Thus means that when we apply the same technique to time we obtain a new time dilation formula that differs from that of Einstein. But then the question arises: which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that I do not have solid arguments in favour of either of them, except for a feeling in favour of Einstein's equation. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question beyond reasonable doubt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[418] **viXra:1506.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-15 12:19:16*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. Based on new and simple 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive two formulas: (a) the quantum gravitational length contraction formula, introduced without proof in Part I; and (b) the quantum gravitational time dilation formula. In Part I, I showed that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate and therefore a new quantum gravitational equation was required. If the second postulate introduced in Part I is correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction counterpart. In contrast I showed that the Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This is a striking difference between space and time. However, if we apply the 'quantum time to classical time transformations', we obtain a new formula for time dilation. But then the question arises of which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that we do not have any arguments to deciding which of the two time dilation formulas should be the preferred one. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[417] **viXra:1506.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-10 07:35:43*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The non-locality of quantum mechanics continues to be an unexplainable phenomenon. In a previous paper [1] I utilized a recently proposed relativity theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) to account, both qualitatively and quantitatively for the entanglement in an EPR type experiment. IR rests on two well accepted propositions: The relativity axiom, plus an axiom specifying the information carrier and its velocity. The theory is deterministic and local. It is also complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. Contrary to special relativity which predicts that an object's length will always contract along the direction of its relative motion with respect to an observer, IR predicts length contraction for approaching bodies and length stretching for departing bodies. In the present paper I demonstrate that IR is also successful in explaining and predicting de Broglie's matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, and the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Quite strikingly, I found that the critical "stretch" associated with a particle's wave phase transition is equal to the critical value of de Broglie wave length ζ(3/2) ≈ 2.612, where ζ(x) is the Riemann zeta function. This result enables to calculate the Planck's constant, the corner stone of all quantum mechanics, based on a completely deterministic and local theory. The unavoidable conclusion of the present analysis is that Einstein's intuition that "God does not play dice" is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[416] **viXra:1506.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-30 21:49:34*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Refuted on arXiv

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that the Callen-Welton derivation has conceptual errors such as neglecting phonon scattering, disregarding the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and using bosonic (linear oscillator) energies leading to the zero-point noise artifact. Following Kleen's proposal, the possible origin of the heterodyne (Koch - van Harlingen - Clark) experimental results are also discussed in terms of Heffner theory of quantum noise of frequency/phase-sensitive linear amplifiers. Experiments that failed to see the zero-point noise term are also mentioned.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[415] **viXra:1505.0225 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-23 01:22:23*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The variables and parameters of the presented model for the generation of an arbitrary photon fit like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle and therefor justify the conclusion that the model eliminates the wave-particle duality of the photon by explicitly excluding the possibility that it can be a (massless) particle too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[414] **viXra:1505.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-27 04:24:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[413] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-22 12:00:03*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the first part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The formulation is based on two postulates which take into account the discrete nature of space and time. Because the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formula violates the space quantization postulate, this formula is modified to avoid the violation. However Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This
seems to indicate that we cannot treat time the same way we treat space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[412] **viXra:1505.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-06 12:12:07*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the first part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The formulation is based on two postulates which take into account the discrete nature of space and time. Because the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formula violates the space quantization postulate, this formula is modified to avoid the violation. However Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This
seems to indicate that we cannot treat time the same way we treat space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[411] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-02 13:00:41*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. If we use proper time rather than coordinate time, then these equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format. The equation for the electron and the equation for the positron differ in the sign of a curl term. This means that the solutions differ in the handedness of the external vector product. This results in special considerations for the corresponding quaternionic wave equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[410] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-22 10:55:58*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format. The equation for the electron and the equation for the positron differ in the sign of a curl term. This results in a special way for constructing the corresponding wave equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[409] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-22 04:36:52*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[408] **viXra:1505.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 13:12:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In its original form the Dirac equation for the free electron and the free positron is formulated by using complex number based spinors and matrices. That equation can be split into two equations, one for the electron and one for the positron. These equations can easily be converted to their quaternionic format.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[407] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 21:36:09*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms, or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the basis for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. The current consensus among physicists is that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including the reasoning and intuitions of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper, I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts on the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell are intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[406] **viXra:1505.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-21 15:43:51*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms, or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the basis for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. The current consensus among physicists is that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including the reasoning and intuitions of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper, I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts on the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell are intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[405] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-26 07:10:44*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and the difficult of quantum mechanics can be solved by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[404] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-17 23:51:26*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and the difficult of quantum mechanics can be solved by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[403] **viXra:1505.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-13 21:46:31*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

One especial function will be considered in this paper , and two hypotheses of quantum mechanics can be derived by the especial function ; which exists objectively and really in nature through analysis the theory which has been developed .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[402] **viXra:1505.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-14 10:44:28*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper introduces a new quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron. The formula is based on the mass of the proton, the Planck mass and other fundamental physical constants. When we calibrate the value of Newton's gravitational constant to G_calibrated = 6.67265565×10^−11
N m^2/Kg^2 , we obtain the observed value for the mass of the electron. The fact that the calibrated value is very close to the value published by NIST in 1986: G_NIST 1986 = 6.67259×10^−11 N m^2/Kg^2 , suggests that the formula presented in this paper is a true
law of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[401] **viXra:1505.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-16 15:58:33*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper introduces a new quantum gravitational formula for the mass of the electron. The formula is based on the mass of the proton, the Planck mass and other fundamental physical constants. When we calibrate the value of Newton's gravitational constant to G_calibrated = 6.67265565×10^−11 N m^2/Kg^2, we obtain the observed value for the mass of the electron. The fact that the calibrated value is very close to the value published by NIST in 1986: G_NIST 1986 = 6.67259×10^−11 N m^2/Kg^2, suggests that the formula presented in this paper is a true
law of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[400] **viXra:1505.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-02 13:05:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall ’91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[399] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-01 11:58:44*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. arxiv link added

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[398] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-27 13:24:20*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. small polishing of text

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[397] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-23 14:48:05*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. date of version and vixra link added

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[396] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-29 03:03:32*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 22 pages, in spanish

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then. Results: Four solutions to the gravitational wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[395] **viXra:1504.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-25 09:28:16*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2 (2015), e1804/1--12, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101804

We study the relation between hidden variables theories and
quantum computation.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between a hidden variables theory and controllability of quantum computation.
To derive the inconsistency, we use the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We propose a solution of the problem by using new hidden variables theory.
Also
we discuss
an
inconsistency
between hidden variables theories and the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
hidden variables theories to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a specific case.
Hidden variables theories may not depicture quantum detector.
This is a quantum measurement theoretical profound problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[394] **viXra:1504.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-05 09:31:28*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[393] **viXra:1504.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-18 06:52:35*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics