Quantum Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1955] viXra:1709.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-26 10:59:51

Schrödinger’s Equation as an Energy Diffusion Equation

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle, Drs, MAEc, BAEc, BPhil
Comments: 13 Pages.

While the real and imaginary part of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction are, obviously, not to be looked as field vectors, the similarity between the geometry of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction and that of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave remains intriguing: from a mathematical point of view, only the relative phase differs. Also, if the physical dimension of the electromagnetic field is expressed in newton per coulomb (force per unit charge), then one might explore the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a similar physical dimension: force per unit mass (newton per kg). This leads to a remarkably elegant interpretation of the physical significance of the wavefunction and the wave equation: 1.The calculated energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities. 2.Schrödinger’s wave equation itself may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy itself.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1954] viXra:1709.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 09:32:11

A Delayed Choice Gedanken Experiment

Authors: M. W. Roberts
Comments: 12 Pages.

A delayed choice experiment is proposed. A signal and idler pair of photons are sent to optical circulators. The fate experienced by the idler photon is described by two different cases. In case I, the idler photon has zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter and therefore always enters its optical circulator. In case II, the idler photon has a non-zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter without entering its optical circulator. Which case the idler photon actually experiences is selected by the method that is used to detect the signal photon of the pair. This is true, even if the detection of the signal photon occurs long after the detection of the idler photon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1953] viXra:1709.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 09:59:50

Electron Spin and Rotating Vector Fields

Authors: Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan
Comments: 13 Pages. Submitted to Journal "Quanta" Aug. 28, 2017, but rejected without review.

The nature of electron spin has presented an enigma right from the beginning of quantum mechanics. We suggest that a simple realistic picture of a real coherently rotating vector field can account for both the Schrödinger equation and electron spin in a consistent manner. Such a rotating field carries distributed angular momentum and energy in the same way as a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave. We derive the Schrödinger equation from the relativistic Klein-Gordon Equation, where the complex wave function maps onto a fixed-axis real rotating vector. Such a realistic picture can also explain the Stern-Gerlach experiment which first identified electron spin. Remarkably, the predictions of a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment within this realistic picture differ from those of the orthodox quantum superposition approach. This two-stage experiment has not actually been done, and could provide insights into the limits of realistic models. This realistic picture also avoids quantum paradoxes and enables realistic explanations for a variety of quantum phenomena.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1952] viXra:1709.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-24 00:23:20

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》 2. World Equations, Event Operations, and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages. This is the 2nd part of《Universal and Unified Field Theory》. The 1st part is available at http://viXra.org/abs/1709.0308

Extend to the Universal Topology [1], this manuscript presents that the principles of World Equations, World Events and Motion Operations institute a set of Universal Equations and inaugurate the holistic foundations general to all dynamic fields. Defined as the First Universal Field Equations, its application to Quantum Mechanics demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Spinor Fields, and Weyl Spinor.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1951] viXra:1709.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 09:55:26

New Findings on Electron Emission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Even more than 100 years after Einstein's explanation of photoemission the process of electron emission from a solid material upon illumination with light still poses challenging surprises. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1950] viXra:1709.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 10:17:08

On the Quantum Computing Delusion

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 13 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...
Category: Quantum Physics

[1949] viXra:1709.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-22 06:35:05

Understanding Interference and Diffraction of Photons and Electrons: a New Approach

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 33 Pages. 5 Figures

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion (i.e. quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, taking into account the effect of the purpose, it has been tried to give very clear and complete explanations of the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons and photons. (As the photons are emitted from the orbiting electrons, which posses persistent spin motion, the photons also possess spin motion that they derive from the orbiting electrons.)
Category: Quantum Physics

[1948] viXra:1709.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 05:15:15

Mother of all Field Equations

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can be considered as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relation exists with integral balance equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1947] viXra:1709.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 08:59:42

揭秘量子力学 (Demystifying Quantum Mechanics)

Authors: Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang
Comments: 11 Pages. Thank you

(The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered due to the influence of social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have become subject to a number of sensationalized story lines, which we refer to here as “quantum mysticism”. In this paper we demonstrate a three-pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into the mathematical details here to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystification the discipline withholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechanics is an entirely rational, intuitive, and accessible discipline. The world is full of mystery; however, a discipline devoted to quantifying and rationalizing behaviors of certain specific systems is hardly the place to go searching for mystery.) 由于社会压力的影响,围绕着各种数学和物理技术的叙述而被熟知的量子力学遇到了挫折。这些理论及其预测能力的不可思议的力量已经变成了一些耸人听闻的故事情节,我们称之为“量子神秘主义”。本文对这些力量进行了三方面的反击。精确的使用准确的术语,用直观的方法描述离散和微观现象的行为,这有效地揭开了量子力学的神秘面纱。我们不会在这里讨论数学细节,以使我们的讨论能够被普通人所理解。在我们揭开了这个学科的神秘性之后,它拥有了不可思议的预测能力,同时又不会吓跑一个理性的思考者。事实上,量子力学是一个完全理性的、直观的、易于理解的学科。这个世界充满了神秘;然而,这门学科致力于对某些特定系统的行为进行量化和合理化,并不是去寻找神秘事物的地方
Category: Quantum Physics

[1946] viXra:1709.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 12:43:43

A New Interpretation of Photon

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 9 Pages.

The present interpretation of photon is as: A photon = a quantum of radiation energy + energy hn , where the quantum of radiation energy constitutes the photon and provides the particle like physical existence to it, similarly, as the quantum of charge (-e) constitutes the electron and provides the particle like physical existence to it. And the energy hn enables the photon to travel with velocity c, spin with frequency n (which the photon obtains from the orbiting electron, from which the photon is emitted), scatter electron in the Compton scattering, and eject electron penetrating into metals in the photoelectric effect. The present interpretation of photon enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to photons, including the phenomena of interference and diffraction
Category: Quantum Physics

[1945] viXra:1709.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-21 14:29:41

Quantum Teleportation Patterns of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1944] viXra:1709.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-20 15:19:35

The Dirac-Schrödinger Equation

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

We take a time in a spinorial manifold so that we can define a Dirac-Schrödinger equation when we remplace the derivative with respect to the time by the Dirac operator.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1943] viXra:1709.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 11:33:20

Cost Effective Quantum Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Canadian and US researchers have taken an important step towards enabling quantum networks to be cost-effective and truly secure from attack. [16] You can't sign up for the quantum internet just yet, but researchers have reported a major experimental milestone towards building a global quantum network-and it's happening in space. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1942] viXra:1709.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 08:37:27

Slowing Down Light to Sound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Light travels fast – sometimes a little too fast when it comes to data processing. [25] Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1941] viXra:1709.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 09:13:07

Single-Photon Guns

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1940] viXra:1709.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 16:19:25

Unification

Authors: Benjamin Allen Sullivan
Comments: 25 Pages.

Cette publication comprend deux équations dérivées et extrapolées à partir d’un livre que j’ai créé en 2015/2016: Probabilité, Mécaniques quantiques, et Probabilité-Quanta. Le dernier est composé de plusieurs pensées expérimentales et de postulats. J’y ai inclus des numérisations de la publication originale afin d’illustrer mon travail et dans l’espoir de réaliser ces expériences.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1939] viXra:1709.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 23:55:22

Quantum Metaphysics: the Hydrogen Atom the Heart of the Universe !?

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 12 Pages.

Abstract This paper presents an energy interpretation of quantum theory. It is proposed to deal with all the changes and interactions (including gravity) is not as power bodies interaction of charges of particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as the manifestations and consequences of energy processes in a unified cosmos. Measure these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power equal to Planck's constant. The motion of matter in the universe is seen as the dynamics of the vector field of energy, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. Energy is proposed interpretation of the hydrogen atom, in which the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and the radiation energy flux vector material-energy field. Planck values are shown in the dimensions of the LT. It is argued that a cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has no relation to the mythical "Big Bang". Shows the energy interpretation of the fine structure constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1938] viXra:1709.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 02:48:22

Optical and Electrical Bistability

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Today, electrical bistable devices are the foundation of digital electronics, serving as building blocks of switches, logic gates and memories in computer systems. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1937] viXra:1709.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 07:46:10

Light Bandwidth Ceiling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1936] viXra:1709.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 13:03:59

Electromagnetic Line Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated a new mode of electromagnetic wave called a "line wave," which travels along an infinitely thin line along the interface between two adjacent surfaces with different electromagnetic properties. [25] The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1935] viXra:1709.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-18 05:06:33

Turning Optical Data into Readable Soundwaves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1934] viXra:1709.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 12:55:28

On Quantum Mechanics: Does G-d Throw Dice?

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to the G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[1933] viXra:1709.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 13:21:02

Demystifying Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang
Comments: 11 Pages. Chinese Translation of Existing Paper

The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered under the influence of various social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have thus become subject to a number of sensationalized storylines, which we refer to here as quantum mysticism. In this paper we demonstrate a three pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into mathematical details, to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystificaion the discipline witholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechnics is entirely a rational, intuitive, and learnable discipline, no more subject to mysticism than any other aspect of the world around us. If you think you don't understand quantum mechanics, it's probably because you don't understand quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1932] viXra:1709.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-16 02:37:18

Density Functional Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Kohn-Sham density functional theory is one of the most successful theories in chemistry. [19] Researchers have now succeeded in formulating a mathematical result that provides an exact answer to the question of how chaos actually behaves. The researchers have analysed chaotic states at the atomic level. [18] Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17] New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1931] viXra:1709.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 13:16:37

Quantum Computers Threaten Encrypted Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The era of full-fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it. [17] Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1930] viXra:1709.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 08:19:27

Finding 'internal Clock' Within Live Human Cells

Authors: Philip Maulion
Comments: 6 Pages.

The ultimate, elementary, internal clock, of the living world seems to have been discovered. If we refer to the discoveries of the neuroscientists and biologists, the human being has an endogenous clock that made him a transmitter of the beat of time. This essential beat is estimated at 10-25 second and is that what we are able to measure it? If so, no need to search a source in Nature. The time would be unreal. But the 'Presence' of the ‘Thinking Being’ is a first reality. If not, there is none knowledge's statement possible in physical science as in any other science. Ref. viXra:1211.0149 ; viXra:1301.0157 ; viXra:1307.0018. philip.maulion@paris7.jussieu.fr
Category: Quantum Physics

[1929] viXra:1709.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 08:37:32

Photonic Molecule based Higgs Photonic Knots of Different Masses the Origin of Future Lightsaber use?

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 14 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The resulting model is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model could be extended with changes for an alternative Photonic Molecule based Higgs particle of different masses ( recent LHC measurements) based on different geometrical structures. At the same time there seems to open a new field of physics around quantum gravity, the planetary mass related local lightspeed drag, and a topological superconductive vacuum. In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles to form Quarks quantum knots and all other particles. Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless singular transformer but rigid string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z and Higgs particles of different masses and even ball lightning and other black hole nuclei. If we assume that different massive Higgs particle knots are the origin of different evaporation times, then there is reason to assume that the trajectory lengths measured from the source, before evaporation are covariant, without any radiation curvature. Reason to suggest that the idea to use such a process for “lightsaber” projects with restricted length has some logic.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1928] viXra:1709.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 08:38:46

De Eenvoud Van de Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1927] viXra:1709.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 09:49:31

Molecule's Energy using a Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Simulating molecules on quantum computers just got much easier with IBM's superconducting quantum hardware. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1926] viXra:1709.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-14 05:07:45

Physical Simplicity

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physics must be simple. This reasoning is the general idea behind Occam’s razor. However, it is also a general physical principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1925] viXra:1709.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 13:40:05

Photon Diffraction and Interference

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 30 Pages.

Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a traditional particle--like model. A single model of light has remained a mystery. Newton's speculations, Democritus's speculations, the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the fractal philosophy are combined. The resulting model of photon structure and dynamics is tested by toy computer experiments. The simulations include photons from a distance, in Young's experiment, and from a laser. The patterns on the screens show diffraction patterns fit by the Fresnel equation. The model is consistent with the Afshar experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1924] viXra:1709.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 12:40:52

Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. [21] Magnetic data storage has long been considered too slow for use in the working memories of computers. Researchers at ETH have now investigated a technique by which magnetic data writing can be done considerably faster and using less energy. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1923] viXra:1709.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 07:37:22

Beam of Invisibility

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

How do we make an object invisible? Researchers from TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1922] viXra:1709.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 07:05:38

Universal Quantum Bus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

NIST scientists have achieved a world record in detecting the intensity of an ultra-faint source of light, equaling the capabilities of the deep-space instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope but operating 100 times faster and with equivalent accuracy. [26] Graphene Flagship researches from CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Italy and the University of Cambridge, UK have shown that it is possible to create a terahertz saturable absorber using graphene produced by liquid phase exfoliation and deposited by transfer coating and ink jet printing. [25] By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1921] viXra:1709.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 08:16:02

Rediscovered Dark Quanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1920] viXra:1709.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 08:17:58

Herontdekte Donkere Kwanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1919] viXra:1709.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-12 04:01:35

Interatomic Coulomb Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Extreme environments are created in the labs at TU Wien. In an ion trap, large amounts of energy are used to rip a great number of electrons out of their atoms, leaving highly charged ions behind. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1918] viXra:1709.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 09:30:32

Mirrors Improve Light Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1917] viXra:1709.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 09:48:29

Second Law of Thermodynamics in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1916] viXra:1709.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-11 11:29:47

Global Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1915] viXra:1709.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-10 16:18:52

The Impossibility of Large-scale Retrocausal Signalling

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 4 Pages. Large scale retrocausality is impossible. Simple logic on space-time diagrams shows it.

Following an earlier paper, an argument is presented that sets up a causality paradox with signals that claim to be retrocausal. This is not to be dismissive of claims of retrocausality over small scales by the mechanism of advanced and retarded waves, just that it is not possible over timescales greater than the energy-time uncertainty relationship.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1914] viXra:1709.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-08 08:48:23

Quantum Memory for Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1913] viXra:1709.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 14:48:12

Quintessential Nature of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Michael A. Sherbon
Comments: 7 Pages. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science, 15, 4, 23-26 (2015). CC 4.0

An introduction is given to the geometry and harmonics of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid, with the metaphysical and mathematical determination of the fine-structure constant of electromagnetic interactions. Newton's gravitational constant is also presented in harmonic form and other fundamental physical constants are then found related to the quintessential geometry of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1912] viXra:1709.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 12:08:25

Quantum Computer Detectives

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1911] viXra:1709.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-07 10:13:54

The Quantization of Space and the Dark Matter

Authors: Martin Thomas Pollner
Comments: 3 pages in English, 2 Pages in German

English Summary: As a supplement to my publication on "The Quantization of the Physical Real Space and the Expansion of Space" in vixra.org 1203.088 of 29th March 2012 it will be described here how a flow of quantified space (flow of Dark Photons) especially within rotating spiral galaxies constitutes the so called Dark Matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1910] viXra:1709.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 13:26:56

Quantum Simulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1909] viXra:1709.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 13:53:23

Driving Quantum Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1908] viXra:1709.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 14:17:38

Single Photon Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1907] viXra:1709.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 04:39:57

Flip-Flop Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1906] viXra:1709.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 12:46:27

Irreducible Quantum Dimension

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1905] viXra:1709.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 12:55:15

Efficiency of X-Ray Analyses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

So-called Fresnel zone plate spectrometers offer new and more efficient ways of conducting experiments using soft X-rays. [30] The world's largest X-ray laser opens Friday in Germany, promising to shed new light onto very small things by letting scientists penetrate the inner workings of atoms, viruses and chemical reactions. [29] A sleek, subterranean X-ray laser to be unveiled Friday in Germany, by far the most powerful in the world, has scientists in a dozen fields jostling to train its mighty beam on their projects. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1904] viXra:1709.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-04 09:14:17

Quantum Chaos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers have now succeeded in formulating a mathematical result that provides an exact answer to the question of how chaos actually behaves. The researchers have analysed chaotic states at the atomic level. [18] Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17] New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1903] viXra:1709.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 14:19:28

Quantum Algorithm Determining a Homogeneous Linear Function

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla, Ahmed Farouk, Do Ngoc Diep
Comments: 6 Pages

We present a method of fast determining a homogeneous linear function $f(x):= s.x=s_1x_1+ s_2x_2+\dots+s_Nx_N$ from $\{0,1,\dots,d-1\}^N$ with coefficients $s=(s_1,\dots,s_N)$. Here $x=(x_1,\dots,x_N)$ and $x_j\in{\bf R}$. Given the interpolation values $(f(1), f(2),...,f(N))=\vec{y}$, we shall determine the unknown coefficients $s = (s_1(\vec{y}),\dots, s_N(\vec{y}))$ of the linear function, simultaneously. The speed of determining the values is shown to outperform the classical case by a factor of $N$. Our method is based on the generalized Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm \cite{BVG} to qudit systems \cite{BVD}.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1902] viXra:1709.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 08:25:20

Quantum Memory Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1901] viXra:1709.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 09:27:20

An Undeniable Holistic Contradiction Between Quantum Theory and Experiments and Experimental Verification of the Copenhagen Interpretation

Authors: Bowen Liu
Comments: 21 Pages.

Contradiction between theory and experiment is a threat to the theory. People have paid their attention to regular contradiction (between theory and single experiment) and have found no serious threat. We first propose holistic contradiction, in which one major law of nature (called the bad law) conflicts with each and every quantum experiment. (A) We prove the existence of holistic contradiction (extrinsic-intrinsic contradiction). We show that all known experiments overturn traditional classification of matter and grand unified intrinsic reference space. Namely, the holistic contradiction means that every experiment ever performed by human confirms that (a) the classification of matter depends upon the operability, but not upon the description of larger matter in terms of smaller matter; (b) quantum form we observe is extrinsic but not intrinsic expression of micro-matter; (c) intrinsic and primitive reference system is human’s operable classical one but not reference system in micro-scale. The method of proof is traditional, i.e., verification one-by-one experimentally. (B) The holistic contradiction is the biggest threat to quantum physics, because overturning old classification of matter and the uniqueness of intrinsic system means breaking the supporting structure of quantum physics. We present effects of the breaking on quantum theories in three ways. (1) It is commonly accepted that the Copenhagen interpretation (i.e., CI) is philosophical, and to verify it seems to be impossible, since verifying “reality is restricted to observation” seems to be beyond human capabilities. However, we complete the crucial step of verifying CI. The key to our proof is the disproof of the bad law. (2) Overthrowing old classification of matter makes position of the Standard Model in physics to be greatly reduced, since mapping relation between intrinsic and extrinsic form of micro-matter becomes top thesis in quantum theory. This requires reorganizing the Standard Model such that group SU expresses only extrinsic but not the ultimate blocks. Overthrowing the uniqueness of intrinsic system gives evidence against the string theory, since the extrinsic features of quantum form is incompatible to geometry of string theory. (3) We give a simulation model and show that the relevance between intrinsic and extrinsic system is the key ingredient for producing the abstract state space and probability contribution.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1900] viXra:1709.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-01 09:44:09

Quantum Entanglement is Inevitable

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1899] viXra:1708.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-31 17:40:12

Outline of an Experiment to Test Retrocausal Versus Superluminal Interpretations of a Digital Protocol Over a Quantum Channel

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is an interpretation of Quantum Mechanics gaining ground that had its roots in Feynman-Wheeler absorber theory, which has lead to the Watanabe Two-state vector /Cramer Transactional-Interpretation/ /Sutherland viewpoint of Retrocausality. It seems that fantastical notions of superluminal effects are to be abhorred for equally fantastical notions of retrocausality. Noting that physics is the science of natural philosophy, we add to the argument with an outline of an experiment to settle the matter, by a blocking protocol where future actions would be limited by actions in the past (and hence the future) or not at all if the hypothesis is false.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1898] viXra:1708.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 13:27:54

World's Biggest X-ray Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A sleek, subterranean X-ray laser to be unveiled Friday in Germany, by far the most powerful in the world, has scientists in a dozen fields jostling to train its mighty beam on their projects. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1897] viXra:1708.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 08:48:31

Beat the Heat in 3-D Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

In the Moore's Law race to keep improving computer performance, the IT industry has turned upward, stacking chips like nano-sized 3-D skyscrapers. [20] Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have created a nanophotonic chip system using lasers and bacteria to observe fluorescence emitted from a single bacterial cell. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields’ generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1896] viXra:1708.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-30 05:51:37

Comparative Studies of Theories of Force as well as Generalized Theories Clusters of Force and Fifth Force — No.4 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 9 Pages.

As No.4 of comparative physics series papers, this paper mainly discusses the comparative studies of various theories (or formulae) of force, and on this basis, presents the concepts of generalized theory of force and generalized theories clusters of force. The essence of generalized theory of force is the extension and generalization of Newton's second law. In Newton's second law, force is the product of mass and acceleration of the object; while in generalized theory of force, force is the product of generalized mass and generalized acceleration of the object, in which: the generalized mass (including quantity of electricity, and the like) and the generalized acceleration are both the functions of coordinates and time, as well as other appropriate variables. Various generalized theories of force form generalized theories clusters of force. In the unified framework of generalized theories clusters of force, the related problems of Newton's second law, law of gravity, law of Coulomb, special relativity, general relativity, strong interaction, weak interaction, and the like, are discussed. Finally, by comparison, concept of the fifth force in nature, namely quantum interaction (including quantum discontinuous interaction, quantum uncertain interaction, quantum stochastic interaction, quantum entanglement interaction, and the like), is proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1895] viXra:1708.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:21:21

Grid-Based Molecular Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A series of grid-based computational technologies for in silico virtual screening and molecular design of new drugs is proposed. [19] A team of researchers at Caltech has developed a way to capture on film the superfast propulsive motion of Brownian objects, particularly those at the nanoscale. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1894] viXra:1708.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:50:38

Neutron Holography 3-D Atomic Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Now, a collaboration among Japanese researchers from national particle accelerator facilities across Japan has developed a new multiple-wavelength neutron holography technique that can give insight into previously unknown structures. [20] A series of grid-based computational technologies for in silico virtual screening and molecular design of new drugs is proposed. [19] A team of researchers at Caltech has developed a way to capture on film the superfast propulsive motion of Brownian objects, particularly those at the nanoscale. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1893] viXra:1708.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 04:19:52

Thermodynamic Irreversibility in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. [15] A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Austria has developed a means for directly observing dynamical quantum phase transitions in an interacting many-body system. [14] In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1892] viXra:1708.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-27 11:00:45

Hodge Experiment (Continued) of Interference with a Slit in a Transparent Mask Rejects Wave Models of Light

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 6 Pages.

Young's interference and Hodge's diffraction of light experiments show characteristics of light that have defied modeling except for the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model. The Hodge Experiment is the Fraunhofer pattern from a first mask with a slit impinges on a second mask with a slit(s). The Hodge Experiment is extended to model a diffraction pattern on a transparent second mask with a slit. The screen pattern is an interference pattern such as produced with two slits in Young's Experiment. A nail is placed between the first and second mask to block the light of the center maxima. The interference fringes remained in the secondary peaks. This observation rejects wave models of light that requires light through the second slit. The STOE model successfully modeled the observed pattern.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1891] viXra:1708.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:36:07

Quantum Entanglement is Real

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1890] viXra:1708.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 07:44:15

Phase Shifts During Atomic Scattering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1889] viXra:1708.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 08:57:15

Quantum Phase Transitions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Austria has developed a means for directly observing dynamical quantum phase transitions in an interacting many-body system. [14] In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1888] viXra:1708.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-25 00:22:05

Quantum Marxian Political Economics

Authors: Erman ZENG
Comments: 15 Pages.

The mathematical characterization of “the Productive Forces” of a macro economic system is based upon the analogy between political economy and Newtonian mechanics, which is expressed as the product of the growth rate of the profit rate (p) and the surplus value (M), showing several quantum qualities like a photon quanta. The one-dimensional linear harmonic oscillator model can correlate the angular frequency with the change rate of the rate of profit thus with the economic growth rate, resulting the quantum-like interpretation of various business cycles. The matrix operator analysis of the Leontief’s input-output table, similar to the matrix mechanics of quantum physics, gives the Schrodinger function like value-price transformation eigen function, with the reduced organic composite of capital as the eigenvalue of the price wave function, namely the relations of production, leading to the "two Cambridge controversy" resolved. The statistic physical entropy increase theory combined with the Marx labor value function leads to the quantitative formulation of the relations of production.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1887] viXra:1708.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 10:03:29

High-Dimensional Quantum Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have sent a quantum-secured message containing more than one bit of information per photon through the air above a city. [18] In early July, Google announced that it will expand its commercially available cloud computing services to include quantum computing. A similar service has been available from IBM since May. [17] Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1886] viXra:1708.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 07:10:42

Quantum Mechanics Change Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

In early July, Google announced that it will expand its commercially available cloud computing services to include quantum computing. A similar service has been available from IBM since May. [17] Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1885] viXra:1708.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 14:41:22

Proof of Majorana Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Barbara presents an advanced quantum chip that will be able to provide definitive proof of the mysterious Majorana particles. [9[ On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1884] viXra:1708.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:05:11

Data Storage at the Molecular Level

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Now scientists at the University of Manchester have proved that storing data with a class of molecules known as single-molecule magnets is more feasible than previously thought. [22] The new work shows that collections of ultracold molecules can retain the information stored in them, for hundreds of times longer than researchers have previously achieved in these materials. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1883] viXra:1708.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 09:00:19

Hyperentanglement and Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1882] viXra:1708.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 09:24:37

Understanding Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1881] viXra:1708.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 13:40:30

Quantum Dot Biosensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Quantum dots (QDs) have found so many applications in recent years, they can now be purchased with a variety of composite structures and configurations. [16] Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1880] viXra:1708.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 08:57:46

PT-Symmetric Quantum Walk

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The system is called a "PT-symmetric quantum walk," since it consists of single photons that occupy a superposition of states, called quantum walks, that obey parity-time (PT) symmetry—the property in which a system's coordinates in space and time can have their signs reversed without inherently changing the system. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1879] viXra:1708.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 09:08:06

Entanglement of Large Sized Objects – Part 2

Authors: Jeffrey S Keen
Comments: Pages 5, Figures 1, Tables 2

The objective of this paper is to copy quantum entanglement into the everyday macro world. Entanglement is usually associated with, say, 2 electrons emitted from the same atom remaining in contact with each other when separated by vast distances. This paper shows how it is possible for 2 large physical bodies to communicate information to each other over considerable distances, without any apparent intermediate medium. One sheet of A4 paper, torn in half, is all that is required to generate 2-body entanglement, provided that the 2 sheets of paper are sufficiently far apart so they create a psi-line with nodes, that mediates the entanglement. Quantitative experiments involving auras are detailed and demonstrate that the mind is intrinsically connected to psi-lines and quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1878] viXra:1708.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-22 09:39:57

Quantum Interference with Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1877] viXra:1708.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 08:20:48

Heating Up a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

An international team led by Prof. Nathan Goldman, Faculty of Science, Université libre de Bruxelles, predicts a novel form of quantization law, which involves a distinct type of physical observable: the heating rate of a quantum system upon external shaking. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1876] viXra:1708.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-19 11:04:46

Basic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

Heerbaan 6 6
Category: Quantum Physics

[1875] viXra:1708.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 14:49:37

Dark and Bright-State Polaritons in Triple-Λ Eit System

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan
Comments: 7 Pages.

Triple-Λ system is investigated using polariton theory. The role of dark and bright-state polaritons in the dynamics of the system is explained in detail. Time evolution of entanglement of single and three-photon EIT modes within the system is studied.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1874] viXra:1708.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-18 05:43:55

X-ray from Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A team around Kilian Heeg from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg has now found a way to make the spectrum of the x-ray pulses emitted by these sources even narrower. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1873] viXra:1708.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-16 10:30:48

Quantum Clones

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1872] viXra:1708.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 07:17:13

Evidence of Light-by-Light Scattering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1871] viXra:1708.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:14:24

Lensless Computational Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Lensless computational microscopy makes it possible to visualize transparent objects or measure their shape in three dimensions. [18] University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17] For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1870] viXra:1708.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 05:41:30

X-ray Imaging Resolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1869] viXra:1708.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-15 03:04:33

Networks Trophic Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

"Demonstrating that trophic coherence is a property found in a wide range and scale of ecosystems and networks was actually easier than we had expected," Johnson tells Phys.org. [16] A network may have many layers—corresponding to different types of relationships in a social network, for example—but traditional approaches to analysis are limited. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1868] viXra:1708.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 07:45:29

Freeform Optical Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The device is a type of spectrometer—an optical instrument that takes light and breaks it down into components to reveal a catalogue of information about an object. [24] When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1867] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 09:30:46

The Structure and Causes of Energy Levels Quantization Of Atoms

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: this article giving a new atomic structure that has been proved by related experiments. Based on the new atomic structure, put forward the new causes of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1866] viXra:1708.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 11:23:00

Exotic Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1865] viXra:1708.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-13 22:08:33

Atomic Orbitals: Explained and Derived by Energy Wave Equations

Authors: Jeff Yee, Yingbo Zhu, Guofu Zhou
Comments: 75 pages

The electron’s orbital distance, ionization energy and shape can be modeled based on classical mechanics when the recently-discovered pentaquark structure is used as the model of the proton. This paper accurately models atomic orbital distances based on this five-quark structure of the proton, in which the orbiting electron is both attracted by an anti-quark and repelled by quarks in the proton. The orbital distance is classically defined as the point where the sum of the forces is zero, removing the need for a separate set of laws in physics, known as quantum mechanics, to describe the electron’s position in an atom.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1864] viXra:1708.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 04:05:10

Massive Particles Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1863] viXra:1708.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 03:10:54

SQUID-Based Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

They overcame the bandwidth barrier by using very cold superconducting microwave circuitry and superconducting quantum interference device amplifiers, known as SQUIDs, capable of boosting the intensity of small signals. [41] Strange electrons break the crystal symmetry of high-temperature superconductors. [40] Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material. [39] Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1862] viXra:1708.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 08:58:02

Blind Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that clients who possess only classical computers—and no quantum devices—can outsource computing tasks to quantum servers that perform blind quantum computing. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1861] viXra:1708.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 09:57:16

Gauge Groups and Wavefunctions - Balancing at the Tipping Point

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: Pages.

“What the Hell is Going On?” is Peter Woit’s ‘Not Even Wrong’ blog post of July 22nd 2017, a commentary on Nima Arkani-Hamed’s view of the present barren state of LHC physics, the long-dreaded Desert. This paper addresses the roots of the quandary which are fundamental, branching deep into the measurement problem and the enigmatic unobservable character of the wavefunction, and the confusion generating an ongoing proliferation of quantum interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1860] viXra:1708.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 09:58:40

Multilayer Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A network may have many layers—corresponding to different types of relationships in a social network, for example—but traditional approaches to analysis are limited. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1859] viXra:1708.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-11 10:37:34

X-rays Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a less expensive and more efficient way of controlling x-ray beams used to study the intricate details of batteries, solar cells, proteins and all manner of materials. [18] The ESRF Council, representing the 22 partner nations of the ESRF, gave the green light for the construction and commissioning of four new beamlines from 2018-2022. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet
Category: Quantum Physics

[1858] viXra:1708.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 08:43:47

Quantum Networking Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1857] viXra:1708.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 05:11:47

A New Variant on Young’s Double-slit Experiment and Wheeler’s Delayed Choice Experiment

Authors: Yuan Kai
Comments: 2 Pages.

Based on the basic version of the Double-slit experiment, a coherent light source, such as a laser beam, illuminates a plate pierced by two parallel slits, and the light passing through the slits is observed on a screen behind the plate.The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through the two slits to interfere, producing bright and dark bands on the screen — a result that would not be expected if light consisted of classical particles. Our new variant is as below: We shut one of the two parallel slits once the light passed the slits. Or we keep the two slits shutting and opening randomly in high speed. We believe this variant experiment could lead to a farther fundamental understanding of the Quantum Mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1856] viXra:1708.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-10 06:38:11

Terahertz Multiplexer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Multiplexing, the ability to send multiple signals through a single channel, is a fundamental feature of any voice or data communication system. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1855] viXra:1708.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 14:25:48

Laser Imaging, Chemical Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Terahertz radiation—the band of the electromagnetic spectrum between microwaves and visible light—has promising applications in medical and industrial imaging and chemical detection, among other uses. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1854] viXra:1708.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:20:31

Optical Fiber Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1853] viXra:1708.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 05:42:36

Optical Coherence Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16] Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1852] viXra:1708.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 07:16:24

Quantum Sensors Precision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Quantum sensors are highly sensitive and among their many promising applications they are ushering in a new era of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) that is making visible the tiny details inside cells and proteins. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1851] viXra:1708.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 09:13:48

Coherent Terahertz Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1850] viXra:1708.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-07 09:50:48

Color of LED Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The color of the light emitted by an LED can be tuned by altering the size of their semiconductor crystals. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1849] viXra:1708.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 14:29:23

Is the Chemical Bond Consistent with the Theory of Relativity?

Authors: Omar Yepez
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures.

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electron participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. A probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1848] viXra:1708.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 04:14:26

Entropy as a Bound for Expectation Values and Variances of a General Quantum Mechanical Observable

Authors: Shubhayan Sarkar
Comments: 4 Pages. open to comments

Quantum information-theoretic approach has been identied as a way to understand the foundations of quantum mechanics as early as 1950 due to Shannon. However there hasn't been enough advancement or rigorous development of the subject. In the following paper we try to find relationship between a general quantum mechanical observable and von Neumann entropy. We find that the expectation values and the uncertainties of the observables have bounds which depend on the entropy. The results also show that von Neumann entropy is not just the uncertainty of the state but also encompasses the information about expectation values and uncertainties of any observable which depends on the observers choice for a particular measurement. Also a reverese uncertainty relation is derived for n quantum mechanical observables.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1847] viXra:1708.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 08:29:21

A Request for Proposal

Authors: Philip Maulion
Comments: 4 Pages. philip.maulion@paris7.jussieu.fr

Abstract: The purpose of the proposed experiment is to evaluate the validity of the fundamental assumption that space-time is a human being’s own (characteristic of human being). The recent highlight, of cognitive properties of humans under situation of specific interactions with the outside world, allows to think that with this experiment we will be able to identify the reasons for some specific quantum mechanics oddities. 7 quotations
Category: Quantum Physics

[1846] viXra:1708.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-04 03:19:40

High-Performance Optical Receivers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Thanks to IBM scientists, replacing copper wires with light to transfer data at improved speeds and with optimal energy efficiency is within reach. [19] A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Australia has developed an optical high-bitrate nanoantenna that they used with an optical waveguide. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1845] viXra:1708.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 14:15:53

New Evidence of Majorana Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Rendering of the electronic device in which Majorana particles were observed. The device is made up of a superconductor (blue bar) and a magnetic topological insulator (gray strip). [20] Now a team including Stanford scientists says it has found the first firm evidence of such a Majorana fermion. [19] Majorana fermions are particles that could potentially be used as information units for a quantum computer. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1844] viXra:1708.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 04:30:04

Quantum Physics Revolutionize Biochemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1843] viXra:1708.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-03 05:21:48

Hyperfine Spectrum of Antihydrogen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

In a study published today in Nature, the ALPHA Collaboration, which includes 50 physicists from 17 institutions, reports the first detailed observation of spectral lines from an antimatter atom. [15] In a study published in Physics Review Letters and highlighted by APS Physics, ICFO researchers demonstrate a new technique for the coherent detection of radio frequency magnetic fields using an atomic magnetometer. [14] The peculiar characteristics demonstrated by quantum critical points at absolute zero remain one of the great unsolved mysteries of science. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1842] viXra:1708.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 07:13:52

Radio Waves with Entangled Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In a study published in Physics Review Letters and highlighted by APS Physics, ICFO researchers demonstrate a new technique for the coherent detection of radio frequency magnetic fields using an atomic magnetometer. [14] The peculiar characteristics demonstrated by quantum critical points at absolute zero remain one of the great unsolved mysteries of science. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1841] viXra:1708.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-02 02:01:12

Quantum Critical Points

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The peculiar characteristics demonstrated by quantum critical points at absolute zero remain one of the great unsolved mysteries of science. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1840] viXra:1708.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-01 01:33:19

Single-Photon Quantum Info-Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced the first known material capable of single-photon emission at room temperature and at telecommunications wavelengths. [19] In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1839] viXra:1707.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 07:56:45

Novel Electron Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Accordingly, techniques such as the one developed in this study will be very valuable in research on new nano-thin films in which the qualitative consistency of the film across a large area needs to be ensured. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1838] viXra:1707.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 06:51:38

Chemical Processes with Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at ETH Zurich have now come up with a concrete example that demonstrates what quantum computers will actually be able to achieve in the future. [17] While breakthroughs in quantum computing technology seem to be in tech news every day, very little is said about the actual applications of the super fast computers of the future. [16] Deep learning and machine learning both offer ways to train models and classify data. This article compares the two and it offers ways to help you decide which one to use. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1837] viXra:1707.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 22:28:42

An Addendum on Our Previous Demonstration of Wave Function Collapse in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Elio Conte
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this brief note we introduce only some further technical detail on the demonstration that we have given in previous years on the algebraic and physical manner in which the wave function of quantum mechanics collapses.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1836] viXra:1707.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-31 04:09:08

A Classical Explanation for the Correlation of Entangled Quantum Particles

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 18 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics claim that particles can become entangled such that there is a correlation in the detected results from EPR type experiments that cannot be explained by Classical Physics. I can show that the result can be fully explained by Classical Physics, and that the correlation curve for different angles between the two detectors can by reproduced when modelled this way.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1835] viXra:1707.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 12:11:03

Applications for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

While breakthroughs in quantum computing technology seem to be in tech news every day, very little is said about the actual applications of the super fast computers of the future. [16] Deep learning and machine learning both offer ways to train models and classify data. This article compares the two and it offers ways to help you decide which one to use. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1834] viXra:1707.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-30 10:51:44

Robotic 4D Cameras

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Presented at CVPR this week, the camera designed by Gordon Wetzstein, Donald Dansereau and colleagues at the University of California in San Diego, is the very first light field, single-lens, wide field of view camera intended to improve the vision of robots. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1833] viXra:1707.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-29 04:28:25

Quantum Communication Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1832] viXra:1707.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-28 02:54:05

Ultracold Molecules for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The new work shows that collections of ultracold molecules can retain the information stored in them, for hundreds of times longer than researchers have previously achieved in these materials. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1831] viXra:1707.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 08:57:13

Ultrafocused Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1830] viXra:1707.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-27 09:25:18

Robustness of Quantum Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers at the UAB have come up with a method to measure the strength of the superposition coherence in any given quantum state. [22] Experiments tested whether electrons could escape an atom instantaneously. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1829] viXra:1707.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 14:14:16

Quantum Tunneling Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Experiments tested whether electrons could escape an atom instantaneously. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1828] viXra:1707.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 12:10:33

Quantum Magnetic Sensing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1827] viXra:1707.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 13:28:29

Superconductors Break Crystal Symmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Strange electrons break the crystal symmetry of high-temperature superconductors. [40] Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material. [39] Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1826] viXra:1707.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 07:41:01

Developing Quantum Algorithms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The study presents a new quantum algorithm that could speed up solutions to semidefinite problems, sometimes exponentially. Quantum algorithms are sets of instructions that tell quantum computers what to do to solve problems. [20] The group, led by Dr Steve Chick and Professor of Physics Ben Murdin, has developed a way of making phosphorous atoms 'dance', which could be the next breakthrough in the quest to make quantum computers a viable reality. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1825] viXra:1707.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 11:36:17

An Approximate Non-Quantum Calculation of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect

Authors: Gary Osborn
Comments: 6 pages, 1 figure

In the Aharonov-Bohm effect for a magnetic solenoid a moving charged particle seems to be influenced by the 4-potential in a region where there are no fields in the laboratory frame of reference. The 4-potential should be transformed to the frame of reference of the particle before computing the fields. There is an E field in its frame of reference. The field accelerates a moving charged particle. One of the components of the acceleration vector is in the same direction as the particle's velocity in the first frame of reference. The resulting longitudinal displacement in the path integral, when scaled in units of the de Broglie wavelength for the particle, is approximately the same as the phase of the Aharonov-Bohm solution for long paths. The scalar solution does not require transformation. It follows from the static Coulomb solution and the Newton equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1824] viXra:1707.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 11:54:34

Modified QED (MQED) Predicts How to Demonstrate FTL Communication

Authors: Paul J. Werbos
Comments: 9 pages, 4 figures, 2 equations, 25 citations

Canonical Copenhagen QED (KQED) predicts that substantive information cannot be communicated faster than light (FTL) or backwards in time. KQED is essentially just the combination of three assumptions used together to make predictions: (1) the assumption that the wave function ψ(t) evolves according to the time-symmetric system ∂tψ=iHψ where is H is the normal product form of the Maxwell-Dirac Hamiltonian; (2) the classical Copenhagen measurement formalism, including metaphysical observers and collapse of the wave function; (3) Fermi’s Golden Rule for spontaneous emission. MQED, published in 2015, replaces the measurement part with a new measurement formalism without observers based on what (1) actually predicts. MQED is not a local realistic theory, but (unlike KQED) it might be derived as a good statistical approximation to one. The 2015 paper proposed a decisive experiment to test which is right, KQED or MQED. This paper proposes a simpler if messier decisive experiment, to demonstrate FTL communication, more details of MQED and the possibility in principle of an underlying local realistic theory of physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1823] viXra:1707.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 04:29:04

Mass Interaction Principle as a Common Origin of Special Relativity and Quantum Behaviours of Massive Particles

Authors: Chu-Jun Gu
Comments: 54 Pages.

The author believes there are spacetime particles(STPs) which can sense all matter particles ubiquitously. Matter particles will change their states col- lided by STP . The underlying property of mass is a statistical property emerging from random impact in spacetime. We propose a mass interaction principle (MIP) which states any particle with mass m will involve a random motion without friction, due to random impacts from spacetime. Each im- pact changes the amount nh (n is any integer) for an action of the particle. Starting from the concept of statistical mass, we propose the fundamental MIP. We conclude that inertial mass has to be a statistical property, which measures the diffusion ability of all matter particles in spacetime. We prove all the essential results of special relativity come from MIP. Speed of light in the vacuum need no longer any special treatment. Instead, speed of STP has more fundamentally physical meaning, which represents the upper lim- it of information propagational speed in physics. Moreover, we derive the uncertainty relation asserting a fundamental limit to the precision regarding mass and diffusion coefficient. Within this context, wave-particle duality is a novel property emerging from random impact by STPs. Further more, an interpretation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is suggested, with a stochastic origin of Feynman’s path integral formalism. It is shown that we can construct a physical picture distinct from Copenhagen interpretation, and reinvestigate the nature of spacetime and reveal the origin of quantum behaviours from a realistic point of view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1822] viXra:1707.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 10:56:14

Quantum Electronics in Quantum Communications

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 19 Pages. NextGen electronics

We discuss the virtual model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig. 1) compared to our actual model of a quantum electronic system (fig. 2) that enables the creation of quantum generator for flexible (folded) quantum nano-computers, and space computer and TV displays in quantum telecom and cyberspace based on three fundamental laws of physical-chemical kinetics: (1) the law of entire equilibrium, (2) the law of the duality of elementary processes (or the equality of direct and reverse transition probabilities), and (3) the law of equal a priori probabilities. It is shown that said three laws follow from the law of the symmetry of time, and furthermore, that the first and third of these laws are both derivable from the second.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1821] viXra:1707.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 11:37:49

Quantum Sensors in Diamond

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1820] viXra:1707.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 07:30:59

True Local Realism: Bell's Dilemma Resolved, QM Demystified, Etc.

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 18 Pages.

To be or not to be; that is the issue. Using (what we term) Bell's definition of true local realism — the union of true locality and true realism — we resolve Bell’s ‘action-at-a-distance’ dilemma in favor of true locality: ie, no influence propagates superluminally (after Einstein). As to Bell's realism, we prefer (what we duly term) true realism: ie, some beables change interactively (after Bell’s handy term for existents and Bohr's ‘disturbance' insight). Put simply: defining beables by properties and values, we allow interactions to yield new beables. (Thus, since observables are clearly beables, existing or not existing prior to an interaction, we reject the quantum/classical divide.) We then predict the probabilities of interaction outcomes by simply distinguishing between classes of beables. In this way, delivering results in full accord with quantum theory and experiment — in 3-space; and contra Bell — we also advance QM's reconstruction in spacetime with a new vector-product for geometric algebra. True local realism thus resolves Bell's dilemma, demystifies QM, etc.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1819] viXra:1707.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 08:13:14

Surface Code Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The group, led by Dr Steve Chick and Professor of Physics Ben Murdin, has developed a way of making phosphorous atoms 'dance', which could be the next breakthrough in the quest to make quantum computers a viable reality. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1818] viXra:1707.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 05:23:30

Magnetic Quantum Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1817] viXra:1707.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-25 05:58:47

High-Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material. [39] Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1816] viXra:1707.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-24 09:20:25

Building Blocks of Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1815] viXra:1707.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 08:10:26

Gravitational Anomaly on Earth

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1814] viXra:1707.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 05:43:57

Vortex Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Researchers at IMS and their coworkers have shown theoretically and experimentally that a high energy electron in circular/spiral motion radiates vortex photons from the radio wavelength to gamma rays. [30] Brown University researchers have developed a new method of manipulating the polarization of light at terahertz frequencies. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1813] viXra:1707.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 13:45:12

Evidence for the Majorana Fermion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Now a team including Stanford scientists says it has found the first firm evidence of such a Majorana fermion. [19] Majorana fermions are particles that could potentially be used as information units for a quantum computer. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1812] viXra:1707.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 01:33:42

Manipulate Nanomagnets and Store Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1811] viXra:1707.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 08:52:50

Quantum World and Local Realism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Physicists have reported some of the strongest evidence yet that that the quantum world does not obey local realism by demonstrating new evidence for the existence of quantum entanglement. [12] Mathematicians at the Universities of York, Munich and Cardiff have identified a unique property of quantum mechanical particles – they can move in the opposite way to the direction in which they are being pushed. [11] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1810] viXra:1707.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 03:54:52

Polarization of Terahertz Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Brown University researchers have developed a new method of manipulating the polarization of light at terahertz frequencies. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1809] viXra:1707.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 05:38:08

Chaos in Ultracold Reactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers have performed the first ever quantum-mechanical simulation of the benchmark ultracold chemical reaction between potassium-rubidium (KRb) and a potassium atom, opening the door to new controlled chemistry experiments and quantum control of chemical reactions that could spark advances in quantum computing and sensing technologies. [26] An international team led by the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering has discovered how to manipulate a weird quantum interface between light and matter in silicon carbide along wavelengths used in telecommunications. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1808] viXra:1707.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 06:49:38

Moving Vortices in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1807] viXra:1707.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 11:42:17

Spintronics Material for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1806] viXra:1707.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 10:45:10

Quantum Particle Travels Backwards

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Mathematicians at the Universities of York, Munich and Cardiff have identified a unique property of quantum mechanical particles – they can move in the opposite way to the direction in which they are being pushed. [11] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1805] viXra:1707.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 12:43:41

Entanglement in a 2-D Quantum Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now, scientists from EPFL and the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) have realized experimentally a new quantum many body state in a material. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1804] viXra:1707.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 14:38:26

Entanglement

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists claimed that an exchange in information between two photons was instant, but I think that the conclusion of an entangled state was a fallacy. The physicists compared the time that they needed for their meassurement to the time that an exchange in information over a distance of 1.3 kilometers would require, they claimed that there wasn't enough time for an exchange in information over that distance within the time period of their meassurement. So they concluded that it was instant, but I think that they were wrong. Those physicists don't realize that there is another option, that time doesn't apply to an exchange in information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1803] viXra:1707.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 05:03:42

Quantum Dot Position Determination

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists from the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in coupling an extremely small quantum dot with 1,000 times larger trumpet-shaped nanowire. The movement of the nanowire can be detected with a sensitivity of 100 femtometers via the wavelength of the light emitted by the quantum dot. [18] The rapidly developing science and technology of graphene and atomically-thin materials has taken another step forward with new research from The University of Manchester. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1802] viXra:1707.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-15 08:31:23

Carbon Quantum Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Chemists at Ruhr-Universität Bochum have found evidence that carbon atoms cannot only behave like particles but also like waves. This quantum-mechanical property is well-known for light particles such as electrons or hydrogen atoms. [32] A team of scientists has used microwaves to unravel the exact structure of a tiny molecular motor. The nano-machine consists of just a single molecule, made up of 27 carbon and 20 hydrogen atoms (C27H20). [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1801] viXra:1707.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 10:58:21

Reflective Nanostructures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1800] viXra:1707.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-14 04:54:54

Laser-Cooled Ions Friction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists from the QUEST Institute at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now presented a model system that allows the investigation of atomic-scale friction effects and friction dynamics that are similar to those taking place in proteins, DNA strands and other deformable nanocontacts. [18] New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1799] viXra:1707.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 13:44:51

Control and Measure Electron Spin Voltage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Information technologies of the future will likely use electron spin—rather than electron charge—to carry information. But first, scientists need to better understand how to control spin and learn to build the spin equivalent of electronic components, from spin transistors, to spin gates and circuits. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1798] viXra:1707.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:28:41

Smart Atomic Cloud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Copenhagen have developed a hands-on answer to a challenge linked to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. [18] ICFO Researchers report the discovery of a new technique that could drastically improve the sensitivity of instruments such as magnetic resonance imagers (MRIs) and atomic clocks. [17] Research groups at Aalto University and the University of Jyväskylä have demonstrated a new microwave measurement method that goes to the quantum limit of measurement and beats it. [16] New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1797] viXra:1707.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 09:07:27

Atomic Cousins Team Up

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Large-scale quantum computers, which are an active pursuit of many university labs and tech giants, remain years away. But that hasn't stopped some scientists from thinking ahead, to a time when quantum computers might be linked together in a network or a single quantum computer might be split up across many interconnected nodes. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1796] viXra:1707.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 06:44:47

Quantum Cooling Process

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1795] viXra:1707.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 07:47:58

Quantum Inverse Measurement Theory Contributing to the Birth of Interpretation System of Quantum Mechanics of Local-Realism and Determinism

Authors: Runsheng Tu
Comments: 61 Pages. This manuscript mainly investigated the interference-free measurements. The verification experiment of quantum inverse measurement is designed. The results show that A solid theoretical foundation has been laid for “correctly understanding the microscopic

The existing interpretation of quantum mechanics is contrary to common sense. The existing quantum mechanical interpretation schemes are puzzling. The confusing theory is unconvincing, and need to be amended and completed. The successful interpretation program of quantum mechanics of local-realism and determinism is undoubtedly the most attractive. Preparing the interpretation program deserves to be chosen as a research goal. It is a very good premise to believe that an object particle consist of light-knot of monochromatic waves. According to this premise, the erroneous recognition about "superposition principle, wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle" can be corrected. Under this premise, above research goal is achieved by establishing, applying quantum mechanics inverse measurement theory, adhering to the principle that there must be a complete empirical chain in the derivation process of experimental conclusion, and using the side effect caused by accompanying-light to explain the diffraction experiment of object particles. Electron secondarily diffraction and other experiments directly prove that there is the measurement (observation) which may not destroy quantum coherence. The diffraction experiments of all kinds of particles show that the Keeping and playing of the coherence of moving particles in the vacuum have nothing to do with their previous experience. These are the existing experiments, to be found, that support the theory of quantum inverse measurements. The verification experiment of quantum inverse measurement is designed. The absolute superiorities of quantum inverse measurement and the new view of measurement of quantum mechanics are listed.These superiorities are: that it has the characteristics of local-realism and determinism; it is not contrary to common sense and there is no confusing place; it can predict several phenomena that cannot be predicted by other theories. A solid theoretical foundation has been laid for “correctly understanding the microscopic world” and establishment of local realism quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1794] viXra:1707.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 08:29:36

Molecules Breathe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Molecules Breathe Laser light excited an electron in the central iron atom (red). The electron transferred to one of the attached bipyridine structures, and then returned to the iron atom 100 femtoseconds later. [31] Skyrmions are swirling spin structures with spiral shapes described in 2009. They have attracted attention in academia as representing a possible basic unit of ultra-high-density next-generation memory devices due to their unique topological stability, small size, and efficient movement. [30] That could lead to new devices such as polariton transistors, Fei said. And that could one day lead to breakthroughs in photonic and quantum technologies. [29] The future of nano-electronics is here. A team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines, and the Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois have developed a novel method for the synthesis of a composite material that has the potential of vastly improving the electronics used by the Air Force. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1793] viXra:1707.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 16:45:28

The Particle Model for the Higgs’ Condensate and the Anomalous Geometrical Diffraction

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper we propose a particle model for the Higgs’ condensate: we propose that this condensate is the set of (infinite velocity) non-local tachyons. We show that then there exists the anomalous geometrical diffraction (which contradicts to quantum mechanics). We show that there exists a universal time constant which defines the limits of the validity of quantum mechanics. We propose an experiment testing the existence of the anomalous geometrical diffraction. We proposed the dark energy conjecture which enables to make an estimate of the time constant. We assume certain (“Feynman”) interaction between standard particle and the non-local tachyon. All this is related to the new (finite) form of the Feynman integral.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1792] viXra:1707.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 12:04:39

What Went Wrong with the “interpretation” of Quantum Theory?

Authors: Robert H. McEachern
Comments: 41 Pages.

This slideshow is a preliminary account of how the misinterpretation of quantum theory originated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1791] viXra:1707.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 07:52:28

Earth-to-Space Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Two teams of researchers in China have advanced the distance that entangled particles can be used to send information, including encryption keys. [20] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1790] viXra:1707.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 08:12:37

Space Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

NICT developed the world's smallest and lightest quantum communication transmitter (SOTA) onboard the microsatellite SOCRATES. [21] Two teams of researchers in China have advanced the distance that entangled particles can be used to send information, including encryption keys. [20] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1789] viXra:1707.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 13:29:52

Second Quantization of the Square-Root Klein-Gordon Operator, Microscopic Causality, Propagators, and Interactions

Authors: John R. Smith
Comments: 60 Pages.

The square-root Klein-Gordon operator, √m^2 − ∇^2 , is a non-local operator with a natural scale inversely proportional to the mass (the Compton wavelength). The fact that there is a natural scale in the operator as well as the fact that the single particle theory for the Coulomb potential, V (r) = −Ze2/r, yields a different eigenvalue spectrum from either the Dirac Hamiltonian or the Klein-Gordon Hamiltonian indicates that this operator is truly distinct from either of the other two Hamiltonians (all three single-particle Hamiltonians have eigenspectra for the 1s states that converge at small atomic numbers, Z → 0, but diverge from each other at large Z). We see no fundamental reason to exclude negative energy states from a “square-root” propagation law and we find several possible Hamiltonians associated with √m2 − ∇2 which include both positive and negative energy plane wave states. Depending on the specific Hamiltonian, it is possible to satisfy the equations of motion with commutators or anticommutators. However, for the scalar case considered, only the Hamiltonian that requires commutation rules has a stable vacuum. We investigate microscopic causality for the commutator of the Hamiltonian density. Also we find that despite the non-local dependence of the energy density on the field operators, the commutators of the physical observables vanish for space-like separations. This result extends the application of Pauli’s1 result to the non-local case. Pauli explicitly excluded √m2 − ∇2 because this op- erator acts non-locally in the coordinate space. We investigate the problems with applying minimal coupling to the square-root equation and why this method of interactions is inconsistent with the exponential shift property of the square-root operator and the demand for gauge-invariance. The Mandelstam representation offers the possibility of avoiding the difficulties inherent in minimal coupling (Lorentz invariance and gauge-invariance). We also compute the propagators for the scat- tering problem and investigate the solutions of the square-root equation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1788] viXra:1707.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 09:01:10

Maxwell's Demon in Quantum Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1787] viXra:1707.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 05:41:54

An Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Tejas A. Chaudhari
Comments: 8 Pages. Email id:- tejastalk@gmail.com

This paper gives interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) by redefining the theory using 3 new postulates. The first of these postulates specifies the underlying structure that every massive fundamental particle must possess. The mass-Energy equivalence and wave nature of matter emerge as a direct consequence. The second postulate describes the quantum state of particles. Wave function, its conjugate, Born interpretation and the Energy-momentum operators can be derived from these two postulates. The third postulate describes the effect of measurement and interaction on the wave function. The equations of QM starting from Schrödinger’s equation are described. The phenomenon of Quantum entanglement and Schrödinger’s cat thought experiment are described under this interpretation. Finally, the origin of spin resulting from the first postulate is discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1786] viXra:1707.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-09 05:49:29

Dynamics of Statistical Fermionic and Boson-Fermionic Quantum System in Terms of Occupation Numbers

Authors: I. V. Drozdov, B. Drozdov
Comments: 17 Pages.

The ergodic second-order approach of entropy gradient maximization, applied on the problem of a quantum bosonic system, does not provide dynamic equations for pure fermionic system. The first-order dynamic equation results for a system of bosonic and fermionic \dofs interacting by a conservation of a common sum of quantum occupation numbers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1785] viXra:1707.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-08 08:00:43

Majorana Highway

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A collaboration of researchers has now combined novel nanowires with a high-quality interface to other required materials on a chip. This allows for bullet-like collisionless quantum transport of charges through the nanowires: a requirement for larger-scale Majorana-based experiment. [9] On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1784] viXra:1707.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 08:34:01

Manipulate Silicon Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Jiang and his team created a way to measure and control the energy differences of electron valley states in silicon quantum dots, which are a key component of quantum computing research. [29] Now, researchers at Stanford University and MIT have built a new chip to overcome this hurdle. [28] In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1783] viXra:1707.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 11:09:27

Nanoscale Motion Sends Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

AMOLF researchers have developed nanoscale strings whose motion can be converted to light signals with unprecedented strength. [16] Twisted PCFs show some amazing features, from circular birefringence to conservation of the angular momentum. [15] Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics - the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1782] viXra:1707.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 20:04:58

Second Quantization of the Square-Root Klein-Gordon Operator

Authors: John R. Smith
Comments: 58 Pages.

The square-root Klein-Gordon operator,√(m^2− ∇^2), is a non-local operator with a natural scale inversely proportional to the mass (the Compton wavelength). There is no fundamental reason to exclude negative energy states from a “square-root” propagation law. We find several possible Hamiltonians associated with √(m^2− ∇^2) which include both positive and negative energy plane wave states. It is possible to satisfy the equations of motion with commutators or anticommutators. For the scalar case, only the canonical commutation rules yield a stable vacuum. We investigate microscopic causality for the commutator of the Hamiltonian density. We find that despite the non-local dependence of the energy density on the field operators, the commutators of the physical observables vanish for space-like separations. Hence, Pauli’s result can be extended to the non-local case. Pauli explicitly excluded √(m^2− ∇^2) because this operator acts non-locally in the coordinate space. The Mandelstam representation offers the possibility of avoiding the difficulties inherent in minimal coupling (Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance). We also compute the propagators for the scattering problem and investigate thesolutions of the square-root equation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1781] viXra:1707.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 10:51:15

Schrodinger’s Register: Foundational Issues and Physical Realization

Authors: Stephen Pink, Stanley Martens
Comments: 4 Pages. In the Proceedings of the Future Computer Conference, Rome, Italy, 2011

This work-in-progress paper consists of four points which relate to the foundations and physical realization of quantum computing. The first point is that the qubit cannot be taken as the basic unit for quantum computing, because not every superposition of bit-strings of length n can be factored into a string of n-qubits. The second point is that the “No-cloning” theorem does not apply to the copying of one quantum register into another register, because the mathematical representation of this copying is the identity operator, which is manifestly linear. The third point is that quantum parallelism is not destroyed only by environmental decoherence. There are two other forms of decoherence, which we call measurement decoherence and internal decoherence, that can also destroy quantum parallelism. The fourth point is that processing the contents of a quantum register “one qubit at a time” destroys entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1780] viXra:1707.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 13:20:12

Retrocausal Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

However, recently some physicists have been looking into this idea, called "retrocausality," because it can potentially resolve some long-standing puzzles in quantum physics. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1779] viXra:1707.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 10:01:56

The Spin Switched Off

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The experiment setup consists of a heterostructure of graphene and molybdenum disulphide; a spintronic device. [16] DESY scientist Lars Bocklage has discovered a new way of producing ultrafast spin currents. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1778] viXra:1707.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 06:43:11

Quantum Sensors Brain Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1777] viXra:1707.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 13:10:40

New Spin on Computer Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

In the quest to make computers faster and more efficient, researchers have been exploring the field of spintronics—shorthand for spin electronics—in hopes of controlling the natural spin of the electron to the benefit of electronic devices. [27] When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1776] viXra:1707.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 11:39:20

Breakthrough Quantum Benchmark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1775] viXra:1707.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-04 05:49:46

The Wheeler-Feynman Interpretation of the Delayed-Choice Experiment and its Consequences for Quantum Computation

Authors: Stephen Pink, Stanley Martens
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we shall describe the delayed-choice experiment first proposed by Wheeler and then analyze the experiment based on both our interpretation of what is happening and the Wheeler/Feynman interpretation. Our interpretation includes wave-function collapse due to a measurement, while the Wheeler/Feynman interpretation attempts to avoid wave-function collapse in a measurement, as part of their explanation, to preserve consistent unitarity. in quantum processes. We will also show that there are severe consequences for quantum computing if there is no wave function collapse due to a measurement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1774] viXra:1707.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 07:59:50

Individual Atomic Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Now, physicists in Kaiserslautern and Erlangen have succeeded in observing the fundamental steps of diffusion by individual atoms in a gas and have provided a theoretical description of this mechanism. [18] Van der Waals interactions between molecules are among the most important forces in biology, physics, and chemistry, as they determine the properties and physical behavior of many materials. [17] Physicists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the very weak van der Waals forces between individual atoms for the first time. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1773] viXra:1707.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 08:24:06

45-Qubit Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

When two researchers from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) announced in April that they had successfully simulated a 45-qubit quantum circuit, the science community took notice: it was the largest ever simulation of a quantum computer, and another step closer to simulating "quantum supremacy"—the point at which quantum computers become more powerful than ordinary computers. [26] Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1772] viXra:1707.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 04:37:19

Quantum Detection of Nuclear Spins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Melbourne have demonstrated a way to detect nuclear spins in molecules non-invasively, providing a new tool for biotechnology and materials science. [16] Precision measurement on heavy ions contradicts theory of interaction between atomic nucleus and electron. [15] For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. [14] International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1771] viXra:1707.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 06:00:23

Laser Illuminates the Subatomic Realm

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

The brightest light ever created by humans has revealed that at high enough intensities the interactions between light and subatomic particles change drastically. [30] A new theory proposes that faster-than-light particles known as tachyons could answer a lot of questions about the universe, writes Robyn Arianrhod. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1770] viXra:1707.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 06:30:15

Quantum Cryptography Based on the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Ahmed Farouk
Comments: 10 Pages. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, (2017), DOI: 10.1007/s10773-017-3456-x

Recently, secure quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using the Bell state is reported \cite{NN2}. Our aim is of extending the result to a multipartite system. In this paper, we propose a highly speedy key distribution protocol. We present secure quantum key distribution based on a special Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. Originally, Bob has promised to use a function $f$ which is of one of the two kinds; either the value of $f(x)$ is constant for all $x$, or the value of $f(x)$ is balanced, that is, it is equal to $1$ for exactly half of all the possible $x$, and $0$ for the other half. Here, Bob uses a special function when it is not constant. We may say the value of $f(x)$ is special. Our quantum key distribution overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor $O(2^N)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1769] viXra:1707.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 08:27:45

Transparency with a Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A magnetic field applied to an atomic sample in an optical cavity generates optical transparency that could be used to enhance the frequency stability of lasers. [17] Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, mathematical physicist Paul Sutcliffe at Durham University in the UK has theoretically shown that nanoparticles called magnetic skyrmions can be tied into various types of knots with different magnetic properties. [16] A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1768] viXra:1706.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 08:54:20

Momentum Paradox of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1767] viXra:1706.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 03:05:52

Scalable Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College, have discovered a new topological material which may enable fault-tolerant quantum computing. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1766] viXra:1706.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 11:54:34

Repulsive Van der Waals Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Van der Waals interactions between molecules are among the most important forces in biology, physics, and chemistry, as they determine the properties and physical behavior of many materials. [17] Physicists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the University of Basel have succeeded in measuring the very weak van der Waals forces between individual atoms for the first time. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1765] viXra:1706.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 13:02:16

Multi-Colored Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

In their paper published in Nature, the team demonstrates that photons can become an accessible and powerful quantum resource when generated in the form of colour-entangled quDits. [18] But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1764] viXra:1706.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 14:30:30

Measurable Quantum Fingerprint

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers working in Singapore and the United States have discovered that all entangled states of two particles have a classical 'fingerprint'. This breakthrough could help engineers guard against errors and devices that don't do what they promise in quantum computing and quantum cryptography. [10] Quantum superposition has been used to compare data from two different sources more efficiently than is possible, even in principle, on a conventional computer. The scheme is called "quantum fingerprinting" and has been demonstrated by physicists in China. It could ultimately lead to better large-scale integrated circuits and more energy-efficient communication. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1763] viXra:1706.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:25:15

Quantum Communication Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Quantum physic can guarantee that a message has not be intercepted before reaching its destination. [23] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1762] viXra:1706.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 10:03:08

New Frontiers in X-ray Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The ESRF Council, representing the 22 partner nations of the ESRF, gave the green light for the construction and commissioning of four new beamlines from 2018-2022. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1761] viXra:1706.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 03:55:57

Clear Local Realism Advances Bell's Ideas, Demystifies QM, Etc.

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 17 Pages.

Negating the classical/quantum divide in line with Bell's hidden-variable ideas, we resolve Bell's ‘action-at-a-distance' dilemma in accord with his hopes. We identify the resultant theory as clear local realism (CLR), the union of Bohr's ‘measurement' insight, Einstein locality and Bell beables. Our method follows: (i) consistent with Bohr's insight, we replace EPR's elements of physical reality with Bell's beables; (ii) we let Bell's beable λ denote a pristine particle's total angular momentum; (iii) validating Malus' Law in our quantum-compatible equivalence relations, we deliver the hopes of Bell and Einstein for a simple constructive model of EPRB; (iv) we then derive the correct results for CHSH and Mermin's version of GHZ; (v) we thus justify EPR's belief that additional variables would bring locality and causality to QM. In short, advancing Bell's ideas in line with his expectations: we amend EPR, resolve Bell's dilemma, negate nonlocality, endorse Einstein's locally-causal Lorentz-invariant worldview, demystify the classical/quantum divide, etc. CLR: clear via Bohr's insight, local via Einstein locality, realistic via Bell beables.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1760] viXra:1706.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 04:26:24

The Proton Problem & Proton Spin Crisis :The Color Confinement Mathematical Mechanism for the Existence of the Hadrons.

Authors: Yazzed Al-Harbi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Proving that the existence of the hadrons duo to the physical. consequences of the spinning quarks in the Higgs field, creating spherical color charged waves of the Higgs bosons carrying gluons as a function of the Planck length. This model explains and predict all the physical interactions with the expiremental data, QCD, the proton measured values of the radius and the proton spin crisis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1759] viXra:1706.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 04:42:18

Spintronics Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1758] viXra:1706.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 07:02:21

Strange Phenomena in Space-Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Mathematicians have created a new theory that could explain how universal disturbances move through space and time. This field pattern theory could explain how gravitational waves move and answer seemingly unanswerable questions in quantum mechanics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1757] viXra:1706.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 00:12:38

The Critical Analysis of the Foundations of Statistical Physics. II. the Theory of Photon Gas

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 16 Pages.

The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of theory of photon (quantum) gas are proposed. The principle of the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis of the analysis. The new results – the correct quantum-statistical foundations – obtained within the framework of the formulated master equation taking into consideration both the quantum states of the radiating molecule and the quantum states of the photon gas in the isolated macroscopic systems “molecule + molecular gas + monochromatic photon gas” are as follows: (a) Planck’s, Einstein’s, and Bose’s works on the theory of photon (quantum) gas contain logical errors; (b) photon (quantum) gas being born by radiating molecule obeys “Gibbs statistics”: equilibrium photon (quantum) gas is described by Gibbs quantum canonical distribution; (c) Planck function (“Bose’s distribution”) is an consequence of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution; (d) Einstein coefficients (i.e. the coefficients of spontaneous emission, induced emission and absorption) are equal to each other.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1756] viXra:1706.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 11:32:14

Symmetry of Covariance & Exchange: The Two Body Electron Equation

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. June 24th, 2017

Proceeding from arguments of the eigenstate and eigenvector condition and that of the Pauli Exclusion Principle; it is formulated that a spin gauge connection need be introduced to correct for coordinates and that this non anomalous term in correcting for the energy momentum introduces a discrepancy leading to bosonization in systems in which electrons are confined to strong exchange interactions; for an energy momentum lowering and gap pair potential; explaining superconductivity and Yang Mills by local and global symmetries; their breaking; and photon renormalization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1755] viXra:1706.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 04:11:34

Atomic Imperfections

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

An international team led by the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering has discovered how to manipulate a weird quantum interface between light and matter in silicon carbide along wavelengths used in telecommunications. [25] The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1754] viXra:1706.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 13:07:08

Symmetry of Covariance & Exchange

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. Simplicity is requisite in the interpretation of local and global symmetries.

This paper aims at a dissection of the Yang Mills problem by simple aspects of exchange; arriving at an elegant solution to the local and global isosymmetry and symmetry problem of statistics of Fermionic nature with electrons under the provisions of adherence to the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the eigenvector eigenvalue formalism; ultimately explaining the pairing energy mass gap as a consequence of photonic energy momentum lowering and the electron four energy momentum commutation and anticommutation relationship.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1753] viXra:1706.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 02:44:34

The Harmony Mathematical Structure of the Hadrons :The Existence of the Hadrons Duo to the Higgs-Gluons Fields Spherical Waves Fluctuations Via Spinning Quarks

Authors: Yazzed T.Al-Harbi
Comments: 10 Pages.

As we know that all the baryons [ a type of the hadrons] are consist of an odd number of fundamental particles called quarks, like a proton consist of three quarks, or maybe more than three [2], and all the quarks have a quantization spin state with 1/2ħ. And now let's imagine the spacetime is a vacuum and the Higgs field is everywhere, Higgs bosons are attracting with the quarks ( 2 ups and 1 down ), since this attracting is the mechanism of the mass source, and the particle reaches its maximum mass by reaching the equilibrium state of the attracting, the quarks have an Intrinsic property (the spin) that's quantitative property consuming energy to establish a differentiation in the spacetime vacuum, and since we know that quarks have an "excited versions", or kinetic energy by its movement and the probability density, it's very hard to calculate [3]. furthermore, we don't know how effective this on the Higgs field with the intrinsic property (the spin) and according to the Higgs field energy, it's energy is unknown. this maybe causes a difference in the equilibrium state of .the attracting with higgs field. And as we say, this difference can't be calculated. and in this paper we will prove the color confinement phenomenology mathmaticaly and the particles Behavior.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1752] viXra:1706.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 07:18:05

Exotic Quantum Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

New research by physicists at the University of Chicago settles a longstanding disagreement over the formation of exotic quantum particles known as Efimov molecules. [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1751] viXra:1706.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 17:54:32

Possible Mechanism for the Generation of a Fundamental Unit of Charge (Long Version)

Authors: J. P. Lestone
Comments: 46 Pages.

Various methods for calculating particle-emission rates from hot systems are reviewed. Semi-classically derived photon-emission rates often contain the term exp(-e/T) which needs to be replaced with the corresponding Planckian factor of [exp(e/T)-1]^{-1} to obtain the correct rate. This replacement is associated with the existence of stimulated emission. Simple arguments are used to demonstrate that black holes can also undergo stimulated emission, as previously determined by others. We extend these concepts to fundamental particles, and assume they can be stimulated to emit virtual photons with a cross section of pi x lambda_bar^2, in the case of an isolated particle when the incident virtual-photon energy is < 2pimc^2. Stimulated-virtual photons can be exchanged with other particles generating a force. With the inclusion of near-field effects, the model choices presented give a calculated fundamental unit of charge of 1.6022x10^{-19} C. If these choices are corroborated by detailed calculations then an understanding of the numerical value of the fine structure constant may emerge. The present study suggests charge might be an emergent property generated by a simple interaction mechanism between point-like particles and the electromagnetic vacuum, similar to the process that generates the Lamb shift.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1750] viXra:1706.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 02:06:48

Optomechanical Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1749] viXra:1706.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 07:48:07

Topological Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The central idea of TQC is to encode qubits into states of topological phases of matter (see Collection on Topological Phases). [24] One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1748] viXra:1706.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 18:41:57

Total Radiated Light Per Frequency from the Cooled Black Body with Zero Chemical Potential

Authors: Kadir Aydogdu
Comments: 13 Pages.

To understand the relation between temperature and black body radiation which is continuous photon radiation, we are using the Planck’s Law and Stefan-Boltzmann Law, to model the heat transfer. Moreover to find the total energy of the free vacuum we are using the radiation constant which is only dependent to the temperature and the volume. However in this project to understand the mechanism behind the vacuum energy, our aim is to find the total radiated light from the black body until it lost all the energy. By deriving this function we will be able to speak about the total radiation potential of non-zero temperature free space. We will start with analyzing Planck’s Law and its temperature dependency then we will write our function as a time dependent integral. Afterwards, we will try to solve it with numeric analysis and series solution to find the function we need.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1747] viXra:1706.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 03:23:00

The Physical Basis of Spirituality.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 32 Pages.

Spirituality is often seen as a part of religion, it is about rules for dealing with the spirits from the point of view of God the almighty, the creator of our universe. Of course, these rules have been written down by humans which are accepted to be so-called inspired and speaking the words of that same God. Whereas the point of view these rules are taking has to do with eternal good and bad, the morality and dangers of dealing with spirits and engaging with deamons; the point of view expressed in this book is a scientic one. It tries to descipher rules spirits have to obey and it lays down the foundations for behavioral psychology, devoid of good and evil, from the point of view of physical charges. I wish to advocate the point of view that nobody is good or evil, we can all do things which many people accept to be good or evil, but there is no such thing as intrinsically good or bad people. There are on the other hand, strong and weak ones, those with grand visions and small ones, quick and slow thinkers and so on.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1746] viXra:1706.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 07:30:10

Superconducting Undulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and Argonne National Laboratory have collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials -- evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1745] viXra:1706.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 05:27:17

Magnetic Monopole Test to Demonstrate the Existence of a Anti Maxwell Dead Zone Around a Current in a Wire.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 12 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field. After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic photon particle based waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Higgs field particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder patterns close to direct currents in a wire, it is assumed that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel only locally parallel to each other without a magnetic field effect inside the Higgs field. This in contrast with the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field. .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron filing atoms. As a consequence, this is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric direct current wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets. Magnet optimization is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet plating with spiraling electric coils in between. The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone. Three circular anti-Maxwell propulsion systems in triangle configuration, should be enough to create stable piloting and flight Experiments with coiled magnetized iron tubes has already shown this new physics reaction less propulsion effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1744] viXra:1706.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 11:52:06

Atomic Resonance-Based Method

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Scientists develop innovative, atomic resonance-based method to measure electric fields. [25] Australia's fastest camera has revealed the time it takes for molecules to break apart. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1743] viXra:1706.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-20 09:19:19

Electron Localisation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Australia's fastest camera has revealed the time it takes for molecules to break apart. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1742] viXra:1706.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 12:17:08

A Review of Five Approaches of Quantum Potential Including Madelung Hydrodynamics Formulation

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper is prepared as contribution for a book project: "Old problems, New horizons in World Physics."

It has been long known that a year after Schrodinger published his equation, Madelung also published a hydrodynamics version of Schrodinger equation. But it is often misinterpreted by many contemporary physicists, especially after the famous Bohmian quantum potential. In this paper we will review quantum potential by five different approaches, including Madelung hydrodynamics, complex Madelung, and also Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics approach. In the last section we will also discuss a new expression of quantum potential based on complex Riccati equation. It is our hope that these methods can be verified and compared with experimental data. But we admit that more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1741] viXra:1706.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 06:44:28

Photon-Photon Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

But in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters, MIT researchers describe a new technique for enabling photon-photon interactions at room temperature, using a silicon crystal with distinctive patterns etched into it. [17] Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1740] viXra:1706.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 02:32:42

Liquid Light at Room Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

This matter is both a superfluid, which has zero friction and viscosity, and a kind of Bose-Einstein condensate-sometimes described as the fifth state of matter-and it allows light to actually flow around objects and corners. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1739] viXra:1706.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 02:20:09

The Speed of Light

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is only one speed in nature where you cannot add a speed to it, that is the transfer speed of a medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1738] viXra:1706.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 07:03:24

Nickel for High-Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32] An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1737] viXra:1706.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 08:45:02

Zeno Effect of a Qubit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Kater Murch's group at Washington University in St. Louis has been exploring these questions with an artificial atom called a qubit. [16] Researchers have studied how light can be used to observe the quantum nature of an electronic material. [15] An international team of researchers led by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the University of Bern has revealed a new way to tune the functionality of next-generation molecular electronic devices using graphene. [14] Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1736] viXra:1706.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 07:17:52

Quantum Manipulating Nanomagnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, have created a theory that predicts the properties of nanomagnets manipulated with electric currents. This theory is useful for future quantum technologies. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1735] viXra:1706.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 04:35:19

Scientific Breakthrough at Sub-Atomic Level

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Chinese scientists have pulled off a major feat with one of the sub-atomic world's weirdest phenomena: photons that behave like twins and experience the same things simultaneously, even over great distances. [23] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1734] viXra:1706.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 09:54:27

Satellite-Based Quantum Encryption Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

In a new study, researchers demonstrate ground-based measurements of quantum states sent by a laser aboard a satellite 38,000 kilometers above Earth. This is the first time that quantum states have been measured so carefully from so far away. [23] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1733] viXra:1706.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-12 10:07:21

Why does the Impossible Thrust work

Authors: J.R. Croca, P. Castro, M. Gatta, L. Gurriana
Comments: 14 Pages.

Scientific literature refers to a strange observed phenomenon, “impossible” according to traditional physics. The authors have called it an Impulsive Thrust from a Closed Radio-Frequency Cavity in Vacuum. Here we present a possible explanation for the observed thrust based on the conceptual framework of Eurhythmic Physics, a macroscopic non-linear pilot-wave theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1732] viXra:1706.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 01:51:57

Quantum Secure Direct Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol combined with quantum memory, which is essential for storing and controlling the transfer of information. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1731] viXra:1706.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 08:53:05

Quantum Spin Liquids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Neutron scattering has revealed in unprecedented detail new insights into the exotic magnetic behavior of a material that, with a fuller understanding, could pave the way for quantum calculations far beyond the limits of the ones and zeros of a computer's binary code. [10] An international team of scientists, led by Attila Geresdi at QuTech has now demonstrated a new technology enabling more reliable characterization for future control of Majorana particles. [9] On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1730] viXra:1706.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 10:33:57

Linear Equations with Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Physicists have experimentally demonstrated a purely quantum method for solving systems of linear equations that has the potential to work exponentially faster than the best classical methods. [22] Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1729] viXra:1706.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 05:00:49

Spin Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1728] viXra:1706.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 11:21:19

Quantum Internet by Distillation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1727] viXra:1706.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 11:51:46

Quantum Communication Toolbox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Quantum encryption using single photons is a promising technique for boosting the security of communication systems and data networks, but there are challenges in applying the method over large distances due to transmission losses. [21] Researchers in Delft and Oxford have now managed to distil a strong entangled link by combining multiple weaker quantum links into one. This method is essential to realize a trustworthy quantum network between several quantum nodes. [20] Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1726] viXra:1706.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 09:39:38

Superfluid Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1725] viXra:1706.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 10:28:14

Microwave Spectrometer for the Majorana Quest

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

An international team of scientists, led by Attila Geresdi at QuTech has now demonstrated a new technology enabling more reliable characterization for future control of Majorana particles. [9] On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1724] viXra:1706.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 10:55:28

Quantum Satellite Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers in Canada have taken a significant step towards enabling secure quantum communication via moving satellites, as announced by the Canadian Government in April 2017. [19] Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1723] viXra:1706.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 05:41:56

Research Proposal for Secure “Double Slit Experiment”

Authors: Sandeep Cheema
Comments: 11 Pages.

The key objective of this research proposal is to resolve or advance with the “measurement problem”. A new architecture has been designed for the “Double slit experiment” using techniques and technology that have been recently developed. The design ensures there would not be a speck of proof left in the universe that can be recovered for determining a specific detector state. Quantum key based “One time pad” encryption and “Self-destructing” circuits are implemented to secure the information from being eavesdropped. Only the sum of states would be accessible to the experimenter thus eliminating any theoretical or implied way to recover what the detectors measured. By looking at the sum it can be concluded whether the detectors measured waves, particles or combination of both.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1722] viXra:1706.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-07 11:14:26

Quantum Fluctuations in Exotic Phases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Many fascinating phenomena with promising technological applications in areas such as superconductivity are linked to quantum phase transitions, but the role of quantum fluctuations in such transitions remains unclear. [29] By precisely measuring the entropy of a cerium copper gold alloy with baffling electronic properties cooled to nearly absolute zero, physicists in Germany and the United States have gleaned new evidence about the possible causes of high-temperature superconductivity and similar phenomena. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1721] viXra:1706.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 11:11:34

New Solution to EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) Paradox and Bell’s Theorem Using HPT and One Hidden Variable T. HPT – Hoszowski Paul Theory.

Authors: Paul Hoszowski
Comments: 17 Pages

This theory (HPT) gives a simple explanation to the observed coincidences during experiments with entangled photons obtained by using BBO. HPT works without the problematic interactions between these twin photons after the act of emission.In HPT theory all interactions are local. Measurement outcomes are determined by features of objects present at the site of measurement. HPT is based on the introduction of factual polarization angle T. Value T is being determined at the moment of generation of twin photons i.e. only at the moment of reaching the state of their entanglement.This additional parameter T is locally separately connected with each particle. This work proves that it is possible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1720] viXra:1706.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 11:18:14

Nowe Rozwiązanie Paradoksu EPR (Einsteina-Podolsky'ego-Rosena) I Twierdzenia Bella za Pomocą HPT Oraz Zmiennej Ukrytej T. HPT – Hoszowski Paul Theory.

Authors: Paul K. Hoszowski
Comments: 17 Pages, in Polish

Teoria HPT daje proste wytłumaczenie obserwowanych koincydencji w czasie prowadzenia doświadczeń z fotonami uzyskanymi za pomocą BBO (tzw. splątanych fotonów – ang. twin photons). HPT działa bez wprowadzania problematycznych oddziaływań pomiędzy tymi splątanymi fotonami już po akcie emisji. W Teorii HPT wszystkie oddziaływania są lokalne. Wyniki pomiaru są określone przez własciwości obiektów obecnych w miejscu pomiaru. HPT opiera się na wprowadzeniu tzw. faktycznego kąta polaryzacji T. Wartość kąta T jest określana jednorazowo, w trakcie oddziaływania cząstek w momencie ich generacji, to znaczy tylko w momencie uzyskiwania stanu ich tzw. splątania. Ten dodatkowy parametr fizyczny T - kąt faktycznej polaryzacji Hoszowskiego - jest związany lokalnie z każdą cząstką oddzielnie. Ta praca udowadnia, że jest to możliwe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1719] viXra:1706.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 17:02:05

The Mystery Behind the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

THIS IS AN UNEDITED VERSION with many spelling errors that will be fixed in the next version. In this paper we look at various alternatives for what the fine structure constant can represent. In particular we look at a speculative alternative where the fine structure constant represent the radius ratio divided by the mass ratio of the electron versus the proton as newly suggested by Koshy[5], but here derived and interprented based on Haug atomism (see [7]). This ratio is remarkably very close to the fine structure constant and it is a dimensionless number. We also look at other alternatives such as the proton mass divided by the Higgs mass which also seems to be a possible candidate for what the fine structure constant can represent.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1718] viXra:1706.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 01:20:05

Theoritical Study of Fine Structure of Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Kang, Daehyeon
Comments: 7 Pages.

The new spin-orbit coupling function and the modified electrical potential are used to describe the finestructure of hydrogen atoms. We need to go through more verification, but I think it will succeed
Category: Quantum Physics

[1717] viXra:1706.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 13:57:12

The Heisenberg Principle of Temporary Violation of Energy Conservation

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 7 Pages.

This work discusses the differences between the energy-time Heisenberg uncertainty relation and the temporary violation of energy conservation counterpart. Based on this counterpart, the meaning of the Planck energy, reduced Planck energy, Planck mass and reduced Planck mass are discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1716] viXra:1706.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 17:11:50

Introduction to Conscious-Quantum Computer Musicology: New Genres, Technology and Ontology of Experience

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 9 Pages.

Quantum computing (QC) is imminent; can it add to the seasoned fields of electronic and computer music? After all, it seems unwarranted to requisition time on a massively parallel peta FLOP (1015, quadrillion calculations per second) supercomputer like the Chinese Sunway TaihuLight, the world's fastest, reaching 93.015 pFLOPS. There is however, something QCs will be able to do that will remain impossible on even a putative yottaFLOP (1024) Turing machine if Cartesian interactive dualism is the correct solution to the problem of awareness/consciousness. A special, 2nd generation class of conscious-QC modeled after the mind-body interface will be able to transduce physically real stored (extracellular) elements of mind (qualia): thought, mood, feelings, emotion directly into the awareness of the subject in a manner breaking down the so-called 1st person - 3rd person barrier. The theoretical model introduced, a paradigm shift in terms of current thinking in Cognitive Science (mind = brain) or cognitive musicology, is sufficiently mature to be experimentally testable suggesting that conscious-QC music may only be a couple of decades away.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1715] viXra:1706.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 11:38:28

From a Point to the Whole World: Quantum Model and Physical Quantity

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 3 Pages.

How is the world made up? So far, there is no good explanation. Based on the point model of the world, the quantum model is made by logical reasoning. Several thought experiment about perception are made to explain how physical quantities such as time and space emerge. Here we show that a dividing, decaying, and rotating point can build a colorful world.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1714] viXra:1706.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 11:44:07

Newton Force is not Real Force: Analysis of Quantum Dynamics

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Quantum mechanics, classical mechanics and relativity mechanics are still in disunity, which is a problem in modern physics.The author establish a quantum model which can explain the cause of movement and force. Here we show that F=MV and Newton Force is the change rate of force. According to this new discovery, dynamics and electrics can be unified and calculating formulas of four forces are made.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1713] viXra:1706.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-02 11:49:52

Planck Mass is Wrong: Recalculation of Quantum Measurement

Authors: Lei Shi
Comments: 1 Page.

Planck mass, length and time calculated by Planck constant are not unified in magnitude. According to my quantum model and formula system, I recalculate quantum mass, length and time, and achieve the unify of quantum measurement. Here we show that formula system of classical physics is wrong.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1712] viXra:1706.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-01 17:36:13

On the Mass Quantization of Black Holes

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 15 Pages.

Black holes are relatively simple cosmic objects that are characterized by their mass, their angular momentum and their electric charge. However, the laws that govern them are laws that we do not yet fully know. We can only sketch what really happens inside or around them. This paper tries to discover some of its secrets as its minimum size (the “myth” of the Planck mass is busted) and the law of the quantification of its mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1711] viXra:1705.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-28 23:57:39

The Critical Analysis of the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 13 Pages.

The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of quantum mechanics is proposed. The purpose of the analysis is to prove that the foundations include logical errors. The principle of the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is a methodological basis of the analysis. The result is as follows: (a) the generally accepted foundations (i.e., the interpretation of the experimental data on diffraction of quantum particles; the conception of wave-corpuscle dualism; the probabilistic interpretation of the psi-function) are logical errors; (b) the pseudo-informational meaning is the true meaning of the psi-function. Conclusion is that quantum mechanics is not a physical, objective theory but a pseudo-informational one. Therefore, quantum mechanics should be replaced by a physical, objective quantum theory. The new (correct) basis of quantum theory is proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1710] viXra:1705.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-26 08:59:58

Quantum Magnetic Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Three teams working independently have found a nearly identical way to boost the resolution of quantum magnetic sensors, allowing frequency measurements with far higher precision than previous techniques. [22] The 'quantized magneto-electric effect' has been demonstrated for the first time in topological insulators at TU Wien, which is set to open up new and highly accurate methods of measurement. [21] In a recent experiment at EPFL, a microwave resonator, a circuit that supports electric signals oscillating at a resonance frequency, is coupled to the vibrations of a metallic micro-drum. [20] Researchers at the Institute of Solid State Physics map out a radically new approach for designing optical and electronic properties of materials in Advanced Materials. [19] Now MIT physicists have found that a flake of graphene, when brought in close proximity with two superconducting materials, can inherit some of those materials' superconducting qualities. As graphene is sandwiched between superconductors, its electronic state changes dramatically, even at its center. [18] EPFL scientists have now carried out a study on a lithium-containing copper oxide and have found that its electrons are 2.5 times lighter than was predicted by theoretical calculations. [17] Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons - thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature - to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1709] viXra:1705.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-26 09:40:26

Gauge Theory of Spiritual Interactions.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 4 Pages.

I repeat a theory I launched in 2012 and dismissed afterwards because I was not sure about its soundness and partially because I realized it was only an approximation to more complex situations. However, it is useful and explains several observations of mine from very simple characteristics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1708] viXra:1705.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-26 06:12:51

Mass-Producible Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

One promising approach to building them involves harnessing nanometer-scale atomic defects in diamond materials. [23] Based on early research involving the storage of movies and documents in DNA, Microsoft is developing an apparatus that uses biology to replace tape drives, researchers at the company say. [22] Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1707] viXra:1705.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 14:07:06

Quantum Berry Phase

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

To study this quantum property, NIST physicist and fellow Joseph A. Stroscio and his colleagues studied electrons corralled in special orbits within a nanometer-sized region of graphene—an ultrastrong, single layer of tightly packed carbon atoms. [22] The 'quantized magneto-electric effect' has been demonstrated for the first time in topological insulators at TU Wien, which is set to open up new and highly accurate methods of measurement. [21] In a recent experiment at EPFL, a microwave resonator, a circuit that supports electric signals oscillating at a resonance frequency, is coupled to the vibrations of a metallic micro-drum. [20] Researchers at the Institute of Solid State Physics map out a radically new approach for designing optical and electronic properties of materials in Advanced Materials. [19] Now MIT physicists have found that a flake of graphene, when brought in close proximity with two superconducting materials, can inherit some of those materials' superconducting qualities. As graphene is sandwiched between superconductors, its electronic state changes dramatically, even at its center. [18] EPFL scientists have now carried out a study on a lithium-containing copper oxide and have found that its electrons are 2.5 times lighter than was predicted by theoretical calculations. [17] Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1706] viXra:1705.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 15:50:20

Simulated Bell-like Correlations from Geometric Probability

Authors: Colin Walker
Comments: 9 Pages.

Simulating Bell correlations by Monte Carlo methods can be time-consuming due to the large number of trials required to produce reliable statistics. For a noisy vector model, formulating the vector threshold crossing in terms of geometric probability can eliminate the need for trials, with inferred probabilities replacing statistical frequencies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1705] viXra:1705.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 02:51:48

Theoretical-Heuristic Derivation Sommerfeld's Fine Structure Constant by Feigenbaum's Constant (Delta): Perodic Logistic Maps of Double Bifurcation

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 7 Pages. Fixed error writing in final equation

In an article recently published in Vixra: http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0365. Its author (Mario Hieb) conjectured the possible relationship of Feigenbaum's constant delta with the fine-structure constant of electromagnetism (Sommerfeld's Fine-Structure Constant). In this article it demonstrated, that indeed, there is an unequivocal physical-mathematical relationship. The logistic map of double bifurcation is a physical image of the random process of the creation-annihilation of virtual pairs lepton-antilepton with electric charge; Using virtual photons. The probability of emission or absorption of a photon by an electron is precisely the fine structure constant for zero momentum, that is to say: Sommerfeld's Fine-Structure Constant. This probability is coded as the surface of a sphere, or equivalently: four times the surface of a circle. The original, conjectured calculation of Mario Hieb is corrected or improved by the contribution of the entropies of the virtual pairs of leptons with electric charge: muon, tau and electron. Including a correction factor due to the contributions of virtual bosons W and Z; And its decay in electrically charged leptons and quarks.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1704] viXra:1705.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 07:52:50

The Magnetic Nature of the Solar System

Authors: Fenton John Doolan
Comments: 16 pages

Since Isaac Newton first described gravity as a force of attraction between masses in the late seventeenth century mankind has been trying to explain the mechanism which creates it. Albert Einstein in 1915 proposed that matter tells space and time how to bend in his mathematical theory of General Relativity. Since then scientists have suggested the existence of the graviton a particle that creates the force of attraction between two objects. This paper suggests that gravity is a by-product of electromagnetism. The Sun and the Earth are acting like inverter magnets which creates an attractive and repulsive force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1703] viXra:1705.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 07:35:58

On the Origin of Spiritual Disruptions.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages. temporary notes about laws behind consciousness.

I give away two simple principles indicating the cause for spiritual disruptions of different kinds of severity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1702] viXra:1705.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 08:00:19

Entanglement in Isolated Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The physicists in Göttingen are part of a German-Italian collaboration which has now published an amazing discovery in Nature Communications: even quantum systems can synchronize through self-organization, without any external control. This synchronization manifests itself in the strangest property of the quantum world – entanglement. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1701] viXra:1705.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 05:05:19

Quantum Emitter Arrays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum light emitters, or quantum dots, are of interest for many different applications, including quantum communication and networks. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1700] viXra:1705.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 18:45:35

A New Quantum Algorithm in Case of a Special Function (New Version)

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Ahmed Farouk, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla, Germano Resconi
Comments: 4 Pages

We present a new quantum algorithm. It determines the property of a function. It is $f(x)=f(-x)$. How fast can we succeed? The quantum algorithm does not use the Hadamard transformation. All we need is of evaluating $|\overbrace{0,0,...,1}^N\rangle$. And we can know the global property, that is, we can realize $f(x)=f(-x)$ for numbers. Our quantum algorithm overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor of $O(2^N)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1699] viXra:1705.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 10:34:05

One-Sided Magnet Unexpected Turn

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Of the many 'white whales' that theoretical physicists are pursuing, the elusive magnetic monopole-a magnetic with only one pole-is one of the most confounding. [14] The transformation of a quantum monopole into a Dirac monopole has been observed for the first time by physicists at Amherst College in the US and Aalto University in Finland. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1698] viXra:1705.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 20:27:04

Unification

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is a reason why general relativity cannot be unified with quantum mechanics, physicists don't realize that Einstein's reason for gravity is not real. Einstein's gravity is a mathematical gravity, you cannot unify something that is based on mathematical fiction (general relativity) with reality (quantum mechanics). I will show you how I unified general relativity with quantum mechanics, I was able to do it because I found the origin of gravity and time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1697] viXra:1705.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 04:31:59

Particle-Free Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1696] viXra:1705.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 05:39:30

Transforming Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The transformation of a quantum monopole into a Dirac monopole has been observed for the first time by physicists at Amherst College in the US and Aalto University in Finland. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1695] viXra:1705.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 06:20:19

Graphene Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits—or qubits—that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. [18] The global race towards a functioning quantum computer is on. With future quantum computers, we will be able to solve previously impossible problems and develop, for example, complex medicines, fertilizers, or artificial intelligence. [17] The Tohoku University research group of Professor Keiichi Edamatsu and Postdoctoral fellow Naofumi Abe has demonstrated dynamically and statically unpolarized single-photon generation using diamond. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1694] viXra:1705.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 06:40:53

The Wikiversity Hilbert Book Model Project

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

This document introduces the Wikiversity Hilbert Book Model Project and describes its current state.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1693] viXra:1705.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 13:12:14

Quantum Monopole Destruction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1692] viXra:1705.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 13:30:31

Testing in Quantum Simulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Quantum field theories are often hard to verify in experiments. Now, there is a new way of putting them to the test. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1691] viXra:1705.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 07:21:45

Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 7 Pages.

The de Broglie wavelength describes the wave-particle duality. The de Broglie wavelength formula and the Planck law seem to be contradicted in the University of Rochester's experiment of fast light. The fast light has longer wavelengths than the "normal" light. According to the de Broglie formula, longer wavelength means smaller momentum (smaller energy) and/or increasing Planck constant. But the fast light has the same amount of energy as the normal light. It is a contradiction between the de Broglie function and the Planck law. Here we show that the 'rest action', 'rest energy' of the fast light can resolve this contradiction. This 'rest action' of the light is a new concept that hasn't been considered. It is hidden in the Planck constant. In uncovering this part we find that the Planck constant has two parts; one part shows the 'rest action', 'rest energy' of the fast light and an other part shows the 'kinetic action', 'kinetic energy' of fast light. Fast light is a kind of fast wave. The Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality describes a new kind of metamorphosis of matter, for example how tunneling electrons travels faster than light without violating the special relativity. Using the Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality, we can realize that the speed of light is not a speed limit for particles with mass, since they can be transformed into fast waves. This model allows us to preserve the special relativity while we can accept particles with mass that may travel faster than light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1690] viXra:1705.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 02:27:13

On the Higgs Boson’s Range

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 4 Pages.

The discovery of the Higgs boson (HB) has revealed a highly massive particle, the value of which lies between 125 and 126.5 GeV/c2. Bearing in mind the basic concepts of Quantum Field Theory, and in full compliance with the Heisemberg Uncertainy Principle, we were able to calculate the maximum limit of the HB’s range: in perfect agreement with its high mass, it presents a value really very small, of slightly less than 10-15[cm], namely 9.8828 ∙ 10-16[cm].
Category: Quantum Physics

[1689] viXra:1705.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 09:00:51

Interaction Between Atomic Nucleus and Electron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Precision measurement on heavy ions contradicts theory of interaction between atomic nucleus and electron. [15] For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. [14] International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1688] viXra:1705.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 14:14:41

Nokton Theory v2.0

Authors: L.saidani
Comments: 8 Pages.

The nokton theory is an attempt to construct a theory adapted to every physical phenomenon. Space and time have been discretized. Its laws are iterative and precise. Probability plays an important role here. At first I defined the notion of image function and its mathematical framework. The notion of nokton and its state are the basis of several definitions. I later defined the canonical image function and the canonical contribution. Two constants have been necessary to define the dynamics of this theory. With its combinatorial complexity, the theory has at present given no result which seems to me interesting. The document is only a foundation. Among the merits of this theory the absence of the infinites and its interpretation that is contrary to the quantum mechanics or the general relativity does not strike the common sense of the physicist.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1687] viXra:1705.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 10:06:53

Spectroscopy Detect Art Fraud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1686] viXra:1705.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 06:37:31

Precision Control of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The research team recently succeeded for the first time in precisely controlling the transition temperature of superconducting atomic layers using organic molecules. [31] For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1685] viXra:1705.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 08:02:21

Limit For Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have subjected quantum entanglement to extreme levels of acceleration, and there's nothing fragile about this "spooky action at a distance"-it's way more robust than we thought. [13] Now, new research in the American Physical Society's journal Physical Review Letters brings aspects of the two together in an experiment that shows, for the first time, that gravity stretches and squeezes quantum objects through tidal forces. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1684] viXra:1705.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 09:42:59

The Unification of Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Consciousness

Authors: Madonna-Megara Holloway
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Unification of Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Consciousness – An Excerpt from The Secret Doctrine Volume IV, The Nature of Everything
Category: Quantum Physics

[1683] viXra:1705.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 20:48:18

Quantum Nonlinear Four-Wave Mixing with a Single Atom in an Optical Cavity

Authors: Haytham Chibani
Comments: 5 Pages.

Single atom cavity quantum electrodynamics grants access to nonclassical photon statistics, while electromagnetically induced transparency exhibits a dark state of long coherence time. The combination of the two produces a new light field via four-wave mixing that shows long-lived quantum statistics. We observe the new field in the emission from the cavity as a beat with the probe light that together with the control beam and the cavity vacuum is driving the four-wave mixing process. Moreover, the control field allows us to tune the new light field from antibunching to bunching, demonstrating our all-optical control over the photon-pair emission.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1682] viXra:1705.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 12:24:55

How to Generalize Incomplete Physical Laws

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 4 Pages.

This work refers to a method of generalizing incomplete physical laws through the scale law. Generalization can only be applied when the general law exists but has not yet been discovered. It is remarkable that the very simple methodology described in this paper turns out to be so powerful.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1681] viXra:1705.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 15:03:41

Hydrogen Bonds Detected

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. [14] International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1680] viXra:1705.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 11:51:49

On the Scale Factors of Energy Formulas

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper explores the scale factors of three laws: (a) the Einstein's relativistic energy law, (b) Newton's law of universal gravitation and (c) the special universal uncertainty principle. Two new concepts are defined: complete energy laws and incomplete energy laws. This investigation shows that the first two laws have scale factors of 1 while the third one has a scale factor of -1. These results could be useful in the future to predict scale factors of new laws of nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1679] viXra:1705.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 08:21:12

Entropy and Quantum Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

By precisely measuring the entropy of a cerium copper gold alloy with baffling electronic properties cooled to nearly absolute zero, physicists in Germany and the United States have gleaned new evidence about the possible causes of high-temperature superconductivity and similar phenomena. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1678] viXra:1705.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 09:17:02

Laser Frequency Combs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at ETH have now developed a method by which such frequency combs can be created much more simply and cheaply than before. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1677] viXra:1705.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 09:45:21

New Theory of Quantum Masm

Authors: God Bo
Comments: 3 Pages.

A new theory of quantum MASM, approved by hundreds of professors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1676] viXra:1705.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 13:18:27

Molecules with Quantum Logic

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) physicists have solved the seemingly intractable puzzle of how to control the quantum properties of individual charged molecules, or molecular ions. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1675] viXra:1705.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 11:02:05

Quantum Entanglement Unbreakable

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Einstein's "spooky action at a distance" persists even at high accelerations, researchers of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna were able to show in a new experiment. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information,
Category: Quantum Physics

[1674] viXra:1705.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 08:05:54

Skyrmions Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Jarvis Loh, Gan Chee Kwan and Khoo Khoong Hong from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore, have modeled these minute spin spirals in nanoscopic crystal layers. [18] Some of the world's leading technology companies are trying to build massive quantum computers that rely on materials super-cooled to near absolute zero, the theoretical temperature at which atoms would cease to move. [17] While technologies that currently run on classical computers, such as Watson, can help find patterns and insights buried in vast amounts of existing data, quantum computers will deliver solutions to important problems where patterns cannot be seen because the data doesn't exist and the possibilities that you need to explore to get to the answer are too enormous to ever be processed by classical computers. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[847] viXra:1709.0358 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 13:08:34

《Universal and Unified Field Theory》- 2. Universal Fields and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 4 Pages. This is the 2nd part of《Universal and Unified Field Theory》. The 1st part is available at http://viXra.org/abs/1709.0308

Harnessed with the Universal Topology [1], actions on the world planes carry out Law of Event Evolutions that gives rise to World Equations, Motion Operations, and Horizon Hierarchy, and institute a set of potential equations that inaugurates the holistic foundations general to all dynamic fields of natural evolutions, defined as the First Universal Fields. The inceptive application to contemporary physics demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, Quantum Mechanics with the empirical artifacts of Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Spinor Fields, and Weyl Spinor.
Category: Quantum Physics

[846] viXra:1709.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-23 02:56:19

On the Quantum Computing Delusion

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 14 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...
Category: Quantum Physics

[845] viXra:1709.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-22 12:36:13

On the Quantum Computing Delusion

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 13 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilisation's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[844] viXra:1709.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-19 07:26:35

On Quantum Mechanics: Does G-d Throw Dice?

Authors: John Smith
Comments: 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[843] viXra:1709.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 07:17:15

De Eenvoud Van de Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.
Category: Quantum Physics

[842] viXra:1709.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 07:05:59

De Eenvoud Van de Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.
Category: Quantum Physics

[841] viXra:1709.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 15:27:20

Physical Simplicity

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physics must be simple. This reasoning is the general idea behind Occam’s razor. However, it is also a general physical principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[840] viXra:1709.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-16 16:09:20

Rediscovered Dark Quanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[839] viXra:1709.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-12 14:41:36

Rediscovered Dark Quanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[838] viXra:1709.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 06:51:13

Herontdekte Donkere Kwanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.
Category: Quantum Physics

[837] viXra:1709.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-12 15:08:00

Herontdekte Donkere Kwanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.
Category: Quantum Physics

[836] viXra:1709.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-13 06:23:37

The Impossibility of Large-scale Retrocausal Signalling

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 4 Pages. Corrected a few typos and made a diagram clearer

Following an earlier paper, an argument is presented that sets up a causality paradox with signals that are claimed to be retrocausal. This is not to be dismissive of claims of retrocausality over small scales by the mechanism of advanced and retarded waves, just that it is not possible over timescales greater than the energy-time uncertainty relationship.
Category: Quantum Physics

[835] viXra:1708.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-29 10:15:34

Basic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the eighteenth century, scientists discovered the ingredients of basic quantum field theory. In those times quantum physics played no role. In the twentieth century, these ingredients were forgotten and stayed ignored. This paper introduces two categories of super-tiny dark objects that represent the most basic field quanta. Warps represent a tiny bit of energy. Clamps represent a tiny bit of mass. Observers cannot perceive these objects as individual items. The objects are the tiny dark objects that science is still missing. The LHC and its successors will never be able to detect them.
Category: Quantum Physics

[834] viXra:1708.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 12:41:17

Basic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the eighteenth century, scientists discovered the ingredients of basic quantum field theory. In those times quantum physics played no role. In the twentieth century, these ingredients were forgotten and stayed ignored. This paper introduces two categories of super-tiny dark objects that represent the most basic field quanta. Warps represent a tiny bit of energy. Clamps represent a tiny bit of mass. Observers cannot perceive these objects as individual items. The objects are the tiny dark objects that science is still missing. The LHC and its successors will never be able to detect them.
Category: Quantum Physics

[833] viXra:1708.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-20 15:34:56

Basic Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages.

The ingredients of basic quantum field theory were discovered in the eighteenth century. In those times quantum physics played no role. In the twentieth century, these ingredients were forgotten and stayed ignored. This paper introduces two categories of super-tiny dark objects that represent the most basic field quanta. Warps represent a tiny bit of energy. Clamps represent a tiny bit of mass. In separation, these objects cannot be perceived. They are the tiny dark objects that science is still missing.
Category: Quantum Physics

[832] viXra:1708.0227 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-24 14:04:12

Dark and Bright-State Polaritons in Triple-Λ Eit System

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan
Comments: 7 Pages.

Properties of polaritons in triple-Λ EIT system are investigated using Sawada-Brout-Chong method. The role of dark and bright-state polaritons in the dynamics of the system is studied in detail by including the decay of excited atomic levels. Time evolution of entanglement of single and three-photon EIT modes within the system is shown to support this study.
Category: Quantum Physics

[831] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-22 04:29:49

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[830] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-18 23:24:27

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[829] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-08 10:02:13

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[828] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-05 08:45:48

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[827] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-05 06:20:05

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[826] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-02 07:54:25

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[825] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-29 08:30:00

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments.
Category: Quantum Physics

[824] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:15:42

Atomic Structure

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: this article show a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on this atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[823] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 08:07:22

Structure and Mechanism of Energy Levels Quantization of Atoms

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: this article show a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; based on this atomic structure, put forwards a new mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[822] viXra:1708.0157 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-17 06:55:17

The Structure and Causes of Energy Levels Quantization Of Atoms

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: this article show a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on this atomic structure, put forwards a new causes of the atomic energy levels quantization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[821] viXra:1708.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-26 18:29:49

Is the Chemical Bond Consistent with the Theory of Relativity?

Authors: Omar Yepez
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electrons participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with the current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. As a consequence, a probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.
Category: Quantum Physics

[820] viXra:1708.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-12 22:41:46

Is the Chemical Bond Consistent with the Theory of Relativity? and What Change in Mass after a Chemical Reaction?

Authors: Omar Yepez
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electron participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. A probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.
Category: Quantum Physics

[819] viXra:1707.0402 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-08 05:00:54

A Classical Explanation for the Correlation of Entangled Quantum Particles Via the Detection Loophole

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 19 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics claim that particles can become entangled such that there is a correlation in the detected results from EPR type experiments that cannot be explained by Classical Physics. This paper shows one way, via the detection loophole, that the result can be fully explained by Classical Physics, and that the correlation curve for different angles between the two detectors can by reproduced when modelled this way.
Category: Quantum Physics

[818] viXra:1707.0402 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-05 21:52:43

A Classical Explanation for the Correlation of Entangled Quantum Particles

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 19 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics claim that particles can become entangled such that there is a correlation in the detected results from EPR type experiments that cannot be explained by Classical Physics. I can show that the result can be fully explained by Classical Physics, and that the correlation curve for different angles between the two detectors can by reproduced when modelled this way.
Category: Quantum Physics

[817] viXra:1707.0402 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-01 04:48:40

A Classical Explanation for the Correlation of Entangled Quantum Particles

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 18 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics claim that particles can become entangled such that there is a correlation in the detected results from EPR type experiments that cannot be explained by Classical Physics. I can show that the result can be fully explained by Classical Physics, and that the correlation curve for different angles between the two detectors can by reproduced when modelled this way
Category: Quantum Physics

[816] viXra:1707.0343 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-26 15:16:31

Modified QED (MQED) Predicts How to Demonstrate FTL Communication

Authors: Paul J. Werbos
Comments: 9 Pages. 9p, 25 references, 4 figures, 2 eqs. Minor typos fixed.

Canonical Copenhagen QED (KQED) predicts that substantive information cannot be communicated faster than light (FTL) or backwards in time. KQED is essentially just the combination of three assumptions used together to make predictions: (1) the assumption that the wave function ψ(t) evolves according to the time-symmetric system ∂tψ=iHψ where is H is the normal product form of the Maxwell-Dirac Hamiltonian; (2) the classical Copenhagen measurement formalism, including metaphysical observers and collapse of the wave function; (3) Fermi’s Golden Rule for spontaneous emission. MQED, published in 2015, replaces the measurement part with a new measurement formalism without observers based on what (1) actually predicts. MQED is not a local realistic theory, but (unlike KQED) it might be derived as a good statistical approximation to one. The 2015 paper proposed a decisive experiment to test which is right, KQED or MQED. This paper proposes a simpler if messier decisive experiment, to demonstrate FTL communication, more details of MQED and the possibility in principle of an underlying local realistic theory of physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[815] viXra:1707.0333 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-07 03:24:48

Mass Interaction Principle as a Common Origin of Special Relativity and Quantum Behaviours of Massive Particles

Authors: Chu-Jun Gu
Comments: 56 Pages.

The author believes there are spacetime particles(STP) which can sense all matter particles ubiquitously. Matter particles will change their states collided by STP . The underlying property of mass is a statistical property emerging from random impact in spacetime. We propose a mass interaction principle (MIP) which states any particle with mass m will involve a random motion without friction, due to random impacts from spacetime. Each impact changes the amount nh (n is any integer) for an action of the particle. Starting from the concept of statistical mass, we propose the fundamental MIP. We conclude that inertial mass has to be a statistical property, which measures the diffusion ability of all matter particles in spacetime. We prove all the essential results of special relativity come from MIP. Speed of light in the vacuum need no longer any special treatment. Instead, speed of STP has more fundamentally physical meaning, which represents the upper limit of information propagational speed in physics. Moreover, we derive the uncertainty relation asserting a fundamental limit to the precision regarding mass and diffusion coefficient. Within this context, wave-particle duality is a novel property emerging from random impact by STP. Further more, an interpretation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is suggested, with a stochastic origin of Feynman’s path integral formalism. It is shown that we can construct a physical picture distinct from Copenhagen interpretation, and reinvestigate the nature of spacetime and reveal the origin of quantum behaviours from a realistic point of view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[814] viXra:1707.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-23 10:10:35

Entanglement

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists claimed that a quantum process between photons was instantaneous, but the conclusion of an instantaneous entangled state was a fallacy. The physicists compared the time that they needed for their measurement to the time that was required for a quantum process, that quantum process was a change in the quantum state of entangled photon over a distance of 1.3 kilometers. They concluded that there wasn't enough time to complete that quantum process within the time period of their measurement, so they concluded that it was instantaneous. But they were wrong, those physicists didn't realize that there was another option.
Category: Quantum Physics

[813] viXra:1707.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-19 03:48:04

Entanglement

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists claimed that a quantum process between photons was instantaneous, but the conclusion of an entangled state was a fallacy. The physicists compared the time that they needed for their measurement to the time that was required for a quantum process, that quantum process was a change in the quantum state of another photon over a distance of 1.3 kilometers. They concluded that there wasn't enough time to complete that quantum process within the time period of their measurement, so they concluded that it was instantaneous. But they were wrong, those physicists didn't realize that there was another option.
Category: Quantum Physics

[812] viXra:1707.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-17 16:02:33

Entanglement

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physicists claimed that an exchange in information between two photons was instant, but I think that the conclusion of an entangled state was a fallacy. The physicists compared the time that they needed for their meassurement to the time that an exchange in information over a distance of 1.3 kilometers would require, they claimed that there wasn't enough time for an exchange in information over that distance within the time period of their meassurement. So they concluded that it was instant, but I think that they were wrong. Those physicists don't realize that there is another option, that time doesn't apply to an exchange in information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[811] viXra:1707.0173 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-30 01:01:21

Quantum Inverse Measurement Theory Contributing to the Birth of Interpretation System of Quantum Mechanics of Local-Realism and Determinism

Authors: Runsheng Tu
Comments: 61 Pages.

The existing interpretation of quantum mechanics is contrary to common sense. The existing quantum mechanical interpretation schemes are puzzling. The confusing theory is unconvincing, and need to be amended and completed. The successful interpretation program of quantum mechanics of local-realism and determinism is undoubtedly the most attractive. Preparing the interpretation program deserves to be chosen as a research goal. It is a very good premise to believe that an object particle consist of light-knot of monochromatic waves. According to this premise, the erroneous recognition about "superposition principle, wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle" can be corrected. Under this premise, above research goal is achieved by establishing, applying quantum mechanics inverse measurement theory, adhering to the principle that there must be a complete empirical chain in the derivation process of experimental conclusion, and using the side effect caused by accompanying-light to explain the diffraction experiment of object particles. Electron secondarily diffraction and other experiments directly prove that there is the measurement (observation) which may not destroy quantum coherence. The diffraction experiments of all kinds of particles show that the Keeping and playing of the coherence of moving particles in the vacuum have nothing to do with their previous experience. These are the existing experiments, to be found, that support the theory of quantum inverse measurements. The verification experiment of quantum inverse measurement is designed. The absolute superiorities of quantum inverse measurement and the new view of measurement of quantum mechanics are listed.These superiorities are: that it has the characteristics of local-realism and determinism; it is not contrary to common sense and there is no confusing place; it can predict several phenomena that cannot be predicted by other theories. A solid theoretical foundation has been laid for “correctly understanding the microscopic world” and establishment of local realism quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[810] viXra:1707.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-13 13:14:05

Unique Relativistic Extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 11 Pages.

Relativistic extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian is ostensibly achieved by minimal coupling of electromagnetism to the free-particle Dirac Hamiltonian. But the free-particle Pauli Hamiltonian is pathology-free in its nonrelativistic domain, while the free-particle Dirac Hamiltonian yields completely fixed particle speed which is greater than c, spin orbit torque whose ratio to kinetic energy tends to infinity in the zero-momentum limit, and mega-violation of Newton's First Law in that limit. Furthermore, relativistic extension of the Pauli Hamiltonian is unique in principle because inertial frame hopping can keep the particle nonrelativistic. That extension is indeed readily achieved by upgrading the terms of the Pauli Hamiltonian's corresponding action to appropriate Lorentz invariants. The resulting relativistic Lagrangian yields a canonical momentum that can't be analytically inverted in general, but a physically-sensible successive-approximation scheme applies. For hydrogen and simpler systems approximation isn't needed, and the result, which includes spin-orbit coupling, is as transparently physically sensible as the relativistic Lorentz Hamiltonian is, a far cry from the Dirac Hamiltonian pathologies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[809] viXra:1706.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-16 17:14:02

The Physical Basis of Spirituality.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 33 Pages.

Spirituality is often seen as a part of religion, it is about rules for dealing with the spirits from the point of view of God the almighty, the creator of our universe. Of course, these rules have been written down by humans which are accepted to be so-called inspired and speaking the words of that same God. Whereas the point of view these rules are taking has to do with eternal good and bad, the morality and dangers of dealing with spirits and engaging with deamons; the point of view expressed in this book is a scientic one. It tries to descipher rules spirits have to obey and it lays down the foundations for behavioral psychology, devoid of good and evil, from the point of view of physical charges. I wish to advocate the point of view that nobody is good or evil, we can all do things which many people accept to be good or evil, but there is no such thing as intrinsically good or bad people. There are on the other hand, strong and weak ones, those with grand visions and small ones, quick and slow thinkers and so on.
Category: Quantum Physics

[808] viXra:1706.0367 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-31 23:16:12

The Speed of Light

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is only one speed in nature where you cannot add a speed to it, that is the transfer speed of a medium (an internal speed).
Category: Quantum Physics

[807] viXra:1706.0367 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-03 13:27:52

The Speed of Light

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

There is only one speed in nature where you cannot add a speed to it, that is the transfer speed of a medium (an internal speed).
Category: Quantum Physics

[806] viXra:1706.0367 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-27 11:34:59

The Speed of Light

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

There is only one speed in nature where you cannot add a speed to it, that is the transfer speed of a medium (it's an internal speed).
Category: Quantum Physics

[805] viXra:1706.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-10 14:39:11

The Mystery Behind the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper examines various alternatives for what the fine structure constant might represent. In particular, we look at an alternative where the fine structure constant represents the radius ratio divided by the mass ratio of the electron, versus the proton as newly suggested by Koshy [5], but here derived and interpreted based on Haug atomism (see [7]). This ratio is remarkably very close to the fine structure constant, and it is a dimensionless number. We also examine other alternatives such as the proton mass divided by the Higgs mass, which also appears as a possible candidate for what the fine structure constant might represent.
Category: Quantum Physics

[804] viXra:1706.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-04 11:02:41

On the Mass Quantization of Black Holes

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 15 Pages.

Black holes are relatively simple cosmic objects that are characterized by their mass, their angular momentum and their electric charge. However, the laws that govern them are laws that we do not yet fully know. We can only sketch what really happens inside or around them. This paper tries to discover some of its secrets such as its minimum size and the law of the quantification of its mass. Finally, the “myth” of the Planck mass is busted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[803] viXra:1705.0468 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-31 08:52:43

Open Letter To Professor Fabio Sciarrino, PhD

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: Pages.

Bell's theorem is mathematically and logically inconsistent, just a logical fallacy. A serious experiment cannot confirm the logical consistency of somehting which is logically inconsistent.
Category: Quantum Physics

[802] viXra:1705.0384 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-29 07:28:23

Gauge Theory of Spiritual Interactions.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 6 Pages.

I repeat a theory I launched in 2012 and dismissed afterwards because I was not sure about its soundness and partially because I realized it was only an approximation to more complex situations. However, it is useful and explains several observations of mine from very simple characteristics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[801] viXra:1705.0384 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-27 13:41:12

Gauge Theory of Spiritual Interactions.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 6 Pages.

I repeat a theory I launched in 2012 and dismissed afterwards because I was not sure about its soundness and partially because I realized it was only an approximation to more complex situations. However, it is useful and explains several observations of mine from very simple characteristics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[800] viXra:1705.0355 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-31 13:02:10

Theoretical-Heuristic Derivation Sommerfeld's Fine Structure Constant by Feigenbaum's Constant (Delta): Perodic Logistic Maps of Double Bifurcation

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 8 Pages. Added acknowledgments and references

In an article recently published in Vixra: http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0365. Its author (Mario Hieb) conjectured the possible relationship of Feigenbaum's constant delta with the fine-structure constant of electromagnetism (Sommerfeld's Fine-Structure Constant). In this article it demonstrated, that indeed, there is an unequivocal physical-mathematical relationship. The logistic map of double bifurcation is a physical image of the random process of the creation-annihilation of virtual pairs lepton-antilepton with electric charge; Using virtual photons. The probability of emission or absorption of a photon by an electron is precisely the fine structure constant for zero momentum, that is to say: Sommerfeld's Fine-Structure Constant. This probability is coded as the surface of a sphere, or equivalently: four times the surface of a circle. The original, conjectured calculation of Mario Hieb is corrected or improved by the contribution of the entropies of the virtual pairs of leptons with electric charge: muon, tau and electron. Including a correction factor due to the contributions of virtual bosons W and Z; And its decay in electrically charged leptons and quarks.
Category: Quantum Physics

[799] viXra:1705.0308 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 17:22:03

Unification

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is a reason why general relativity cannot be unified with quantum mechanics, physicists don't realize that Einstein's reason for gravity is not real. Einstein's gravity is a mathematical gravity, you cannot unify something that is based on mathematical fiction (general relativity) with reality (quantum mechanics). I will show you how I unified general relativity with quantum mechanics, I was able to do it because I found the origin of gravity and time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[798] viXra:1705.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-25 17:34:31

Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 12 Pages.

The de Broglie wavelength describes wave-particle duality. The de Broglie wavelength formula and the Planck law seem to be contradicted in tunneling. Tunneling fast waves have longer wavelengths than "normal" waves. According to the de Broglie formula, a longer wavelength means smaller momentum (smaller energy). But fast waves have the same amount of energy as normal waves, since they can be transformed into each other. This longer wavelength is not based on the refractive index of the barrier. The barrier in tunneling cannot be seen as an optical medium, rather a special kind of space made out of matter that other matter is able to use as space. Here we show that the 'rest actions', 'rest energies' of fast waves in different spaces can resolve the contradiction. This 'rest action' of the wave is a new concept that hasn't been considered. It is hidden in the Planck constant. In uncovering this part, we find that the Planck constant has two parts; one part shows the 'rest action', 'rest energy' of fast wave and another part shows the 'kinetic action', 'kinetic energy' of fast waves. The Planck constant seems to have a more general role than we have previously thought. Fast waves are made out of normal waves (or particles). Fast wave is the same particle in a different form. The Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality describes a new kind of metamorphosis of matter— e.g. how tunneling electrons travel faster than light without violating special relativity. Using the Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality, we can realize that the speed of light is not a speed limit for particles with mass, since they can be transformed into fast waves. This model allows us to preserve the special relativity while we can accept particles with mass that may travel faster than light in given spaces.
Category: Quantum Physics