**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(8) - 0703(11) - 0705(1) - 0708(1) - 0711(1)

2008 - 0802(1) - 0804(6) - 0807(1) - 0812(1)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(10) - 0908(9) - 0909(4) - 0910(6) - 0911(4) - 0912(4)

2010 - 1001(5) - 1002(3) - 1003(29) - 1004(9) - 1005(7) - 1006(5) - 1007(5) - 1008(4) - 1009(3) - 1011(1) - 1012(1)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(6) - 1104(7) - 1105(3) - 1106(8) - 1107(9) - 1108(7) - 1109(11) - 1110(10) - 1111(11) - 1112(9)

2012 - 1201(1) - 1202(3) - 1203(11) - 1204(5) - 1205(8) - 1206(6) - 1207(4) - 1208(9) - 1209(8) - 1210(11) - 1211(12) - 1212(7)

2013 - 1301(16) - 1302(10) - 1303(6) - 1304(8) - 1305(16) - 1306(19) - 1307(16) - 1308(10) - 1309(15) - 1310(2) - 1311(11) - 1312(26)

2014 - 1401(9) - 1402(7) - 1403(19) - 1404(14) - 1405(12) - 1406(20) - 1407(22) - 1408(17) - 1409(19) - 1410(15) - 1411(23) - 1412(16)

2015 - 1501(8) - 1502(20) - 1503(18) - 1504(14) - 1505(28) - 1506(26) - 1507(27) - 1508(31) - 1509(28) - 1510(27) - 1511(31) - 1512(34)

2016 - 1601(24) - 1602(13)

Any replacements are listed further down

[984] **viXra:1602.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 12:07:56*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I presented my hypothesis, in 1980.
I announced at the physical society of Japan of Fukushima University.
Dark energy discovery 18 years ago, I announced the pulsation principle of particle hypothesis JPs annual meeting was held in Fukushima University in 1980, no dark energy term,. The concept of rarefied energy rallied and even to each other, was named energy atmospheric in the hypothesis space to meet the equivalent as the dark energy was named after.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[983] **viXra:1602.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 14:39:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In quantum entanglement, two particles are correlated in such a way that any action on one of them affects the other even when they are far apart. The traditional methods of measuring the degree of quantum entanglement were originally developed for nonidentical particles, such as between an electron and a proton, or two atoms of different types. [7] For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[982] **viXra:1602.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 14:36:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Scientists have created a crystal structure that boosts the interaction between tiny bursts of light and individual electrons, an advance that could be a significant step toward establishing quantum networks in the future. [10] Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8] As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won't be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we've replaced all of the Internet's present security-critical infrastructure. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[981] **viXra:1602.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-08 11:06:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, which relies on the separation of right-and left-"handed" particles, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[980] **viXra:1602.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 14:53:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[979] **viXra:1602.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 05:06:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[978] **viXra:1602.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 14:06:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Although in theory it may seem possible to divide time up into infinitely tiny intervals, the smallest physically meaningful interval of time is widely considered to be the Planck time, which is approximately 10-43 seconds. This ultimate limit means that it is not possible for two events to be separated by a time smaller than this. [14] A team of researchers working at Stanford University has extended the record for quantum superposition at the macroscopic level, from 1 to 54 centimeters. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[977] **viXra:1602.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 07:11:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[976] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 17:49:32*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[975] **viXra:1602.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 19:46:01*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

E8 Physics AQFT is constructed from an E8 Physics Lagrangian (viXra 1508.0157) by embedding E8 into the Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) = Cl(8)xCl(8) and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of copies of Cl(16) which forms a generalized hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor algebra AQFT
(Algebraic Quantum Field Theory) that by Periodicity retains underlying E8 symmetry. The World-Line of a Particle in E8 Physics is a String connecting the Cl(16) copies that make up points / events in the History of the Particle. Interaction among those History World-Line Strings by String Theory produces a Force / Potential that is similar to Gravity but the Local Lagrangian of E8 Physics in each copy of Cl(16) in the AQFT
already contains Gravity (as well as the Standard Model).
The purpose of this paper is to describe the Physical Interpretation of the E8 AQFT String Gravity-like Force / Potential as the Sarfatti-Bohm Quantum Potential with Back-Reaction that permits Free Will and is the fundamental Force of Quantum Consciousness that is described as Gravity by Penrose and Hameroff (Physics of Life Reviews 11 (March 2014) 39-78).
The Quantum Potential of this paper is a Bohm internal energy of a quantum system whose total force does not fall off with distance since it depends on the form of the quantum state rather than its magnitude. The form is described in terms of Cl(16) which is related (see viXra 1512.0300) to the Tensor Product Quantum Reed-Muller code [[ 256 , 0 , 24 ]] x [[ 256 , 0 , 24 ]] and which contains not only 248-dim E8 but a total of 65,536 elements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[974] **viXra:1602.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 02:15:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[973] **viXra:1602.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 12:37:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have entangled four photons in their orbital angular momentum. Leiden physicists sent a laser through a crystal, thereby creating four photons with coupled 'rotation'. So far this has only been achieved with two photons. The discovery makes uncrackable secret communication of complex information possible between multiple parties. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[972] **viXra:1602.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 08:34:02*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the cause and process of small galaxies merger.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[971] **viXra:1602.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 13:45:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Research conducted by the Quantum Dynamics Unit at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology graduate University (OIST) could represent an important step in understanding two-dimensional semiconductors. The Unit's latest paper, published in Physical Review Letters, describes anomalies in the behaviour of electrons in electrons on liquid helium two-dimensional system. [28]
The work in correlated electrons looks at a subset of electrons. Metals, as an example, have an unfilled outermost orbital and electrons are free to move from atom to atom. Thus, metals are good electrical conductors. When metal atoms are tightly packed into lattices (or crystals) these electrons mingle together into a "sea" of electrons. The metallic element mercury is liquid at room temperature, in part due to its electron configuration, and shows very little resistance to electric current due to its electron configuration. At 4 degrees above absolute zero (just barely above -460 degrees Fahrenheit), mercury's electron arrangement and other properties create communal electrons that show no resistance to electric current, a state known as superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[970] **viXra:1601.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 11:11:45*

**Authors:** Nikolay Dementev

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The notes explicitly describe unification of Special Relativity with Quantum Mechanics based on fundamental similarities between interval and Heisenberg’s relation. Outline for unification of General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[969] **viXra:1601.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 11:43:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Interconnecting different quantum systems is important for future quantum computing architectures, but has proven difficult to achieve. Researchers from the TU Delft and the University of Vienna have now realized a first step towards a universal quantum link based on quantum-mechanical vibrations of a nanomechanical device. [9]
Nanotechnologists at the University of Twente research institute MESA+ have discovered a new fundamental property of electrical currents in very small metal circuits. They show how electrons can spread out over the circuit like waves and cause interference effects at places where no electrical current is driven. The geometry of the circuit plays a key role in this so called nonlocal effect. The interference is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical wave character of electrons and the specific geometry of the circuit. For designers of quantum computers it is an effect to take account of. The results are published in the British journal Scientific Reports. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[968] **viXra:1601.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 09:19:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[967] **viXra:1601.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 18:23:01*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using a new concept of the truth in quantum mechanics we show that the individual superposition principle is scientifically unfounded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[966] **viXra:1601.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-31 02:08:56*

**Authors:** Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published on PHILICA - ISSN 1751-3030 - 11th January, 2016

In quantum statistical mechanics, the extension of the classical Gibbs entropy is the von Neumann entropy, obtained from a quantum-mechanical system described by means of its density matrix. Here we shortly discuss this entropy and the use of generalized entropies instead of it.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[965] **viXra:1601.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 13:21:55*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Errors in the paper "Black-body laws derived from a minimum knowledge
of Physics" are described. The paper claims that the density of the thermal current
in any number of spatial dimensions is proportional to the temperature to the power
of 2(n-1)/(n-2), where n represents the number of spatial dimensions. However, it
is actually proportional to the temperature to the power of n + 1. The source of this
error is in the claim that the known formula for the fine-structure constant is valid
for any number of spatial dimensions, and in the subsequent error that the physical
dimensions of Planck's constant become dependent on n.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[964] **viXra:1601.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-30 09:18:28*

**Authors:** Nicolas Gisin

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Talkpresented at the Conference "Time in Physics" at the ETH-Zurich, September 2015.

Today's science provides quite a lean picture of time as a mere geometric evolution parameter. I argue that time is much richer. In particular, I argue that besides the geometric time, there is creative time, when objective chance events happen. The existence of the latter follows straight from the existence of free-will. Following the french philosopher Lequyer, I argue that free-will is a prerequisite for the possibility to have rational argumentations, hence can't be denied. Consequently, science can't deny the existence of creative time and thus that time really passes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[963] **viXra:1601.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-27 20:18:55*

**Authors:** J. M. Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Any comment is welcome

We report some nonsmooth dynamics of a Bloch state in a one-dimensional tight binding model. After a sudden change of the potential of some site, quantities like the survival probability of the particle in the initial Bloch state show cusps periodically. This phenomenon is a nonperturbative counterpart of the nonsmooth dynamics observed previously (Zhang and Haque, arXiv:1404.4280) in the tight binding model. We explain it by exactly solving a truncated and linearized model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[962] **viXra:1601.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-27 05:08:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11]
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[961] **viXra:1601.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-25 22:31:40*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this work gravicommunication (GC) is introduced, as a new form of communication (different from the gravitational waves), which involves gravitons (elementary particles of gravitation). This research is based on quantum modification of the general relativity. The modification includes effects of production /absorption of gravitons, which turn out to have small, but finite mass and electric dipole moment. It is shown, that such gravitons form the dipole Bose-Einstein condensate, even for high temperature. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations. In this theory we got an interface between gravitons and ordinary matter, which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and, especially, our brain. Subjective experiences are considered as a manifestation of that interface. A model of such interface is presented and some new experimentally verifiable aspects of natural neural systems are considered. According to the model, GC can be superluminal, which will solve the problem of quantum entanglement. Probable applications of these ideas include health (brain stimulation), new forms of communication, computational capabilities, energy resources and weapons. Potential social consequences of these developments can be comparable with the effects of discovery and applications of electricity. Some developed civilizations in the universe may already master gravicommunication (with various applications) and so should we.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[960] **viXra:1601.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-26 03:05:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11]
Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[959] **viXra:1601.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-25 08:46:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

From gene mapping to space exploration, humanity continues to generate ever-larger sets of data—far more information than people can actually process, manage, or understand. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[958] **viXra:1601.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-23 12:43:11*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is
based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of: (a) strange
pentaquarks containing one, two, three and four strange quarks, (b) strange antipentaquarks
containing one, two, three and four anti-strange quarks; and (c) a relatively
large number of non-strange pentaquarks and their antiparticles. There are, however, other pentaquarks that this formulation does not cover.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[957] **viXra:1601.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-21 11:38:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Scientists at Aalto University (Finland) and Amherst College (USA) have created knotted solitary waves, or knot solitons, in the quantum-mechanical field describing a gas of superfluid atoms, also known as a Bose–Einstein condensate. [13]
Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12]
A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[956] **viXra:1601.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-19 02:25:00*

**Authors:** Hosein Majlesi

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Patent:139350140003006698,Tuesday,September16,2014

In this article some observed objects in the experiment and the way of compatibility classical relationships between empirical observations from the view points of the plasma physics have been investigated, the plasma physics equations rooted in classical physics and quantum mechanics equations; given that the possibility of separation and direct observation the spin of free electron is one of the most discussable issues in the quantum philosophy during the last few decades, this paper has been studied some of technical and scientific issues of the experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[955] **viXra:1601.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-16 23:06:47*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

65,536-dimensional Cl(16) not only contains the E8 of E8 Physics (viXra 1508.0157) but also corresponds to the information content of Microtubules that are the basis of Penrose-Hameroff Quantum Consciousness (viXra 1512.0300) and to information content of DNA chromosome condensation and to information content of mRNA triple - amino acid transformations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[954] **viXra:1601.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-16 15:19:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Most biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9]
Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8]
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[953] **viXra:1601.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-14 15:08:05*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of three quadruply bottom pentaquarks:
b b b b ̄u , b b b b ̄c , and b b b b ̄t , and their antiparticles: b̄ b̄ ̄b ̄b u , ̄b ̄b ̄b ̄b c , and ̄b ̄b ̄b ̄b t .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[952] **viXra:1601.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-13 22:56:50*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 1 Figure

Currently, the rest mass of photons has been assumed to be equal to zero. Otherwise, according to Einstein’s postulate of theory of relativity, since the velocity of photons (v) has been assumed to be = c (constant), the moving mass of photons becomes infinite according to the expression of moving mass of theory of relativity. Since the moving mass (or any type of mass) of photons (or of any particle) cannot be infinite, their rest mass has been assumed to be equal to zero. But presently, giving plausible arguments and evidences, it has been tried to prove that the rest mass of photons cannot be equal to zero. Giving plausible arguments, a justified solution has also been determined such that the moving mass of photons may not become infinite despite having their rest mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[951] **viXra:1601.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-13 12:35:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Nanotechnologists at the University of Twente research institute MESA+ have discovered a new fundamental property of electrical currents in very small metal circuits. They show how electrons can spread out over the circuit like waves and cause interference effects at places where no electrical current is driven. The geometry of the circuit plays a key role in this so called nonlocal effect. The interference is a direct consequence of the quantum mechanical wave character of electrons and the specific geometry of the circuit. For designers of quantum computers it is an effect to take account of. The results are published in the British journal Scientific Reports. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[950] **viXra:1601.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-11 16:47:21*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of three quadruply strange pentaquarks. The composition of these particles is (s s s s ̄u), (s s s s ̄c), and (s s s s ̄t).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[949] **viXra:1601.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-11 18:20:03*

**Authors:** Krishan P Vats

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Instantaneous (Spooky) action was deemed necessary to explain observed spin measurement of entangled electrons. The reason sited is that hidden variables can not explain the experimentally observed behavior. Well, they can!

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[948] **viXra:1601.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 18:27:54*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In a recent Nature article Hensen et al. reported that they have accomplished a "loophole-free" test of Bell's theorem. The authors speculated that further improvements in their experimental design could settle an 80 year debate in favor of quantum theory's stance that entanglement is "action at a distance". We direct attention to a spatial aspect of locality, not considered by Bell's Theorem or by any of its experimental tests. We refer to the possibility that two distanced particles could remain spatially disconnected, even when distanced enough to ensure that information between them was transmitted faster than the velocity of light. We show that any local-deterministic relativity theory which violates Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies can maintain spatial locality at any distance. We conclude that until the loophole of spatial locality is closed by future experiments, the news about the death of locality will remain greatly exaggerated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[947] **viXra:1601.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-05 09:54:55*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is speculated that free energy accumulation may be achieved by repeating or looping a charged particle interference effect. This model is based upon a previous paper where it was shown that a small amount of free energy might be acquired in charged particle interference. By repeating an amplitude splitting interference effect in conjunction with a measurement of the system, the desired amount of free energy accumulation is achieved.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[946] **viXra:1512.0499 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:36:12*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Get a good picture of everything that (they say) must be happening inside of an atom and you will realize it absolutely cannot be happening like that, what you are led to believe is actually bonkers.

The basic fundamental stuff cannot do advanced mechanical interactions, everything has to be automatic.

Gluons are a force carrier jumping back and forth (being shot) between Quarks and that is holding them together?

That is NOT an explanation. Everything must be explained or nothing is actually explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[945] **viXra:1512.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:47:37*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Assuming the existence of a fourth spatial dimension, w, the symmetry breaking mechanism is explained in terms of the transition of particles from a fourth dimensional space to a three-dimensional space. This dimensional transition was triggered by a drop in the temperature of the universe below the level corresponding to the symmetric phase.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[944] **viXra:1512.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:50:25*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Universe seems to avoid all paradoxes arising from time travel through two distinct mechanisms. The first mechanism is implemented through the existence of an infinite number of parallel Universes. The second one is known as quantum superposition. Therefore, it seems that nature must be in an undefined stated to allow time travel without paradoxes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[943] **viXra:1512.0496 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:53:21*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I present an alternative method of deriving the Schwarzschild radius of a
black hole. The method uses three of the Planck units formulas: the Planck mass, the
Planck momentum and the Planck length. Therefore it is shown that General Relativity
(GR) is not necessary to derive the formula for the radius of a black hole. Thus,
compared to GR, the simplification achieved by this derivation is enormous.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[942] **viXra:1512.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:59:33*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Assuming a time independent Schrödinger equation, this paper shows the formulas for the wavelength, momentum and group velocity of a particle as a function of its wavefunction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[941] **viXra:1512.0494 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 19:43:13*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Packaged entanglement states encapsulate the necessary physical quantities as an entirety for completely identifying the particles. They are important for particle physics and matter teleportation. Here we proposed the new packaged entanglement states (of two particles and more than two particles) in which the charge does not conserve in the process of wave function collapse. We also discussed the particle teleportation and entanglement transfer using the new packaged entanglement states. It is shown that a particle always converts into its conjugating particle during the particle teleportation process.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[940] **viXra:1512.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 13:20:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A team of researchers working at Stanford University has extended the record for quantum superposition at the macroscopic level, from 1 to 54 centimeters. [13]
Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12]
A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[939] **viXra:1512.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 09:53:43*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Abstract: **I show that, in general, the Fourier transform is necessarily self-referent and logically circular.**Keywords: **self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical logic, Fourier transform, vector space, orthogonality, orthogonal, unitarity, unitary, imaginary unit, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, pure state, mixed state, wave packet, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, tensor product.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[938] **viXra:1512.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 00:26:31*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: I write out a proof adapted from the work of W E Baylis et al showing how existence of the square root of minus one is inherent in physical theories demanding orthogonal mathematics.

Keywords: imaginary numbers, complex numbers, foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, elementary algebra, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[937] **viXra:1512.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 08:55:26*

**Authors:** S.E. Grimm

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Physicists and cosmologists are convinced by the idea that energy and space emerge from some kind of magic “substance”. You can concentrate all the energy and space of the universe to the size of a fictional singular point or expand it with no restrictions. Of course, this boundless concept is not in line with the foundations of physics. Moreover, it is a serious obstacle to understand incomprehensible observations like cold fusion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[936] **viXra:1512.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 08:05:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have demonstrated a new way of controlling electrons by confining them in a device made out of atomically thin materials, and applying external electric and magnetic fields. [28]
Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[935] **viXra:1512.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 08:58:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12]
A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[934] **viXra:1512.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 07:09:16*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

One of the three laboratories which has previously produced three entangled photons (the asymmetric GHz state) has performed the triphoton equivalent of the Bell’s Theorem experiment. The results so far are inconsistent with the traditional operator projection model of polarizers, which was previously used in mainstream explanations of Bell’s Theorem experiments, but consistent with simple local realistic models previously shown to be consistent with Bell’s Theorem results and developed by implementing the form of time-symmetric physics which we previously developed [1]. This paper gives a more detailed proposal (MQED1) for a Markovian version of Quantum Electrodynamics (MQED), which it defines as the minimal modification of traditional versions of QED needed to fit the new results, to resolve disagreements between the four mainstream variants of QED used to predict experiments today, and to be consistent with the program of stochastic realism, albeit not a local model. The paper also discusses how MQED1 might be derived as the emergent outcome of a more fundamental local model fulfilling earlier direct discussions between this author and Louis De Broglie, using new statistical distribution functions extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping essential to quantum optics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[933] **viXra:1512.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 13:23:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The quantum entanglement of a large ensemble of spins in a semiconductor has been carried out at room temperature for the first time, by researchers in the US. The team entangled more than 10,000 copies of two-qubit entangled states in a commercial silicon-carbide (SiC) wafer at ambient conditions. SiC is widely used in electronics, so this latest achievement could be an important step towards the creation of sophisticated quantum devices that harness entanglement. [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[932] **viXra:1512.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 05:19:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[931] **viXra:1512.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-16 10:42:21*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

When applied to a quaternionic manifold, the generalized Stokes theorem can provide an elucidating space progression model in which elementary objects float on symmetry centers that act as their parameter spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[930] **viXra:1512.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-16 08:12:51*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Yes space-time has a source, space-time is not a natural fact as L. Smolin claim it, but space-time has not a quantum source. In this paper I refer to my article viXra: 1511.0012 submitted 2015-11-02. As it is proposed by J. Maldacena and L. Susskind two particles connected by entanglement are effectively joined by a wormhole, then causal connection principle is a principle with reference of the human's mind. Could be the same thing for C velocity unsurpassable!

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[929] **viXra:1512.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-15 12:43:51*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 50 Pages. Figures: 6

The current quantum theory (i.e. the quantum wave theory) has three very basic and fundamental faults: 1. The current interpretation of quantum is faulty and incomplete; 2. The assumption of wave nature of photons and electrons is not true; 3. The phenomena of interference and diffraction of photons and electrons, in order to explain which the wave nature of photons and electrons has been assumed, take place due to their particle nature, not due to their wave nature. The present interpretation of quantum gives very clear and complete picture of quantum, about its structure, properties etc. It enables to explain all the phenomena related with quanta, even the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons and photons, that too very clearly and completely in a logically very convincing way. Presently, it has also been determined as to why and how despite having three such very basic and fundamental faults, the current quantum theory has succeeded to obtain so wide success.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[928] **viXra:1512.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 10:21:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
For the first time, researchers have demonstrated the precise requirements for secure quantum teleportation – and it involves a phenomenon known 'quantum steering', first proposed by Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger. [9]
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[927] **viXra:1512.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 06:46:54*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In [1] the following assumption has been put forward:
“Taking for a basis neutrino and antineutrino, it is necessary to see: the
electromagnetic interaction is caused by that the 4-potential of an electromagnetic
field is a neutrino current of transition which well interface with the electronpositron
current of transition.” In present article this assumption develops and
specified.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[926] **viXra:1512.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-12 08:21:41*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Penrose-Hameroff type Quantum Consciousness is described in terms of E8 Physics ( see viXra 1508.0157 ) and 26D String Theory with Strings seen as World-Lines and Bohm Quantum Potential and Sarfatti Thought Decoherence. Creation-Annihilation Operators and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory and AQFT Quantum Code for Bohm Quantum Theory are also described.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[925] **viXra:1512.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 05:45:50*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In given article attempt to develop model of elementary particles (except for
resonances) is done on the basis of concept that these particles, as well as
electron, will consist of cooperating neutrino and antineutrino. Errors of the
received models are not greater then 2 %. In article structures of particles, a
background of their electric charges, bases of electromagnetic and strong
interaction, essence of strangeness and replacement of system of lepton charges on
system of neutrinos charges are offered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[924] **viXra:1512.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 11:58:49*

context: Theory of Indeterminacy and Quantum Randomness

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: As opposed to the classical logic of true and false, when Elementary Algebra is treated as a formal axiomatised system, formulae in that algebra are either provable, disprovable or otherwise, logically independent of axioms. This logical independence is well-known to Mathematical Logic. Here I show that the imaginary unit, and by extension, all complex numbers, exist in that algebra, logically independently of the algebra's axioms. The intention is to cover the subject in a way accessible to physicists. This work is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a complete theory of quantum randomness. Elementary Algebra is a theory that cannot be completed and is therefore subject to Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.

keywords: mathematical logic, formal system, axioms, mathematical propositions, Soundness Theorem, Completeness Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum physics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[923] **viXra:1512.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 22:17:37*

**Authors:** Korolev Daniil Leonidovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The proposed material generates a unidirectional force as a result of the interaction with the vacuum fluctuations. Experience shows the use or lack of fluctuation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[922] **viXra:1512.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 11:58:32*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable the creation of flexible (folded) quantum computers, IPhones and TVs, engineless quantum transmission and propelling devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation (see reference) based on three fundamental laws of physico-chemical kinetics 1) the law of entire equilibrium, (2) the law of the duality of elementary processes (or the equality of direct and reverse transition probabilities), (3) the law of equal a priori probabilities. It is shown that all three follow from the law of the symmetry of time, and furthermore, that the first and third of these laws are both derivable from the second.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[921] **viXra:1512.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-08 04:01:09*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable the creation of flexible (folded) quantum computers, IPhones and TVs, engineless quantum transmission and propelling devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation (see reference) based on three fundamental laws of physico-chemical kinetics 1) the law of entire equilibrium, (2) the law of the duality of elementary processes (or the equality of direct and reverse transition probabilities), (3) the law of equal a priori probabilities. It is shown that all three follow from the law of the symmetry of time, and furthermore, that the first and third of these laws are both derivable from the second.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[920] **viXra:1512.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 11:48:23*

**Authors:** Emmanuil Manousos

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

In this article we present the basic investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between material particles with a unified mechanism (USVI). Every interaction is the result of three clearly distinct terms with clearly distinct consequences in the USVI. We predict a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation, and the related wave equations. We determine a mathematical expression for the total of the conservable physical quantities, and we calculate the curent density 4-vector. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and their relation emerge clearly, and we give a calculation method for the rest masses of material particles. We prove the «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data, without a presentation of the corresponding analytical calculations. From the investigation we present, the method for the further investigation of the selfvariations and their consequences also emerges.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[919] **viXra:1512.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 11:25:51*

Призрак амплитуды или Парадокс Камнева и неравенства Звонарёва (шутка с оттенком саркастического пародизма)

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 27 Pages. rus

Students at a university in the study of new physical discipline – coints-mechanics are faced with an interesting conclusions. Kamnev formulated the paradox of "telepathic communication" between entanglement objects, but Zvonarev prove that paradox - a consequence of the wrong interpretation of the fundamental tenets of the theory – not separability. Alik Asperyan developed a technique that allowed to resolve the dispute between Kamneva and Zvonareva in favor of non-locality coints mechanics and misconceptions Kamneva about its incompleteness and the need to introduce into it additional parameters - localism. The importance of understanding the subtleties of not separability an the teacher show on the example of the jokes-paradox of a purse Shreunin. What not separability, non-locality, the superposition underlie the basis Being unexpected and mysteriously felt by a few students, who have visited "the other side" of reality.

Студенты одного из вузов при изучении новой физической дисциплины – койнтовой механики столкнулись с интересными выводами. Камнев сформулировал парадокс «телепатической связи» между сцеплёнными объектами, но Звонарёв доказал, что парадокс – лишь следствие неправильной трактовки фундаментального положения теории – несепарабельности. Алик Асперян разработал методику, которая позволила решить спор между Камневым и Звонарёвым в пользу нелокальности койнтовой механики и ошибочности представлений Камнева о ее неполноте и необходимости введения в нее дополнительных параметров – локализма. Важность понимания тонкостей несепарабельности показал преподаватель на примере шутливого парадокса кошёлки Шрёнина. То, что несепарабельность, нелокальность, суперпозиция лежат в основе Бытия, неожиданным и загадочным образом ощутили на себе еще несколько ребят, побывавших «по ту сторону» реальности.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[918] **viXra:1512.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 07:04:40*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Elementary fermions can be represented by couplings of two quaternionic fields. Each of these fields can be represented by a pair of a quaternionic function and a quaternionic parameter space. The parameter spaces and the functions differ in their symmetry flavor. The reverse bra-ket method can be used to relate these fields, the corresponding functions and their parameter spaces to operators that reside in quaternionic Hilbert spaces. The eigenspaces of these operators act as structured storage places. Obviously the properties of the elementary fermions and their behavior are directly related to the symmetry flavors of the coupled fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[917] **viXra:1512.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 23:53:05*

**Authors:** Germano Resconi, Koji Nagata

**Comments:** 13 pages

Feynman pointed out on a logic and mathematical paradox in particle physics. The paradox is that we get for the same entity only local dependence and global dependence at the time. This contradiction is coming from the dual nature of the particle viewed as a wave. In the first capacity it has only local dependence in the second (wave) capacity it has a global dependence. The classical logic has difficulties to resolve this paradox. Changing the classical logic to logic makes the paradox apparent. Particle has the local property or zero dependence with other particles, media has total dependence so is a global unique entity. Now, in set theory, any element is independent from the other so disjoint set has not element in common. With this condition we have that the true false logic can be applied and set theory is the principal foundation. Now with conditional probability and dependence by copula the long distance dependence has effect on any individual entity that now is not isolate but can have different type of dependence or synchronism ( constrain ) which effect is to change the probability of any particle. So particle with different degree of dependence can be represented by a new type of set as fuzzy set in which the boundary are not completely defined or where we cannot separate a set in its parts as in the evidence theory. In conclusion the Feynman paradox and Bell violation can be explained at a new level of complexity by many valued logic and new type of set theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[916] **viXra:1512.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 13:50:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[915] **viXra:1512.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 12:41:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[914] **viXra:1512.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-01 17:59:45*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all
the predictions of quantum theory. However the theorem presupposes that distanced physical systems become spatially disconnected. This presupposition, although in agreement with our intuition, has never been confirmed experimentally. As a result Bell's Theorem prohibits only temporal locality, but not spatial locality between distanced particles. Here, I show that any local-deterministic relativity theory that violates Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies cannot be forbidden by Bell's inequality. I further show that the predictions of a recently proposed local and deterministic Information Relativity Theory, are consistent with quantum theory and quantum thermodynamics, and reproduce the same results for key quantum phenomena, including matter-wave duality, quantum criticality and phase transition, formation of Bose-Einstein condensate, and quantum entanglement.
The theory assumes that observers who are in inertial motion with respect to each other with relative velocity v, communicate information about physical observables using an information carrier with known velocity (Vc) which satisfies Vc > v. No other presumptions are made. For velocities satisfying
v << Vc all the theory transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton laws. The theory is simple and is
also beautiful due to its Golden Ratio symmetries. More importantly, the theory is scale independent
with respect to the investigated physical systems' dimensions and the velocity of the information
carrier, which renders it applicable to the dynamics of moving bodies in all inertial physical systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[913] **viXra:1512.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-01 14:29:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15]
Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[912] **viXra:1511.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-30 03:56:09*

Парадоксы квантовой суперпозиции в макромире.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 18 Pages. rus

Quantum superposition from a formal point of view, is not a complicated concept. But from a logical point of view and from the standpoint of common sense it cannot find an explanation without the use of the concepts of "miracle" and "magic". Quantum mechanics says its mathematical apparatus is universal and can be extended to the phenomena of the macrocosm. Although the phenomenon of superposition in everyday reality can be explained to quite acceptable and logical way, without the paradoxical results, however, such an explanation of the phenomenon and their application on the macrocosm has another side: casts doubt on the notion of superposition.

Квантовая суперпозиция с формальной точки зрения не является сложным понятием. Но с логической точки зрения и с позиций здравого смысла она не может найти объяснения без использования понятий «чудо» и «магия». Квантовая механика утверждает, что ее аппарат является универсальным и может быть распространен на явления макромира. Хотя явления обыденной реальности и могут быть объяснены вполне приемлемым и логичным образом, без получения парадоксальных результатов, вместе с тем такое объяснение и распространение явления на макромир имеет и другую сторону: ставит под сомнение само понятие суперпозиции.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[911] **viXra:1511.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 06:38:39*

Макро-интерференция удивительный эксперимент Дёмина

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 14 Pages. rus

Is described experiment by Demin on the interference of small diameter metal balls. The experimental results can be interpreted with a certain probability as the occurrence of the interference pattern at the fall of the balls through the two slits. This interpretation rejects the interpretation of the superposition of quantum particles as their simultaneous presence in two states or in two points of space at the one and the same time. The superposition principle implies that on the double-slit experiment quantum particle passes through both slits simultaneously. Experiment with the balls within the validity shows that for the appearance of the interference pattern the superposition is not necessary, because impossible to assume that the ball passes through the two slits simultaneously. In addition, it is can be verified.

Рассмотрен эксперимент Дёмина С.В. по наблюдению интерференции металлических шариков небольшого диаметра. Результаты эксперимента можно интерпретировать с определённой вероятностью как возникновение интерференционной картины при падении шариков через две щели. Такая интерпретация отвергает трактовку суперпозиции квантовых частиц как их одновременное нахождение в двух состояниях или в двух точках пространства одновременно. Принцип суперпозиции предполагает, что в двухщелевом эксперименте квантовая частица проходит через обе щели одновременно. Эксперимент с шариками в пределах достоверности показывает, что для появления интерференционной картины в физически реализующейся суперпозиции нет необходимости, поскольку невозможно предположить, что шарик проходит через две щели одновременно. К тому же это можно проверить.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[910] **viXra:1511.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-29 07:26:34*

**Authors:** Michael C. Berg

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Posting this here for safekeeping, Thank You

The unique frequency of the vibration between quarks is explored as possibly storing large amounts of information, with possible applications in future quantum computers.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[909] **viXra:1511.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-27 15:46:04*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Hilbert spaces can store discrete quaternions and quaternionic continuums in the eigenspaces of operators that reside in these Hilbert spaces. The reverse bra-ket method can create natural parameter spaces from quaternionic number systems and can relate pairs of functions and their parameter spaces with eigenspaces and eigenvectors of corresponding operators that reside in non-separable Hilbert spaces. This also works for separable Hilbert spaces and the defining functions relate the separable Hilbert space with its non-separable companion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[908] **viXra:1511.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-27 04:37:32*

**Authors:** Clifford E Chafin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
Hydrodynamics of gases in the classical domain are examined from the perspective that the gas has a well-defined wavefunction description at all times. Specifically, the internal energy and volume exclusion of decorrelated vortex structures are included so that quantum corrections and modifications to Navier-Stokes behavior can be derived. This leads to a small deviation in rigid body rotation for a cylindrically bound gas and the internal energy changes associated with vorticity give deviations in the Reynolds’ transport theorem. Some macroscopic observable features arising from this include variations in the specific heat, an anisotropic correction to thermal conductivity and a variation in optical scattering as a function of the declination from the axis of local vorticity. The improvements in magneto-optical traps suggests some interesting experiments to be done in higher temperature regimes where they are not usually employed. It is argued that the finite lifetime of observed vortices in ultracold bosonic gases is only apparent and these volume excluding structures persist in generating angular momentum and pressure in the cloud in a non-imageable form.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[907] **viXra:1511.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-25 09:53:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9]
Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8]
As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[906] **viXra:1511.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-22 10:57:46*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The postulate that coordinate and momentum representations are related to each other by the Fourier transform has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory. As a consequence, coordinate wave functions of photons emitted by stars have cosmic sizes. This results in a paradox because predictions of the theory contradict observations. The reason of the paradox and its resolution are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[905] **viXra:1511.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 10:30:43*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The attempt of Schrödinger to describe elementary particles by wave packets is repeated by means nowadays available, that is to say, by applying the results of quantum field theory and especially by the explicit consideration of interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[904] **viXra:1511.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 23:23:59*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

In trial,
we especially consider inequalities for confirming multipartite entanglement
from experimental data obtained in Bell-type experiments.
We present new entanglement witness inequalities.
Some physical situation is that we measure
$\sigma_x$, $\sigma_y$, and $\sigma_z$ per side.
Our analysis discovers a new multipartite entangled state
and it is experimentally feasible.
If the reduction factor $V$ of the interferometric contrast observed
in a $N$-particle correlation experiment is $V>0.4$, then
a measured state is full $N$-partite entanglement in a significant
specific case.
It is not revealed by previous Bell-type experimentally
feasible methods presented
in \cite{NKI},
which states if $V>0.5$ then
the significant specific type state is full $N$-partite entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[903] **viXra:1511.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 23:28:52*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 pages

We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling,
based on the truth values, i.e.,
the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false.
The results of measurement are either 0 or 1.
To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both
observability and controllability
of a quantum state.
The new measurement theory can satisfy these two.
Especially, we systematically
describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using
raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[902] **viXra:1511.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-20 03:56:58*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 5 pages

Present understanding of non-possibility of Quantum communication rests on analysis of possibility of signalling within a Quantum system. Is it possible to achieve signalling by a setup where the system is changed from one to another where the act of change serves as the signal and the change in the measurement probabilities would be detected and deciphered at the receiver end? A proposal is made where a variant of Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser experiment setup of Kim et al is used to achieve the same. The setup is also designed such that the speed of communication can be faster than light.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[901] **viXra:1511.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-19 06:17:19*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Casimir's celebrated result that the conducting plates of an unpowered rectangular cavity attract each other with a pressure inversely proportional to the fourth power of their separation entails an unphysical unbounded pressure as the plate separation goes to zero. An unphysical result isn't surprising in light of Casimir's unphysical assumption of perfectly conducting plates that zero out electric fields regardless of their frequency, which he sought to counteract via a physically foundationless discarding of the pressure between the cavity plates when they are sufficiently widely separated. Casimir himself, however, emphasized that real metal plates are transparent to sufficiently high electromagnetic frequencies, which makes removal of the frequency cutoff that he inserted unjustifiable at any stage of his calculation. Therefore his physically groundless discarding of the large-separation pressure isn't even needed, and when it is left out a constant attractive pressure between the plates exists when their separation is substantially larger than the cutoff wavelength. The intact cutoff furthermore implies zero pressure between the plates when their separation is zero, and also that Casimir's pressure is merely the subsidiary lowest-order correction term to the constant attractive pressure between the plates that is dominant when their separation substantially exceeds the cutoff wavelength.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[900] **viXra:1511.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 12:48:28*

**Authors:** M. B. Bell

**Comments:** 6 pages with 4 figs. This paper has been published in the International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol 5, pp166-172. author email addresses are: morley.bell@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca and morleybell@rogers.com

Recently evidence has been reported for a low-level velocity oscillation with a period of 39 +/- 1 Mpc (127 +/- 3 Myr) superimposed on the Hubble flow. Like the Hubble flow, this oscillation is assumed to be an expansion and contraction of space itself. If space is oscillating as it expands and the Hubble flow contains a superimposed velocity ripple, matter on Earth will experience alternating accelerations and decelerations relative to the rest of the matter in the Universe. The acceleration curve can be obtained from the velocity oscillation curve simply by taking the magnitude of the derivative of the velocity curve and the acceleration curve is found here to have a period of 63.5+/-1.5 Myr. Evidence has also been claimed recently for an ubiquitous ~62 +/-3 Myr periodic fluctuation superimposed on general trends in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. The periods of the acceleration curve oscillation and fossil biodiversity fluctuations are thus identical within the errors. A second, weaker fluctuation is also detected in both the Hubble flow and fossil biodiversity trends. They too have identical periods of ~140 Myr. From this excellent agreement it is argued here that it is the oscillation in the Hubble flow, through an inertia-like phenomenon involving all the matter in the Universe that has produced the fluctuations in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. This may represent the first instance where observational evidence supporting Mach's Principle of Inertia has been found.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[899] **viXra:1511.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-18 02:49:01*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The general n-point information (n-pi) are introduced and equations for them are considered. The role of right and left invertible interaction operators occurring in these equations together with their interpretation is discussed. Some comments on approximations to the proposed equations are given. The importance of positivity conditions and a possible interpretation of n-pi in the case of their non-compliance, for essentially nonlinear interactions (ENI), are proposed. A language of creation, annihilation and projection operators which can be applied in classical as well as in quantum case is used. The role of the complex numbers and functions in physics is also a little elucidated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[898] **viXra:1511.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-17 10:23:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Scientists from the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the Department of Physics at the University of Basel have demonstrated for the first time how electrons are transported from a superconductor through a quantum dot into a metal with normal conductivity. This transport process through a quantum dot had already been calculated theoretically in the nineties, but scientists at the University of Basel have now succeeded in proving the theory with measurements. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[897] **viXra:1511.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-14 13:30:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[896] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-13 20:55:51*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However the theorem presupposes that particles which are distanced from each become spatially disconnected. The possibility of spatial-locality between distanced particles has never been considered neither in Bell's theorem, nor in its experimental tests. Here I show that an infinite set of local and deterministic relativity theories cannot be forbidden by Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[895] **viXra:1511.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-12 17:37:30*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. Hence, I propose the justification of the projection postulate in the linguistic interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[894] **viXra:1511.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-11 16:07:29*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

In this article I explain the concepts behind the multifaceted Planck mass through each of
its facets, highlighting the relation of the Planck mass with the origins of the universe,
with the physics of white dwarfs and black holes, with the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle, and, finally, with the microscopic world of elementary particles. The paper also suggests a new definition for this “multicoloured” mass. In certain way the Planck
mass is a unit that unifies all of physics. Finally, one of the meanings proves, beyond
reasonable doubt, the existence of the Pre-universe and suggests, also, the existence of
parallel universes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[893] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 15:11:50*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof of his theory and all its experimental tests, have presupposed that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body which departs away from an observer's rest-frame will extend rather than contract, could satisfy the condition of spatial locality in Bell's experiment, even when particles are distanced enough to ensure that the temporal locality has been efficiently excluded. This implies that all local realist theories which belong to the aforementioned type could not be screened-out using Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[892] **viXra:1511.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-10 07:07:37*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A novel protocol of quantum cryptography, called genuine quantum secure communication (GQSC), is proposed by using a new method for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD). After secure quantum channel being established, the transmission of secret messages in the GQSC protocol does not require classical channel. Compared with the previous protocols of quantum secure direct communication, the advantage of the present protocol is not only more security, but also higher covert.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[891] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 16:27:22*

**Authors:** J, A, J, van Leunen

**Comments:** 75 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, the paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[890] **viXra:1511.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-09 03:16:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In a quantum superposition, a quantum object can be in two incompatible states at the same time, which is famously illustrated by Schrödinger's dead-and-alive cat. Recent research has shown that it's possible to have a superposition not only of incompatible states, but also of incompatible orders of events. We often think of events occurring in a definite chronological order, with event A happening (and causing) event B, or vice versa. But in certain quantum processes, events don't happen in a single definite order, but instead both orders (A before B, and B before A) occur at the same time. This counterintuitive superposition-like phenomenon is called "causal nonseparability." [11]
For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[889] **viXra:1511.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 09:44:20*

**Authors:** Hosein Majlesi

**Comments:** 10 Page,10 figure, Patent:139350140003006698, Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Stern-Gerlach experiment by free electron is very important experiment because it answered some questions that remain unanswered for almost a century. Bohr and Pauli considered its objective observation as impossible while some other scientists considered such observation as possible. The experiment on free electrons has not been conducted so far because the high magnetic field gradient predicted there was thought as impossible to generate. This paper proves that it is not only possible but also observable using a high vacuum lamp which is deionized well. To obtain a high magnetic field gradient, it is not necessary to have a very strong magnetic field and it is possible to observe the phenomenon using a very sharp pointed magnet and adjusting the voltage in a certain distance from free electron beams. that objective observation requires your consideration of some technical points simultaneously.In this experiment, no electric field and no magnetic field does not change with time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[888] **viXra:1511.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 02:31:42*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 2 figures

The entanglement states of particles are now widely used in quantum communication. However, these entanglement states usually relate to only one of the particles' physical quantities.
Here we theoretically show that there exists a packaged entanglement state which encapsulates all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles.
We first show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form a packaged entanglement state in which the particles are indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement state. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states.
These packaged entanglement states could be useful for matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[536] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-11 18:00:09*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[535] **viXra:1602.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-06 05:19:30*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We prove that the Bell’s theorem and the nonlocality of quantum mechanics are scientifically unfounded statements.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[534] **viXra:1601.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-31 05:38:46*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using a new concept of the truth in quantum mechanics we show that the individual superposition principle is scientifically unfounded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[533] **viXra:1601.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-12 09:55:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 66 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is
based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of: (a) strange
pentaquarks containing one, two, three and four strange quarks, (b) strange pentaquarks with zero total strangeness, such as the (̄u ̄u ̄u ̄s̄ s) and
(u u u s s̄) pentaquarks, (c) a relatively large number of pentaquarks containing neither strange nor anti-strange quarks (also zero total strangeness) and (d) “bottom-top charmed” pentaquarks, such as the (t c u b ̄b) pentaquark. The theory, of course, also predicts the anti-pentaquarks corresponding to all predicted pentaquarks. More importantly, this theory predicts the existence of the (u u d c ̄c) pentaquark. This remarkable prediction was confirmed on July 14th, 2015 by CERN researchers with the discovery of a particle of composition:
(u u d c ̄c) with a significance of more than 9 standard deviations. This makes the discovery as solid as scientists wanted to be. However, there are doubts on whether the discovered particle is a strongly bound state of five quarks (known as pentaquark) or a loosely bound state of a baryon, (u u d) , and a meson, (c̄c) (quark molecule).
Although the foundations of this theory are mostly finalised, the details are still incomplete (there are points in the diagram that I shall complete in future versions).
Therefore there are other pentaquarks that are not explicitly shown at the present time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[532] **viXra:1601.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-01 19:03:07*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of: (a) strange pentaquarks containing one, two, three and four strange quarks, (b) strange antipentaquarks containing one, two, three and four anti-strange quarks; and (c) a relatively large number of non-strange pentaquarks and their antiparticles, etc. A remarkable observable prediction of this theory is the existence of the (u u d c ̄c) pentaquark discovered on July 14th, 2015 by CERN's Large Hadron Collider. There are, however, other pentaquarks that this formulation does not address at the present time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[531] **viXra:1601.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 14:09:35*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of: (a) strange pentaquarks containing one, two, three and four strange quarks, (b) strange antipentaquarks containing one, two, three and four anti-strange quarks; and (c) a relatively large number of non-strange pentaquarks and their antiparticles. A remarkable
observable prediction of this theory is the existence of the (u u d c ̄c) pentaquark
discovered on July 14th, 2015 by CERN's Large Hadron Collider. There are, however, other pentaquarks that this formulation does not address at the present time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[530] **viXra:1601.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-28 17:42:43*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is
based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of: (a) strange
pentaquarks containing one, two, three and four strange quarks, (b) strange antipentaquarks
containing one, two, three and four anti-strange quarks; and (c) a relatively large number of non-strange pentaquarks and their antiparticles. A remarkable prediction of this theory is the existence of the (u u d c ̄c) pentaquark discovered on July 14th 2015 by CERN's Large Hadron Collider. There are, however, other
pentaquarks that this formulation does not address at the present time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[529] **viXra:1601.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 12:01:33*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is
based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of: (a) strange pentaquarks containing one, two, three and four strange quarks, (b) strange antipentaquarks
containing one, two, three and four antistrange quarks; and (c) a relatively large number of non-strange pentaquarks and their antiparticles. There are, however, other pentaquarks that this formulation does not address.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[528] **viXra:1601.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 22:16:49*

**Authors:** Hosein Majlesi

**Comments:** 22 Pages+2 Video for journal,Patent:139350140003006698,Tuesday,September16,2014

In this article some observed objects in the experiment and the way of compatibility classical relationships between empirical observations from the view points of the plasma physics have been investigated, the plasma physics equations rooted in classical physics and quantum mechanics equations; given that the possibility of separation and direct observation the spin of free electron is one of the most discussable issues in the quantum philosophy during the last few decades, this paper has been studied some of technical and scientific issues of the experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[527] **viXra:1601.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 13:50:34*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

65,536-dimensional Cl(16) not only contains the E8 of E8 Physics (viXra 1508.0157) but also corresponds to the information content of Microtubules that are the basis of Penrose-Hameroff Quantum Consciousness (viXra 1512.0300) and to information content of DNA chromosome condensation and to information content of mRNA triple - amino acid transformations. Version 2 (v2) adds material about interaction between Microtubules and DNA during mitosis.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[526] **viXra:1601.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 11:16:21*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of three quadruply bottom pentaquarks: b b b b ̄u , b b b b ̄c , and b b b b ̄t , and their antiparticles: b̄ b̄ ̄b ̄b u , ̄b ̄b ̄b ̄b c , and ̄b ̄b ̄b ̄b t . Although this theory is intended for experts, it is simple enough, so that, it is also suitable for the general public.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[525] **viXra:1601.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-09 08:08:22*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 1 Figure

Currently, the rest mass of photons has been assumed to be equal to zero. Otherwise, according to Einstein’s postulate of theory of relativity, since the velocity of photons (v) has been assumed to be = c (constant), the moving mass of photons becomes infinite according to the expression of moving mass of theory of relativity. Since the moving mass (or any type of mass) of photons (or of any particle) cannot be infinite, their rest mass has been assumed to be equal to zero. But presently, giving plausible arguments and evidences, it has been tried to prove that the rest mass of photons cannot be equal to zero. Giving plausible arguments, a justified solution has also been determined such that the moving mass of photons may not become infinite despite having their rest mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[524] **viXra:1601.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 11:12:25*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of three quadruply strange pentaquarks: s s s s ̄u , s s s s ̄c and s s s s ̄t , and their antiparticles: s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ u , ̄s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ c and ̄s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ t . Although this theory is intended for experts, it is simple enough, so that, it is also suitable for the general public.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[523] **viXra:1601.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-15 11:53:53*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of three quadruply strange pentaquarks: s s s s ̄u , s s s s ̄c and s s s s ̄t , and their antiparticles: s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ u , ̄s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ c and ̄s̄ s̄ s̄ s̄ t . The theory only requires basic mathematical knowledge and therefore may be understood by the non-expert.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[522] **viXra:1601.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 14:44:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and antibaryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of three quadruply strange pentaquarks. The composition of these particles is s s s s ̄u
, s s s s ̄c, and s s s s ̄t .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[521] **viXra:1512.0498 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 17:10:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Assuming the existence of a fourth spatial dimension, w, the symmetry breaking mechanism is explained in terms of the transition of particles from a fourth dimensional space to a three-dimensional space. This dimensional transition was triggered by a drop in the temperature of the universe below the level corresponding to the symmetric phase.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[520] **viXra:1512.0472 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 10:12:10*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract

I show that, in general, the Fourier transform is necessarily self-referent and logically circular.

Keywords

self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical logic, Fourier transform, vector space, orthogonality, orthogonal, unitarity, unitary, imaginary unit, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, pure state, mixed state, wave packet, scalar product, tensor product.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[519] **viXra:1512.0450 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 12:26:41*

**Authors:** S.E. Grimm

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Physicists and cosmologists are convinced by the idea that energy and space emerge from some
kind of magic “substance”. You can concentrate all the energy and space of the universe to the size
of a fictional singular point or expand it with no restrictions. Of course, this boundless concept is
not in line with the foundations of physics. Moreover, it is a serious obstacle to understand
incomprehensible observations like cold fusion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[518] **viXra:1512.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-04 08:08:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

When applied to a quaternionic manifold, the generalized Stokes theorem can provide an elucidating space-progression model in which elementary objects float on top of symmetry centers that act as their living domain. The paper indicates that integration depends on the ordering of the involved parameter spaces. In this way, it elucidates the origin of the electric charges and color charges of elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[517] **viXra:1512.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-02 14:12:07*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

When applied to a quaternionic manifold, the generalized Stokes theorem can provide an elucidating space-progression model in which elementary objects float on top of symmetry centers that act as their living domain. The paper elucidates the origin of the electric charges and color charges of elementary particles. It indicates that integration depends on the ordering of the involved parameter spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[516] **viXra:1512.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-21 15:50:31*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

When applied to a quaternionic manifold, the generalized Stokes theorem can provide an elucidating space-progression model in which elementary objects float on top of symmetry centers that act as their living domain. The paper elucidates the origin of the electric charges and color charges of elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[515] **viXra:1512.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-19 12:31:46*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

When applied to a quaternionic manifold, the generalized Stokes theorem can provide an elucidating space-progression model in which elementary objects float on symmetry centers that act as their living domain.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[514] **viXra:1512.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-18 15:28:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

When applied to a quaternionic manifold, the generalized Stokes theorem can provide an elucidating space-progression model in which elementary objects float on symmetry centers that act as their living domain.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[513] **viXra:1512.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-09 07:50:55*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 46 Pages. 5 Figures

The current quantum theory (i.e. the quantum wave theory) has three very basic and fundamental faults: 1. The current interpretation of quantum is faulty and incomplete; 2. The assumption of wave nature of photons and electrons is not true; 3. The phenomena of interference and diffraction of photons and electrons, to explain which the wave nature of photons and electrons has been assumed, take place due to the particle nature of photons and electrons, not due to their wave nature. The present interpretation of quantum gives very clear and complete picture of quantum, about its structure, properties etc. The present quantum theory enables to explain all the phenomena related with quanta, even the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons and photons, that too very clearly and completely in a logically very convincing way. Presently, it has also been determined as to how despite having three such very basic and fundamental faults; the current quantum theory has obtained so huge success.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[512] **viXra:1512.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-14 05:48:14*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 46 Pages. 5 Figures

The current quantum theory (i.e. the quantum wave theory) has three very basic and fundamental faults: 1. The current interpretation of quantum is faulty and incomplete; 2. The assumption of wave nature of photons and electrons is not true; 3. The phenomena of interference and diffraction of photons and electrons, to explain which the wave nature of photons and electrons has been assumed, take place due to the particle nature of photons and electrons, not due to their wave nature. The present interpretation of quantum gives very clear and complete picture of quantum, about its structure, properties etc. The present quantum theory enables to explain all the phenomena related with quanta, even the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons and photons, that too very clearly and completely in a logically very convincing way. Presently, it has also been determined as to how despite having three such very basic and fundamental faults; the current quantum theory has obtained so huge success.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[511] **viXra:1512.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-12 02:37:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Penrose-Hameroff type Quantum Consciousness is described in terms of E8 Physics ( see viXra 1508.0157 ) and 26D String Theory with Strings seen as World-Lines and Bohm Quantum Potential and Sarfatti Thought Decoherence. Tubulin Dimer information content of Microtubules is seen to correspond to the Cl(16) Clifford Algebra in which the E8 Lie Algebra is naturally contained. Creation-Annihilation Operators and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory and AQFT Quantum Code for Bohm Quantum Theory are also described.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[510] **viXra:1512.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-30 23:42:52*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Penrose-Hameroff type Quantum Consciousness is described in terms of E8 Physics ( see viXra 1508.0157 ) and 26D String Theory with Strings seen as World-Lines and Bohm Quantum Potential and Sarfatti Thought Decoherence. Tubulin Dimer information content of Microtubules is seen to correspond to the Cl(16) Clifford Algebra in which the E8 Lie Algebra is naturally contained. Creation-Annihilation Operators and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory and AQFT Quantum Code for Bohm Quantum Theory are also described.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[509] **viXra:1512.0246 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-19 06:01:40*

**Authors:** Emmanuil Manousos

**Comments:** 74 Pages. version 2

In this article we present the basic investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between material particles with a unified mechanism (Unified Selfvariations Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is the result of three clearly distinct terms with clearly distinct consequences in the USVI. We predict a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation, and the related wave equations. We determine a mathematical expression for the total of the conservable physical quantities, and we calculate the curent density 4-vector. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and their relation emerge clearly, and we give a calculation method for the rest masses of material particles. We prove the «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data, without a presentation of the corresponding analytical calculations. From the study we present, the method for the further investigation of the Selfvariations and their consequences also emerges.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[508] **viXra:1512.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-05 10:48:18*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However the theorem presupposes that distanced physical systems become spatially disconnected. This presupposition, although in agreement with our intuition, has never been confirmed experimentally. As a result Bell's Theorem prohibits only temporal locality, but not spatial locality between distanced particles. Here, I show that any local-deterministic relativity theory that violates Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies cannot be forbidden by Bell's inequality. I further show that the predictions of a recently proposed local and deterministic Information Relativity Theory, are consistent with quantum theory and quantum thermodynamics, and reproduce the same results for key quantum phenomena, including matter-wave duality, quantum criticality and phase transition, formation of Bose-Einstein condensate, and quantum entanglement.
The theory assumes that observers who are in inertial motion with respect to each other with relative velocity v, communicate information about physical observables using an information carrier with known velocity (Vc) which satisfies Vc > v. No other presumptions are made. For velocities satisfying v << Vc all the theory transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton laws. The theory is simple and is also beautiful due to its Golden Ratio symmetries. More importantly, the theory is scale independent with respect to the investigated physical systems' dimensions and the velocity of the information carrier, which renders it applicable to the dynamics of moving bodies in all inertial physical systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[507] **viXra:1511.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-16 10:48:35*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Hilbert spaces can store discrete quaternions and quaternionic continuums in the eigenspaces of operators that reside in these Hilbert spaces. The reverse bra-ket method can create natural parameter spaces from quaternionic number systems and can relate pairs of functions and their parameter spaces with eigenspaces and eigenvectors of corresponding operators that reside in non-separable Hilbert spaces. This also works for separable Hilbert spaces and the defining functions relate the separable Hilbert space with its non-separable companion.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[506] **viXra:1511.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-22 22:14:58*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 6 Figures

Present understanding of non-possibility of Quantum communication rests on analysis of possibility of signalling within a Quantum system. Is it possible to achieve signalling by a setup where the system is changed from one to another where the act of change serves as the signal and the change in the measurement probabilities would be detected and deciphered at the receiver end? A proposal is made where a variant of Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser experiment setup of Kim et al is used to achieve the same. The setup is also designed such that the speed of communication can be faster than light.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[505] **viXra:1511.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 08:07:56*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Casimir's celebrated result that the conducting plates of an unpowered rectangular cavity attract each other with a pressure inversely proportional to the fourth power of their separation entails an unphysical unbounded pressure as the plate separation goes to zero. An unphysical result isn't surprising in light of Casimir's unphysical assumption of perfectly conducting plates that zero out electric fields regardless of their frequency, which he sought to counteract via a physically foundationless discarding of the pressure between the cavity plates when they are sufficiently widely separated. Casimir himself, however, emphasized that real metal plates are transparent to sufficiently high electromagnetic frequencies, which makes removal of the frequency cutoff that he inserted unjustifiable at any stage of his calculation. Therefore his physically groundless discarding of the large-separation pressure isn't even needed, and when it is left out a constant attractive pressure between cavity plates exists when their separation is substantially larger than the cutoff wavelength. The intact cutoff furthermore implies zero pressure between cavity plates when their separation is zero, and also that Casimir's pressure is merely the subsidiary lowest-order correction term to the constant attractive pressure between cavity plates that is dominant when their separation substantially exceeds the cutoff wavelength.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[504] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-16 17:51:11*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's theorem presupposes that particles that are distanced from each other become spatially disconnected. Yet studies have never experimentally confirmed the possibility of spatial locality between distanced particles. Here, I show that Bell’s theorem cannot forbid an infinite set of local-deterministic relativity theories that violate Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies. This result in itself cannot guarantee a theory from this set of theories to successfully reproduce the predictions of quantum theory, but until the spatial locality loophole is satisfactorily closed, experiments should be decided the fate of such theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[503] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 19:58:49*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However Bell's theorem presupposes that particles which are distanced from each become spatially disconnected. However, the possibility of spatial-locality between distanced particles has never been confirmed experimentally. Here I show that an infinite set of local-deterministic relativity theories which violate Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies, cannot be forbidden by Bell's theorem. This in itself cannot guarantee that a theory from this set of theories will be successful in reproducing the predictions of quantum theory, but until the spatial-locality loophole is satisfactorily closed, the fate of such theories should be decided by experiments.
Keywords: Bell's Theorem, Entanglement, Relativity, Locality, Realism. Lorentz Invariance.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[502] **viXra:1511.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 09:23:55*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However the theorem presupposes that particles which are distanced from each become spatially disconnected. The possibility of spatial-locality between distanced particles has never been considered neither in Bell's theorem, nor in its experimental tests. Here I show that an infinite set of local and deterministic relativity theories cannot be forbidden by Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[501] **viXra:1511.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 18:42:16*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. Hence, I propose the justification of the projection postulate in the linguistic interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[500] **viXra:1511.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-18 07:41:36*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. Hence, I propose the justification of the projection postulate in the linguistic interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[499] **viXra:1511.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-19 16:06:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

In this article I explain the concepts behind the multifaceted Planck mass through each of
its facets, highlighting the relation of the Planck mass with the origins of the universe,
with the physics of white dwarfs and black holes, with the Heisenberg uncertainty
principle, and, finally, with the microscopic world of elementary particles. The paper also suggests a new definition for this “multicoloured” mass. In certain way the Planck
mass is a unit that unifies all of physics. Finally, three main conclusions are drawn: (a)
the cause of quantum entanglement, (b) the existence of the Pre-universe, and (c) the
possible existence of parallel universes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[498] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-12 05:45:57*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof presupposes that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body distancing from an observer's rest-frame will stretch rather than contract, could maintain spatial locality between particles, even when the particles are distanced enough to ensure that information about the outcomes of one particle is passed to the other particle faster than light. This implies that local and realistic theories which belong to the aforementioned Doppler-like theories could not be disqualified a priori by Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[497] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-11 13:30:43*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem cannot close the loophole of spatial locality
Abstract
Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof presupposes that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body which departs away from an observer's rest-frame will extend rather than contract, could maintain spatial locality between particles, even when the particles are distanced enough to ensure that information about the outcomes of one particle is passed to the other particle faster than light. This implies that local and realistic theories which belong to the aforementioned Doppler-like theories could not be disqualified a priori by Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[496] **viXra:1511.0082 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 21:02:09*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof presupposes that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically.
Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body which departs away from an observer's rest-frame will extend rather than contract, could maintain spatial locality between particles, even when the particles are distanced enough to ensure that information about the outcomes of one particle is passed to the other particle faster than light. This implies that local and realistic theories which belong to the aforementioned Doppler-like theories could not be disqualified a priori by Bell's Theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[495] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-19 13:14:14*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 116 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, this paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
The paper uses a special version of the generalized Stokes theorem in order to establish a dynamic model of the whole universe.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields. These sets represent two different space-progression models. Both sets of equations and both models appear to be equally valid.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[494] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-12 14:18:22*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 115 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, this paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
The paper uses a special version of the generalized Stokes theorem in order to establish a dynamic model of the whole universe.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields. These sets represent two different space-progression models. Both sets of equations and both models appear to be equally valid.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[493] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-09 04:33:38*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 113 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, this paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
The paper uses a special version of the generalized Stokes theorem in order to establish a dynamic model of the whole universe.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields. These sets represent two different space-progression models. Both sets of equations and both models appear to be equally valid.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[492] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-07 04:55:19*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 103 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, this paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields. These sets represent two different space-progression models. Both sets of equations and both models appear to be equally valid.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[491] **viXra:1511.0074 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 04:36:24*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods.
The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented.
Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions.
As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians.
In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, the paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936.
The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models.
As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields. These sets represent two different space-progression models. Both sets of equations and both models are equally valid.
Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[490] **viXra:1511.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-27 06:34:05*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures

Entanglement states are important for both basic research and applied research. However, these entanglement states usually relate to one or several of the particles' physical quantities. Here we theoretically show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form packaged entanglement states which encapsulate all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles. The particles in the packaged entanglement states are hermaphroditic and indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement states. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states. These packaged entanglement states could be important for particle physics and useful in matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[489] **viXra:1511.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-20 07:48:54*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 5 pages, 2 figures

Entanglement states are important for both basic research and applied research. However, these entanglement states usually relate to one or several of the particles' physical quantities. Here we theoretically show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form packaged entanglement states which encapsulate all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles. The particles in the packaged entanglement states are hermaphroditic and indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement states. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states. These packaged entanglement states could be important for particle physics and useful in matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[488] **viXra:1511.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-14 17:01:29*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The entanglement states of particles are now widely used in quantum communication. However, these entanglement states usually relate to only one of the particles' physical quantities.
Here we theoretically show that there exist packaged entanglement states which encapsulate all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles.
We first show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form the packaged entanglement states in which the particles are indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement state. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states.
These packaged entanglement states could be important for particle physics and useful in matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics