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Any replacements are listed further down

[643] **viXra:1411.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-22 12:05:36*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is obtained postulating that the ratio between the mass of the electron to the mass of the muon equals the ratio between the mass of the down quark to the mass of the charm quark. The values of the quark masses used in this formula fall into the experimental limits published by reference [1].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[642] **viXra:1411.0532 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-21 11:25:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Sometimes, you can picture something so vividly in your head that it feels as though you’re actually looking at what you’re imagining. But no matter how good your imagination is, information will flow through your brain in the opposite direction compared to when you actually perceive something. That’s the conclusion of a new study, published in NeuroImage, which looked at brain activity in participants when they were either watching clips or recalling them in their heads. [7]
The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[641] **viXra:1411.0482 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-20 13:00:20*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper is concerned with a formula for the mass of the neutron. This formula is based on
the mass of the proton and the masses of the three heavier leptons: the electron (generation 1), the muon (generation 2) and the tau particle (generation 3). The formula is, at least, accurate to 4 decimal places. Because the mass of the tau particle is poorly known, it is unknown whether this formula is physically correct or it is simply a numeric coincidence. Finally, the formula suggests a deep mass relationship between quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[640] **viXra:1411.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-18 12:10:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[639] **viXra:1411.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-16 09:15:03*

**Authors:** Jack B. Wenger

**Comments:** 128 Pages. Availible as html at www. quasiuniverse.com

Preface or abstract
Quasi universe changes very little. It is simply another perspective on the standard model and provides substance to field theory. The mathematics involved should be the similar, although this perspective may
provide some shortcuts and may even eliminate the need for “normalization”, perhaps not. I think that it makes many of the observed characteristics of cosmology, quantum mechanics and particle physics more intuitive. As far as I can tell it, agrees with observations as reported in the popular press and the texts that I have read. Others may find major flaws in its presentation. If that is the case, I am happy. At least they have read it.
The diagram, on the title page represents a cross section of the layers within a 5space hyper sphere. All spacial systems are treated as interfaces. Lines represent 4spaces, the areas between lines represent 5spaces and the point where the lines meet represents a 3space or volume.
The convention used within this document is that a 5space hyper sphere has a curved 4space (4
dimensional) surface that encloses a 5space hyper (5 dimensional) volume just as a 3space sphere has a 2space (2 dimensional) or planar surface that encloses a 3space (3 dimensional) volume.
The layers within the 5space sphere also have curved 4space surfaces or interfaces.
The yellow layer is a 5space fluid that is intruding between two others. The region at which the intruder separates the other two and where all layers meet is a volume or 3space.
The intruder rubs against the other two layers and creates shear which is expressed as an extremely fine texture of vortices. This is the primary field, an ocean of energy similar to the Higgs field in our universe.
These vortices create and follow wakes of distortion or torque at the interfaces between the intruder and the other two layers.
The shear vortices and their wakes are the ingredients that make up vastly larger objects and fields much in the way that grains of sand and cement make up the foundations of a building.
These large objects and fields mimic the particles and fields in our universe
The paradigm suggests some solutions to apparent problems of today’s physical theories.
It suggests a variable rate of expansion of the quasi universe and provides a source for its dark energy. It goes further in that it links dark energy, gravitation and universal expansion together.
It provides a structure for a three or four quark system that does not need fractional charge. Debris from collisions would imply the three 5D partitions created by the intrusion of Daleth and should be similar to the debris that implies the three quark model in our universe. Quasi universe allows the Daleth partition to have zero charge because it may contain two matter swarms of opposing charges and intrinsic spin.
These extra swarms may behave like our “sea quarks”.
The properties of photonic and matter swarms allow us to easily visualize these objects as “particle waves”.
There are no conflicts here. And it is easy to visualize shear vortices as the currency for the
conversion of matter to energy and vice versa. Their fluidity as swarms requires that their interactions to be described in terms of probabilities, complex interference and quasi quantum states
What follows below is rational for this scenario.
I am not under the illusion that I have everything right. These are simply suggestion as to how one might approach the paradigm.
The paper will be updated as I reevaluate some of the concepts

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[638] **viXra:1411.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-14 16:46:08*

**Authors:** Casper Spanggaard

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

A definition of G is derived using the product of two Planck point masses and a definition of hbar based on the speed of light in vacuum and geometry. The theoretical value of G is found to be 6.74981057667161 x 10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2 yielding a relative accuracy error of the CODATA 2010 G-value of -1.1255%. One experiment resulted in a value with a smaller relative accuracy error than the CODATA 2010 G-value of -0.5098%. Both rest and relativistic mass product equations are derived. These equations relate the relative spacetime spin frequency w_s, the relative orbital frequency w_o and (relativistic equation only) the Lorentz factor y describing relative linear speed of two bodies to the mass product. The Planck mass is a special case mass with w_sw_o = w_planck^2 = 1 s^-2. The theoretical value of the Planck mass was found to be 2.16039211144077 x 10^-8 kg. The relative accuracy error of the CODATA 2010 Planck mass value is 0.7461%. This error is attributed to use of the different definition of hbar. When derived from both hbar and G constants as well as the rest mass product equation, three kilogram unit definition candidates are all inconsistent. The candidate derived from the rest mass product equation is the only candidate that has equal second and meter exponents suggesting a kind of symmetry. This definition is considered the nominal kilogram unit definition. The other two candidates are considered to be artifacts of the hbar and G constants.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[637] **viXra:1411.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-13 09:10:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[636] **viXra:1411.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-11 23:08:51*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In "Quantum Spin and Local Reality" (QSLR) I show that Bell suppressed key physical phenomena to arrive at his inequality. As a result Bell's conclusions are incorrect — his model fails to match reality. Bell's defense is based on quantum mechanical eigenvalue equations with reference to Dirac. I briefly review some issues in the history of spin, and analyze the non-relativistic Stern-Gerlach eigenvalue equation and the relativistic Dirac equation, and show their relevance to Bell.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[635] **viXra:1411.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 06:07:56*

**Authors:** Peter A Jackson, John S Minkowski.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

'Quantum state reduction' (QSR) has no classical logic, and the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR) paradox remains unresolved. Many assume no classical explanation is possible. John Bell disagreed despite his 'theorem' and 'inequalities' (J Bell. 1987).i We identify an ontological construction and describe a classical mechanism (CM) predicting experimental data as Bell anticipated by employing different assumptions and a physical analogy of 'superposed' states. Electron spin-flip (reversing polarity and/or spin state) is found to reverse the local, not the distant, detector finding, suggesting that an assumption employed in 'weak measurement' analysis is false. Quantum spin is modelled as the small scale ('hyperfine') angular momentum of orbiting charges, each also rotating. The classical mechanism produces a violation of the Bell inequality from a cosine intermediate angular surface velocity distribution at each recursive scale of orbital angular momentum (OAM) diameter. The 'probability' of triggering one or the other detector emerges from the angular momentum exchanged on ('measurement') interaction. Standard quantum electro-dynamic (QED) provisions for field phase distribution square the amplitude to give Malus's Law and reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics (QM). Uncertainty reduces to higher orders. Modified 'quasi-classical' definitions are offered for familiar QM concepts and terms.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[634] **viXra:1411.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-10 02:32:47*

**Authors:** Omer Zvi Dickstein

**Comments:** 1 Page. Correction to paper 11411.0078v1

Correction to paper 11411.0078v1
The quantum eraser section in that paper is wrong and must be disreguarded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[633] **viXra:1411.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-09 11:32:07*

**Authors:** Omer Zvi Dickstein

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Superluminal communication is considered impossible by most physicists. However this statement must be examined over and over. This paper offers an experiment that attempts to examine this statement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[632] **viXra:1411.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-09 04:17:12*

**Authors:** I.I.Guseinov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Historically, the explanation of combined self-frictional (SF) unique field theory of nature (universe-stars, galaxies, …, and atomic-molecular systems) has been the scientific problem of the development of natural sciences. In this study, by the use of complete orthonormal sets of - self-frictional exponential type orbitals ( -SFETOs) and - self-frictional Laguerre polynomials ( -SFLPs) introduced by the author in standard convention, the combined quantum SF unique field theory of nature is suggested. The obtained formulas are expressed through the free noncharged spinless SF nucleus atoms as a function of distance from nucleus r for , , SF quantum number and scaling parameter . We note that the origin of stability of these systems is the quantum damping of SF forces produced by the SF particles. The periodic table for the suggested free noncharged spinless SF atomic elements is also presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[631] **viXra:1411.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 12:26:07*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This article applies a simplified calculation of effect Unruh based on the nature of the quantum oscillation of the vacuum. To obtain the formula for the temperature Unruh used the concept of energy level transitions of the quantum oscillator under the influence of inertial and gravitational fields

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[630] **viXra:1411.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-06 11:23:22*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukcic, Jever, Germany, 2104,

Today, quantum-mechanical phenomena especially such as non-locality refer to some mathematical foundations, especially to Bell’s inequality and the CHSH inequality. Experimental data, analyzed by the help of Bell’s inequality or the CHSH inequality favor a quantum mechanical description of nature, over local hidden variable theories (often referred to as local realism). In general, the use of mathematically inconsistent methods can imply a waste of money, time and effort on this account. The purpose of this publication is to refute Bell's original theorem and the CHSH-inequality by the proof that we can derive a logical contradiction out of Bell's inequalities. If you accept Bell's theorem or the CHSH-inequality as correct, you must accept too that +0 = +1, which is a logical contradiction. Bell's theorem and the CHSH-inequality are refuted.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[629] **viXra:1411.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-06 11:28:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In research published Dec. 19 in Science Express, the team reported the most precise measurement to date of the electron's shape, improving it by a factor of more than 10 and showing the particle to be rounder than predicted by some extensions of the Standard Model, including some versions of Supersymmetry. This theory posits new types of particles that help account, for example, for dark matter, a mysterious substance estimated to make up most of the universe. [5]
Electrons are elementary particles — indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state — the electron wave function — can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics.
Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron — the electron’s wave function — can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[628] **viXra:1411.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-04 13:02:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Electrons are elementary particles — indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state — the electron wave function — can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics.
Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron — the electron’s wave function — can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[627] **viXra:1411.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 15:23:57*

**Authors:** Casper Spanggaard

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

A deeper understanding of why the reduced Planck constant and Planck constant ("Planck constants") have the values they have as determined by experiments is developed. New definitions of the Planck constants are arrived at using the speed of light in vacuum and geometric considerations. The kilogram SI base unit is found to be derived from the SI base units second and meter. The values of the Planck constants determined by experiments and published by CODATA (2010) are found to both have a relative accuracy error of 0.3552%. A new kilogram definition is proposed and it is argued that since the kilogram will then be a derived SI unit, the kilogram should not be considered an SI base unit anymore.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[626] **viXra:1411.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 11:19:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A new way of thinking about consciousness is sweeping through science like wildfire. Now physicists are using it to formulate the problem of consciousness in concrete mathematical terms for the first time.
Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness.
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[625] **viXra:1410.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 06:51:41*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 8 Pages. original article

We derive by the Schwinger source theory method, the power spectrum
of photons, generated by charged particle moving within 2D sheet, with
index of refraction n. Some graphene-like structures, for instance graphene
with implanted ions, or, also 2D-glasses, are dielectric media, enabling the
experimental realization of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. The relation of
the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation to LED, where the 2D the additional dielectric
sheet is the integral part of LED, is discussed. It is not excluded that LEDs
with the 2D dielectric sheets will be the crucial components of detectors in
experimental particle physics.
1 Introduction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[624] **viXra:1410.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-31 03:12:31*

**Authors:** Zhen-Hu Ning

**Comments:** 12 pages

Different from the existing quantum threshold signature schemes, which are mainly based on the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, we construct the map from the multiple binary information to a quantum and support a new threshold signature scheme based on divisible quantum entanglement and p -unitary operator, which are well defined in the paper. Compared with the existing the schemes, the scheme involved fewer quanta. The scheme also meets the requirement of “Threshold Signature”, that is to say, only the number of participants is
not less than the threshold, they can execute the signature or the verification.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[623] **viXra:1410.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-30 08:21:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A leading candidate for room temperature superconductors is the copper compound cuprate, but no one knew how cuprates facilitated superconductivity...until some brave souls looked inside a black hole and broke out the string theory to explain how they work.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[622] **viXra:1410.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-29 18:21:32*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's equation of equivalence of mass and energy from the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[621] **viXra:1410.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-26 12:07:14*

**Authors:** D. Bowen, R. Mulkern

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This is a classically based rotating charge loop model of an electron which explains the electron’s de Broglie base frequency to an accuracy of over 6 decimal places. The model also predicts the magnetic moment of the electron to over 6 decimal places and helps explain the transition from a purely electromagnetic photon to a fermion state of matter. The model also explains how charge and spin are conserved in the transition. Finally, this concept might be extended to explain the Tau and Muon higher energy states of the electron as well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[620] **viXra:1410.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-19 18:52:13*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Superluminal communication without entangled particles based on well known principles

Entanglement studies dwell on multi-particle systems by definition – one particle, via a global symmetry/conservation law is correlated to another. It has often been wondered via EPR/Bell/Aspect/Dopfer-Zeilinger/Zbinden whether: first, a communication scheme is possible by entangled quantum state collapse and secondly, whether such a scheme would work over spacelike separations. This study follows on from the author’s earlier scheme of sending classical data over a Bell Channel, to now, using an unentangled source. The rationale for this is that beams from a three-way or n-way splitter (even with single photons) are in a sense “entangled” with themselves via the principle of conservation of probability: measurement of a photon in one beam causes a collapse of the wavefunction in all the others. The new communication scheme represents an improvement over using expensive and complicated entangled sources of poor purity, for common-or-garden coherent sources.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[619] **viXra:1410.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-18 15:42:36*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.
Isaac Newton
In mathematical world, the bridge from matter to intelligence requires extension and modification of quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[618] **viXra:1410.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-17 09:16:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Princeton University scientists have observed an exotic particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could yield powerful computers based on quantum mechanics.
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[617] **viXra:1410.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-13 11:27:36*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The task to be carried out should be clear from the title. The
reason for choosing wave mechanics as a starting point was the
estimation that the present state of quantum field theory is not
acceptable. There are two essential points in the construction
presented here: First of all the role of interaction is
adequately respected in it. Secondly a new attack is made to
solve the old problem of describing elementary particles by
stable wave packets, but this time with all means nowadays being
available. Perturbation theory can be applied to solve the field
equation. But the Feynman rules and the prescription for the
exchange terms cannot be deduced in quantum field theory,
whatever version of it is chosen. The result of the present
construction shall be called quantum wave theory. It reveals to
be both, a field theory and a quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[616] **viXra:1410.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 17:40:46*

**Authors:** J. Foukzon, A. A. Potapov, S. A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A number of experiments on trapped single ions or atoms have been performed in recent years [1,2,3,4]. Monitoring the intensity of scattered laser light off of such systems has shown abrupt changes that have been cited as evidence of "quantum jumps" between states of the scattered ion or atom . The existence of such jumps was required by Bohr in his theory of the atom. Bohr’s quantum jumps between atomic states [5] were the first form of quantum dynamics to be postulated. He assumed that an atom remained in an atomic eigenstate until it made an instantaneous jump to another state with the emission or absorption of a photon. Since these jumps do not appear to occur in solutions of the Schrodinger equation, something similar to Bohr's idea has been added as an extra postulate in modern quantum mechanics.
Stochastic quantum jump equations [6], [7],[8]were introduced as a tool for simulating the dynamics of a dissipative system with a large Hilbert space and their links with quantum measurement the or were also noted [9],[10],[11],[12],[13].This measurement interpretation is generally known as quantum trajectory theory [14].By adding filter cavities as part of the apparatus, even the quantum jumps in the dressed state model can be interpreted as approximations to measurement-induced jumps [15].
The question arises whether an explanation of these jumps can be found to result from an Colombeau solution [16]-[18] of the Schrödinger equation alone without additional postulates. We found exact quasi-classical asymptotic of the quantum averages.The physical interpretation of these asymptotics given below, shows that the answer is "yes."

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[615] **viXra:1410.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-11 01:45:19*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 1 Page. Occupy America

Occupy America

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[614] **viXra:1410.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-07 18:14:24*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this paper I shall develop the simplest relativistic model of the hydrogen atom. On one hand, this
model is incomplete since it neglects the spin of the electron. On the other hand, it incorporates
relativistic effects which are not taken into account by the atomic models of Bohr and Schrodinger.
In the light of this simple theory it would seem that the Rydberg constant, as far as the spectral lines
is concerned, is just the result of the non-relativistic approach used by Bohr and not a true
indication of the dependence of the spectral lines on this constant. This formulation emphasizes the
significance of the fine structure constant in the atomic structure of hydrogen and reveals two new
meanings of this constant and its connection with life. Additionally this investigation introduces
three new constants of Nature a) the minimum speed of light for the existence of hydrogen, c_H , b)
the energy-distance constant, ud , and c) the quantum energy-distance constant, uq.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[613] **viXra:1410.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-06 07:03:05*

**Authors:** Essam E Maroun

**Comments:** 8 Pages. emaroun85@hotmail.com

The conditions of the early universe are not@@ known with any measure of certainty — they are only theories. Therefore, using the assumption that the estimated total energy of the observable universe is conserved, we propose a different lower limit for the gravitational energy; we attempt to unify the subatomic and the large scale universe into one coherent whole; thus, showing that the cosmos behaves like a quantum object. It uses a form of Bohr’s quantization to strengthen the unification of quantum gravity. Our model is simple, yet comprehensive.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[612] **viXra:1410.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-04 10:53:00*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

De huidige natuurkunde staat op een tweesprong. Dit verhaal duidt aan waarom dit zo is. Ook wordt een alternatief model besproken. Dat model is volledig bedacht en is om die reden gebaseerd op een reeks betrouwbare grondbeginselen die vervolgens met wiskundige methoden uitgebreid worden. Uiteindelijk ontstaat een model dat in veel opzichten lijkt op wat we door het waarnemen van de realiteit denken te kennen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[611] **viXra:1410.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 19:50:42*

**Authors:** Richard Gauthier

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A charged photon and its light-speed helical trajectory form a surprising new solution to the relativistic electron's energy-momentum equation E ^2 = p ^2 c ^2 + m^ 2 c ^4 . This charged photon is a new model for the electron, and quantitatively resembles the light-speed electron described by Dirac. His relativistic quantum mechanical equation for the electron was derived from the above energy-momentum equation. While the electron's energy is E = gamma mc^ 2 , the charged photon's energy is E = gamma mc ^2 = hf . The electron's relativistic momentum p = gamma mv is the longitudinal component of the charged photon's helically circulating momentum p total = gamma mc . At any electron speed, the charged photon has an internally circulating transverse momentum p t = mc , which at the helical radius Ro = L Compton / 4pi = 1.93 x 10^-13 m for a resting electron produces the z -component hbar/ 2 of the electron's spin. The right and left turning directions of the charged photon's helical trajectory correspond to a spin up (s z = +hbar / 2) and spin down (s z = -hbar / 2) electron. The negative and positive possible charges of the charged photon correspond to the electron and the positron. The circulating charged photon at the helical radius Ro produces one-half of the electron's pre-QED magnetic moment µ = µ Bohr predicted by the Dirac equation. There is a relativistic variation with the electron's speed v of the charged photon's helical radius R = Ro / (gamma)^ 2 and its helical pitch P = (2pi v / gamma c)Ro . The pitch has a maximum value P max = pi Ro when the electron's speed is v = c / sqrt(2) . The decreasing charged photon's helical radius R = R o / gamma^2 with the electron's increasing speed v quantitatively explains why the electron appears so small (< 10 ^-18 m) in high-energy electron scattering experiments, even though the characteristic radius of the circulating charged photon for a resting electron is Ro .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[610] **viXra:1410.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-01 08:54:24*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Comments Welcome.

In an earlier reading, we argued from a physical and number theoretic standpoint that an upper bound speed limit such as the speed of light implies the existence of a lower limit to the duration of events in the Universe. Consequently, this leads to a minimum characteristic length separation for events in the Universe. Herein, we argue that matter and energy that is in compliance with and in observance of the upper bound light speed limit is governed by the lower limiting uncertainty principle of Professor Werner Heisenberg. If there is a lower limiting uncertainty principle, we ask the natural and logical question 'What would an upper bound uncertainty principle mean?' We come to the interesting conclusion that an upper bound uncertainty principle must apply to particles that travel at speeds, equal to, or greater than the speed of light. Further, we argue that consequently, a tachyon must exist in a permanent state of confinement and must be intrinsically and inherently unstable in which event it oscillates between different states. These two requirements place quarks in a position to be good candidates for tachyons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[609] **viXra:1409.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 09:53:18*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electromagnetic waves are folds that propagate in a polarized vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[608] **viXra:1409.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 03:37:57*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Comments Welcome.

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is built on the original Dirac equation, an equation that exhibits perfect symmetry in that it is symmetric under charge conjugation (C), space (P) and time (T) reversal and any combination of these discrete symmetries. We demonstrate herein that the proposed Lorentz invariant Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations} (CSTD-Equations), while they obey (CPT) and PT-Symmetries, these equations readily violate C, P, T, CP and CT-Symmetries. Realizing this violation, namely the C-Violation, we take this golden opportunity to suggest that the Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations may help in solving the long standing riddle and mystery of the preponderance of matter over antimatter. We come to the tentative conclusion that if these CSTD-Equations are to explain the preponderance of matter over antimatter, then, photons are to be thought of as described by the flat version of this set of equations, while ordinary matter is to be explained by the positive and negatively curved spacetime versions of this same set of equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[607] **viXra:1409.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-25 08:16:29*

**Authors:** I.I. Guseinov

**Comments:** Pages.

By the use of condition of relativistic covariance, Dirac group theory, Clifford algebra and complete orthonormal sets of -self-frictional exponential type orbitals -SFETOs)
introduced by the author in standard convention, the Hartree-Fock (HF) theory is suggested
for multideterminantal single configuration states with any number of open shells of atoms
and molecules constructed from the Standard Model-Fermi (SM-F) particles with
and e =0 defined in the Standard Model of particle physics. It is shown that the
origin of stability of these systems is the quantum damping or self-frictional forces produced
by the SM-F particle itself. As an application, we have presented the periodic table for the
SM-F atomic elements using Pauli principle of spinless noncharged identical SM-F particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[606] **viXra:1409.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 03:57:01*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Superluminal communication achievable by comparison of expected interferometry patterns and found interferometry patterns

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[605] **viXra:1409.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-22 22:22:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article surprised the author because there was no intention of addressing the theories of quarks, the nuclear weak force or the Higgs field at first. The article eventually led to pointing a way out of those Nobel Prize winning theories, though (in 1969, 1979 and 2013 respectively). And that way out gives me a deep feeling of satisfaction. The universe is awash with the peculiar subatomic particles called neutrinos. They have no electrical charge, are nearly massless (at least a million times as light as an electron), and trillions of these ghostly particles sail right through stars, planets, you, and me every second. They don't interact with the strong force which binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei, nor do they interact with electromagnetic fields. To give an idea of how unreactive they are - in 2013, physicists in the USA began shooting neutrinos on a 503-mile trip from Fermilab (the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) west of Chicago to a detector in Minnesota. 150 trillion neutrinos leave Fermilab each second but only about ten interact with the detector in a whole week. Speaking of their near masslessness, physicists already know the Standard Model of particle physics (the theory of how particles and forces interact) is incomplete because it incorrectly predicts neutrinos possess no mass). Problems addressed in this article include 1) each particle is born as one of 3 flavors, or types - electron neutrino, muon neutrino or tau neutrino - but they can change flavor in a few thousandths of a second as they travel, 2) as far as scientists can tell, each neutrino is a combination of those 3 masses but they don't know which of the mixes is heaviest and which is lightest (this is the "mass ordering" problem), 3) the fundamental property of quantum systems called entanglement which means two quantum systems can become correlated in such a way that action on one system has implications for the outcome of a measurement on the other, and 4) single and double beta decay which involves neutron(s) decaying into proton(s) and emitting electron(s) plus antineutrino(s) in which, in double decay, the reaction is neutrinoless in some instances since an antineutrino is absorbed by a neutron as a neutrino (suggesting a neutrino is its own antiparticle).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[604] **viXra:1409.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 08:10:18*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Superluminal communication using interferometry patterns and collapse of wave fucntions, using no entangled photons as these create 'noise'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[603] **viXra:1409.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 04:08:21*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four page proposal

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K., 2014) leads an insight into the nature of ‘light’; that: the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ has to be at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get coherently added a ‘particle’ gets formed. Now, in this paper It is further shown that ‘wavelengths’ and ‘frequencies’ of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. And the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave. This study leads to an interesting new possibility that: it should be possible to emulate photons at microwave frequencies; and make deterministic predictions; by establishing perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[602] **viXra:1409.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-19 07:04:35*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Depending on the outcome of the triphoton experiment now underway, it is possible that the new local realistic Markov
Random Field (MRF) models will be the only models now available to correctly predict both that experiment and Bell’s
Theorem experiments. The MRF models represent the experiments as graphs of discrete events over space-time. This
paper extends the MRF approach to continuous time, by defining a new class of realistic model, the stochastic path
model, and showing how it can be applied to ideal polaroid type polarizers in such experiments. The final section
discusses possibilities for future research, ranging from uses in other experiments or novel quantum communication
systems, to extensions involving stochastic paths in the space of functions over continuous space. As part of this, it
derives a new Boltzmann-like density operator over Fock space, which predicts the emergent statistical equilibria of
nonlinear Hamiltonian field theories, based on our previous work extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping from the
case of classical systems described by a complex state variable α to the case of classical continuous fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[601] **viXra:1409.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 14:58:38*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Most physicists claim no superluminal communication between two seperate points in space is possible in any manner. This claim is based on the no communication theory and on special relativity stating all communication methods are subluminal. This paper discusses theoretical 'holes' in no communication theorem and proposes an experiment that may pass the no communication obstacle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[600] **viXra:1409.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 15:02:54*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Appendix A, appendix to the paper "Non spin based quantum information transmission methods"

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[599] **viXra:1409.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-14 06:57:50*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A four page letter

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference experiments” (Tank, H. K. http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf) leads to new light about the true nature of ‘light’; that real wavelengths and frequencies of ‘light’ are not what we have been thinking so far; rather, they are the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rates’ of repetitions ‘particles’ in space and time. The actual frequencies and wavelengths of the ‘wave’ are likely to be much higher, possibly close to the frequency of the electron, of the order of 10^22 cycles/second. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get constructively added a ‘particle’ gets formed. The wavelength and frequency of the actual wave, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of consecutive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. So far we have been taking the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rates’ of formation of ‘particles’ as the wavelength and frequencies of light, which may not correct, in the light of this new finding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[598] **viXra:1409.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 10:10:30*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages. vitalik.kayukov@mail.ru

This article applies the holographic principle to obtain the basic provisions
information model of quantum mechanics and is an entirely new interpretation of wave
functions via the Feynman integral in the ways of extreme informational entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[597] **viXra:1409.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-08 16:17:24*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper is concerned with my second theory on massive photons. The main difference between these two theories is the way kinetic energy and total energy are defined. Because it is difficult to decide which theory is the correct one without solid experimental evidence to discard the incorrect one, we must take both theories into account for the time being.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[596] **viXra:1409.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 16:58:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the theory on the rest mass of the photon. The equations for
the energy of the photon are developed. The theory predicts an equation for the “massive” photoelectric effect similar to the Einstein's original photoelectric effect. This new theory predicts that the value of the black hole's cutoff radius is a function of the frequency of the photons generated inside the black hole. This means that the black hole's event horizon is not a spherical surface but a three-dimensional shell. Because this formulation is not a gravity theory but a theory on massive photons, it cannot predict
exactly the same Schwarzchild radius as general relativity. Despite of not being a gravity theory, this theory predicts that, should the equivalent mass of the photon equal its rest mass, the black hole cutoff radius would be equal to the Schwarzchild radius. I am convinced that the full potential of this formulation will be shown when it is used in conjunction with the Proca equations, the standard model and quantum gravity theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[595] **viXra:1409.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 09:46:47*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted for Bell Labs Prize Competition July 11, 2014

It is well known that electron spin is quantized, and is measured to be either spin up or spin down in a magnetic field, as was first demonstrated in the classic Stern-Gerlach experiment almost 100 years ago. However, it is also believed that a quantum spin may be indeterminate until it is measured, being in a quantum superposition of the two quantum states. On the contrary, I propose (based on a locally realistic spin-quantized picture of quantum waves) that an electron quantum state is always either spin up or spin down, but is never in a superposition of the two. This concept should be directly testable using a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment, similar to that presented in standard quantum textbooks, but apparently never carried out experimentally. This experiment should be straightforward using modern atomic beam laboratory equipment. If successful, this could lead to a serious review of quantum foundations, as well as a new set of practical applications. In particular, a binary storage or logic element based on quantum spin should continue to work down to the atomic scale. This should enable computer memories with orders of magnitude greater density than those based on conventional magnetic memories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[594] **viXra:1409.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 06:57:14*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

If the duration of the emission, the duration of the passage and the duration of the absorption of photons depend on the progression value, then the consequence of the observation of red-shift for old photons will be that space is compressing rather than expanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[593] **viXra:1409.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 08:40:33*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to Applied Superconductivity Conference, Aug. 11, 2014

In recent years, quantum computing has promised a revolution in computing performance, based on massive parallelism enabled by many entangled qubits. Josephson junction integrated circuits have emerged as the key technology to implement such a universal digital quantum computer. Indeed, prior experiments have demonstrated simple Josephson qubit configurations with quantized energy levels and long coherence times, which are a necessary prerequisite for a practical quantum computer. However, these quantized states do not directly prove the presence of entanglement or macroscopic superposition, which are essential for the superior speed of such a digital quantum computer. On the contrary, an alternative realistic foundation for quantum mechanics has recently been proposed, with coherent transitions between quantized states, but without entanglement. A new experiment is proposed that may test whether superconducting quantum circuits can exhibit quantized states without macroscopic entanglement or superposition. Specifically, a flux qubit (a bi-stable SQUID) may be configured with a resonant input line for excitation and a single-flux quantum output line for simultaneous direct measurement of quantized energy and flux states, which are incompatible measurements in standard quantum theory. Such an observation could undermine the assumptions of superposition and entanglement, bringing into question the foundation and the ultimate performance of a universal digital quantum computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[592] **viXra:1408.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 21:49:20*

**Authors:** Hardev Singh Virk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper is published in www.researchgate.net. Comments are welcome.

The origin of quantum mechanics goes back to the mid-1920s.It was formulated first as matrix mechanics by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan; then as wave mechanics by Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger; and later on asquantum statistics of subatomic particles by Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. Combining relativistic mechanics with quantum mechanics, Dirac formulated his relativistic quantum mechanics during 1930s. Uncertainty Principle is thecornerstone of Quantum Physics. The role of randomness in microscopic physical processes shatters the myth that the universe is deterministic. Quantum world is unpredictable in the classical sense and demolishes the idea of an objective universe. The Copenhagen interpretation remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists.Quantum theories support cosmic spirit pervading the cosmos and inter – relationship of individuals in the world society. Quantum philosophy is holistic and is going to revolutionize our world-view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[591] **viXra:1408.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 08:29:23*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 269 Pages.

This is a field theory model. It is a functional holistic model designed for hands-on inventors and alternative thinkers. It provides streamlined thinkers with a common sense view of quantum physics and cosmology that can be visualized without the necessity of mathematics. As a new model, the Ultra-Space Field Theory has removed historical flaws traditionally ignored by the supporters of the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[590] **viXra:1408.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 03:12:23*

**Authors:** Oliver Consa

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A semiclassical model of the electron is presented based on the Principle of Helical Motion (“A free electron always moves at the speed of light following a helical motion, with a constant radius, and with the direction of movement perpendicular to the rotation plane”). This model interprets the Zitterbewegung as a real motion that causes rotation of the electron spin and its magnetic moment. Based on this model, the quantum magnetic flux and quantum Hall resistance are obtained as parameters of the electron and special relativity theory is derived from the helical motion of the electron. Finally, a fix is proposed for the De Broglie’s wavelength that questions the very validity of the Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[589] **viXra:1408.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 04:09:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[588] **viXra:1408.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-25 01:51:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[587] **viXra:1408.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 09:55:42*

**Authors:** Gil Raviv

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In contrast to the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation, there is no true two-body formulation using the relativistic Dirac equation for the case of a hydrogenlike atom. Instead, the relativistic Dirac equation treats the atom as a single particle in a Coulomb field asserted by a static nucleus of infinite mass located at its core, which fails to take into account the nuclear mass and recoil. A new simple and elegant approach is presented that allows for the formulation of a true two-body relativistic equation, as well as for the reduction of the formula into an equivalent one-body equation with a readily known solution.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[586] **viXra:1408.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 02:56:46*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new space-time structure that is the three-dimensional time structure by comparison to the three-dimensional space. These two space-time structures are completely symmetrical. We improve the Maxwell equations in the new space-time structure by adding a new set of equations. The new set of equations has the space-time symmetrical structure by comparison to the old one. We can also obtain another type of wave equation by solving the hyper-symmetric Maxwell equations. The new wave equation contains both time and space coordinates. The general solution of this new wave equation can be divided into two parts. One part corresponds to the free particles, which means the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon. The amplitude of the localized electromagnetic wave will decrease exponentially when the distance from the mass center increasing. Another part of the general solution corresponds to the bound state of the particles. The equation of the localized electromagnetic wave in bound state is consistent with the Schrödinger’s equation. So we can draw the conclusion that the Schrödinger’s equation is just a special case of the localized electromagnetic wave equation. We can get the new interpretation of the wave function in quantum mechanics based on these analyses. The new interpretation shows that the essence of the wave function in quantum theory is the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon. So we can solve the problem of the collapse of the wave function based on the new interpretation. In order to proof the correctness of the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon, we apply it to solve the problem of Helium atom’s ground state energy. The theoretic calculation results are very satisfactory. Our calculation shows that the theoretic value of Helium atom’s ground state energy is -2.9033864868188(69)a.u., which is very close to the experiment results.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[585] **viXra:1408.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 05:06:15*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes " are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)

Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes "
are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[584] **viXra:1408.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 07:15:07*

**Authors:** I.I.Guseinov

**Comments:** 26 pages, 6 tables

Using condition of relativistic covariance, group theory and Clifford algebra the -component Lorentz invariance generalized relativistic wave equation for a particle with arbitrary mass and spin is suggested, where and It is shown that the charged scalar ( ) and noncharged scalar ( ) particles with are described by two-component relativistic equations. Accordingly, the noncharged scalar fermi particles ( ) can be used as an elementary particle of the Standard Model of particle physics. In the case of arbitrary integral spin , the relativistic equation for leads to the equation of massless boson particles. For the solution of presented in this work generalized relativistic equation in the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation, the 2(2s+1)-component orthogonal basis sets of spinor functions for the arbitrary mass and spin are suggested in position, momentum and four-dimensional spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[583] **viXra:1408.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-14 19:22:15*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the discovery of a new theoretical equation for the mass of the proton. Since the equation depends, among other things, on the gravitational constant G, I found that the formula produces the correct value of the proton mass if and only if we use the latest experimental limits (due to the experimental error of 150 ppm) for this constant. The latest and most accurate value of G obtained so far comes from atomic interferometry. This new and revolutionary experimental method was devised by an Italian team of scientists and the results were published earlier this year in Nature. Due to the previous lack of accuracy and large discrepancies in the measurement of G, this experimental result is a scientific breakthrough that allow us and shall allow us to confirm, among other things, the validity of equations for the mass of particles, the latest fundamental particle formulations and cosmological theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[582] **viXra:1408.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 12:21:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[581] **viXra:1408.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-10 18:30:59*

**Authors:** Justin Lee

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Justifying a local hidden variable theory requires an explanation of Bell's inequality violation. Ever since Bell derived the inequality to test the classical prediction on the correlation of two spin-1/2 particles, many experiments have observed the violation, and thus concluded against the local realism, while validating the non-locality of quantum entanglement. Still, many scientists remain unconvinced of quantum entanglement because the experiments have loopholes that could potentially allow a local realistic explanation. Upholding the local realism, this paper introduces how a precession of the spin would produce a cosine-like correlation function, and furthermore how it would also contribute to a fair sampling loophole. Simulating the precession in Monte Carlo method reveals that it can explain the observed Bell's violation using only classical mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[580] **viXra:1408.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-09 13:40:18*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Possible solution of the Schrödinger’s cat paradox is considered

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[579] **viXra:1408.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-07 17:37:10*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is concerned with a generalization of the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle which I developed in 2012 and that I called the universal uncertainty principle. This principle takes into account a) the quantized nature of space and b) the quantum fluctuations of the empty space. I have applied the simplified version of this principle to two different phenomena: a) black holes; where I explain both the temperature and the entropy of these cosmic objects and b) fundamental particles; where I calculated the approximate size of the electron. I have already published these two calculations in previous online articles so they are not included here. In this paper I propose a general form of the universal uncertainty principle which, unlike the simplified version, also includes the quantum fluctuations of the vacuum. All the laws of physics which are affected by this principle will need to be re-written as I have shown in the case of the temperature for the black hole.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[578] **viXra:1408.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 13:35:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the numeric formulas for the Higgs boson mass. The formulas presented here are in agreement with the with the ATLAS detector's results obtained in 2014.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[577] **viXra:1408.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-05 11:51:53*

**Authors:** Mark Timothy Sheldrick

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is possible to use two particles (A and B) with entangled properties to transmit information at faster than light speeds. This can be done, not by trying to modulate the results of how particle A is measured, but by modulating whether particle A is measured or not measured. The effect of this modulating method is to place particle B in either a single value (but arbitrary) state or leave it in a superposition of states.
It is then possible for the reciever of particle B to distinguish between these two states by the use of an appropriately designed interferometer. Such a device can be designed to produce an interference pattern only when particle B is in a superposition of values and a straight simple image when particle B has a single (arbitrary) defined value.
Under the Copenhagen interpretation and existing experimental results, this method will produce a way of signalling fater than light. It will require the use of multiple entangled pairs of particles to effectively transmit a single bit of information.
Under the Multi-Worlds Interpretation, it will not be so easy to communicate faster than light by this mechanism, as detector B will be detecting photon B as a superposition of values in both cases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[328] **viXra:1411.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-05 03:55:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Electrons are elementary particles — indivisible, unbreakable. But new research suggests the electron's quantum state — the electron wave function — can be separated into many parts. That has some strange implications for the theory of quantum mechanics. Experiments led by Humphrey Maris, professor of physics at Brown, suggest that the quantum state of an electron — the electron’s wave function — can be shattered into pieces and those pieces can be trapped in tiny bubbles of liquid helium. To be clear, the researchers are not saying that the electron can be broken apart. Electrons are elementary particles, indivisible and unbreakable. But what the researchers are saying is in some ways more bizarre. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[327] **viXra:1410.0199 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-18 16:42:19*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc 2 , from the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Thus, this paper unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of
the quantum mechanical nature of the above famous Einstein's formula.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[326] **viXra:1410.0113 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-26 10:25:29*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. FLAWED BUT MAY BE ON THE WAY TO SOMETHING...

THIS PAPER WILL BE WITHDRAWN OR LEFT UP TO SHOW THE PROCESS OF EVOLUTION OF THOUGHT. Entanglement studies dwell on multi-particle systems by definition – one particle, via a global symmetry/conservation law is correlated to another. It has often been wondered via EPR/Bell/Aspect/Dopfer-Zeilinger/Zbinden whether: first, a communication scheme is possible by entangled quantum state collapse and secondly, whether such a scheme would work over spacelike separations. This study follows on from the author’s earlier scheme of sending classical data over a Bell Channel, to now, using an unentangled source. The rationale for this is that beams from a three-way or n-way splitter (even with single photons) are in a sense “entangled” with themselves via the principle of conservation of probability: measurement of a photon in one beam causes a collapse of the wavefunction in all the others. The new communication scheme represents an improvement over using expensive and complicated entangled sources of poor purity, for common-or-garden coherent sources.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[325] **viXra:1410.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-01 10:21:33*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A. A. Potapov, S. A.Podosenov

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Exact quasi-classical asymptotic beyond WKB-Theory and beyond Maslov canonical operator to the Colombeau solutions of the n-dimensional Schrodinger equation is presented. Quantum jumps nature is considered successfully. We pointed out that an explanation of quantum jumps can be found to result from Colombeau solutions of the Schrödinger equation alone without additional postulates.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[324] **viXra:1410.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-11 19:50:05*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 1 Page. Occupy America, updated draft

Occupy America

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[323] **viXra:1410.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-04 16:03:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this paper I shall develop the simplest relativistic model of the hydrogen atom. On one hand, this model is incomplete since it neglects the spin of the electron. On the other hand, it incorporates relativistic effects which are not taken into account by the atomic models of Bohr and Schrodinger. In the light of this simple theory it would seem that the Rydberg constant, as far as the spectral lines is concerned, is just the result of the non-relativistic approach used by Bohr and not a true indication of the dependence of the spectral lines on this constant. This formulation emphasizes the significance of the fine-structure constant in the atomic structure of hydrogen and reveals two new meanings of this constant and its connection with life. Additionally this investigation introduces three new constants of Nature a) the minimum speed of light for the existence of hydrogen, cH , b) the energy-distance constant, ud , and c) the quantum energy-distance constant, uq .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[322] **viXra:1410.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-05 03:30:27*

**Authors:** Richard Gauthier

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Comments welcome

A charged photon and its light-speed helical trajectory form a surprising new solution to the relativistic electron's energy-momentum equation E^2 = p^2 c^2 + m^2 c^4. This charged photon is a new model for the electron, and quantitatively resembles the light-speed electron described by Dirac. His relativistic quantum mechanical equation for the electron was derived from the above energy-momentum equation. While the electron's energy is E = gamma mc^2, the charged photon's energy is E = gamma mc^2=hf . The electron's relativistic momentum p = gamma mv is the longitudinal component of the charged photon's helically circulating momentum p total = gamma mc . At any electron speed, the charged photon has an internally circulating transverse momentum p trans = mc , which at the helical radius Ro = L Compton/4pi =1.93 x 10^-13 m for a resting electron produces the z -component hbar/2 of the electron's spin. The right and left turning directions of the charged photon's helical trajectory correspond to a spin up (sz = +hbar/2) and spin down (sz = -hbar/2) electron. The negative and positive possible charges of the charged photon correspond to the electron and the positron. The circulating charged photon at the helical radius Ro produces one-half of the electron's pre-QED magnetic moment µ = µ Bohr predicted by the Dirac equation. There is a relativistic variation with the electron's speed v of the charged photon's helical radius R = Ro / (gamma)^2 and its helical pitch P = (2pi v/gamma c) Ro . The pitch has a maximum value P max = pi Ro when the electron's speed is v = c/sqrt(2) . The decreasing charged photon's helical radius R = Ro/gamma^2 with the electron's increasing speed v quantitatively explains why the electron appears so small (<10^-18 m) in high-energy electron scattering experiments, even though the characteristic radius of the circulating charged photon for a resting electron is Ro .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[321] **viXra:1409.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-22 04:22:46*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four page proposal

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K., http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf 2014) leads to an insight into the nature of ‘light’; that: the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ has to be at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get coherently added a ‘particle’ gets formed. Now, in this paper it is further shown that ‘wavelengths’ and ‘frequencies’ of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. And the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave. This study leads to an interesting new possibility that: it should be possible to emulate photons at microwave frequencies; and make deterministic predictions; by establishing perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[320] **viXra:1409.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-19 09:35:56*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Depending on the outcome of the triphoton experiment now underway, it is possible that the new local realistic Markov
Random Field (MRF) models will be the only models now available to correctly predict both that experiment and Bell’s
Theorem experiments. The MRF models represent the experiments as graphs of discrete events over space-time. This
paper extends the MRF approach to continuous time, by defining a new class of realistic model, the stochastic path
model, and showing how it can be applied to ideal polaroid type polarizers in such experiments. The final section
discusses possibilities for future research, ranging from uses in other experiments or novel quantum communication
systems, to extensions involving stochastic paths in the space of functions over continuous space. As part of this, it
derives a new Boltzmann-like density operator over Fock space, which predicts the emergent statistical equilibria of
nonlinear Hamiltonian field theories, based on our previous work extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping from the
case of classical systems described by a complex state variable α to the case of classical continuous fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[319] **viXra:1409.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 13:32:05*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Most physicists claim no superluminal communication between two seperate points in space is possible in any manner. This claim is based on the no communication theory and on special relativity stating all communication methods are subluminal. This paper discusses theoretical 'holes' in no communication theorem and proposes an experiment that may check the validity of the no-communication theorem under special conditions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[318] **viXra:1409.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 09:08:55*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A four page letter

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for thewave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K. http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf) leads to new light about the true nature of ‘light’; that: (i) either the real wavelengths and frequencies of the ‘waves’ of ‘light’ are not what we have been thinking so far; or (ii) the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get constructively added a ‘particle’ gets formed. The wavelengths and frequencies of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. Therefore, (i) if the wavelength of the wave measured by us is ‘distance’ between two successive formations of ‘particles’ then the frequency of the actual wave may be much higher; or (ii) if the wavelength measured by us is wavelength of the actual wave, then the formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ may be at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave.. If we can establish perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’, then it may be possible to make deterministic prediction of detection of ‘photons’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[317] **viXra:1409.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-15 02:56:11*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A brief letter

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K. http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf) leads to new light about the true nature of ‘light’; that real wavelengths and frequencies of the ‘waves’ of ‘light’ are not what we have been thinking so far; rather, they are the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rates’ of repetitions of ‘particles’ in space and time. The actual frequencies and wavelengths of the ‘wave’ are likely to be much higher, possibly close to the frequency of the electron, of the order of 10^22 cycles/second. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get constructively added a ‘particle’ gets formed. The wavelength and frequency of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. So far we have been taking the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rates’ of formation of ‘particles’ as the wavelength and frequencies of light, which may not correct, in the light of this new finding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[316] **viXra:1409.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-08 06:07:09*

**Authors:** Marc Meurens

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As measured in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, the intra-temporal decrease of the gravitation constant G reveals the quantum relativity according to which the time unit represents the local density of quantum energy causing the expansion as well as the gravitation of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[315] **viXra:1409.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 04:52:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

If the duration of the emission, the duration of the passage and the duration of the absorption of photons depend on the progression value, then the consequence of the observation of red-shift for old photons will be that space is compressing rather than expanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[314] **viXra:1408.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-23 12:23:35*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. International Journal of Recent advances in Physics (IJRAP) Vol.3, No.3, August 2014

Possible solution of the Schrödinger's cat paradox is considered.We pointed out that: the collapsed
state of the cat always shows definite and predictable measurement outcomes even if Schrödinger's cat consists of a superposition: |cat>=a|live cat>+b|death cat>
http://wireilla.com/physics/ijrap/papers/3314ijrap02.pdf

**Category:** Quantum Physics