Quantum Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2905] viXra:1812.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 01:39:33

A Geometric Interpretation of Schrödinger’s Wave Equation

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages excludes title page and references

Following a series of papers on a geometric interpretation of the wavefunction, this paper offers a geometric interpretation of the wave equation itself. It interprets Schrödinger’s equation as a differential equation for elliptical orbitals. As such, it complements a revised Rutherford-Bohr model which is also based on the assumption that – if electron orbitals would be actual orbitals – they would be elliptical rather than circular. Keywords: Bohr model, Schrödinger’s equation, rest matter oscillation, electron orbitals, wavefunction interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2904] viXra:1812.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 09:04:59

First Optical Microchip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 89 Pages.

The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2903] viXra:1812.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 10:44:07

Relation Between Mass & Time and Electromagnetic Wave & Distance

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

If distance and time are related somehow then they encompass the relation between electromagnetic waves and masses that being the mass is related to time and electromagnetic waves are related to distance
Category: Quantum Physics

[2902] viXra:1812.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 11:08:39

Gravity Effect on Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

The electromagnetic waves get less oscillations and more wavelength when they undergo the effect of gravitation thus losing energy
Category: Quantum Physics

[2901] viXra:1812.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 05:50:45

光速极限的秘密

Authors: Liu Ran
Comments: 4 Pages.

光速唯一定理:宇宙空间由离散的普朗克空间组成,粒子只能在一个普朗克时间从一个普朗克空间跳到另一个普朗克空间,速度就是光速。光速是宇宙中唯一的运动速度,其它亚光速是光速和普朗克时间组合而生成的,没有超光速的组合。所有粒子要么以光速运动,要么以零速静止。
Category: Quantum Physics

[2900] viXra:1812.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 07:29:14

Atoms Stand for High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The Fermi-Hubbard model, which is believed to explain the basis for high-temperature superconductivity, is extremely simple to describe, and yet has so far proven impossible to solve, according to Zwierlein. [38] Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have carried out high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering and have found that high uniaxial pressure induces a long-range charge order competing with superconductivity. [37] Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2899] viXra:1812.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 08:24:17

Spin-Based Memory Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 87 Pages.

A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2898] viXra:1812.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 08:51:21

Nonlinearity for Wireless Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

The nonlinear characteristics of metamaterials have displayed emerging potentials for frequency conversions owing to the induced local fields around the resonators. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2897] viXra:1812.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 03:49:03

Molecules with Extreme X-Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2896] viXra:1812.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 04:11:16

Spin Orbit Coupling in Silicon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2895] viXra:1812.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 04:47:46

Blind Spot in Atomic Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 90 Pages.

Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy—a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2894] viXra:1812.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 05:15:25

Holographic Display and Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2893] viXra:1812.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 07:25:54

Unexplored Territory in Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2892] viXra:1812.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 07:47:56

Competing States in High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have carried out high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering and have found that high uniaxial pressure induces a long-range charge order competing with superconductivity. [37] Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2891] viXra:1812.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 08:27:36

Interaction Between Two Qubits Using Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2890] viXra:1812.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 19:14:46

A Hybrid Model of Matter and Antimatter

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

an attempt to reconcile two seemingly incompatible concepts: General Relativity and the Standard Model via temporal elasticity
Category: Quantum Physics

[2889] viXra:1812.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 04:07:13

Ferent Equation of the Universe

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 263 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Ferent equation of the Universe:” Adrian Ferent Today ordinary Matter, which includes atoms, stars, galaxies… accounts for only 15% of the contents of the Universe and 85% is Dark Matter. This means Dark Matter accounts for most of the matter in the Universe. Dark Matter neither emits nor absorbs electromagnetic radiation. Ordinary Matter is composed of elementary particles. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent I consider M, the number of Dark Matter elementary particles, in the Universe. M is the number of Dark Matter elementary particles in Dark Matter and Matter in the Universe. The Universe as a quantum system! The time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as a quantum system, made of Matter, N elementary particles, and Dark Matter, M elementary particles, evolving in time. 157. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation of the Universe:
Category: Quantum Physics

[2888] viXra:1812.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 03:00:05

Ferent Equation for N Elementary Particles

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 261 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent A quantum system involves the wave function. The wave function is the most complete description that can be given of a quantum system. The evolution of N elementary particles quantum system is governed through the Ferent equation for N elementary particles. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity, Gravitation gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent That is why: The Higgs mechanism doesn't explains the source of any masses, the Higgs mechanism is not a mechanism for generating mass. “The Ferent mechanism: the interaction energy of gravitons emitted by Dark Matter gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent 156. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation for N elementary particles
Category: Quantum Physics

[2887] viXra:1812.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 03:29:36

Who Needs Wave Equations?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages excludes title page and references

This paper further explores a dual interpretation of the Uncertainty Principle as applied to the classical Rutherford-Bohr calculations of the geometry of the hydrogen electron orbitals. It shows the Rutherford-Bohr model has some advantages over the quantum-mechanical model (Schrödinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom). As such, it basically continues a development started in my previous paper (http://vixra.org/abs/1812.0028). What is novel in this paper is the exploration of the mathematical equivalence between both models.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2886] viXra:1812.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 07:29:36

Quantum Materials as Computing Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2885] viXra:1812.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 10:43:20

Building Block in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2884] viXra:1812.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 09:23:09

Force of the Vacuum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Scientists from the Theory Department of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) in Hamburg, Germany have shown through theoretical calculations and computer simulations that the force between electrons and lattice distortions in an atomically thin two-dimensional superconductor can be controlled with virtual photons. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2883] viXra:1812.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 10:26:08

Infrared Image Encoding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Plasmonic materials can uniquely control the electromagnetic spectrum due to nano-scale surface architecture. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2882] viXra:1812.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 03:34:21

Bohr’s Atom, the Photon and the [un]certainty Principle

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages include title page and references

This is a didactic exploration of a possible dual interpretation of the Uncertainty Principle as applied to the classical Rutherford-Bohr calculations of the geometry of the hydrogen electron orbitals. It highlights, in particular, a classical mistake in regard to the interpretation of atoms as atomic oscillators – and the calculation of their Q. It also offers a substantial correction to the model of a photon that was presented in a previous paper (The Metaphysics of Physics).
Category: Quantum Physics

[2881] viXra:1812.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 10:03:01

Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory:part B: Granular Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 8 Pages.

A previous publication in Phys. Rev. D, (Part A of this paper) pointed out that vacuum energy fluctuations implied mass fluctuations which implied curvature fluctuations which then implied fluctuations of the metric tensor. The metric fluctuations were then taken as fundamental and a stochastic space-time was theorized. A number of results from quantum mechanics were derived. This paper (Part B), in addressing some of the difficulties of Part A, required an extension of the model: In so far as the fluctuations are not in space-time but of space-time, a granular model was deemed necessary. For Lorentz invariance, the grains have constant 4-volume. Further, as we wish to treat time and space similarly, we propose fluctuations in time. In order that a particle not appear at different points in space at the same time, we find it necessary to introduce a new model for time where time as we know it is emergent from an analogous coordinate, tau-time, τ, where ' τ -Time Leaves No Tracks' (that is to say, in the sub-quantum domain, there is no 'history'). The model provides a 'meaning' of curvature as well as a (loose) derivation of the Schwartzschild metric without need for the General Relativity field equations. The purpose is to fold the seemingly incomprehensible behaviors of quantum mechanics into the (one hopes) less incomprehensible properties of space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2880] viXra:1811.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-30 08:41:32

Macroscopic Quantum Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Researchers at Delft University of Technology and the University of Vienna have now devised a macroscopic system that exhibits entanglement between mechanical phonons and optical photons. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2879] viXra:1811.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-30 14:23:49

Discussions of the Weak ‘Force’ and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

the weak 'force' is discussed relative to other 'forces' we claim exist in our universe; a viable alternative is presented
Category: Quantum Physics

[2878] viXra:1811.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 07:51:05

Light Using Spatiotemporal Boundary

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2877] viXra:1811.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 09:52:03

Dipolar Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Researchers at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information in Austria have succeeded in creating the first ever dipolar quantum mixture in which two Bose-Einstein condensates made of two different highly magnetic species coexist and interact with each other over a long range. [41] Harvard Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Kang-Kuen Ni and colleagues have combined two atoms for the first time into what researchers call a dipolar molecule. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2876] viXra:1811.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 10:17:41

Silicon Qubits for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2875] viXra:1811.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 19:02:08

Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part a

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract Much of quantum mechanics may be derived if one adopts a very strong form of Mach's Principle, requiring that in the absence of mass, space-time becomes not flat but stochastic. This is manifested in the metric tensor which is considered to be a collection of stochastic variables. The stochastic metric assumption is sufficient to generate the spread of the wave packet in empty space. If one further notes that all observations of dynamical variables in the laboratory frame are contravariant components of tensors, and if one assumes that a Lagrangian can be constructed, then one can derive the uncertainty principle. Finally, the superposition of stochastic metrics and the identification of the square root of minus the determinant of the metric tensor as the indicator of relative probability yields the phenomenon of interference, as will be described for the two-slit experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2874] viXra:1811.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 20:36:42

Refutation of the Frauchiger-Renner Thought Experiment with Modal Operators as a Paradox

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We use modal logic to evaluate a quantum rendition of the Frauchiger-Renner thought experiment to refute it as paradox (contradiction) and as tautology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2873] viXra:1811.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 07:25:46

A New Cosmic Establishment

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 13 Pages. All claims in this document have been scientifically proven under controlled experiments through my own research using DIY-SOTA tech, as explained in the document. Mechanical Methods of research, such as nuclear acceleration, are authorized by the NSA.

The cosmic mandelbrot scan, how neurotomic waves were used to map out the entire universe in my laboratory, what this map actually is, and the spatially tessellated void of space-time and other models. Also explains temporal fields, the detection of chronon radiation, and the latest scientific report from inside the lab.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2872] viXra:1811.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 09:14:43

Completely Secure Quantum Communication Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2871] viXra:1811.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 09:24:36

Postselectability of Optical Graph

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2870] viXra:1811.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 10:27:29

Broadening Possibilities in Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2869] viXra:1811.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 20:27:03

Higgs in the Standard Model and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 7 Pages.

the history of the Higgs taken from Wikipedia launches a detailed analysis of the etiology of the concept as part of the Standard Model, the circular logic of the weak 'force', and steps toward remediation
Category: Quantum Physics

[2868] viXra:1811.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 08:27:27

Ultracold Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2867] viXra:1811.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 09:00:38

Compact, Sensitive Qubit Readout

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Professor Michelle Simmons' team at UNSW Sydney has demonstrated a compact sensor for accessing information stored in the electrons of individual atoms—a breakthrough that brings us one step closer to scalable quantum computing in silicon. [37] Using micromagnetic simulation, scientists have found the magnetic parameters and operating modes for the experimental implementation of a fast racetrack memory module that runs on spin current, carrying information via skyrmionium, which can store more data and read it out faster. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2866] viXra:1811.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 09:35:26

New Technique Make Objects Invisible

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2865] viXra:1811.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 09:55:39

Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part C: Five-Dimensional Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 11 Pages.

This is a continuation of Parts A and B which describe a stochastic, granular space-time model. In this, Part C, in order to tessellate the space-time manifold, it was necessary to introduce a fifth dimension which is 'rolled up' at the Planck scale. The dimension is associated with mass and energy (in a non-trivial way). Further, it addresses other problems in the granular space-time model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2864] viXra:1811.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 10:19:14

Moving Tiny Objects with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser light, to control and manipulate minute objects such as single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2863] viXra:1811.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 10:44:41

Star Wars-like Tractor Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Physicists from ITMO University have developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2862] viXra:1811.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 16:04:09

Biggest Thing Since the Split Atom

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 67 Pages.

My research and theory of programmable matter, the science behind, how we could mass-produce the stuff, and dimensionkinetic technology; Using my theory of everything for Pocket dimension creation, Tech allowing Extra-dimensional access, novistic technology and how it would render the magical as basic tech taken for granted by the time many children are seniors, a logopolitan computer and how we could one day turn ourselves into them, real mother-boxes and infinity stones in a few decades, how we could give ourselves editing access to the cosmic html in just a few years if this proposal was accepted, perhaps the most profound of these propositions, dimensional transmutation; How we could "magically" one day transform ourselves into multi-dimensional beings. Godhood just around the corner. A radical set of proposals in quantum technology. But they truly would be the grandest advancement in science since the splitting of the atom, or perhaps even our discovery of fire.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2861] viXra:1811.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 08:10:21

Modularity, Consciousness, and Intelligence

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has a modular structure. Consciousness gets introduced in the higher levels of the module hierarchy. Intelligence is introduced at the top level.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2860] viXra:1811.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 09:14:29

Molecule Turns into a Switch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2859] viXra:1811.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 09:40:23

Accelerator on a Microchip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Electrical engineers in the accelerator physics group at TU Darmstadt have developed a design for a laser-driven electron accelerator so small it could be produced on a silicon chip. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41] Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2858] viXra:1811.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 20:00:37

Quantum Physics, an Abstract Universe and the Human Mind.

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 4 Pages.

An in-depth explanation of an Abstract Universe. the Human Mind, sense organs and living creatures and their relation to Quantum Physics. In this paper, I hone in on how Quantum Physics explains the true Nature of Reality. Note: For serious inquiring minds only.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2857] viXra:1811.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 06:35:57

Fads and Fashions in Physics vs Conspiracies

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 5 Pages.

some recent fads/fashions in physics are discussed relative to a hybrid framework incorporating concepts from both sides: determinism & randomness
Category: Quantum Physics

[2856] viXra:1811.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 13:02:13

The Metaphysics of Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page and references

Abstract: This wavefunction is a didactic exploration of the basic assumptions and concepts of the Zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics. Its novelty is in applying the concepts to photons. Keywords: Zitterbewegung, mass-energy equivalence, wavefunction interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2855] viXra:1811.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 23:16:10

5 Different Superposition Principles With/without Test Charge, Retarded Waves/advanced Waves Applied to Dynamic Equation of the Photon

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 54 Pages.

In electromagnetic theory and quantum theory, there are superposition principle. The author found that there are 5 different kinds of superpositions. The superposition principles have some differences. The research about these differences is a key to open the the door of many physical difficulties. For example the particle and wave duality problem, and to judge which interpretation of the quantum mechanics is a correct one. The first two superposition principles are the superpositions with and without the test charges. The slight different superposition principles are the superposition with a retarded wave only and the superposition with the advanced wave only. According to theory of this author, the emitter sends the retarded wave, the absorber sends the advance wave. Hence, normal electromagnetic field actually is consist of retarded wave and advanced wave. This two wave together become the normal electromagnetic field. This kind of electromagnetic field can be seen approximately as retarded wave, this kind wave also has its own superposition. This kind of superposition is also different with the superposition when we consider the retarded wave and also the advanced wave. In this article this author will discuss the differences of these different situations of superpositions. This author will also discuss the different physical result with a few different superposition principles. In this article this author will prove only when the self-energy principle is accept, all kinds of superposition can be accept. Otherwise only the superposition with test charge or the superposition with only one kind wave either retarded waves or advanced waves can be accepted. Hence, the discussion about the superposition also support the concept of the self-energy principle which means there must exist the time reversal waves. That also means the waves do not collapse but collapse back. Wave collapse means collapse to target of the wave, for example, the retarded wave will collapse to a absorber and the advanced wave will collapse to a emitter. Wave collapse back means the retarded wave sent from emitter will collapse back to emitter; The advanced wave sent from the absorber will collapse back to an absorber. Hence, one purpose of this article is to clarify the superposition principles, and another purpose is to support this author's electromagnetic field theory which is started from two new axioms the self-energy principle and the mutual energy principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2854] viXra:1811.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 08:46:58

Ferent Equation for Elementary Particles

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 257 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Ferent equation for elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for Dark Matter particle of the elementary particle:” Adrian Ferent The most general form is the time-dependent Ferent equation, which gives a description of a quantum system made of Matter and Dark Matter evolving in time. “Unification between Matter and Dark Matter:” Adrian Ferent Where: |Ψ(r,t)> - is the state vector of the quantum system r and t are the position vector and time h – is the Planck constant a - is the Ferent constant This equation describes the changes over time of an elementary particle as quantum systems. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent time-dependent equation for Dark Matter particles:” Adrian Ferent The nonrelativistic time-dependent Ferent equation for the wave function, of a single Dark Matter particle moving in a potential V(r,t). The wave function is the most complete description that can be given of a quantum system. Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter particles, I consider each elementary particle as a quantum system made of 2 equations: The total energy equals kinetic energy plus potential energy of the dark matter particles. The equation for Matter of the elementary particle: Where Ψ(r,t) is the wave function, m1 is Matter mass, V is the potential energy. “Ferent equation for Dark Matter particle of the elementary particle:” Adrian Ferent Where m2 is Dark Matter mass. The equation for an elementary particle made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Ferent equation for elementary particle as a quantum system: “Ferent equation for elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent 153. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation for elementary particles 154. I am the first who explained that Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter! 155. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation for Dark Matter particle of the elementary particle
Category: Quantum Physics

[2853] viXra:1811.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 08:57:36

Golden ‘Children’ of Physics and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

three darlings of physics are illuminated, in particular Peter Higgs and his infamous God particle, presenting a viable alternative with more evidence
Category: Quantum Physics

[2852] viXra:1811.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-23 09:33:19

Quantum Chaos Theory

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 36 Pages. All claims in this document have been scientifically proven under controlled experiments through my own research using DIY-SOTA tech, as explained in the document. Mechanical Methods of research, such as nuclear acceleration, are authorized by the NSA.

Proposes how a previous theory solving dark matter(Stating that all gravity has mass as all mass has gravity, and this mass would be 5th-dimensional) and dark energy(Suggesting this mass could cause the super-fluid displacement of space-time) could prove a vibrational Quantum multiverse numbering infinitely, as well as another theory of Quantum chaos, which proposes a new state of "weirdness" devoid of any consistent physical state or laws, would provide concrete evidence of an infinite multiverse and hyperspace(Proving the bulk-mass of dark matter), and ending with a brief exploration of possibilities for Inter-universal travel using infinite improbability particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2851] viXra:1811.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 01:53:30

Proceedings in Qualitative and Quantitave Psychology

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 42 Pages.

Quantum theory is extended towards the spiritual domain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2850] viXra:1811.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 01:55:39

Proceedings in Qualitative and Quantitative Psychology: Restrictions on Extra Senses.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 65 Pages.

Quantum theory is extended towards the spiritual domain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2849] viXra:1811.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 04:45:05

Einstein’s Mass-Energy Equivalence Relation: an Explanation in Terms of the Zitterbewegung

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page and page with references

The radial velocity formula and the Planck-Einstein relation give us the zbw frequency (E = ħω = E/ħ) and zbw radius (a = c/ω = cħ/mc2 = ħ/mc) of the electron. We interpret this by noting that the c = aω identity gives us the E = mc2 = ma2ω2 equation, which suggests we should combine the total energy (kinetic and potential) of two harmonic oscillators to explain the electron mass. We do so by interpreting the elementary wavefunction as a two-dimensional (harmonic) electromagnetic oscillation in real space which drives the pointlike charge along the zbw current ring. This implies a dual view of the reality of the real and imaginary part of the wavefunction: 1.The x = a·cos(ωt) and y = a·sin(ωt) equations describe the motion of the pointlike charge. 2.As an electromagnetic oscillation, we write it as E = E·cos(ωt+π/2) + i·E·sin(ωt+π/2). The magnitudes of the oscillation a and E are expressed in distance (m) and force per unit charge (N/C) respectively and are related because the energy of both oscillations is one and the same. The model – which implies the energy of the oscillation and, therefore, the effective mass of the electron is spread over the zbw disk – offers an equally intuitive explanation for the angular momentum, magnetic moment and the g-factor of charged spin-1/2 particles. Most importantly, the model also offers us an intuitive interpretation of Einstein’s enigmatic mass-energy equivalence relation. Going from the stationary to the moving reference frame, we argue that the plane of the zbw oscillation should be parallel to the direction of motion so as to be consistent with the results of the Stern-Gerlach experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2848] viXra:1811.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 08:24:17

Tricks of Quantum Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2847] viXra:1811.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 10:48:37

Quantum Cybersecurity Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Scientists at the RDECOM Research Laboratory, the Army's corporate research laboratory (ARL) have found a novel way to safeguard quantum information during transmission, opening the door for more secure and reliable communication for warfighters on the battlefield. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2846] viXra:1811.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 11:16:28

Symmetry Breaking Optical Nonlinearity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Second-order nonlinear optical processes play a pivotal role in both classical and quantum applications, ranging from extension of the accessible frequencies to generation of quantum entangled photon pairs and squeezed states. [36] Scientists at the RDECOM Research Laboratory, the Army's corporate research laboratory (ARL) have found a novel way to safeguard quantum information during transmission, opening the door for more secure and reliable communication for warfighters on the battlefield. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2845] viXra:1811.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 12:28:12

Quantum Theory of Dispersion of Light

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 9 Pages. the original article

We derive the index of refraction of light from quantum theory of atoms and from the Dirac equation with the plane wave. The result is the integral a part of the mainstream of the quantum optics. The article involves also discussion on the possibility to create the electron-positron pairs during the Cherenkov process with the adequate intex of refraction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2844] viXra:1811.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 12:50:52

Radical Brighter LED

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Scientists have discovered that semiconducting molecules with unpaired electrons, termed 'radicals' can be used to fabricate very efficient organic-light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), exploiting their quantum mechanical 'spin' property to overcome efficiency limitations for traditional, non-radical materials. [43] Research led by a University of Sussex scientist has turned a 156-year-old law of physics on its head in a development which could lead to more efficient recharging of batteries in cars and mobile phones. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41] Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2843] viXra:1811.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 16:40:19

Understanding Uncertainty

Authors: Royan Roshce
Comments: 2 Pages.

I outline why Quantum Uncertainty exists and how it applies to living creatures.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2842] viXra:1811.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 01:19:06

Concept of Fast Non-Volatile Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Using micromagnetic simulation, scientists have found the magnetic parameters and operating modes for the experimental implementation of a fast racetrack memory module that runs on spin current, carrying information via skyrmionium, which can store more data and read it out faster. [36] Scientists at the RDECOM Research Laboratory, the Army's corporate research laboratory (ARL) have found a novel way to safeguard quantum information during transmission, opening the door for more secure and reliable communication for warfighters on the battlefield. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2841] viXra:1811.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 03:58:13

Quantum Sound Waves Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

In a first, scientists with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory have built a mechanical system—a tiny "echo chamber" for sound waves—that can be controlled at the quantum level, by connecting it to quantum circuits. [19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2840] viXra:1811.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-20 06:47:27

Quantum World Error Correction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Sebastian Krinner is the first winner of the Lopez-Loreta Prize at ETH Zurich. The physicist has a clear goal: he wants to build a quantum computer that is not only powerful, but also works without errors. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2839] viXra:1811.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-20 10:50:44

Quantum Adiabatic and Circuit Equivalent

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Practical quantum computers could be one step closer thanks to physicists in China, who have published a rigorous proof that “quantum circuit” algorithms can be transformed into algorithms that can be executed at the same running time on adiabatic quantum computers. [36] Sebastian Krinner is the first winner of the Lopez-Loreta Prize at ETH Zurich. The physicist has a clear goal: he wants to build a quantum computer that is not only powerful, but also works without errors. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2838] viXra:1811.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-20 20:41:40

A Model of an Electron Including Two Perfect Black Bodies

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper modifies two significant points of existing quantum electrodynamics. First, the image of a virtual photon is replaced with a real one, i.e., till date, we consider virtual photon as being capable of exchanging its energy between two particles along with self interaction, and that it is a transient fluctuation. We shall change this definition such that what we call “an electron” would include two bare electrons and these two would interact within a real photon. The virtual photon in this study is the same as the real photon which is not to observe, but difference from traditional virtual photon because the re-imaged virtual photon would exist continuously not temporally. Second, it is assumed that the bare electron is a perfect black body. To meet the constraints of charge conservation, a virtual photon must include two bare electrons. There is a temperature gradient between the two because the two particles alternate between behaving as emitters and absorbers. The proposed study extends this model by considering that an electron comprises two blinking bare electrons and at least one real photon by exchanging the energies within the three. Consequently, we attempt to create an electron model that exhibits spinor behavior by setting and modifying a trigonometric function which could periodically achieve the value of zero-point energy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2837] viXra:1811.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-19 09:46:36

X-ray Microscopy 10 Times Faster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Now, scientists at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)—a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory—have developed a TXM that can image samples 10 times faster than previously possible. [36] In a new study published Aug. 17 in Nature Communications, Nemsak, Fadley, Schneider and colleagues demonstrate the use of new techniques in X-ray spectroscopy to illuminate the internal structure of manganese-doped gallium arsenide. [35] With the publication of the first experimental measurements performed at the facility, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) has passed another critical milestone since its launch in September 2017. [34] Purdue University researchers are developing a novel biomedical imaging system that combines optical and ultrasound technology to improve diagnosis of life-threatening diseases. [33] Heart scans for patients with chest pains could save thousands of lives in the UK, research suggests. [32] Unnecessary heart procedures can be avoided with a non-invasive test, according to late breaking research presented today at ESC Congress 2018 and published in Journal of the American College of Cardiology. [31] Now, Columbia University researchers report a new way to zoom in at the tiniest scales to track changes within individual cells. [30] One of the main challenges in tissue engineering today is to create a complete network of blood vessels and capillaries throughout an artificial tissue. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2836] viXra:1811.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-19 12:36:54

The Zitterbewegung, the Wavefunction and Einstein’s Mass-Energy Equivalance Relation.

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 15 Pages.

This article continues to explore a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction that has been elaborated in previous papers. It zooms in on the physical model it implies for an electron in free space, which is – basically – a Zitterbewegung model. It adds to previous papers because it further explores the nitty-gritty of the contradictions in the rather obvious and intuitive interpretation of the wavefunction as a two-dimensional self-sustaining electromagnetic oscillation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2835] viXra:1811.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-18 15:04:00

The Formless Nature of Matter

Authors: Royan rosche
Comments: 2 Pages.

I outline why the Universe is not a set concrete physical thing.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2834] viXra:1811.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 06:20:43

Anomaly in Sign Function Probability Function Integration

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the paper it is demonstrated that integration of products of sign functions and probability density functions such as in Bell's formula for +/-1 measurement functions, leads to inconsistencies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2833] viXra:1811.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 14:36:06

Refutation of Tropical Sum for Bell's Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We evaluate the tropical sum definition to show topped summing is refuted by mathematical logic and hence cannot occur in physics realty.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2832] viXra:1811.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 15:28:50

White Spots in Physics

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physics appears to include quite a few white holes. Apparently, this is not very essential for the proper functioning of applied physics. Through some clever steps, some of the white patches can be addressed. That delivers striking and not thought results
Category: Quantum Physics

[2831] viXra:1811.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-16 07:32:20

Quantum Artificial Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A project by the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country has for the first time implemented a model of quantum artificial life on a quantum computer. [30] Researchers in a lab at Aarhus University have developed a versatile remote gaming interface that allowed external experts as well as hundreds of citizen scientists all over the world to optimize a quantum gas experiment through multiplayer collaboration and in real time. [29] "As crazy as all this looks, there appears to be strong reliability in these behaviors that could even be predictably and practically manipulated," Landman said. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/probability/" probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/probability/" probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2830] viXra:1811.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-16 08:14:49

Magnetic Properties of Cuprates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

An international team of researchers has identified and proved that adding impurities with a lower concentration of electrons stabilizes the antiferromagnetic state of cuprates, high-temperature superconducting compounds based on copper. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2829] viXra:1811.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 02:06:07

On Bell's Experiment

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 5 Pages.

With the use of tropical algebra operators and a d=2 parameter vectors space, Bell's theorem does not forbid a, physics valid, reproduction of the quantum correlation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2828] viXra:1811.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-15 07:08:10

Social Quantum Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers in a lab at Aarhus University have developed a versatile remote gaming interface that allowed external experts as well as hundreds of citizen scientists all over the world to optimize a quantum gas experiment through multiplayer collaboration and in real time. [29] "As crazy as all this looks, there appears to be strong reliability in these behaviors that could even be predictably and practically manipulated," Landman said. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2827] viXra:1811.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 07:48:20

Hubble Expansion & CMBR & Bekenstein Hawking Entropy

Authors: David E. Fuller, Ruud Loeffen
Comments: 7 Pages.

Universe as a Self Similar Fractal Friedmann Density, Electron Compton Density, Planck Density
Category: Quantum Physics

[2826] viXra:1811.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 08:46:13

Resonance Tuning of Optics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2825] viXra:1811.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-15 03:32:48

Witte Vlekken in de Natuurkunde

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. Dit behoort to het Hilbert Boek Model Project

De natuurkunde blijkt nog een flink aantal witte gaten te omvatten. Kennelijk is dat niet erg essentieel voor de goede werking van de toegepaste natuurkunde. Via wat slimme stappen kunnen een aantal van de witte vlekken worden aangepakt. Dat levert frappante en niet gedachte resultaten op.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2824] viXra:1811.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-15 04:45:35

Fluid State of Dirac Quantum Particles

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 12 Pages.

In our previous works we suggest that quantum particles are composite physical objects endowed with the geometric and topological structures of their corresponding differentiable manifolds that would allow them to imitate and adapt to physical environments. In this work we show that Dirac equation in fact describes quantum particles as composite structures that are in a fluid state in which the components of the wavefunction can be identified with the stream function and the velocity potential of a potential flow described in the theory of classical fluids. We also show that Dirac quantum particles can manifest as standing waves which are the result of the superposition of two fluid flows moving in opposite directions. For a steady motion a Dirac quantum particle does not exhibit a wave motion even though it has the potential to establish a wave within its physical structure, therefore, without an external disturbance a Dirac quantum particle may be considered as a classical particle defined in classical physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2823] viXra:1811.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 07:07:23

Chiral Majorana Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Now, researchers have proposed a scheme to control the transport of chiral Majorana edge modes in a ring-shaped Josephson junction of a topological superconductor using magnetic flux. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2822] viXra:1811.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 08:25:23

Encrypted Quantum Keys Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2821] viXra:1811.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 05:45:15

Calculation of the Atomic Masses

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the generally accepted physical theory, the synthesis of the elements may happen at a very high temperature in supernova explosions. In consequence of nuclear fusion, the supernova stars emit a very strong electromagnetic (EM) radiation, predominantly in form of X-rays and gamma rays. The intensive EM radiation drastically decreases the masses of the exploding stars, directly causing mass defects of the resulting atoms. The description of black body EM radiation is based on the famous Planck's radiation theory, which supposes the existence of independent quantum oscillators inside the black body. In this paper, it is supposed that in exploding supernova stars, the EM radiating oscillators can be identied with the nascent elements losing their specic yields of their own rest masses in consequence of the radiation process. The nal binding energy of the atoms (nuclei) is additionally determined by the strong neutrino radiation what also follows the Maxwell- Boltzmann distribution in the extremly high temperature. Extending Planck's radiation law for discrete radiation energies, a very simple formula is obtained for the theoretical determination of the atomic masses. In addition, the newly introduced theoretical model gives the fusion temperature what is necessary for the generation of the atoms of the Periodic Table. Keywords: nuclear binding energy, Planck radiation law, generation of atoms, the origin of the elements, new theoretical model of the nuclear synthesis, fusion temperature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2820] viXra:1811.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 10:04:25

Spin Waves in 2-D Magnet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

In a recently published paper in Science, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), were able to both excite and detect spin waves in a quantum Hall ferromagnet, demonstrating a new platform to investigate some of the possibilities of this promising material. [34] Taichi Goto at the Toyohashi University of Technology and Caroline Ross of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and others collaborated to create a single-crystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film as a magnetic insulator on multiple substrates, and transmit the spin waves. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits
Category: Quantum Physics

[2819] viXra:1811.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 10:32:00

Quantum Compass Navigation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

The UK's first quantum accelerometer for navigation has been demonstrated by a team from Imperial College London and M Squared. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2818] viXra:1811.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 04:41:02

Quantum Duet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Different systems behave identically in many ways, if they belong to the same "universality class."]32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2817] viXra:1811.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 08:03:06

Nanocrystals as Quantum Light Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2816] viXra:1811.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 08:18:52

Same but Different Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Different systems behave identically in many ways, if they belong to the same "universality class."]32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics , the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2815] viXra:1811.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 10:46:07

Optical Test of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2814] viXra:1811.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 08:10:16

Complex Quantum Teleportation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Scientists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have broken new ground. They sought to use more complex quantum systems than two-dimensionally entangled qubits and thus can increase the information capacity with the same number of particles. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2813] viXra:1811.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 08:30:31

Certify Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

"The power of quantum computers is what makes them difficult to certify," says Sangouard. "Even the fastest ordinary computers are too slow to check the calculations made by such devices." [29] Scientists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have broken new ground. They sought to use more complex quantum systems than two-dimensionally entangled qubits and thus can increase the information capacity with the same number of particles. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2812] viXra:1811.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 10:08:40

Laser Blasting Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Antimatter is an exotic material that vaporizes when it contacts regular matter. If you hit an antimatter baseball with a bat made of regular matter, it would explode in a burst of light. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2811] viXra:1811.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 12:32:09

Quantum Ontology Suggested by a Kochen-Specker Loophole

Authors: Archibald Ulrich Thor
Comments: 5 Pages.

We discuss a specific way in which the conclusions of the Kochen-Specker theorem may be avoided while, at the same time, closing the gap in a practical but usually neglected matter regarding scientific methodology in general. Implications of the possibilities of hidden variables thus defined are discussed, and a tentative connexion with cosmology is delineated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2810] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 20:49:01

Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2809] viXra:1811.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 03:18:04

Quantum Hard Drive for Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2808] viXra:1811.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 04:29:15

Silicon Device and Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2807] viXra:1811.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-04 20:19:54

Gravitational Angels

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 1 Page.

Based on the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), gravitational angel (gravitangel) is introduced as a cloud of the background gravitons hovering over the ordinary matter (OM). According to Qmoger, the background gravitons are ultralight and they form the quantum condensate even for high temperature. The quantum entanglement of OM particles is explained in terms of splitting gravitangels. A hierarchy of gravitangels of different scale is considered. One of the simplest gravitangel is hovering over neutrino, which explains the neutrino oscillations. A more large-scale gravitangels are hovering over the neuron clusters in the brain, which explains the subjective experiences (qualia). The global gravitangel (GG) is connected to all processes happening with OM in the universe. GG can be considered as a gigantic quantum supercomputer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2806] viXra:1811.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 03:50:29

Linear and Circular Photon Polarization States in the Mach-Zehnder Interference Experiment

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper continues to explore a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction but with a focus on the wavefunction(s) of a single photon in the Mach-Zehnder experiment. It focuses, in particular, on how one might visualize linear and circular polarization states for photon waves, and how beam splitters may or may not split a circular polarization state into two independent linear polarization states or – vice versa – recombine two linear polarization states into one circular state. As such, it attempts to provide a more refined approach to the rather crude hidden-variable theory for explaining quantum-mechanical interference that was presented in a previous paper (http://vixra.org/pdf/1811.0005v1.pdf). The outcome is the same, however: the theory does not work. Hence, this paper again shows the limit of such physical interpretations, thereby confirming the intuition behind Bell’s Theorem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2805] viXra:1811.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 07:01:06

Plasmons in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

US researchers studying high-temperature cuprate superconductors outside the superconducting regime have used cutting-edge X-ray scattering to detect long-predicted – but never previously observed – excitations called plasmons perpendicular to the material's atomic planes. [27] Using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered a new quantum criticality in a superconducting material, leading to a greater understanding of the link between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity. [26] Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2804] viXra:1811.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 07:37:32

Powerful Quantum Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2803] viXra:1811.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 10:28:11

Quantum Monte Carlo Predictions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

To take QMC to the next level, Kent and colleagues start with materials such as vanadium dioxide that display unusual electronic behavior. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2802] viXra:1811.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 11:05:08

Quantum Criticality in Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered a new quantum criticality in a superconducting material, leading to a greater understanding of the link between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity. [26] Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2801] viXra:1811.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 03:35:09

Precise Diode Laser Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

This makes their device a useful replacement for the more complex and expensive single-frequency lasers, enabling the creation of compact chemical analyzers that can fit into smartphones, cheap lidars for self-driving cars, as well as security and structural health monitoring systems on bridges, gas pipelines and elsewhere. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41] All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2800] viXra:1811.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 07:53:31

Quantum Drum Noise Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2799] viXra:1811.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 08:48:56

Key Factors of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2798] viXra:1811.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 11:11:19

Topological Insulator and Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

"This is the first time that the exact same material can be tuned either to a topological insulator or to a superconductor," says Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics at MIT. [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2797] viXra:1811.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 13:19:13

New Pathway to Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Scientists in Australia have for the first time demonstrated the protection of correlated states between paired photons—packets of light energy—using the intriguing physical concept of topology. [40] A team of scientists, led by Professor Winfried Hensinger at the University of Sussex, have made a major breakthrough concerning one of the biggest problems facing quantum computing: how to reduce the disruptive effects of environmental "noise" on the highly sensitive function of a large-scale quantum computer. [39] Watch a movie backwards and you'll likely get confused—but a quantum computer wouldn't. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2796] viXra:1811.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 04:20:13

Polarization States as Hidden Variables?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper explores a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction by examining if it can be used to provide a hidden-variable theory for explaining quantum-mechanical interference. The hidden variable is the polarization state of the photon. The outcome is as expected: the theory does not work. Hence, this paper clearly shows the limits of such physical interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2795] viXra:1811.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 03:44:46

Environmental Effects on Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

A team of scientists, led by Professor Winfried Hensinger at the University of Sussex, have made a major breakthrough concerning one of the biggest problems facing quantum computing: how to reduce the disruptive effects of environmental "noise" on the highly sensitive function of a large-scale quantum computer. [39] Watch a movie backwards and you'll likely get confused—but a quantum computer wouldn't. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2794] viXra:1810.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-31 13:57:18

Interactive Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

JILA researchers have, for the first time, isolated groups of a few atoms and precisely measured their multi-particle interactions within an atomic clock. [25] University of Adelaide researchers have delved into the realm of Star Wars and created a powerful tractor beam – or light-driven energy trap – for atoms. [24] The Purcell effect also has another advantage: It shortens the time it takes the rubidium atom to store and release the quantum information. [23] Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2793] viXra:1810.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 07:33:44

Qubit State Represented by Pendulum Oscillations

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 4 Pages.

As qubit can be a polarization division multiplexed (PDM) quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) symbol of light, its state has direct correspondence with polarization state of classical light. Even more intuitively, the state may be represented by pendulum oscillations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2792] viXra:1810.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 07:43:43

Quantum Beats Classical Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

As multiple research groups around the world race to build a scalable quantum computer, questions remain about how the achievement of quantum supremacy will be verified. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2791] viXra:1810.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 10:24:59

Electron Microscope Revealed

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

The chips that drive everyday electronic gadgets such as personal computers and smartphones are made in semiconductor fabrication plants. These plants employ powerful transmission electron microscopes. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2790] viXra:1810.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 11:05:20

Trapping Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

University of Adelaide researchers have delved into the realm of Star Wars and created a powerful tractor beam – or light-driven energy trap – for atoms. [24] The Purcell effect also has another advantage: It shortens the time it takes the rubidium atom to store and release the quantum information. [23] Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2789] viXra:1810.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 15:21:40

On Bell's Theorem

Authors: Jorma Jormakka
Comments: 5 Pages.

Bell's Theorem implies that quantum correlation of entangled particles as calculated in quantum mechanics violates elementary probabilistic inequalities. It is shown that the reason is a problem in scaling of detector directions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2788] viXra:1810.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 15:23:17

A Hidden Variable Solution to the EPR Paradox

Authors: Jorma Jormakka
Comments: 6 Pages.

The hidden variable solution to the EPR paradox proposes that correlation of measurements of entangled particles is due to variables that get decided when the entangled particles get created. It is shown that the correlation of spin measurements in Bell's form of the EPR paradox can be explained as deriving from spin of the entangled particles in the x-direction. This spin parameter is not hidden as it is included in the standard quantum mechanical formulation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2787] viXra:1810.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-29 22:36:02

Observation Noise

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 3 Pages.

When a qubit interacts with environment, it may, instead of lose coherence, be observed. As is well known in quantum cryptography, such observation destroys entangled state causing noise, in this letter, called “observation noise”. As quantum error correction fundamentally depends on entangled states, the observation noise makes error correction impossible. As such, quantum computation with practically large quantum parallelism is impossible. Classical computers are better than quantum ones.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2786] viXra:1810.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 06:21:12

Integrated Quantum Chip Operations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2785] viXra:1810.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-28 13:05:56

The Theories of the Graviton, Part 2: The Quantum Framework of the Particle's Nature and Mechanics

Authors: Aaron Bain, Noah MacKay, Didier Rojas
Comments: 14 Pages.

Gravitons are the quanta of gravity that, if proven to exist, would potentially connect quantum mechanics with gravitation. The second part of the Graviton Theory entity focuses on the quantum side of the graviton’s mechanics and nature (which were first proposed in the classical framework in Part One). They will be explained in depth, as to how gravitons act as quantum particles, and how they can act as both strings in Sting Theory and as loops in Loop Quantum Gravity. This analysis is to propose how gravitons behave, not only in our set of four-dimensional spacetime, but also in higher dimensional sets of spacetime.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2784] viXra:1810.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-28 17:31:22

“The Photon Double-Helicoidal Model” the Key to Solving the Problems of Modern Physics

Authors: Oreste Caroppo
Comments: 58 Pages.

"What is the structure of the photon?" is the question that has allowed us to arrive at this elegant model capable, in compliance with the laws of physics, to explain all the properties of the photon giving them physical consistency. The photon remains neutral but emerges as constituted by two sub-particles, forming an electric dipole, rototranslating, with the overall mass-energy of the photon divided equally between them, thus describing a double-helix trajectory. This allows to explain the double nature of electromagnetic radiation and of corpuscle of the photon: the frequency and the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation emerge as connected to the characteristics of the rototranslating motion of the photon; a cross section is attributed to the photon trasversal to its propagation direction with a diameter proportional to its wavelength; the spin of the photon emerges from the model exactly; dynamic equilibrium of the photon gives the linear relation that binds energy and frequency in a photon, as we discover the physical meaning of the Planck Constant related to the electrical polarization properties of the vacuum and its inertia to the polarization; the velocity of light in the vacuum is understood to be that velocity at which vacuum "appears transparent", does not polarize, with respect to the charges of the electric photon dipole. This perfect model, of which the first results reported here were developed by the author in the early years of the 21st century, opened the way to the discovery of the baptized "Maxwell's Error" which shows how a physical-mathematical error kept away physicists, about 150 years ago, from the discovery of this fundamental structure of the photon, thus leading to today's problems of Modern Physics. For the great developments and in-depth analyzes established and permitted by this work visit the website at link: http://fiatlux.altervista.org/ See the most extensive abstract in English also at this link: http://fiatlux.altervista.org/-the-photon-double-helicoidal-model-the-key-to-solving-the-problems-of-modern-physics.html EXTENDED PRESENTATION Here we present the discovery of a theoretical structure of the photon capable of explaining all its multiple properties through an electric-magnetic-dynamic model; a symmetrical electric dipole structure, at the base, with the suggestive double-helical trajectory, with a helix angle of 45°, that emerges as a consequence of the basic physical laws of dynamics and of the electric and magnetic interaction between moving charges, (Coulomb force and Lorentz force). These are the results of a theoretical work developed by the author, Oreste Caroppo, in the early years of the 21st century and which were collected for the first time in this work. This surprising model characterized by a high elegance, simplicity and exorbitant explanatory skills, on the one hand has allowed to give a unitary explanation to the plurality of properties connoting the photon, on the other it has also opened the way for the better understanding and resolution of immense problems open and unresolved in Modern Physics. It has guided in the direction of a new revolutionary unification in Physics, passing through the discovery of the theoretical errors related to the conception of the nature of electromagnetic radiation, the "light"; errors which had been unconsciously absorbed, generating, over time, a theoretical propagation of the error that has come up to our days, which is now possible to retrace. We refer to what in later works will be baptized by the author the "Maxwell’s Error" or even "the great original sin of Modern Physics", a physical-mathematical error that, if understood, would have already allowed at the time of the discovery of Maxwell’s equations, about 150 years ago, and even more to the subsequent discovery of the quantization of the electric charge, to hypothesize a granular discrete nature of the electromagnetic radiation, and even already with a basic quantum which is the photon with the dipolar double-helicoidal structure as presented here in the model discovered. An error related to the correct physical and mathematical meaning of the zero setting of the charge density in the Maxwell’s Equations from which Maxwell arrived at the equations of the electromagnetic waves. The setting equal to 0 of the charge density in vacuum is no guarantee of the absence of charge in the empty space in which an electromagnetic wave is propagating, as believed and affirmed, thus concealing instead the compatibility of that null value with the presence in the electromagnetic radiation of electric dipoles as its constituents, whose algebraic sum of the total charge is always null, such as that dipole connoting the structure of the single independent photon studied in this work. The photon is therefore electrically neutral as theorized and ascertained empirically, but we find this to be true as a whole, but in its structural nature it has a dipolar charge distribution which now explains many of its properties, such as the link with the electric and magnetic field of electro-magnetic radiation to it physically intrinsically associated. The model shows how it is now physically possible to associate to the photon a cross section transversal to its propagation direction with a diameter proportional to its wavelength; the photon is therefore not a mono-point entity as up to now simplistically considered. In any case, all the classic properties of the point photon can be found in the center of mass of the photon described by the double-helicoidal model of the photon. We can now better understand the relationships between photon and Maxwell's equations which give a continuous approximate description of a reality whose true nature is at the base discontinuous. Various and numerous developments that start from this work the author has spread more widely on his website at the link: http://fiatlux.altervista.org/ New light is thus thrown from this work for the better understanding of the nature of matter and antimatter that find their basis in the basic symmetric structure of the photon composed according to this model of two sub-particles having the same mass-energy (each half of the total energy of the photon) and electric charge with the same module, (corresponding to the quantum of electric charge), but with opposite sign. Through this model we discover how the photon, on whose nature of "quantum" all Quantum Mechanics is based, is actually involved and the consequence of another more fundamental and basic quantification of Nature, that is the one of the electric charge and this allowing a theoretical simplification, in good agreement with the criterion of "Occam's razor", but also permitting a great unification in Physics between the results of the past and the twentieth-century discovery of the photon, which in the light of the model and of the theory here exposed, we now understand, does not represent more reason for a crisis in Physics, the one that led to Modern Physics in full conflict with Classical Physics, but the existence of the photon appears as the natural consequence and prediction of the basic physical laws and of the quantization of the electric charge. Through the double-helicoidal model of the photon the wavelength and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation associated with the photon, and also emerging from the equations of the electromagnetic waves of Maxwell, now also assume a physical correlation with the rototraslative motion of the two charges of the dipole and therefore of the two sub-particles which, we discover, compose the photon. The linear relationship between the energy of a photon and its frequency now stands out wonderfully as a physical-mathematical consequence of the dynamic stability of the photon structure, and this finally allows a new understanding of the physical meaning of Planck constant, as well as of the fine-structure constant, which appear as physically linked to the electrical polarization properties of the vacuum and its inertia to this polarization, so much so that the same speed of light in vacuum, as physically-mathematically described by Maxwell's equations, we now understand better to be that velocity to which the vacuum, we can say, appears transparent, does not polarize itself, with respect to the electric charges of the photon dipole. A better understanding of the properties of the vacuum is therefore also allowed by the model. Thus, finally, we come to an understanding of why the value of Planck charge is so close to the value of the elementary electric charge, although in the expression of the Planck charge, obtained through fundamental physical constants, the Planck constant appears, but not the elementary electric charge. The model also leads, by adding the consideration of the gravitational interaction between the two sub-particles of the photon, to obtain all the Planck units and therefore also to better understand their physical meaning. Even finally the concepts of mass in relation to the photon, and not only, can be better understood in the light of the model, against the many ambiguities in which Modern Physics has occurred in the consideration of this very important concept. Even better now we can finally understand the meaning of the equivalence between mass and energy given by the famous equation of Einstein and Olinto de Pretto. In any case, the photon in the exposed model, whose center of mass behaves like a luminal particle, preserves in its entirety the same relativistic mass and the same total rest mass null as expected for the luminal particle photon in Special Relativity. This model also indicates the way to solve the problem of the wave-particle duality for the photon through a single structure capable of explaining both the corpuscular and the undulatory properties of light, together and at the same time, naturally and without any dogma. The double helicoidal model of the photon also leads to a better understanding of the nature of electric fields and magnetic fields indicating also the way to approach the problems opened by the EPR Paradox and Bell's inequalities, as well as indicating the road to overcoming the imposed dogmas with the so-called Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics following an incomplete understanding of the nature of the light affected by the aforementioned errors. At the same time it also allows to deepen the error of having considered the electrical and magnetic interaction between electric charges based on the exchange of photons when instead, on the contrary, the existence of the photon is allowed by the same electric charges that we discover to be even its components. Treating the theme of light, of the speed of light, of the properties of vacuum, the open theory then leads in the direction of a critical re-reading of the theories of Relativity, as well as, as widely explained, it also inevitably leads, by treating the photon, to a critical re-reading of the developments in Quantum Physics. Nature is one and could not be fully described, as up to now in Modern Physics, by two theories, Quantum Mechanics and Relativity, with foundations conflicting between them: the Double-Helicoidal Model of the Photon, discovered thanks to the basic question "what is the structure of the photon that explains all its properties? ", was the long-awaited key for correction and reunification because the Physics could advance from the quagmire in which it had slipped because of small very simple but at the same time immense theoretical errors escaped attention. There are countless experimental results regarding the photon which find theoretical explanation through this photon model as well as experimental results on the question of the locality or non-locality of the electrical and magnetic interactions. I also refer, for the many details and developments on this subject, to my website, and to its paragraphs, to the link: http://fiatlux.altervista.org/ Oreste Caroppo
Category: Quantum Physics

[2783] viXra:1810.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 09:59:33

Electron Quantized Impedance Network Calculations (From 2011-2012)

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 19 Pages.

Mathcad calculation screensnaps of the quantized impedance network of the electron, pasted into powerpoint and saved as a pdf. For original mathcad file please contact the author.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2782] viXra:1810.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 09:05:39

Quantum Bits Shielded

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2781] viXra:1810.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 10:25:12

Superconducting Informatics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A NIMS-Ehime University joint research team succeeded in discovering new materials that exhibit superconductivity under high pressure using materials informatics (MI) approaches (data science-based material search techniques). [36] Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2780] viXra:1810.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 22:34:10

Topological Materials, Unnatural Fermions, the Higgs, and Geometry

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 4 Pages.

The General Theory of Relativity (1) will be useful in this article dealing with an aspect of the quantum world. Specifically – the analogy of the theory’s curvature of space-time to a rubber sheet. A small body like the Earth is said to warp space-time only a little and create a dimple in the sheet. A larger body such as the Sun curves space-time much more and forms a deep valley in the rubber. And a black hole is often pictured as warping space-time so much that it tears a hole through the rubber fabric. Transferring the analogy to the quantum realm – the motion of electrons can be visualized as their gliding across hills and valleys of pure energy (gravitational energy). This is because Relativity says gravity is caused by the curvature of space-time. Therefore, gravity … gravitational energy … IS space-time. Materials that don’t conduct electricity (insulators) have deep valleys which electrons struggle to escape from. In 2004, U.S.A. physicist Charles Kane noticed something strange in his computer simulations of electrons flowing through different materials: an insulator whose quantum state had the equivalent of a hole. Kane had not found the first quantum black hole but had discovered the first topological insulator – a then theoretical material that could conduct electricity on its surface but not within its interior. (In 2007, American physicist M. Zahid Hasan led the team that made the first 3D topological insulator.) About 90 years ago, while experimenting with the equations of quantum physics, German physicist Hermann Weyl showed that a massless and charged particle (now called the Weyl fermion) could theoretically exist. (2) In topological insulators, the hole in its quantum state causes electrons to come together and behave like a single particle called a Weyl fermion. The Weyl fermion can be related to Topological Insulators (TI), the Majorana fermion^ can be related to future quantum computers’ Topological Superconductors (TS), while topological insulators and topological superconductors may be regarded as the inverse of each other. This state of topological materials and “unnatural” fermions can be expressed by another phenomenon which I call vector-tensor-scalar geometry. ^ The Majorana fermion was predicted in 1937 by Italian physicist Ettore Majorana playing with the same quantum math that had intrigued Weyl. Like a Weyl fermion, a Majorana fermion has no mass. It also has no charge, despite being made of a bunch of negatively charged electrons. (3)
Category: Quantum Physics

[2779] viXra:1810.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 04:31:05

Maximum Velocity for Matter in Relation to the Schwarzschild Radius

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a short note on a new way to describe Haug's newly introduced maximum velocity for matter in relation to the Schwarzschild radius. This leads to a probabilistic Schwarzschild radius for elementary particles with mass smaller than the Planck mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2778] viXra:1810.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 07:37:13

Quantum Soccer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The Purcell effect also has another advantage: It shortens the time it takes the rubidium atom to store and release the quantum information. [23] Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2777] viXra:1810.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 10:22:05

Random Transistor Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Researchers at Case Western Reserve University, in collaboration with partners around the world, have been able to control the direction of a laser's output beam by applying external voltage. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2776] viXra:1810.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 11:18:23

On the Physical Nature of the Hong-ou-Mandel Effect

Authors: V.A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is noted that widely known Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is one of numerous manifestations of fundamental property of quantum physics – its time reversal noninvariance.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2775] viXra:1810.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 03:04:44

Unhackable Quantum Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2774] viXra:1810.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 03:09:46

Experimental Detection in Matter of the Quantum Electromagnetic Field

Authors: V.Vikulin, V. Korniienko
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian

It is shown that any matter has the quantum electromagnetic field (QEF) which existence follows from STR Einstein. Therefore elastic deformation of matter causes indignation of her QEF in a wave mode of quantum electromagnetic energies (S-radiation). This property of matter causes that generators of power plants together with electric current develop quantum currents. On networks they come to the equipment which will transform them to high-frequency quantum fields which pollutes the environment. It makes changes to parameters of energies of elementary particles of matter of which the human body consists that has negative effect on health. Therefore it is offered to limit on the basis of standards emission of S-radiations from the world equipment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2773] viXra:1810.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-23 06:45:55

Chip-Based Spectrometry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2772] viXra:1810.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-23 23:16:58

The Generation of Gamma Ray Bursts by the Intermodulation of Static Magnetic Fields

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is shown that by introducing two static magnetic fields into the same iron core which drives the core into its saturation region, that the non‐linear response of the core intermodulates the magnetic fields and produces gamma rays. This is consistent with the Wave Structure of Matter model which shows that a static magnetic field is a free‐space wave with a Compton wavelength equal to that of the electron. The intermodulation of these free‐space waves produces sum and difference products, generating gamma rays in the energy range that is measurable by a common Geiger counter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2771] viXra:1810.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 04:55:14

Cosmological Redshift

Authors: Kadir Aydogdu
Comments: 8 Pages.

Based on observations, it is clear that universe expands faster than the speed of light. Traveling photons for distances more than several mega parsecs become redshifted, so that photon loses some of its energy. To explain this event, we will try to create a logic in which photons have quasi-expansion-potential to carry the wave by redshift process. We will start with studying the energy density functions and modeling the vacuum as a standing wave. Later on, we will be studying about the functions of distribution of photons produced from the black body box to compare the energy densities of vacuum and photons with the logic of heat transfer as radiation. After we have shown all the cases about black body radiation, we will try to build up a conserved function dependent to the energy density of vacuum that results Planck’s distribution. We will see that there is an expansion energy that carries the thermodynamic energy. Contrary to popular belief, this new energy has no relation with the heat or thermodynamic energy but it only gives a motion to it. We will see a logarithmic energy that forces photons to move at the speed of light. This quasi-potential must be responsible for the cosmological redshift of light because it forces photon to move at the speed of light as it changes its medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2770] viXra:1810.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 09:36:02

Quantum World Bridge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2769] viXra:1810.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 11:48:52

Denial of the Manipulation of Quaternions in Bivalent Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

Quaternions do not map onto bivalent logic, and because of that cannot be manipulated by rules of classical logic "out of convenience".
Category: Quantum Physics

[2768] viXra:1810.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-21 07:13:19

Toward Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2767] viXra:1810.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-21 15:35:40

A Biquaternion Based Generalization of the Dirac Current Into a Dirac Current Probability Tensor with Closed System Condition

Authors: E. P. J. de Haas
Comments: 41 Pages.

By taking spin away from particles and putting it in the metric, thus following Dirac's vision, I start my attempt to formulate an alternative math-phys language, biquaternion based and incorporating Clifford algebra. At the Pauli level of two by two matrix representation of biquaternion space, a dual base is applied, a space-time and a spin-norm base. The chosen space-time base comprises what Synge called the minquats and in the same spirit I call their spin-norm dual the pauliquats. Relativistic mechanics, electrodynamics and quantum mechanics are analyzed using this approach, with a generalized Poynting theorem as the most interesting result. Then moving onward to the Dirac level, the M{\"o}bius doubling of the minquat/pauliquat basis allows me to formulate a generalization of the Dirac current into a Dirac probability/field tensor with connected closed system condition. This closed system condition includes the Dirac current continuity equation as its time-like part. A generalized Klein Gordon equation that includes this Dirac current probability tensor is formulated and analyzed. The usual Dirac current based Lagrangians of relativistic quantum mechanics are generalized using this Dirac probability/field tensor. The Lorentz transformation properties the generalized equation and Lagrangian is analyzed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2766] viXra:1810.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 04:56:28

Euler's Wavefunction

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is the 5th in a series of explorations to see if simple geometric and physical interpretations of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction could possibly make sense. It acknowledges the usual objections to naive interpretations head-on, but it also challenges these objections by presenting some heuristic arguments on how the basic axioms of quantum mechanics may be subject to some interpretation themselves. The arguments in this paper are what they are: heuristic. They do, therefore, not provide any mathematical proof. This is to be expected, as we are discussing interpretations of the wavefunction only: we surely do not want to challenge the math ! Hence, one should not expect formal proofs: thought experiments were the initial inspiration for quantum mechanics, and they still play the same role in contemporary physics. The paper focuses on two of the usual objections to geometric or physical interpretations of the wavefunction: 1.The superposition of wavefunctions is done in the complex space and, hence, the assumption of a real-valued envelope for the wavefunction is, therefore, not acceptable. 2.The wavefunction for spin-1/2 particles cannot represent any real object because of its 720-degree symmetry in space. Real objects have the same spatial symmetry as space itself, which is 360 degrees. Hence, physical interpretations of the wavefunction are nonsensical. The author hopes that this paper might contribute to a less dogmatic interpretation of the quantum-mechanical mathematical framework. If anything, the ideas presented in this paper – which is, in essence, a detailed discussion on why some visualizations make more sense than others – might contribute to a better didactic model for teaching quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2765] viXra:1810.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-20 07:15:12

Optical Centrifuge Superrotors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Using corkscrew-shaped laser pulses, scientists at DESY have devised a sophisticated optical centrifuge that can make molecules rotate rapidly about a desired molecular axis. [30] Neutron diffraction strain scanning measurements at ANSTO have validated a new theoretical model that successfully predicts the residual stresses and critical deposition heights for laser additive manufacturing. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2764] viXra:1810.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-20 04:39:59

Ultracold Trapped Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2763] viXra:1810.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-18 10:09:44

Limit on Electric Dipole Moment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

The most precise measurement yet of the electron's electric dipole moment (EDM) casts doubt on " split supersymmetry " and some other theories of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. [21] In a new study, researchers at Northwestern, Harvard and Yale universities examined the shape of an electron's charge with unprecedented precision to confirm that it is perfectly spherical. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2762] viXra:1810.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-19 03:56:04

High-Temperature Single-Molecule Magnet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A team of scientists led by Professor Richard Layfield at the University of Sussex has published breakthrough research in molecule-based magnetic information storage materials. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2761] viXra:1810.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-19 04:14:42

Tiny Magnet Within a Single Atom

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

In an international collaboration with IBM Research, the University of Oxford and the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, QNS scientists used advanced and novel techniques to measure the nuclear spin of individual atoms on surfaces for the first time. [35] A team of scientists led by Professor Richard Layfield at the University of Sussex has published breakthrough research in molecule-based magnetic information storage materials. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2760] viXra:1810.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-19 05:07:44

Extra Cold Superconducting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2759] viXra:1810.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 07:26:33

Elliptically Polarized Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Scientists at TU Wien, the University of Innsbruck and the ÖAW have for the first time demonstrated a wave effect that can lead to measurement errors in the optical position estimation of objects. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2758] viXra:1810.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 08:00:20

Complete Micro-physics Unifying Copenhagen QM and EPR: Non-connected Space Embedding

Authors: Bowen Liu
Comments: 14 Pages.

We unexpectedly show that complete micro-physics unifying Copenhagen QM and EPR (that restores to micro-matter causality and locality) is possible. There are two ways to unify physics: the Standard Model approach is that mathematics first and experimental foundation second, the priority of matter evolution over anything; our approach is that experimental foundation first and mathematics second, the priority of space evolution over matter evolution. Our work gives a brand new approach in the field of unified physics. First, similar to Turing’s modeling of computation, we model the spatial process of quantum experiments; give the barest essentials of the space process (as a necessary condition for unified physics): the micro-to-current space process does not have the exchangeability of observers. Second, the revolutionary concepts produced by space process modeling forces us to introduce a new geometry model: non-connected space embedding. Namely, 3-dimensional micro-space is embedded in the 3-dimensional current space in a non-connected way, and the embedding produces a mapping from microscopic space to current space and makes the complete microscopic form into an incomplete quantum form described in terms of state space. In this way, the unification of Copenhagen QM and EPR can be achieved. Space embedding, which has a more reliable experimental basis than the Standard Model, overturns the traditional space theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2757] viXra:1810.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 12:33:12

Memristor on Atomic Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2756] viXra:1810.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 13:06:58

Reservoir Neural Network Application

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

As artificial intelligence has become increasingly sophisticated, it has inspired renewed efforts to develop computers whose physical architecture mimics the human brain. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2755] viXra:1810.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 13:16:25

CMBR as Brownian Motion

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 2 Pages.

Brownian Motion = Kinematic Planck Viscosity The Brownian Motion Relation is D= (R*T/(NA6πηa)) = (Kb*T) /(6πηa) Brownian Motion Related to Planck Density & Friedmann Density
Category: Quantum Physics

[2754] viXra:1810.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 03:10:27

Dark Matter Quantum Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Fermilab scientists are harnessing quantum technology in the search for dark matter. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2753] viXra:1810.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 03:17:07

An Introduction to Generally Covariant Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 11 Pages.

An eleven page introduction to some of my results over the last three years in an original jacket.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2752] viXra:1810.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 04:19:11

Uranium Hydride Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2751] viXra:1810.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-13 10:47:42

Null-Cone Integral Formulation of Qed

Authors: Julian Brown
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown that a transformation of the Dirac equation to a zero sum integral over the past null cone, together with a simple transformation of the electromagnetic field source equation, yields a series, each of whose terms corresponds to one Feynman diagram. A feature of this alternative formulation of QED is that neither propagator factors nor off-shell states appear explicitly.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2750] viXra:1810.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 06:59:07

Physics Fudge Factors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Science is poised to take a "quantum leap" as more mysteries of how atoms behave and interact with each other are unlocked. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2749] viXra:1810.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 10:27:45

Ferromagnetic Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2748] viXra:1810.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 15:23:41

A Generalized Klein Gordon Equation with a Closed System Condition for the Dirac-Current Probability/field Tensor

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 70 Pages.

I begin with a short historical analysis of the problem of the electron from Lorentz to Dirac. It is my opinion that this problem has been quasi frozen in time because it has always been formulated within the paradigm of the Minkowski-Laue consensus, the relativistic version of the Maxwell-Lorentz theory. By taking spin away from particles and putting it in the metric, thus following Dirac's vision, I start my attempt to formulate an alternative math-phys language. In the created non-commutative math-phys environment, biquaternion and Clifford algebra related, I formulate an alternative for the Minkowski-Laue consensus. This math-phys environment allows me to formulate a generalization of the Dirac current into a Dirac probability/field tensor with connected closed system condition. This closed system condition includes the Dirac current continuity equation as its time-like part. A generalized Klein Gordon equation that includes this Dirac current probability tensor is formulated and analyzed. The Standard Model's Dirac current based Lagrangians are generalized using this Dirac probability/field tensor. The Lorentz invariance or covariance of the generalized equations and Lagrangians is proven. It is indicated that the Dirac probability/field tensor and its closed system condition closes the gap with General Relativity quite a bit.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2747] viXra:1810.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-11 07:19:13

Quantum Communication Without Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Quantum secure direct communication transmits secret information directly without encryption. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2746] viXra:1810.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 04:51:39

Topological Anderson Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2745] viXra:1810.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 07:25:16

Quantum Optical Circuits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2744] viXra:1810.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-09 08:51:26

Anomaly in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2743] viXra:1810.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-09 11:27:35

Superconducting Quantum Circuits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2742] viXra:1810.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-09 13:21:31

Electron Spin Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2741] viXra:1810.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 03:51:45

Quantum Materials Atom by Atom

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2740] viXra:1810.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-08 07:19:02

Optimized Laser Material Deposition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Neutron diffraction strain scanning measurements at ANSTO have validated a new theoretical model that successfully predicts the residual stresses and critical deposition heights for laser additive manufacturing. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2739] viXra:1810.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 09:21:12

Chemical Impact Parameter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Toronto have found a way to select the outcome of chemical reaction by employing an elusive and long-sought factor known as the 'impact parameter'. [31] Tailor-made protein drugs in the fight against cancer and other diseases are a step close, with the Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology at Flinders playing a part in one of the latest chemistry discoveries in effectively modifying therapeutic proteins. [30] New research published in Nature Methods will dramatically improve how scientists "see inside" molecular structures in solution, allowing for much more precise ways to image data in various fields, from astronomy to drug discovery. [29] Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2738] viXra:1810.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 11:09:53

Dirac Theory's Breaches of Quantum Correspondence and Relativity; Nonrelativistic Pauli Theory's Unique Relativistic Extension

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 12 Pages.

A single-particle Hamiltonian independent of the particle's coordinate ensures the particle conserves momentum, i.e., is free. This free-particle Hamiltonian is completely determined by Lorentz covariance of its energy-momentum and the particle's rest-energy value; such a free particle has velocity which vanishes when its momentum vanishes. Dirac required his free-particle Hamiltonian to be inhomogeneously linear in momentum, which contrariwise produces velocity that is independent of momentum; he also required his Hamiltonian's square to equal the above relativistic Hamiltonian's square, forcing many observables to anticommute and breach the quantum correspondence principle, as well as forcing the speed of any Dirac "free particle" to be c times the square root of three, which remains true when the particle interacts electromagnetically. The quantum correspondence principle breach causes a Dirac "free particle" to exhibit spontaneous acceleration that becomes unbounded in the classical limit; an artificial "spin" is also made available. Unlike the Dirac Hamiltonian, the nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian is free of unphysical anomalies. Its relativistic extension is worked out via Lorentz-invariant upgrade of its associated action functional at zero particle velocity, and is obtained in closed form when there is no applied magnetic field; when there is, a successive approximation scheme must be used.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2737] viXra:1810.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 07:24:11

Ultra-Fast Laser Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

The technique for generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses developed by the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physics winners, Professor Gérard Mourou and Dr. Donna Strickland, provides the basis for important scientific approaches used in Swinburne's research. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2736] viXra:1810.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 08:56:25

Quantum Cryptography Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Spanish researchers have developed a quantum cryptography network integrated in a commercial optical network through technologies based on software defined networking (SDN), allowing for the implementation of quantum and classical network services in a flexible, dynamic and scalable manner. [37] Physicists at the University of Sydney have found a 'quantum hack' that should allow for enormous efficiency gains in quantum computing technologies. [36] An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2735] viXra:1810.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 11:35:10

Gravitational Coupling Constant is 1/(modified Boltzmann’s Constant/2pi)^2 = 1.7517516e-45

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 1 Page.

(Electron parameters) are dictated by the Geometry of the Aether Medium (Matter & Energy) are (Relativistic Ballast) maintaining the (Fluid Dynamic Balance Of Space Time) relative to (Bulk Modulus Period and Bjerknes Forces) Gravitational coupling constant is 1/(Modified Boltzmann’s Constant/2pi)^2 = 1.7517516e-45 KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[2734] viXra:1810.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 08:42:58

Laser for Satellite Navigation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Scientists from ITMO University developed a laser for precise measurement of the distance between the moon and Earth. [41] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used common electronics to build a laser that pulses 100 times more often than conventional ultrafast lasers. [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2733] viXra:1810.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 11:31:01

Topological Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2732] viXra:1810.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 13:25:57

Full-Color Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Columbia Engineering researchers have created the first flat lens capable of correctly focusing a large range of colors of any polarization to the same focal spot without the need for any additional elements. [19] Discovered by Professor John Nye in Bristol over 35 years ago, polarisation singularities occur at points where the polarisation ellipse is circular, with other polarisations wrapping around them. In 3 dimensions, these singularities occur along lines, in this case creating knots. [18] The detectors created by ATI researchers are able to achieve high sensitivity levels that strongly compete with current technologies, while still operating at low voltages, as well as over the whole X-ray energy range spectrum. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2731] viXra:1810.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 10:12:01

Two Ways to Distinguish One Inertial Frame from Another (No General Causality Without Superluminal Velocities)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 43 Pages.

According to physicists, the laws of physics don’t allow us to discern one inertial frame from another. It does allow. This study shows two ways to distinguish one inertial frame from another. Physics hasn’t defined what is space, what is matter, what is time. In this study (in Space-Matter Theory), space is what matter uses as space, regardless of its texture. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. Both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. When action and reaction occurs between matter and space, the result is time. Time appears as a given wave of space. No particle, no frame of reference can exist without generating space waves. A and B inertial frames of reference are not identical if e.g. two identical electrons (electronA and electronB) create different wavelengths of space waves. One way to distinguish one inertial frame from another is to calculate or measure the length of the wavelength of the space wave. Via tunneling, a particle (with or without mass) travels through the barrier with superluminal velocity. In this case the barrier is a “special” space made out of matter (matter-space), where the particle travels with c velocity. This velocity appears in our space as superluminal velocity. Saying this, there are more spaces and more times instead of one spacetime. The different spaces make changes in the particle, too. The particle builds its action out of Planck constants h, where h has two parts which depend on the velocity of the particle in the given space. So there is also a phenomenon in the matter that makes it possible to distinguish one inertial frame from another.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2730] viXra:1810.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 10:55:12

Contradictions and Fallacies

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

Certain theories/conclusions in (modern) theoretical physics contain a contradiction and/or a fallacy, those theories/conclusions are incorrect and/or unrealistic.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2729] viXra:1810.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 03:00:44

A Minimum Rindler Horizon When Accelerating?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

When a particle is in constant acceleration, it has been suggested it has a Rindler horizon given by c^2/ a, where a is the proper acceleration. The Rindler event horizon tells us that we cannot receive information outside the horizon during the time period in which we are accelerating at this uniform rate. If we accelerate uniformly, sooner or later we will reach the speed of light, or at least very close to it. In this paper, we will look more closely at the Rindler horizon in relation to Haug’s newly-suggested maximum velocity for matter and see that there likely is a minimum Rindler horizon for a particle with mass that is accelerating; this minimum Rindler horizon may, in fact, be the Planck length.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2728] viXra:1810.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-01 08:06:15

Space-Borne Quantum Secure Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Entangled photons generated by a spaceborne quantum source could enable hack-proof key exchange for ultra high security applications. [24] These qubits are based on silicon carbide in which molybdenum impurities create color centers. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2727] viXra:1810.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-01 09:37:09

Atomic Quantum Information Carrier

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

For the first time, Kaiserslautern researchers were able to implant individual impurities formed by caesium atoms into an ultracold quantum gas of rubidium atoms in a controlled manner. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2726] viXra:1810.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-01 15:00:23

Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity V 3.0

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters
Comments: 11 Pages.

Transitions from (Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity)in a Ideal Fluid Under Pressure KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[2725] viXra:1809.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 07:15:25

Quantum Mechanics for Oil Industry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

With their current approach, energy companies can extract about 35 percent of the oil in each well. [36] An international team has shown that quantum computers can do one such analysis faster than classical computers for a wider array of data types than was previously expected. [35] A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34] Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2724] viXra:1809.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 14:54:28

Refutation of Deformation Field of Van Leunen

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

The arguments by implication or equivalence of van Leunen's deformation field are refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2723] viXra:1809.0582 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 15:22:28

Refraction

Authors: John Wallace, Michael J. Wallace
Comments: 6 Pages.

Reflection of light is well understood refraction is a more difficult problem. Refraction has been treated as a classical property and recently it became apparent where this property finds its quantum origin. The Schr¨odinger equation is a non-relativistic truncation of a more general five term equation that is consistent with relativity in the laboratory frame (Wallace and Wallace, 2017). It is the solution of this five term equation that supplies the quantum nature of refraction. Three different components of the solar neutrino survival data supports a massless electron neutrino, νe, not processes where the electron-neutrino oscillates to different flavors. The neutrino’s weak force interaction with matter is sufficient to produce a measurable refractive index for the neutrino. The ratio of refraction index between the neutrino passing through the earth and the photon in transparent materials reduced to the ratio of a weak force to the electromagnetic force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2722] viXra:1809.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 17:04:14

A New Mass Measure and a Simplification and Extension of Modern Physics

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 19 Pages.

Recent experimental research has shown that mass is linked to Compton periodicity. We suggest a new way to look at mass: Namely that mass at its most fundamental level can simply be seen as reduced Compton frequency over the Planck time. In this way, surprisingly, neither the Planck constant nor Newton’s gravitational constant are needed to observe the Planck length, nor in any type of calculation, except when we want to convert back to old and less informative mass measures such as kg. The theory gives the same predictions as Einstein’s special relativity theory, with one very important exception: anything with mass must have a maximum velocity that is a function of the Planck length and the reduced Compton wavelength. For all observed subatomic particles, such as the electron, this velocity is considerably above what is achieved in particle accelerators, but always below the speed of light. This removes a series of infinity challenges in physics. The theory also offers a way to look at a new type of quantum probabilities. As we will show, a long series of equations become simplified in this way.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2721] viXra:1809.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 04:25:08

Electron Structure, Ultra-dense Hydrogen and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Antonino Oscar Di Tommaso, Giorgio Vassallo
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, a simple Zitterbewegung electron model, proposed in a previous work, is presented from a different perspective that does not require advanced mathematical concepts. A geometric-electromagnetic interpretation of mass, relativistic mass, De Broglie wavelength, Proca, Klein-Gordon and Aharonov-Bohm equations in agreement with the model is proposed. Starting from the key concept of mass-frequency equivalence a non-relativistic interpretation of the 3.7 keV deep hydrogen level found by J. Naudts is presented. Abstract According to this perspective, ultra-dense hydrogen can be conceived as a coherent chain of bosonic electrons with protons or deuterons at center of their Zitterbewegung orbits. The paper ends with some examples of the possible role of ultra-dense hydrogen in some aneutronic low energy nuclear reactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2720] viXra:1809.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 05:44:17

Skyrmions Magnetic Frustration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Skyrmions are formed in magnetic systems via a variety of mechanisms, some of which work together. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2719] viXra:1809.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 06:47:45

Superconducting and Diamond Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2718] viXra:1809.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 08:03:27

Refutation of the no-Cloning Theorem in Statistical Models

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

The assumptions comprising the conjecture of the no-cloning theorem on statistical models is refuted. What follows is that the no-cloning theorem itself is also refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2717] viXra:1809.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 10:44:00

Refutation of Axiom of Probability for Quantum Theory

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

An axiom of probability theory is refuted and hence is unusable for quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2716] viXra:1809.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 15:02:24

Mass and Field Deformation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects. The paper explains the deformation and the expansion of fields by massive objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2715] viXra:1809.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 08:18:00

Generalization of the Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm Beyond Qubit Systems

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Shahrokh Heidari, Ahmed Farouk, Do Ngoc Diep
Comments: 7 pages

First, we review the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for determining a bit string. Next, we discuss the generalized Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for determining a natural number string. Finally, we discuss the generalized Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for determining an integer string. All of the generalized algorithms presented here have the following structure. Given the set of real values $\{a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_N\}$ and a special function $g$, we determine $N$ values of the function $g(a_1),g(a_2),g(a_3),\ldots, g(a_N)$ simultaneously. The speed of determining the strings is shown to outperform the best classical case by a factor of $N$ in every case.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2714] viXra:1809.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 08:25:28

The no-Cloning Theorem Based on a Statistical Model

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 4 pages

We investigate the no-cloning theorem that relies on the properties of a statistical model. Usually, the no-cloning theorem implies that two quantum states are identical or orthogonal if we allow a cloning to be on the two quantum states. Here, we rely on a statistical model. We may result in the fact that the two quantum states under consideration could not be orthogonal if we accept the statistical model. The no-cloning theorem may imply that the two quantum states under consideration may be identical if we accept the statistical model. The no-cloning theorem itself has this character.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2713] viXra:1809.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 01:55:05

Superconducting Traps Quantum Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

New research from the lab of Oskar Painter, John G Braun Professor of Applied Physics and Physics in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, explores the use of superconducting metamaterials to overcome this challenge. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2712] viXra:1809.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 03:32:51

Electro-Optic Laser Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used common electronics to build a laser that pulses 100 times more often than conventional ultrafast lasers. [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2711] viXra:1809.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 05:02:26

Single, Scattered Exposure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Engineers at Duke University have developed a way to extract a sequence of images from light scattered through a mostly opaque material—or even off a wall—from one long photographic exposure. [41] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used common electronics to build a laser that pulses 100 times more often than conventional ultrafast lasers. [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2710] viXra:1809.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 07:21:59

Ultra-Sensitive Quantum Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

New research from MIT's interdisciplinary Quantum Engineering Group (QEG) is addressing one of the fundamental challenges facing these quantum sensor systems: removing environmental noise from the signal being measured. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20] Scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have now discovered another class of particle-like magnetic object that could take the development of data storage devices a significant step forward. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2709] viXra:1809.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 12:50:33

(Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity)

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters
Comments: 6 Pages.

Transitions from (Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity)in a Ideal Fluid Under Pressure KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[2708] viXra:1809.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 13:19:02

(Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity) 2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters
Comments: 7 Pages.

Transitions from (Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity)in a Ideal Fluid Under Pressure KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[2707] viXra:1809.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 08:08:55

Quantum Pancake

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

An experiment with a cloud of ultracold atoms squashed into a quantum pancake has revealed never-before seen quantum effects that could lead to more efficient electronics, including high temperature superconductors. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2706] viXra:1809.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 08:51:37

Quantum Leap for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Amherst will develop sensors that enlist the seemingly weird properties of quantum physics to probe for dark matter particles in new ways, with increased sensitivity, and in uncharted regions. [33] A huge U.K.-built titanium chamber designed to keep its contents at a cool-100C and weighing as much as an SUV has been shipped to the United States, where it will soon become part of a next-generation dark matter detector to hunt for the long-theorised elusive dark matter particle called a WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle). [32] An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2705] viXra:1809.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 09:08:38

Single Atom Information Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2704] viXra:1809.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 03:31:05

New Way to Count Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at Syracuse University, working with collaborators at the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, have developed a new technique for measuring the state of quantum bits, or qubits, in a quantum computer. [23] Researchers at the University of Twente, working with colleagues at the Technical Universities of Delft and Eindhoven, have successfully developed a new and interesting building block. [22] Researchers at the Institut d'Optique Graduate School at the CNRS and Université Paris-Saclay in France have used a laser-based technique to rearrange cold atoms one-by-one into fully ordered 3D patterns. [21] Reduced entropy in a three-dimensional lattice of super-cooled, laser-trapped atoms could help speed progress toward creating quantum computers. [20] Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2703] viXra:1809.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-23 09:07:54

Laser Power in Real Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

To address this need, researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have been developing a laser power sensor that could be built into manufacturing devices for real-time measurements. [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2702] viXra:1809.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-21 08:25:58

Quantum Communication Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Quantum Communication Breakthrough Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2701] viXra:1809.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-20 07:11:47

Quantum Anomaly with Ultracold Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A FLEET study of ultracold atomic gases—a billionth the temperature of outer space— has unlocked new, fundamental quantum effects. [26] Symmetry plays a fundamental role in understanding complex quantum matter, particularly in classifying topological quantum phases, which have attracted great interests in the recent decade. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2700] viXra:1809.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-20 07:47:57

Duration of Photoelectric Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

For the first time, scientists from the Technical University of Munich (TUM), the Max-Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ), and the TU Wien have now measured the absolute duration of the light absorption and of the resulting photoelectron released from a solid body. [16] Scientists have developed a photoelectrode that can harvest 85 percent of visible light in a 30 nanometers-thin semiconductor layer between gold layers, converting light energy 11 times more efficiently than previous methods. [15] The tool allows engineers to design new classes of radio frequency-based components that are able to transport large amounts of data more rapidly, and with less noise interference. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2699] viXra:1809.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-20 08:15:39

Quantum Dot Sense Changes in Another

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers at Osaka University have recently developed the first device based on two self-assembled quantum dots that can measure the single-electron charge of one quantum dot using a second as a sensor. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2698] viXra:1809.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-20 09:52:32

Dark Heat

Authors: Kadir Aydogdu
Comments: 46 Pages.

To understand the relation between heat and temperature, physicists are modeling them as radiation and average kinetic energy, however in this thesis we will explain them as heat particles in the eyes of particle physics by analyzing the energy density functions. In thesis, this heat particle becomes the energy itself and carries constant mass, conservative forces and potential energy that is dependent to the distance between particles. Moreover, we will assume that the interaction between these particles result a radiation as blackbody distributed photons, in addition, interaction of these particles with other particles that we know result kinetic and other types of potential energy exchanges as we know as photon exchange. We will start with analyzing laws and theories that we trust, then we will try to find how these heat particles behave and how they interact with each other by modeling heat inside the black body box and heat inside photons as smallest particles and we will discuss how energy density changes in vacuum. By working with many particle systems, we will assume that energy density of the vacuum is dependent to conserved potential and we will try to find some proportionality about it. After finding constants and proportionalities, we will try to predict how every physical interaction happen and we will discuss every biggest physical problem in the eyes of our theory. Finally, we will be discussing one particle physics model in which everything made from just one particle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2697] viXra:1809.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-20 15:57:05

Partial Quantum Tensors of Input and Output Connections

Authors: Andrew Dente
Comments: 10 Pages.

I show how many connections of Γ are presently existing from R to β as they are being inputted simultaneously through tensor products. I plan to address the Quantum state of this tensor connection step by step throughout the application presented. Also, I will show you how to prove that the tensor connection is true through its output method using a wide variety but small amount of tensor calculus methods and number theory. You will patently see the formations of operator functions throughout the application as these two mathematical methods work together.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2696] viXra:1809.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 12:19:11

Quantum Three-Body Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Researchers at the RUDN University have developed a mathematical method to solve the quantum Coulomb three-body problem for bound states with high accuracy. [30] Ant-Man knows the quantum realm holds shocking revelations and irrational solutions. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2695] viXra:1809.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 13:04:41

Errors in the Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

These findings raise some fundamental questions—and they're polarising experts. [31] Researchers at the RUDN University have developed a mathematical method to solve the quantum Coulomb three-body problem for bound states with high accuracy. [30] Ant-Man knows the quantum realm holds shocking revelations and irrational solutions. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2694] viXra:1809.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 16:54:47

Refutation of Gedanken Experiment for Quantum Theory as not Descriptive of Itself, or not

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

The gedanken experiment for quantum theory as not descriptive of itself is not tautologous and not contradictory. This means quantum theory can neither describe itself nor not describe itself. This result foils the attempt to resucitate quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2693] viXra:1809.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 23:14:27

Delayed Choice Experiment and Disconnectedness of Microscopic Space

Authors: Bowen Liu
Comments: 16 Pages.

A brand new approach in the study of quantum experiment is introduced in this paper. The theoretical model of the delayed choice experiment is divided into two parts: micro-matter process model and spatial process model. People have been focusing only on micro-matter process. We focus on the details of the M-C (micro-to-current) space channel: the correspondence from micro-events to current events, the dependence of the validity check of the correspondence on extrinsic recursion invoking itself, the jurisdiction of current space to the micro-collapse. We show that the delayed choice experiment is just a global collapse experiment, and that the carrier of the coordinate difference in the micro-spatial channel is non-local. Consequently, it negates the existence of a common coordinate-difference carrier to micro-space and current space, and negates the connectedness between micro-space and current space. The purpose of this paper is, in terms of the delayed choice experiment, to show that the roots of the counter-intuition of quantum theory is the basic topological nature of space itself (disconnectedness) that forces microscopic matter to exhibit counterintuitive and non-causal features. We show that the delayed choice experiment supports the de-philosophizing Copenhagen interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2692] viXra:1809.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-18 07:38:16

Superconductor Synapse

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2691] viXra:1809.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-18 17:46:55

On the Impossibility of a Yang-Mills Finite Mass Gap in the Flat Spacetime

Authors: Victor Paromov
Comments: 1 Page. n/a

No Abstract
Category: Quantum Physics

[2690] viXra:1809.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 23:23:42

In Search of Schrödinger’s Electron

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 8 Pages.

This article continues to explore a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction that has been elaborated in previous papers (see http://vixra.org/author/jean_louis_van_belle). It basically zooms in on the physical model it implies for an electron in free space. It concludes that the mainstream interpretation of quantum physics (the Copenhagen interpretation) is and remains the most parsimonious explanation, but that one or two extra assumptions – the wavefunction as a two-dimensional self-sustaining oscillation of a pointlike charge in space – make more frivolous explanations (many-worlds, pilot-wave, etc.) redundant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2689] viXra:1809.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 06:16:36

Hydrogen-Rich Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2688] viXra:1809.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 06:34:32

Graphene Electronics Superfast

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz " could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates, " Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41] All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2687] viXra:1809.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 20:12:27

Experimental Verification of Wave Packet Collapse Using Fourth-Order Interference

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 8 Pages. Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 5, No. 2 (2018) 221-224

The concept of wave packet collapse is the most interesting and difficult to understand assumption of quantum mechanics and it remains an unresolved issue. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully examine its principle and process experimentally. We fabricated a new fourth-order interference apparatus capable of verifying the collapse of a wave packet. Contrary to expectation, a “collapse” was not observed in our experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2686] viXra:1809.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 17:24:23

The Dirac Hamiltonian's Egregious Violations of Special Relativity; the Nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian's Unique Relativistic Extension

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 13 Pages.

A single-particle Hamiltonian independent of the particle's coordinate ensures the particle conserves momentum, i.e., is free. If the Hamiltonian's energy-momentum is also Lorentz-covariant, it is uniquely determined by the particle's rest energy, and the particle has speed below c and constant velocity parallel to its conserved momentum (Newton's First Law), so its orbital angular momentum is conserved. Dirac set the square of his free-particle Hamiltonian equal to the square of this Hamiltonian, but he unwittingly ruined his Hamiltonian's energy-momentum Lorentz-covariance by making it inhomogeneously linear in momentum. A Dirac particle's speed is thus independent of its momentum, so by elimination can involve only c. Dirac free-particle speed comes out fixed to c times the square root of three, and the same fixed speed is obtained with the electromagnetically minimally coupled Dirac Hamiltonian, destroying the very basis of the textbook idea that Dirac Hamiltonians reduce to nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonians for weak fields and nonrelativistic particle speed. Dirac Hamiltonians egregiously violate the special-relativistic speed limit c, so must be discarded, and the actual relativistic extension of the nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian worked out, which is done via Lorentz-invariant upgrade of the rest-frame Pauli action functional. The relativistic Pauli Hamiltonian is obtained in closed form for zero external magnetic field, otherwise a successive approximation scheme applies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2685] viXra:1809.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 06:43:59

Quantum Optics Metamaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2684] viXra:1809.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 02:25:47

Photonic Topological Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Scientists have developed a topological photonic chip to process quantum information, promising a more robust option for scalable quantum computers. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2683] viXra:1809.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 04:35:03

Near-Infrared Laser Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2682] viXra:1809.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 05:11:38

Ultracompact Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41] All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2681] viXra:1809.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 05:26:53

Laser Printed Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41] All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2680] viXra:1809.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 06:43:42

Spontaneous T-Symmetry Breaking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2679] viXra:1809.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 07:24:35

Model of Trapped Atoms and Ions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2678] viXra:1809.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 07:47:20

Tunable Quantum State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Quantum particles can be difficult to characterize, and almost impossible to control if they strongly interact with each other—until now. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2677] viXra:1809.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 08:44:48

Building Blocks for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Twente, working with colleagues at the Technical Universities of Delft and Eindhoven, have successfully developed a new and interesting building block. [22] Researchers at the Institut d'Optique Graduate School at the CNRS and Université Paris-Saclay in France have used a laser-based technique to rearrange cold atoms one-by-one into fully ordered 3D patterns. [21] Reduced entropy in a three-dimensional lattice of super-cooled, laser-trapped atoms could help speed progress toward creating quantum computers. [20] Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2676] viXra:1809.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 22:07:32

The Löb Axiom and Sub-Conjecture ◻⊥>⊥ as Contra-Examples to Gödel Incompleteness Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We show the Löb axiom ◻(◻⊥>⊥)>◻⊥ is not tautologous, and the conjecture ◻⊥>⊥ is not contradictory. These serve as two contra-examples to the Gödel incompleteness theorem, hence refuting it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2675] viXra:1809.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 04:52:07

Tiny Camera Link Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

An international team of researchers led by The Australian National University (ANU) has invented a tiny camera lens, which may lead to a device that links quantum computers to an optical fibre network. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2674] viXra:1809.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-12 10:11:11

Individual Edge States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists of the University of Basel present the new method together with American scientists in Nature Communications. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2673] viXra:1809.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 08:18:11

Pristine Quantum Light Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

The team says that this finding could open up a new avenue of research, which unites quantum light with photonic devices having built-in protective features. [29] Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2672] viXra:1809.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 10:04:01

Quantum Cryptographic Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2671] viXra:1809.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-12 02:51:11

Finding the Planck Length Independent of Newtons Gravitational Constant and the Planck Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is assumed by modern physics that the Planck length is a derived constant from the Newton's gravitational constant, the Planck constant and the speed of light. This was first discovered by Max Planck in 1899. We suggest a way to find the Planck length independent of any knowledge of the Newton's gravitational constant or the Planck constant, but still dependent on the speed of light (directly or indirectly).
Category: Quantum Physics

[2670] viXra:1809.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 13:48:03

Photoelectrode Harvest Visible Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Scientists have developed a photoelectrode that can harvest 85 percent of visible light in a 30 nanometers-thin semiconductor layer between gold layers, converting light energy 11 times more efficiently than previous methods. [15] The tool allows engineers to design new classes of radio frequency-based components that are able to transport large amounts of data more rapidly, and with less noise interference. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2669] viXra:1809.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 14:12:22

Seven Photons Like Billions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A system made of just a handful of particles acts just like larger systems, allowing scientists to study quantum behaviour more easily. [16] Scientists have developed a photoelectrode that can harvest 85 percent of visible light in a 30 nanometers-thin semiconductor layer between gold layers, converting light energy 11 times more efficiently than previous methods. [15] The tool allows engineers to design new classes of radio frequency-based components that are able to transport large amounts of data more rapidly, and with less noise interference. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2668] viXra:1809.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 22:13:12

Refutation of Bell's Original Inequality from 1964

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

Bell's original inequality from 1964 is not tautologous and hence refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2667] viXra:1809.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 08:09:08

Entanglement of Six Light Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Experiments performed at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP) in Brazil have succeeded in entangling six light waves generated by a simple laser light source known as an optical parametric oscillator. [40] Now scientists at MIT and Harvard University have for the first time studied this unique, theoretical lens from a quantum mechanical perspective, to see how individual atoms and photons may behave within the lens. [39] Unlike previous methods of quantum entanglement involving incoherent and thermal clouds of particles, in this experiment, the researchers used a cloud of atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate state. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2666] viXra:1809.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 17:08:55

Finding the Planck Length From Electron and Proton Fundamentals

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

We suggest a way to find the Planck length by finding the Compton wavelength of the electron from Compton scattering, and then measuring the proton-electron ratio using cyclotron frequency. This gives us the Planck length using a Cavendish apparatus with no knowledge of Newton's gravitational constant. The Planck length is indeed important for gravity, but Newton's gravitational constant is likely a composite constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2665] viXra:1809.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 09:29:18

Quantum Entangled Pairs of Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Now scientists at MIT and Harvard University have for the first time studied this unique, theoretical lens from a quantum mechanical perspective, to see how individual atoms and photons may behave within the lens. [39] Unlike previous methods of quantum entanglement involving incoherent and thermal clouds of particles, in this experiment, the researchers used a cloud of atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate state. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2664] viXra:1809.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 12:45:12

Experiment for Reducing Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Reduced entropy in a three-dimensional lattice of super-cooled, laser-trapped atoms could help speed progress toward creating quantum computers. [20] Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2663] viXra:1809.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 13:22:20

Atomic Arrays for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Paris-Saclay in France have used a laser-based technique to rearrange cold atoms one-by-one into fully ordered 3D patterns. [21] Reduced entropy in a three-dimensional lattice of super-cooled, laser-trapped atoms could help speed progress toward creating quantum computers. [20] Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2662] viXra:1809.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 02:37:31

Teleport a Quantum Gate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Yale University researchers have demonstrated one of the key steps in building the architecture for modular quantum computers: the "teleportation" of a quantum gate between two qubits, on demand. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2661] viXra:1809.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 06:13:59

Terahertz Single-Molecule Regime

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

This could open up the wider use of THz spectroscopy, an underdeveloped method that is complementary to visible-light and X-ray spectroscopy, and highly relevant to nanoelectronics and quantum computing. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Stanford University and Europe has captured the clearest glimpse yet of a photochemical reaction—the type of light-fueled molecular transformations responsible for photosynthesis, vision and the ozone layer. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2660] viXra:1809.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 12:38:30

Quantum Computing Gate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2659] viXra:1809.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 13:34:07

Planck's Law at Very Small Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2658] viXra:1809.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 20:40:23

The Bell-CHSH Inequality Refuted as Bogus Bellian Logic (BBL)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko Levanto of Finland at Disqus to read this entire article three times before she types.)

The Bell-CHSH inequality is often touted as S=E(a,b)+E(a',b)+E(a,b')-E(a',b'), ~(2<|S|)=(|S|≦2), and E=(N++.+N−−.−N+−.−N−+)/(N++.+N−−.+N+−.+N−+). We confirm this is not tautologous and refute the Bell-CHSH inequality as Bogus Bellian logic (BBL).
Category: Quantum Physics

[2657] viXra:1809.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 03:01:53

Superradiance Quantum Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2656] viXra:1809.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 03:56:38

One-Dimensional Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Rice University atomic physicists have verified a key prediction from a 55-year-old theory about one-dimensional electronics that is increasingly relevant thanks to Silicon Valley's inexorable quest for miniaturization. [15] Konstanz physicist Professor Peter Baum and his team have succeeded in spatially and temporally directing and controlling ultrashort electron pulses directly by using the light cycles of laser light instead of microwaves. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2655] viXra:1809.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 11:37:23

Brighter Nanodiamonds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Brighter Nanodiamonds Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) impurities in nanodiamonds could be used as single-photon sources in quantum technologies, such as quantum computers and quantum sensors, thanks to their unique optical and electronic properties. [28] The reliable storage and coherent manipulation of quantum states with matter-systems enable the construction of large-scale quantum networks based on a quantum repeater. [27] A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2654] viXra:1809.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 06:23:10

Quantum Chicken or Egg Paradox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2653] viXra:1809.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 09:25:37

Security Scanners Detecting Explosives

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Using a single pixel camera and Terahertz electromagnetic waves, a team of Physicists at the University of Sussex have devised a blueprint which could lead to the development of airport scanners capable of detecting explosives. [18] The detectors created by ATI researchers are able to achieve high sensitivity levels that strongly compete with current technologies, while still operating at low voltages, as well as over the whole X-ray energy range spectrum. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2652] viXra:1809.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 02:00:38

Material Conductor and Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

Quantum materials are a type of odd substance that could be many times more efficient at conducting electricity through our iPhones than the commonly used conductor silicon—if only physicists can crack how the stuff works. [41] Femtosecond X-ray experiments in combination with a new theoretical approach establish a direct connection between electric properties in the macroscopic world and electron motions on the time and length scale of atoms. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2651] viXra:1808.0690 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 07:14:35

Efficiency for Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

An EU initiative has developed a novel architecture that combines energy and spectrum efficiency for Internet of Things (IoT) wireless communication. [29] Researchers at the University of Washington, working with researchers from the ETH-Zurich, Purdue University and Virginia Commonwealth University, have achieved an optical communications breakthrough that could revolutionize information technology. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2650] viXra:1808.0689 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 07:24:04

Digital Tsunami

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

How do we prepare for and manage what's known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution? [30] An EU initiative has developed a novel architecture that combines energy and spectrum efficiency for Internet of Things (IoT) wireless communication. [29] Researchers at the University of Washington, working with researchers from the ETH-Zurich, Purdue University and Virginia Commonwealth University, have achieved an optical communications breakthrough that could revolutionize information technology. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2649] viXra:1808.0685 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 08:46:21

X-ray Photoemission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

In a new study published Aug. 17 in Nature Communications, Nemsak, Fadley, Schneider and colleagues demonstrate the use of new techniques in X-ray spectroscopy to illuminate the internal structure of manganese-doped gallium arsenide. [35] With the publication of the first experimental measurements performed at the facility, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) has passed another critical milestone since its launch in September 2017. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2648] viXra:1808.0672 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 07:40:19

Het Universum Vanuit Het Niets Vervaardigen

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

De schepper schiep het universum vanuit het niets. En na dat moment, liet de schepper zijn schepselen aan hun lot over. De waarnemers onder deze schepsels kunnen alleen gegevens verkrijgen uit het historische deel van het alleen-lezen opslagmedium waarin de maker het universum archiveerde.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2647] viXra:1808.0660 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 02:24:25

Superelastic Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A collaboration between scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and the Institute for Theoretical Physics at Goethe University Frankfurt am Main has computationally predicted a number of unique properties in a group of iron-based superconductors, including room-temperature super-elasticity. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2646] viXra:1808.0649 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 08:26:45

Electrons Moving at Atomic Scales

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Femtosecond X-ray experiments in combination with a new theoretical approach establish a direct connection between electric properties in the macroscopic world and electron motions on the time and length scale of atoms. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2645] viXra:1808.0644 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 09:05:22

Tracing the Structure of Physical Reality by Starting from Its Fundamentals

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 24 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality owns a main foundation. This paper exploits the possibility to trace the structure of physical reality from this foundation to higher levels that human observers can at least partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravity and the fine structure of photons and elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2644] viXra:1808.0636 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 23:03:42

Quantum Mechanical Origin of Metals Color and it Finite Conductivity

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 12 Pages.

Human minds are always curious about the different of colors that exist in nature. A number of efforts has been made to describes the origin of colors in different materials. Till now the explanations are mostly based on using reflectivity and emissivity of the materials using classical phenomenological models. In this paper, we will discuss about the origin of color using the Brillouin zones and Bragg’s diffraction conditions and will show that the origin of color is purely arises due to quantum mechanical effect. We will also show that the origin of finite conductivity in any material at an arbitrary electrochemical potential is also arises due to quantum mechanical effect. We will also show that the origin of anisotropy in conductivity and in effective mass of electron in any metal are arises due to the quantum mechanical effects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2643] viXra:1808.0629 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-28 06:41:22

Semiconductor Quantum Wells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2642] viXra:1808.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 03:00:21

X-ray Free-Electron Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

With the publication of the first experimental measurements performed at the facility, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) has passed another critical milestone since its launch in September 2017. [34] Purdue University researchers are developing a novel biomedical imaging system that combines optical and ultrasound technology to improve diagnosis of life-threatening diseases. [33] Heart scans for patients with chest pains could save thousands of lives in the UK, research suggests. [32] Unnecessary heart procedures can be avoided with a non-invasive test, according to late breaking research presented today at ESC Congress 2018 and published in Journal of the American College of Cardiology. [31] Now, Columbia University researchers report a new way to zoom in at the tiniest scales to track changes within individual cells. [30] One of the main challenges in tissue engineering today is to create a complete network of blood vessels and capillaries throughout an artificial tissue. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2641] viXra:1808.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 09:39:31

Demystify Einstein's Spooky Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

According to Andrew Friedman, a research scientist at the University of California San Diego Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS), "the race is on" around the globe to identify and experimentally close potential loopholes that could still allow alternative theories, distinct from quantum theory, to explain perplexing phenomena like quantum entanglement. [38] The researchers used distant quasars, one of which emitted its light 7.8 billion years ago and the other 12.2 billion years ago, to determine the measurements to be made on pairs of entangled photons. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2640] viXra:1808.0603 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 13:59:13

Quantum Random Number Generator Encryption

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Qrypt, Inc., has exclusively licensed a novel cyber security technology from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promising a stronger defense against cyberattacks including those posed by quantum computing. [36] Researchers have shown that a chip-based device measuring a millimeter square could be used to generate quantum-based random numbers at gigabit per second speeds. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2639] viXra:1808.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-26 13:40:33

Fractal Penrose Decagon Dodecahedron

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 8 Pages.

Ideal Fluid Decagon Dodecahedron Fractal Penrose Tiling Planck Pressure & Volume & Viscosity Fluid Theory
Category: Quantum Physics

[2638] viXra:1808.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-26 13:46:39

Fractal Penrose Decagon Dodecahedron V2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ideal Fluid Decagon Dodecahedron Fractal Penrose Tiling Planck Pressure & Volume & Viscosity Fluid Theory
Category: Quantum Physics

[2637] viXra:1808.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-24 07:49:05

Remote Synchronization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

In some physical systems, even elements quite distant from one another are able to synchronize their actions. [30] Innovations in microscale electronics, medicine, combustion and scores of other technologies depend on understanding and predicting the behavior of electricity on the smallest of length scales. [29] New research from UBC's Okanagan campus, recently published in Nature Communications, may have uncovered the key to one of the darkest secrets of light. [28] But an international group led by Prof. Beena Kalisky and Prof. Aviad Frydman, from the Department of Physics and the Institute for Nanotechnology at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, has succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. [27] To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26] An international team of scientists developed the world's first anti-laser for a nonlinear Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2636] viXra:1808.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 02:34:32

Solid-State Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

The reliable storage and coherent manipulation of quantum states with matter-systems enable the construction of large-scale quantum networks based on a quantum repeater. [27] A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2635] viXra:1808.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 04:09:18

Conducts Light Powerfully

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Running computers on virtually invisible beams of light rather than microelectronics would make them faster, lighter and more energy efficient. [28] The reliable storage and coherent manipulation of quantum states with matter-systems enable the construction of large-scale quantum networks based on a quantum repeater. [27] A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2634] viXra:1808.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 04:29:47

Novel X-Ray Optics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a new approach to 3-D x-ray imaging that can visualize bulky materials in great detail—an impossible task with conventional imaging methods. [39] In a recent study featured on the March 2018 cover of Nature Photonics, researchers developed a new holographic method called in-flight holography. With this method, they were able to demonstrate the first X-ray holograms of nano-sized viruses that were not attached to any surface. [38] A paper published in the journal Physical Review X presents evidence of a radiation reaction occurring when a high-intensity laser pulse collides with a high-energy electron beam. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2633] viXra:1808.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 04:55:53

Decades-Old Math Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

"It took a long time, six years in fact, for the paper to get published, and even longer to be understood and gain the influence and impact that it deserved," said Joseph Avron, professor of physics at Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, writing in the April 2018 newsletter of the International Association of Mathematical Physics. [28] The reliable storage and coherent manipulation of quantum states with matter-systems enable the construction of large-scale quantum networks based on a quantum repeater. [27] A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2632] viXra:1808.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 09:21:50

The Wondrous Design and Non-random Character for “Chance” Events

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this article, it is shown specifically that physical-system chance events as represented by theory predicted (a priori) probabilistic statements used in such realms as modern particle physics, among others, are only random relative to the restricted language of the theory that predicts such behavior. It is shown that all such “chance” physical events are related one to another by a remarkably designed, systematic and wondrous collection of equations that model how the physical laws and processes specifically yield such physical events. A second result shows theoretically that all such “chance” behavior is caused by the application of well-defined ultralogics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2631] viXra:1808.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 13:44:10

D-Wave Quantum Simulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2630] viXra:1808.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-21 11:58:01

Quantum Simulation Mobility Edge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Now scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using an innovative quantum simulation technique have made one of the first observations of a mobility edge in a low-dimensional system. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1122] viXra:1812.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-02 08:37:38

Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory:part B: Granular Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 8 Pages.

A previous publication in Phys. Rev. D, (Part A of this paper) pointed out that vacuum energy fluctuations implied mass fluctuations which implied curvature fluctuations which then implied fluctuations of the metric tensor. The metric fluctuations were then taken as fundamental and a stochastic space-time was theorized. A number of results from quantum mechanics were derived. This paper (Part B), in addressing some of the difficulties of Part A, required an extension of the model: In so far as the fluctuations are not in space-time but of space-time, a granular model was deemed necessary. For Lorentz invariance, the grains have constant 4-volume. Further, as we wish to treat time and space similarly, we propose fluctuations in time. In order that a particle not appear at different points in space at the same time, we find it necessary to introduce a new model for time where time as we know it is emergent from an analogous coordinate, tau-time, τ, where ' τ -Time Leaves No Tracks' (that is to say, in the sub-quantum domain, there is no 'history'). The model provides a 'meaning' of curvature as well as a (loose) derivation of the Schwartzschild metric without need for the General Relativity field equations. The purpose is to fold the seemingly incomprehensible behaviors of quantum mechanics into the (one hopes) less incomprehensible properties of space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1121] viXra:1811.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-02 08:34:19

Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part a

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract Much of quantum mechanics may be derived if one adopts a very strong form of Mach's Principle, requiring that in the absence of mass, space-time becomes not flat but stochastic. This is manifested in the metric tensor which is considered to be a collection of stochastic variables. The stochastic metric assumption is sufficient to generate the spread of the wave packet in empty space. If one further notes that all observations of dynamical variables in the laboratory frame are contravariant components of tensors, and if one assumes that a Lagrangian can be constructed, then one can derive the uncertainty principle. Finally, the superposition of stochastic metrics and the identification of the square root of minus the determinant of the metric tensor as the indicator of relative probability yields the phenomenon of interference, as will be described for the two-slit experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1120] viXra:1811.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-30 08:37:57

Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part a

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract Much of quantum mechanics may be derived if one adopts a very strong form of Mach's Principle, requiring that in the absence of mass, space-time becomes not flat but stochastic. This is manifested in the metric tensor which is considered to be a collection of stochastic variables. The stochastic metric assumption is sufficient to generate the spread of the wave packet in empty space. If one further notes that all observations of dynamical variables in the laboratory frame are contravariant components of tensors, and if one assumes that a Lagrangian can be constructed, then one can derive the uncertainty principle. Finally, the superposition of stochastic metrics and the identification of the square root of minus the determinant of the metric tensor as the indicator of relative probability yields the phenomenon of interference, as will be described for the two-slit experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1119] viXra:1811.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-02 08:39:05

Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part C: Five-Dimensional Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick
Comments: 12 Pages.

This is a continuation of Parts A and B which describe a stochastic, granular space-time model. In this, Part C, in order to tessellate the space-time manifold, it was necessary to introduce a fifth dimension which is 'rolled up' at the Planck scale. The dimension is associated with mass and energy (in a non-trivial way). Further, it addresses other problems in the granular space-time model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1118] viXra:1811.0432 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-03 14:47:34

Modularity, Consciousness, and Intelligence

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 8 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has a modular structure. Consciousness gets introduced in the higher levels of the module hierarchy. Intelligence is introduced at the top level.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1117] viXra:1811.0432 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-28 10:34:06

Modularity, Consciousness, and Intelligence

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has a modular structure. Consciousness gets introduced in the higher levels of the module hierarchy. Intelligence is introduced at the top level.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1116] viXra:1811.0399 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-29 14:19:35

The Metaphysics of Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page and page with references

This is a didactic exploration of the basic assumptions and concepts of the Zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics. Its novelty is in applying the concepts to photons and relating it to other uses of the wavefunction. As such, we could have chosen another title for this paper: the physics of quantum physics. However, we only present interpretations, hypotheses and assumptions. As such, we thought we should stick to the title above: the metaphysics of physics - which sounds somewhat less arrogant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1115] viXra:1811.0399 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-26 20:54:02

The Metaphysics of Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 14 Pages.

This is a didactic exploration of the basic assumptions and concepts of the Zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics. Its novelty is in applying the concepts to photons and relating it to other uses of the wavefunction. As such, we could have chosen another title for this paper: the physics of quantum physics. However, all we present are interpretations, hypotheses and assumptions only, of course. As such, we preferred the title above: the metaphysics of physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1114] viXra:1811.0396 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-27 22:27:44

5 Different Superposition Principles With/without Test Charge, Retarded Waves/advanced Waves Applied to Dynamic Equation of the Photon

Authors: Shuang-Ren Zhao
Comments: 55 Pages.

In electromagnetic theory and quantum theory, there are superposition principle. The author found that there are 5 different kinds of superpositions. The superposition principles have some differences. The research about these differences is a key to open the the door of many physical difficulties. For example the particle and wave duality problem, and to judge which interpretation of the quantum mechanics is a correct one. The first two superposition principles are the superpositions with and without the test charges. The slight different superposition principles are the superposition with a retarded wave alone and the superposition with the advanced wave alone. According to theory of this author, the emitter sends the retarded wave, the absorber sends the advance wave. Hence, normal electromagnetic field actually is consist of retarded wave and advanced wave. This two wave together become the normal electromagnetic field. This kind of electromagnetic field can be seen approximately as retarded wave, this kind wave also has its own superposition. This kind of superposition is also different with the superposition when we consider the retarded wave and also the advanced wave. In this article this author will discuss the differences of these different situations of superpositions. This author will also discuss the different physical result with a few different superposition principles. In this article this author will prove only when the self-energy principle is accept, all kinds of superposition can be accept. Otherwise only the superposition with test charge or the superposition with only one kind wave either retarded waves or advanced waves can be accepted. Hence, the discussion about the superposition also support the concept of the self-energy principle which means there must exist the time reversal waves. That also means the waves do not collapse but collapse back. Wave collapse means collapse to target of the wave, for example, the retarded wave will collapse to a absorber and the advanced wave will collapse to a emitter. Wave collapse back means the retarded wave sent from emitter will collapse back to emitter; The advanced wave sent from the absorber will collapse back to an absorber. Hence, one purpose of this article is to clarify the superposition principles, and another purpose is to support this author's electromagnetic field theory which is started from two new axioms the self-energy principle and the mutual energy principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1113] viXra:1811.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-19 10:31:32

White Spots in Physics

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physics appears to include quite a few white holes. Apparently, this is not very essential for the proper functioning of applied physics. Through some clever steps, some of the white patches can be addressed. That delivers striking and not thought results
Category: Quantum Physics

[1112] viXra:1811.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-19 01:19:09

On Bell's Experiment

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 5 Pages.

With the use of tropical algebra operators and a d=2 parameter vectors space, Bell's theorem does not forbid a, physics vvalid, reproduction of the quantum correlation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1111] viXra:1811.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-19 10:29:18

Witte Vlekken in de Natuurkunde

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

De natuurkunde blijkt nog een flink aantal witte plekken te omvatten. Kennelijk is dat niet erg essentieel voor de goede werking van de toegepaste natuurkunde. Via wat slimme stappen kunnen een aantal van de witte vlekken worden aangepakt. Dat levert frappante en niet gedachte resultaten op.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1110] viXra:1811.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-17 15:24:33

Witte Vlekken in de Natuurkunde

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Project

De natuurkunde blijkt nog een flink aantal witte gaten te omvatten. Kennelijk is dat niet erg essentieel voor de goede werking van de toegepaste natuurkunde. Via wat slimme stappen kunnen een aantal van de witte vlekken worden aangepakt. Dat levert frappante en niet gedachte resultaten op.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1109] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-09 06:30:45

The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 9 Pages. Text expanded and references added. Comments welcome.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. At the end of the day, the physics of life shows a hit to quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1108] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-04 07:53:02

The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. Comments welcome.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. It is suggested that the physics of life can offer a hit of quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1107] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-28 08:49:45

The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. Comments welcome.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1106] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-25 05:36:36

The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Text expanded and references added.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1105] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-21 08:07:47

The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Text expanded and typos corrected.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1104] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-18 08:23:50

The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Final version.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1103] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-11 07:02:08

Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Text added and typos (hardly all) are corrected.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1102] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-08 17:03:27

Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 3 Pages. Title changed and text added.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1101] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-06 07:24:46

Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. Typos corrected

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1100] viXra:1810.0437 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-01 05:02:05

Maximum Velocity for Matter in Relation to the Schwarzschild Radius Predicts Zero Time Dilation for Quasars

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a short note on a new way to describe Haug’s newly introduced maximum velocity for matter in relation to the Schwarzschild radius. This leads to a probabilistic Schwarzschild radius for elementary particles with mass smaller than the Planck mass. In addition, our maximum velocity, when linked to the Schwarzschild radius, seems to predict that particles just at that radius cannot move. This implies that radiation from the Schwarzschild radius not can undergo velocity time dilation. Our maximum velocity of matter, therefore, seems to predict no time dilation, even in high Z quasars, as has surprisingly been observed recently.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1099] viXra:1810.0437 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-28 13:19:21

Maximum Velocity for Matter in Relation to the Schwarzschild Radius Predicts Zero Time Dilation for Quasars

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a short note on a new way to describe Haug's newly introduced maximum velocity for matter in relation to the Schwarzschild radius. This leads to a probabilistic Schwarzschild radius for elementary particles with mass smaller than the Planck mass. In addition, our maximum velocity, when linked to the Schwarzschild radius, seems to predict that particles just at that radius cannot move. This implies that radiation from the Schwarzschild radius not can undergo velocity time dilation. Our maximum velocity of matter, therefore, seems to predict no time dilation, even in high Z quasars, as has surprisingly been observed recently. If this is correct, there must be a different explanation for cosmological red-shift than the most popular one of the present time; this could also indicate that a new cosmological red-shift theory is needed. We do not offer an explanation here, but encourage other researchers to look more closely at red-shift and quasar time dilation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1098] viXra:1810.0382 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-28 14:54:08

The Generation of Gamma Ray Bursts by the Intermodulation of Static Magnetic Fields

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 9 Pages.

It is shown that by introducing two static magnetic fields into the same iron core which drives the core into its saturation region, that the non-linear response of the core inter-modulates the magnetic fields and produces gamma rays. This is consistent with the Wave Structure of Matter model which shows that a static magnetic field is a free-space wave with a Compton wavelength equal to that of the electron. The intermodulation of these free-space waves produces sum and difference products, generating gamma rays in the energy range that is measurable by a common Geiger counter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1097] viXra:1810.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-23 06:00:17

A Generalized Klein Gordon Equation with a Closed System Condition for the Dirac-Current Probability Tensor

Authors: E. P. J. de Haas
Comments: 42 Pages. Improved Lorentz transformation of the Dirac spinors.

By taking spin away from particles and putting it in the metric, thus following Dirac's vision, I start my attempt to formulate an alternative math-phys language, biquaternion based and incorporating Clifford algebra. At the Pauli level of two by two matrix representation of biquaternion space, a dual base is applied, a space-time and a spin-norm base. The chosen space-time base comprises what Synge called the minquats and in the same spirit I call their spin-norm dual the pauliquats. Relativistic mechanics, electrodynamics and quantum mechanics are analyzed using this approach, with a generalized Poynting theorem as the most interesting result. Then moving onward to the Dirac level, the M{\"o}bius doubling of the minquat/pauliquat basis allows me to formulate a generalization of the Dirac current into a Dirac probability/field tensor with connected closed system condition. This closed system condition includes the Dirac current continuity equation as its time-like part. A generalized Klein Gordon equation that includes this Dirac current probability tensor is formulated and analyzed. The usual Dirac current based Lagrangians of relativistic quantum mechanics are generalized using this Dirac probability/field tensor. The Lorentz transformation properties the generalized equation and Lagrangian is analyzed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1096] viXra:1810.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-30 17:30:36

Euler’s Wavefunction: the Double Life of 1

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper is the 5th in a series of explorations to see if a simple physical interpretation of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction could possibly make sense. It challenges two of the usual objections to such interpretation: 1. The superposition of wavefunctions is done in the complex space and, hence, the assumption of a real-valued envelope for the wavefunction is, therefore, not acceptable. 2. The wavefunction for spin-1/2 particles cannot represent any real object because of its 720-degree symmetry in space. Real objects have the same spatial symmetry as space itself, which is 360 degrees. Hence, physical interpretations of the wavefunction are nonsensical. The heuristic arguments in this paper will, hopefully, convince the reader these objections are subject to interpretation themselves. If anything, the ideas presented in this paper might contribute to a better didactic model for teaching quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1095] viXra:1810.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-19 10:04:08

An Introduction to Generally Covariant Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 11 Pages.

An eleven page introduction to some of my results over the last three years in an original jacket.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1094] viXra:1810.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 14:41:32

Null-Cone Integral Formulation of Qed

Authors: Julian Brown
Comments: 2 Pages.

In these preliminary notes it is shown that the positive(negative) energy solutions of the Dirac equation also solve a specific integral equation over the past(future) null cone. It is shown that this integral equation yields the same scattering amplitudes as in the Feynman propagator picture, except for an intrinsic energy cutoff for emitted photons at $\omega_{max} = m_e$ due to the positive (negative) energy constraint imposed by the past(future) cone geometry. Fermionic self-energy is therefore finite and calculable.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1093] viXra:1810.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-07 12:26:02

Two Ways to Distinguish One Inertial Frame from Another (No General Causality Without Superluminal Velocities)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 42 Pages.

According to physicists, the laws of physics don’t allow us to discern one inertial frame from another. It does allow. This study shows two ways to distinguish one inertial frame from another. Physics hasn’t defined what is space, what is matter, what is time. In this study (in Space-Matter Theory), space is what matter uses as space, regardless of its texture. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. Both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. When action and reaction occurs between matter and space, the result is time. Time appears as a given wave of space. No particle, no frame of reference can exist without generating space waves. A and B inertial frames of reference are not identical if e.g. two identical electrons (electronA and electronB) create different wavelengths of space waves. One way to distinguish one inertial frame from another is to calculate or measure the length of the wavelength of the space wave. Via tunneling, a particle (with or without mass) travels through the barrier with superluminal velocity. In this case the barrier is a “special” space made out of matter (matter-space), where the particle travels with c velocity. This velocity appears in our space as superluminal velocity. Saying this, there are more spaces and more times instead of one spacetime. The different spaces make changes in the particle, too. The particle builds its action out of Planck constants h, where h has two parts which depend on the velocity of the particle in the given space. So there is also a phenomenon in the matter that makes it possible to distinguish one inertial frame from another.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1092] viXra:1810.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-03 09:32:43

Two Ways to Distinguish One Inertial Frame from Another (No General Causality Without Superluminal Velocities)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 43 Pages.

According to physicists, the laws of physics don’t allow us to discern one inertial frame from another. It does allow. This study shows two ways to distinguish one inertial frame from another. Physics hasn’t defined what is space, what is matter, what is time. In this study (in Space-Matter Theory), space is what matter uses as space, regardless of its texture. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. Both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. When action and reaction occurs between matter and space, the result is time. Time appears as a given wave of space. No particle, no frame of reference can exist without generating space waves. A and B inertial frames of reference are not identical if e.g. two identical electrons (electronA and electronB) create different wavelengths of space waves. One way to distinguish one inertial frame from another is to calculate or measure the length of the wavelength of the space wave. Via tunneling, a particle (with or without mass) travels through the barrier with superluminal velocity. In this case the barrier is a “special” space made out of matter (matter-space), where the particle travels with c velocity. This velocity appears in our space as superluminal velocity. Saying this, there are more spaces and more times instead of one spacetime. The different spaces make changes in the particle, too. The particle builds its action out of Planck constants h, where h has two parts which depend on the velocity of the particle in the given space. So there is also a phenomenon in the matter that makes it possible to distinguish one inertial frame from another.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1091] viXra:1809.0582 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-02 18:38:08

Refraction

Authors: John Wallace, Michael J. Wallace
Comments: 6 Pages.

Reflection of light is well understood refraction is a more difficult problem. Refraction has been treated as a classical property and recently it became apparent where this property finds its quantum origin. The Schr¨odinger equation is a non-relativistic truncation of a more general five term equation that is consistent with relativity in the laboratory frame (Wallace and Wallace, 2017). It is the solution of this five term equation that supplies the quantum nature of refraction. Three different components of the solar neutrino survival data supports a massless electron neutrino, νe, not processes where the electron-neutrino oscillates to different flavors. The neutrino’s weak force interaction with matter is sufficient to produce a measurable refractive index for the neutrino. The ratio of refraction index between the neutrino passing through the earth and the photon in transparent materials reduced to the ratio of a weak force to the electromagnetic force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1090] viXra:1809.0564 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-10 04:56:23

Mass and Field Deformation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 10 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Project

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects. The paper explains the deformation and the expansion of fields by massive objects. Special attention is paid to elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1089] viXra:1809.0564 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-24 02:57:05

Mass and Field Deformation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 Pages.

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects. The paper explains the deformation and the expansion of fields by massive objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1088] viXra:1809.0564 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-20 06:40:01

Mass and Field Deformation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages.

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects. The paper explains the deformation and the expansion of fields by massive objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1087] viXra:1809.0350 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-18 10:43:17

In Search of Schroedinger's Electron and Einstein's Atom Too !

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 22 Pages.

This article explores a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction. It zooms in on the physical model it implies for an electron in free space (further building on Schroedinger's ideas in regard to the apparent Zitterbewegung of an electron), but then also discusses the wavefunction for particles (including non-charged particles) in general. While it basically concludes that the mainstream interpretation of quantum physics (the Copenhagen interpretation) is and remains the most parsimonious explanation, it also argues that one or two extra assumptions – the wavefunction as a two-dimensional self-sustaining electromagnetic or gravitational oscillation in space – would make more frivolous explanations (many worlds, pilot wave, etcetera) redundant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1086] viXra:1809.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-17 08:57:13

Experimental Verification of Wave Packet Collapse Using Fourth-Order Interference

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 8 Pages. Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 5, No. 2 (2018) 216-224

The concept of wave packet collapse is the most interesting and difficult to understand assumption of quantum mechanics and it remains an unresolved issue. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully examine its principle and process experimentally. We fabricated a new fourth-order interference apparatus capable of verifying the collapse of a wave packet. Contrary to expectation, a “collapse” was not observed in our experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1085] viXra:1809.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-22 16:18:53

The Dirac Hamiltonian's Egregious Violations of Special Relativity; the Nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian's Unique Relativistic Extension

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 13 Pages.

A single-particle Hamiltonian independent of the particle's coordinate ensures the particle conserves momentum, i.e., is free. Lorentz-covariance of that Hamiltonian's energy-momentum specifies it up to the particle's rest energy; the free particle it describes has speed below c and constant velocity parallel to its conserved momentum. Dirac took his free-particle Hamiltonian to have the same squared value as that relativistic one, but unwittingly blocked Lorentz-covariance of his Hamiltonian's energy-momentum by requiring it to be inhomogeneously linear in momentum. The Dirac "free particle" badly flouts relativity and even physical cogency; its velocity direction is extremely nonconstant, while its speed is fixed to c times the square root of three even when it interacts electromagnetically. Both its rest energy and total energy can be negative, and its velocity components and rest energy are artificially correlated by being mutually anticommuting; its alleged "spin" is an artifact of the anticommutation of its velocity components. Unlike the Dirac Hamiltonian, the nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian is apparently physically sensible for particle speed far below c. Its relativistic extension is worked out via Lorentz-invariant upgrade of its associated action functional at zero particle velocity, and is obtained in closed form if there is no applied magnetic field; a successive approximation scheme must otherwise be used.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1084] viXra:1809.0231 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-19 15:15:15

Finding the Planck Length Independent of Newton's Gravitational Constant and the Planck Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

In modern physics, it is assumed that the Planck length is a derived constant from Newton's gravitational constant, the Planck constant and the speed of light, l_p=Sqrt(G*hbar/c^3). This was first discovered by Max Planck in 1899. We suggest a way to find the Planck length independent of any knowledge of Newton's gravitational constant or the Planck constant, but still dependent on the speed of light (directly or indirectly).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1083] viXra:1809.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-11 11:54:46

Refutation of Bell's Original Inequality from 1964 with Assumptions

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page.

Bell's inequality from 1964 with or without assumptions is not tautologous, and hence refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1082] viXra:1808.0679 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-04 02:51:54

Relativistic Newtonian Gravitation That Gives the Correct Prediction of Mercury Precession and Needs Less Matter for Galaxy Rotation Observations

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the past, there was an attempt to modify Newton’s gravitational theory, in a simple way, to consider relativistic effects. The approach was “abandoned” mainly because it predicted only half of Mercury’s precession. Here we will revisit this method and see how a small logical extension can lead to a relativistic Newtonian theory that predicts the perihelion precession of Mercury correctly. In addition, the theory requires much less mass to explain galaxy rotation than standard theories do, and is also interesting for this reason.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1081] viXra:1808.0523 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-26 06:45:55

The Wondrous Design and Non-random Character for “Chance” Events

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this article, it is shown specifically that physical-system chance events as represented by theory predicted (a priori) probabilistic statements used in such realms as modern particle physics, among others, are only random relative to the restricted language of the theory that predicts such behavior. It is shown that all such “chance” physical events are related one to another by a remarkably designed, systematic and wondrous collection of equations that model how the physical laws and processes specifically yield such physical events. A second result shows theoretically that all such “chance” behavior is caused by the application of well-defined ultralogics.
Category: Quantum Physics