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2018 - 1801(22)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2082] **viXra:1801.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 02:38:43*

**Authors:** Vladimir A. Kuz`menko

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There is independent experimental evidence in favor of conspiracy theory in the explanation of the physical nature of quantum interference in experiments with slits and interferometers.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2081] **viXra:1801.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 07:54:01*

**Authors:** Spiros Konstantogiannis

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Using a momentum scale, we construct an n-independent, non-polynomial, symmetrized finite well, which, with the addition of a delta potential with n-dependent coupling, becomes quasi-exactly solvable. Making a polynomial ansatz for the closed-form eigenfunctions, we obtain a three-term recursion relation, from which the known energies are derived and the polynomial coefficients are factorized. The coupling is then written in terms of a continued fraction, which, as n tends to infinity, reveals a triangular symmetry and converges. Finally, the location of the closed-form eigenfunctions is determined and the first ones are examined.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2080] **viXra:1801.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-13 03:48:51*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this work we show that it is possible to formulate quantum mechanics from general relativity in both pseudo-Euclidean and Euclidean metric by showing that the three-dimensional differentiable spacetime structure of a quantum particle can be converted to that of a manifestly Minkowski spacetime or a manifestly Euclidean spacetime. This is equivalent to viewing and describing three-dimensional quantum particles as normal particles in classical and quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2079] **viXra:1801.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 08:08:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In recent years, however, the limits to that technology have become clear: Chip components can only get so small, and be packed only so closely together, before they overlap or short-circuit. If companies are to continue building ever-faster computers, something will need to change. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2078] **viXra:1801.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-12 10:50:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In their experiments, the researchers first transformed an ordinary laser beam into an accelerating one by reflecting the laser beam off of a spatial light modulator. [18]
Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17]
Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16]
In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14]
Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2077] **viXra:1801.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 07:35:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17]
Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16]
In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14]
Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2076] **viXra:1801.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-11 09:02:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Searching large, unordered databases for a desired item is a time-consuming task for classical computers, but quantum computers are expected to perform these searches much more quickly. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2075] **viXra:1801.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 16:03:06*

**Authors:** Gary Osborn

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An argument is presented that we cannot see more than about half way back to the beginning of time. The cosmological redshift may be explainable with a gravitational version of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2074] **viXra:1801.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-09 09:48:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have developed a method to visually image the entanglement between electrons. [15] In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2073] **viXra:1801.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 07:16:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, scientists have provided a bridge, which they call the quantum loop topography technique. This is a machine-learning algorithm based on neural networks. [10] A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons-particles of light-display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2072] **viXra:1801.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 11:01:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2071] **viXra:1801.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 11:14:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Physicists have performed a variation of the famous 200-year-old double-slit experiment that, for the first time, involves "exotic looped trajectories" of photons. These photons travel forward through one slit, then loop around and travel back through another slit, and then sometimes loop around again and travel forward through a third slit. [15]
In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14]
Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13]
Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12]
Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11]
Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10]
Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2070] **viXra:1801.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 07:14:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2069] **viXra:1801.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 14:16:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons-particles of light-display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2068] **viXra:1801.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 07:59:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Using ultracold atoms trapped in a periodically modulated two-dimensional superlattice potential, the scientists could observe a dynamical version of a novel type of quantum Hall effect that is predicted to occur in four-dimensional systems. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2067] **viXra:1801.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-04 01:59:10*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The reality is far more absurd than current physics demonstrates us

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2066] **viXra:1801.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 07:16:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2065] **viXra:1801.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 12:41:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2064] **viXra:1801.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 13:58:00*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model

De werkelijkheid is veel ongelofelijker dan de huidige natuurkunde ons voorspiegelt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2063] **viXra:1801.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 03:49:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated that quantum physics might enable communications and mapping in locations where GPS and ordinary cellphones and radios don't work reliably or even at all, such as indoors, in urban canyons, underwater and underground. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2062] **viXra:1801.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-03 05:40:37*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We embolden the idea that the Dirac 4 × 4 γ-matrices are four-vectors where the space components (γ i) represent spin and the forth component (γ 0) should likewise represent the time component of spin in the usual four-vector formalism of the Special Theory of Relativity. With the γ-matrices as four-vectors, it is seen that the Dirac equation admits two kinds of wavefunctions – (1) the usual four component Dirac bispinor ψ and (2) a scalar four component bispinor φ. Realizing this, and knowing forehand of the existing mystery as to why Leptons and Neutrinos come in pairs, we seize the moment and make the suggestion that the pair (ψ, φ) can be used as a starting point to explain mystery of why in their three generations [(e ± , ν e), (µ ± , ν µ), (τ ± , ν τ)], Leptons and Neutrinos come in doublets. In this suggestion, the scalar-bispinor φ can be thought of as the Neutrino while the usual Dirac bispinor ψ can be thought of as the Lepton.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2061] **viXra:1712.0670 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-30 17:09:55*

**Authors:** Andrew Thomas Holster

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

This is Part 1 of a four part paper, intended to redress some of the most fundamental confusions in the subject of physical time directionality, and represent the concepts accurately. There are widespread fallacies in the subject that need to be corrected in introductory courses for physics students and philosophers. Parts 1 and 2 are about quantum mechanics, Part 3 is about fundamental concepts, and Part 4 is about cosmology.
We start in Part 1 by analysing the time reversal symmetry of quantum probability laws. Time reversal symmetry is defined as the property of invariance under the time reversal transformation, T: t -> -t. It is shown that quantum mechanics (classical or relativistic) is strongly time asymmetric in its probability laws. This contradicts the orthodox analysis, found throughout the conventional literature on physical time, which claims that quantum mechanics is time symmetric or reversible. This is widely claimed as settled scientific fact, and large philosophical and scientific conclusions are drawn from it. But it is an error. The fact is that while quantum mechanics is widely claimed to be reversible on the basis of two formal mathematical properties (that it does have), these properties do not represent invariance under the time reversal transformation. A recent experiment (Batalhão at alia, 2015) showing irreversibility of quantum thermodynamics is discussed as an illustration of this result.
Most physicists remain unaware of the errors, decades after they were first demonstrated. Orthodox specialists in the philosophy of time who are aware of the error continue to refer to the ‘time symmetry’ or ‘reversibility’ of quantum mechanics anyway – and exploit the ambiguity to claim false implications about physical time reversal symmetry in nature. The excuse for perpetrating the confusion is that, since it is has now become customary to refer to the formal properties of quantum mechanics as ‘reversibility’ or ‘time reversal symmetry’, we should just keep referring to them by this name, even though they are not time reversal symmetry. This causes endless confusion, in attempts to explain the physical irreversibility of our universe, and in philosophical discussions of implications of physics for the nature of time. The failure of time reversal symmetry in quantum mechanics changes the interpretation of modern physics in a deep way. It changes the problem of explaining the real irreversibility found throughout nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2060] **viXra:1712.0666 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-29 12:48:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Researchers at The University of New Mexico, led by Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Hua Guo, have been working with experimentalists to help them gain an understanding by providing theoretical interpretations of experimental observations.
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and their team involving researchers of JASRI, Osaka University, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Nara Institute of Science and Technology have just developed a novel approach to determine and visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of individual dopant atoms using SPring-8. [13]
To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11]
Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10]
A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2059] **viXra:1712.0664 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-29 15:30:14*

**Authors:** Oliver Consa

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This Toroidal Solenoid Electron model describe the electron as an infinitesimal electric charge moving at the speed of light along a helical path. From this semiclassical model, we can derive all the electron characteristics as the electron magnetic moment, the g-factor, its natural frequency, the value of Quantum Hall Resistance and the value of the Magnetic Flux Quantum. In this new work, we obtain other features such as the helicity, the chirality, the Schwinger limits and, especially, the Toroidal Moment of the electron. The experimental detection of the Toroidal Moment of the electron could be used to validate this model. The toroidal moment of the electron is a direct consequence of Helical Solenoid Electrón model and it is calculated qualitatively and quantitatively. This feature of the electron (and any other subatomic particle) is not contained in the standard model, but appears as a requirement to explain the violation of the parity symmetry of the subatomic particles. The existence of a toroidal moment has been experimentally verified in nuclei of heavy atoms and also serves as basis to explain the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2058] **viXra:1712.0643 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 07:33:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and their team involving researchers of JASRI, Osaka University, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Nara Institute of Science and Technology have just developed a novel approach to determine and visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of individual dopant atoms using SPring-8. [13]
To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11]
Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10]
A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the
Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2057] **viXra:1712.0637 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 16:49:10*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract

Textbook theory says that the Canonical Commutation Relation derives from the homogeneity of space. This paper shows that additionally, an accidental coincidence of scales is needed, as extra information, without which the Canonical Commutation Relation is left non-unitary and broken. This single counter-example removes symmetry, as intrinsic ontological reason, for axiomatically imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) — by Postulate — on quantum mechanical systems.

Keywords

foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2056] **viXra:1712.0622 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 09:38:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2055] **viXra:1712.0620 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 16:04:18*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted to Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest on "What is Fundamental?"

In the 20th century, physics was split into quantum mechanics on the microscale, classical mechanics on the macroscale, and general relativity on the cosmic scale, each with a distinct conceptual framework. On the contrary, a simple realistic picture of fundamental waves can provide the basis for reunifying physics on all scales. This neoclassical synthesis combines aspects of classical, quantum, and relativistic physics, but is distinct from each of them. Electrons are soliton-like waves with quantized spin, which locally define time and space. In contrast, nucleons and atoms are simply composites, with no wave nature of their own. There are no point particles, quantum entanglement, or gravitational singularities. Furthermore, mathematical abstractions such as curved spacetime and complex quantum waves in Hilbert space are not fundamental at all. This approach makes predictions that differ from orthodox theory, which can be tested.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2054] **viXra:1712.0614 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-27 03:09:10*

**Authors:** Vladimir A. Kuz`menko

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Nonequivalence of forward and reversed processes in quantum physics directly demands the existence of the memory of quantum system about its initial state. The vacuum is best suited for storing this memory. A careful study of the inequality of differential cross sections of forward and reversed quantum transitions, perhaps, will allow finding in the future new tools for experimental studying of properties of dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2053] **viXra:1712.0596 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-25 23:16:14*

**Authors:** Andrew Thomas Holster

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Originally 2003 on philsci-archive, with >4000 downloads from 2010-2017

The analysis of the reversibility of quantum mechanics depends upon the choice of the time reversal operator for quantum mechanical states. The orthodox choice for the time reversal operator on QM states is known as the Wigner operator, T*, where * performs complex conjugation. The peculiarity is that this is not simply the unitary time reversal operation, but an anti-unitary operator, involving complex conjugation in addition to ordinary time reversal. The alternative choice is the Racah operator, which is simply ordinary time reversal, T. Orthodox treatments hold that it is either logically or empirically necessary to adopt the Wigner operator, and the Racah operator has received little attention. The basis for this choice is analysed in detail, and it is concluded that all the conventional arguments for rejecting the Racah operator and adopting the Wigner operator are mistaken. The additional problem of whether the deterministic part of quantum mechanics should be judged to be reversible or not is also considered. The adoption of the Racah operator for time reversal appears prima facie to entail that quantum mechanics is irreversible. However, it is concluded that the real answer to question depends upon the choice of interpretation of the theory. In any case, the conventional reasons for claiming that quantum mechanics is reversible are incorrect.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2052] **viXra:1712.0579 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-24 00:01:29*

**Authors:** Cres Huang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Atomic electron transition appears leaping from one energy level to another. The issue is, atomic particles are too small and too fast for our detectors to recognize their action and identity. I believe it is due to the sensors can only detect and register the repeated trajectory. Particle would have to revolving on the same orbit long enough. Otherwise, it would not trigger the reaction of the detectors. Transitional trajectory is short, and it does not repeat. It can not be detected, hence, jump.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2051] **viXra:1712.0573 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 12:49:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2050] **viXra:1712.0571 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 13:41:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A group of Michigan State University (MSU) researchers specializing in quantum calculations has proposed a radically new computational approach to solving the complex many-particle Schrödinger equation that holds the key to explaining the motion of electrons in atoms and molecules. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2049] **viXra:1712.0570 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 14:17:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2048] **viXra:1712.0562 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-23 03:42:08*

**Authors:** Vladimir A. Kuz`menko

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The report at the Conference: Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and Technology (FQMT), At Växjö, June 2017

A number of direct and indirect experimental proofs of nonequivalence of forward and reversed processes in quantum physics are discussed. Their strong inequality is a real physical base of nonlinear optics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2047] **viXra:1712.0560 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 07:59:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2046] **viXra:1712.0558 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 10:05:27*

**Authors:** Sarma N Gullapalli

**Comments:** 1 Page. This helps remove much confusion and mystery that still surrounds duality and effect of "which way" observation

An Axiom is presented and justified which (a) Explains duality in interference without complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) observation (b) Shows the equivalence: Coherence and alignment ≡ Interference ≡ No “which way” observation; No coherence or alignment ≡ No interference ≡ “which way” observation (c) Explains Wheeler’s delayed choice thought experiment (d) Explains results of experimental implementations of Wheeler’s experiment which show retro-causality with and without entanglement (e) Explains non-local action at a distance, and (f) Rephrases Albert Einstein’s unanswered question “Is quantum mechanics complete?” at a more fundamental level than just duality and non-locality. The explanation given does not require that the particle (photon) somehow “know” about the test setup or “which way” observation or change its behavior from particle to wave and vice versa as required by currently accepted explanation based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity principle. No new assumptions are made, only a new complete interpretation of probability which is already a fundamental assumption of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2045] **viXra:1712.0556 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 12:03:44*

**Authors:** Narendra N. Hegade, Bikash K. Behera, Prasanta K. Panigrahi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to Feynman, we should make nature to be quantum mechanical to simulate it better. Simulating quantum systems in a computer had been remained a challenging problem to tackle. It's mainly in case of a large quantum system. However, Feynman's 1982 conjecture that `physics can be simulated using a quantum computer other than using a Turing machine or a classical computer' has been proved to be correct. It is widely known that quantum computers have superior power as compared to classical computers in simulating quantum systems efficiently. Here we report the experimental realization of quantum tunneling through potential barriers by simulating it in the IBM quantum computer, which here acts as a universal quantum simulator. We take a two-qubit system for visualizing the tunneling process, which has a truly quantum nature. We clearly observe the tunneling through a barrier by our experimental results. This experiment inspires us to simulate other quantum mechanical problems which possess such quantum nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2044] **viXra:1712.0549 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 15:12:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2043] **viXra:1712.0548 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 22:32:37*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 23 Pages. This paper is an extract from my PhD thesis GEOMETRICAL AND TOPOLOGICAL METHODS IN CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM PHYSICS at Monash University in Australia. The paper was published in J. Phys. A: Math. Gen in 1996 under my name and my supervisor name.

This paper analyses quantum mechanics in multiply connected spaces. It is shown that the multiple connectedness of the configuration space of a physical system can determine the quantum nature of physical observables, such as the angular momentum. In particular, quantum mechanics in compactified Kaluza Klein spaces is examined. These compactified spaces give rise to an additional angular momentum which can adopt half integral values and therefore may be identified with the intrinsic spin of a quantum particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2042] **viXra:1712.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 09:39:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2041] **viXra:1712.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 10:07:50*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Study of the physical reality can happen in two different ways that meet and complement each other at a certain point.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2040] **viXra:1712.0536 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 10:04:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2039] **viXra:1712.0526 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 13:18:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2038] **viXra:1712.0525 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 13:45:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2037] **viXra:1712.0509 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 09:22:11*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model

Bestudering van de fysieke realiteit kan op twee verschillende wijzen gebeuren die elkaar op een bepaald moment ontmoeten en aanvullen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2036] **viXra:1712.0508 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 09:29:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2035] **viXra:1712.0507 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-19 10:29:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2034] **viXra:1712.0506 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-18 12:40:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2033] **viXra:1712.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-16 09:24:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2032] **viXra:1712.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 10:21:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2031] **viXra:1712.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 11:09:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2030] **viXra:1712.0459 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 08:26:10*

**Authors:** Liu Ran

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

现在科学上的客观存在，其实是一种“可观测的存在”，不是“无法观测的存在”，即存在等于可观测；不存在等于无法观测。并且，每一次观测，都会减少物体的存在，增加物体的不存在。

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2029] **viXra:1712.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 05:11:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2028] **viXra:1712.0448 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 06:19:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

Physicists have built one of the first basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer: a single-qubit Rydberg gate. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2027] **viXra:1712.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 08:35:07*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Derivamos algumas soluções gerais para o estado estacionário, oriundas do oscilador harmônico amortecido, por meio da equação Guedes-Schroedinger.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2026] **viXra:1712.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 10:19:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2025] **viXra:1712.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 11:25:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Physicists have built one of the first basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer: a single-qubit Rydberg gate. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2024] **viXra:1712.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 10:47:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2023] **viXra:1712.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 05:18:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2022] **viXra:1712.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 06:41:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

In contrast to the approach taken by mainstream physics, the Hilbert Book Model applies stochastic control of dynamic coherence and binding of module components. Each module owns its private stochastic process. All stochastic processes own a characteristic function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2021] **viXra:1712.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 06:45:22*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality archives its dynamic geometric data in a read-only repository. This repository emerges from its foundation which is an orthomodular lattice. The repository is a combination of a series of separable Hilbert spaces that share the same infinite dimensional vector space. For the definition of the inner product of pairs of vectors the separable Hilbert spaces apply a private version of the quaternionic number system. A non-separable Hilbert space embeds the separable Hilbert spaces. The version of the quaternionic number system acts as a parameter space. These parameter spaces float over a background parameter space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2020] **viXra:1712.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 06:49:19*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Two kinds of super-tiny shock fronts represent nature’s basic dark quanta. All other discrete objects in nature are configured by these dark quanta.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2019] **viXra:1712.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 14:05:38*

**Authors:** M. W. Roberts

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

An optical communication system is described. The system provides a unique operational capability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2018] **viXra:1712.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 09:05:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2017] **viXra:1712.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 14:22:18*

**Authors:** Martin Dudziak

**Comments:** 250 Pages.

PhD thesis, 1993

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2016] **viXra:1712.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 03:30:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2015] **viXra:1712.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 10:56:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2014] **viXra:1712.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 12:36:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2013] **viXra:1712.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 01:02:42*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work, we show that a massless physical field that accompanies a massive particle can be derived from Dirac equation, such as an electron is accompanied by the Coulomb electrostatic field, and we show that Dirac equation can also be generalised to form a field equation to describe internal dynamics of massless physical fields by considering the components of the momentum operators as matrix operators rather than scalar operators as in the original Dirac equation. One of many remarkable results that can be obtained from the generalised Dirac field equation is a linear potential that may be used to describe the quark confinement at large distances in the quark model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2012] **viXra:1712.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 05:42:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A group of scientists at the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI), University of Copenhagen, has figured out how to make spin qubits perform controlled backward rotations. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2011] **viXra:1712.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 18:37:11*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Bringing an elementary knowledge of sums and averages to Bell (1964), we refute Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2010] **viXra:1712.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-02 00:42:06*

**Authors:** Shubhayan Sarkar

**Comments:** under reveiw in PRA, 3 pages

Is quantum state real or just knowledge of some underlying reality? This question has been
asked time and time again but the answer still remains unclear. In the following paper, using the
property of the entangled state the author shows that the underlying hidden-variable model for a
particle in an entangled state has to be psi-epistemic. This implies that the wavefunction can't correspond to reality of such a system where the quantum state is entangled. However the result
doesn0t contradict the PBR result which says that quantum state is real as those results do not
include entangled systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2009] **viXra:1712.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 08:25:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates – the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures – contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29]
Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28]
Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like
Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2008] **viXra:1711.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 10:42:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28]
Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like
Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2007] **viXra:1711.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 02:12:34*

**Authors:** Daehyeon KANG

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recently, in the measurement of the current of the quantum interference device made of metal in the normal state, the current value oscillates according to the intensity of the magnetic field, and there is a period, and the numerical value is (hc/2e).
In this paper, we show theoretically why the period is (hc/2e) without charge pair.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2006] **viXra:1711.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 16:42:40*

**Authors:** Alexandre

**Comments:** 59 Pages. This version is work under way.

A fifth force, the Cohesion Force, becomes necessary when building a toy universe based on a fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. The four forces of nature plus the new one are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode first version implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2005] **viXra:1711.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 16:05:46*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell's inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question Marcus du Sautoy's claim that Bell's theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2004] **viXra:1711.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 23:52:35*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a portion of the model I wrote to model the Electron/Positron and their associated fields; such as Electric, Magnetic, Vector Potential fields. It is written in the Delphi language and is the function that calculates the fields from the mathematical wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2003] **viXra:1711.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 06:12:38*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Having shown in our previous works that the real-valued Schrödinger wave equation can be used to find mathematical functions to construct spacetime structures of quantum particles, in this work, we will discuss the possibility to formulate a real-valued Dirac equation in which all physical objects and all differential operators that are used to describe the dynamics of a particle are real quantities and, furthermore, since solutions to the Dirac equation are wavefunctions that have four components, it is possible to suggest that solutions to the real-valued Dirac equation should be interpreted as a parameterisation of 3-dimensional differentiable manifolds which are embedded submanifolds of the Euclidean space R^4.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2002] **viXra:1711.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:59:09*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach demonstrated in 1922 experimentally the “existence of space quantization in a magnetic field”, using their own words. The result of this experiment is later on used to introduce the so-called intrinsic spin angular moment of elementary and other particles. This article describes what went wrong in the applied argumentation. In 1896 Zeeman and Lorentz showed experimentally and theoretically that atoms emit ‘shifted’ frequencies when exposed to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon has been used to demonstrate the existence of spinning electrons. However, it is shown that this demonstration is not convincing at all.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2001] **viXra:1711.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 11:11:27*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Nós ampliamos a apresentação da teoria proposta no artigo precedente [1], a fim de que nossa concepção alcançasse um público mais amplo.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2000] **viXra:1711.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 21:33:15*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Recent experimental results have shown a violation of Bell’s inequalities, which are a mathematical formulation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. The violation leads to the conclusion that there are no local hidden variable theories that underlie quantum mechanics. However, the Bell’s inequalities do not rule out the possibility to construct non-local hidden variable theories that comply with quantum mechanics, in particular, a theory of special and general relativity that permits an instantaneous transmission of interaction. In this work we show that a special relativity with a Euclidean metric that allows not only local interactions but also interactions that can be transmitted instantaneously can be constructed and, furthermore, such special relativity can also be generalised to formulate a general theory of relativity that leads to the same experimental results as Einstein theory of general relativity. We also show that it is possible to formulate Dirac-like relativistic wave equations in this Euclidean relativity with either real mass or imaginary mass, which suggests that the proper mass of a quantum particle may be defined in terms of a differential operator that is associated with a spacetime substructure of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1999] **viXra:1711.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 08:37:13*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This document is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

This explanation of gravitation supports the idea that basic discrete objects are excitations of a field. The massive basic discrete objects are spherical shock fronts that carry a standard bit of mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1998] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 19:20:26*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract: Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964), we eliminate 13 false or unnecessary expressions and negate Bell's famous inequality. We hope this interesting result will move STEM students to study one of the most famous—and strangest—works in the history of physics: for who else but famous Bell uses the flawed approximation of an unnecessary experiment to invalidate their flawed use of a mathematical fact? And then rejects the fact?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1997] **viXra:1711.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 13:51:59*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm

This slide/show animation (also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm) is meant to explain some of the concepts people find confusing about the entangled communications device and various interpretations of quantum mechanics. We find the wavefunction and its collapse to be very real phenomenon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1996] **viXra:1711.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 15:39:38*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple explanation is given for the continuation of the singlet state over large distances in an EPRBA experiment. The paper answers this question with clocks ticking in synchronized frequencies that can be carried by the particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1995] **viXra:1711.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 15:12:41*

**Authors:** Masataka Ohta

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unlimited quantum parallelism is the key to make, in theory, quantum computers more
powerful than classical ones. However, in practice, noisy quantum devices have limited quantum
parallelism, which is directly derived from limited channel capacity of noisy quantum channels. As a
result, in practice, quantum computers are only as powerful as classical ones.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1994] **viXra:1711.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 22:14:49*

**Authors:** Irene Galtung

**Comments:** 53 pages

Science is mathematics. What is mathematics? Science seeks to uncover truths. “Science” is based on factually incorrect “mathematics”. “Science” is false. “Science” is factually incorrect. “Mathematics” is factually incorrect. Science is factually correct. Mathematics is factually correct. Let's look at: quantum mechanics -- the Standard Model of particle physics -- special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity -- Newton’s “science” -- Archimedes’ “science” -- etc.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1993] **viXra:1711.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 22:27:17*

**Authors:** Daehyeon KANG

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

At present, By the requirement that the phase factor of the wave function has unity, Quantum values of magnetic flux are calculated, which seems to lack quantum logic.
Thus, in this paper, we apply the quantum mechanics logic strictly to this problem,The unit value is derived and the result is (hc/2e).
It is exactly the same as that obtained by Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction and classical quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1992] **viXra:1711.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 05:47:27*

**Authors:** Vladimir Aksayskiy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents estimations of parameters of phonon, photon and graviton – which all represent boson family, derived with assumption that each of them has its own set of constants in Planck’s formula for boson gas in thermal equilibrium.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1991] **viXra:1711.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 04:52:42*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper deals with simulated interpretation of quantum mechanics. This interpretation is based on possibilities of computer simulation of our Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1990] **viXra:1711.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 11:21:56*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 pages.

Nós derivamos a densidade Lagrangeana para uma generalização da equação de Schroedinger para o átomo com um életron e um núcleo; e concluímos, por meio da equação generalizada, que este átomo seria o berço de píon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1989] **viXra:1711.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 12:39:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1988] **viXra:1710.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 15:11:56*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is all about wavefunctions and their interactions. If one seeks to understand QM, then a deep intuitive understanding of wavefunctions and wavefunction collapse would seem essential, indispensable. That’s where it all starts, the causal origin of the quantum as manifested in the physical world. We introduce a wavefunction comprised of the geometric elements of the Pauli algebra of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with quantized electromagnetic fields. Wavefunction interactions are described by the geometric product of geometric Clifford algebra, generating the Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime, the particle physicist’s S-matrix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1987] **viXra:1710.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 17:16:55*

**Authors:** Peter Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A theory (physics) needs to describe something that can exist in nature/reality, it needs to be realistic. But a lot of theories in modern theoretical physics are unnatural/unrealistic, theoretical physicists don't realize that they are lost in science fiction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1986] **viXra:1710.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 03:27:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1985] **viXra:1710.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 02:59:18*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The original ideas

We egeneralize the relativistic energy relation for the photoelectric effect in case
of the simultaneous emission of electrons and phonons in the metal medium.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1984] **viXra:1710.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 03:35:47*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 10 pages

We develop a simple yet impossible looking quantum protocol for achieving instantaneous
teleportation of any arbitrary quantum state from Alice to Bob even when Bob is several light
years away. We construct this quantum protocol by approriately combining two celebrated
results: the existing quantum teleportation protocol [1] and the quantum algorithm for searching
an unknown target [2]. The existing quantum teleportation protocol [1] requires certain classical
communication between the participents, Alice and Bob. Alice has to send certain classical
information in terms of classical bits generated during her Bell basis measurement over a classical
channel to Bob using which Bob determines the exact recovery operation to be performed on
the qubit(s) in his possession for the creation of the same unknown quantum state at his place
and thus to complete the protocol. This classical information in Alice's possession in terms of
certain classical bits cannot be sent to Bob with the speed faster than that of light which is the
well known experimentally varied universal upper limit on the speed for the transmission of
signals over a classical channel. We show that by appropritely using Grover's algorithm [2] at the
appropriate place in the teleportation protocol [1] and its extension for teleporting multiqubit
state [6] we can eliminate the requirement of the transmission of the classical bits by Alice over
a classical channel to Bob for the creation of the unknown quantum state at his place and thus
provide an eloquent way out to free ourselves from the universal upper limit on speed that is
preventing us from the superluminal information transfer. Thus our new modied teleportation
protocol clearly demonstrates the enormous advantage of remaining in the quantum regime and
avoiding the requirement of any classical communication.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1983] **viXra:1710.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 04:33:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

"In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1982] **viXra:1710.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 05:12:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is a very short non-technical note pointing out a key finding from modern mathematical atomism, namely that the world is Binary, and that the Planck mass, the Planck length, and the Planck second are invariant entities.
With Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks, the speed of light (in a vacuum) is the same in every direction, it is isotropic and it is often represented with the character c. The speed of light is, per definition, exactly 299 792 458 m/s, a tremendous speed. We do not contest that this is the speed of light as measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks, but still we ask: ``Is this truly always the case?".

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1981] **viXra:1710.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 06:34:58*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An explicitly time independent Lagrangian functional of a three-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator has been proposed. I derive results for the motion of the three-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator with a pure imaginary three dimensional vector and oscillator’s position-dependent friction coefficient.
The Hamiltonians corresponding to the Lagrangian is also explicitly time independent. The choice of functional form of the friction coefficient on the
oscillator position determines and plays a vital role in the form of the equation of motion classically and quantum mechanically. One choice of the form of the friction coefficient I made lead to breaking the symmetry of the isotropy of
oscillations in the three dimensional space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1980] **viXra:1710.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 06:57:37*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Submitted to Prespacetime Journal

In the reading Nyambuya (2015), we proposed a hypothetical state of the Hydrogen atom whose name we coined 'Neutronium'. That is to say, in the typical Hydrogen atom, the Electron is assumed to orbit the Proton, while in the Neutronium, the converse is assumed, i.e., the Proton orbits the Electron. In the present reading, we present some seductive argument which lead us to think that this Neutronium may actually be the usual Neutron that we are used to know. That is to say, we show that under certain assumed conditions, a free Neutronium may be unstable while a non-free Neutronium is stable in its confinement. Given that a free Neutron is stable in it confinement of the nucleus and unstable where free with a lifetime of ∼ 15 min, one wonders whether or not this Neutronium might be the Neutron if we are to match the lifetime of a free Neutronium to that of a free Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1979] **viXra:1710.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 23:23:19*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A LITTLE LATE TO THE PARTY

At this point in time they are debating whether or not space is empty? But the magnetic compass has been around for thousands of years.

With a simple compass you can easily verify:

● There is something filling supposed empty space.

● Whatever is filling space is also lining-up

● Whatever is lining-up also has a direction.

Can General or Special Relativity explain something in space is lining-up and having a direction? Of course not.

String theory with tiny vibration strings can also absolutely NOT explain it.

The supposed Higgs Field does NOT explain it.

There is nothing in the Standard Model that can explain it.

Loop Quantum Gravity? Quantum Mechanics? Nope, nothing explains it.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1978] **viXra:1710.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 08:33:55*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

Quantum mechanics differential equations are based on the de Broglie
postulate. This paper presents the repercussions on quantum mechanics
differential equations when the de Broglie wavelength is replaced by a relation
between the radius and the energy of a particle. This relation results
from a theoretical work about the interaction of charged particles,
where the particles are modelled as focal points of rays of fundamental particles
with longitudinal and transversal angular momenta. Interaction of
subatomic particles is described as the interaction of the angular momenta
of their fundamental particles. All four known forces are the result of electromagnetic interactions so that only QED is required to describe them. The potential well of an atomic nucleus is shown
with the regions that are responsible for the four types of interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1977] **viXra:1710.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 13:25:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have found ways to test aspects of the Tomonaga–Luttinger theory that describes interacting quantum particles in 1-D ensembles in a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL). [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1976] **viXra:1710.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 23:30:00*

**Authors:** Felix M Lev

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

In our previous publications we argue that finite mathematics is fundamental, classical mathematics (involving such notions as infinitely small/large, continuity etc.) is a degenerate special case of finite one, and ultimate quantum theory will be based on finite mathematics. We consider a finite quantum theory (FQT) based on a finite field or ring with a large characteristic $p$ and show that standard continuous quantum theory is a special case of FQT in the formal limit $p\to\infty$. Space and time are purely classical notions and are not present in FQT at all. In the present paper we discuss how classical equations of motions arise as a consequence of the fact that $p$ changes, i.e. $p$ is the evolution parameter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1975] **viXra:1710.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 09:09:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

A quantum simulator is the preliminary stage of a quantum computer. [25] By finding materials that act in ways similar to the mechanisms that biology uses to retain and process information, scientists hope to find clues to help us build smarter computers. [25] Scientists have made a crucial step towards unlocking the "holy grail" of computing-microchips that mimic the way the human brain works to store and process information. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1974] **viXra:1710.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 13:36:27*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The original ideas

We calculate the photoelectric effect initiated by dressed photon. The photon
propagator is composed from the electron positron pair.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1973] **viXra:1710.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 01:31:22*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 87 Pages. I still plan to add a few more sections detailing the quantum behavior of the magnetic moment Hamiltionian, as has been done for the Schroedinger Hamiltionian. But the paper is sufficiently developed that sharing is warranted at this time.

Dirac’s seminal 1928 paper “The Quantum Theory of the Electron” is the foundation of how we presently understand the behavior of fermions in electromagnetic fields, including their magnetic moments. In sum, it is, as titled, a quantum theory of individual electrons, but in classical electromagnetic fields comprising large numbers of photons. Based on the electrodynamic time dilations which the author has previously presented and which arise by geometrizing the Lorentz Force motion, there arises an even-richer variant of the Dirac equation which merges into the ordinary Dirac equation in the linear limits. This advanced Dirac theory naturally enables the magnetic moment anomaly to be entirely explained without resort to renormalization and other ad hoc add-ons, and it also permits a detailed, granular understanding of how individual fermions interact with individual photons strictly on the quantum level. In sum, it advances Dirac theory to a quantum theory of the electron and the photon and their one-on-one interactions. Seven distinct experimental tests are proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1972] **viXra:1710.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 13:01:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1971] **viXra:1710.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 07:23:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1970] **viXra:1710.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 10:17:33*

**Authors:** Alexandre Furtado Neto

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1969] **viXra:1710.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 10:30:41*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (RUS)

In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1968] **viXra:1710.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 13:27:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

JILA physicists have for the first time used their spinning molecules technique to measure the "roundness" of the electron, confirming the leading results from another group and suggesting that more precise assessments are possible. [18] The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1967] **viXra:1710.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 17:03:35*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The widely held expectation that quantum physics breaks down below the Planck length ($10^{-33}$ cm) is brought into question. A possible experiment is suggested that might test its validity at a
sub-Planckian length scale.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1966] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 15:05:43*

**Authors:** shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended this to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results is that a electron for example travel in the empty space from point A to the point B there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return wave corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these wave. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flow corresponding the above two flow. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and not only with one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further widen to to Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1965] **viXra:1710.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 08:00:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1964] **viXra:1710.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 12:15:15*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Bell's inequality is usually considered to belong to mathematics and not quantum mechanics. We think that this makes it difficult to understand Bell's theory. Thus in this paper, contrary to Bell's spirit (which inherits Einstein's spirit), we try to discuss Bell's inequality in the framework of quantum theory with the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation. And we clarify that whether or not Bell's inequality holds does not depend on whether classical systems or quantum systems, but depend on whether a kind of simultaneous measurements exist or not. And further we assert that our argument ( based on the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation) should be regarded as a scientific representation of Bell's philosophical argument (based on Einstein's spirit).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1963] **viXra:1710.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:32:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Physics and Astronomy International Journal

Exact solutions to the stationary spherically symmetric Newton-Schroedinger equation are proposed
in terms of integrals involving $generalized$ Gaussians. The energy eigenvalues are also obtained in terms of these integrals which agree with the numerical results in the literature. A discussion of infinite-derivative-gravity follows which allows to generalize the Newton-Schroedinger equation by $replacing$
the ordinary Poisson equation with a $modified$ non-local Poisson equation associated with infinite-derivative gravity. Finally, we argue how to replace the nonlinear Newton-Schroedinger equation for a non-linear quantum-like
Bohm-Poisson equation involving Bohm's quantum potential, and where the fundamental quantity is $no$ longer the wave-function $ \Psi$ but the real-valued probability density $ \rho$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1962] **viXra:1710.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 09:43:29*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Efforts based on the results of sophysicated experiments and meant to fit EPR effects in the accepted paradigms of Physics, remain unsatisfactory. A valid Physical Reality model (see Ref1: vixra.org/abs/1604.0230) may help to solve the puzzle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1961] **viXra:1710.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 10:06:22*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

As No.5 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the comparative studies of five fundamental interactions (gravitational interaction, electromagnetic interaction, weak interaction, strong interaction and quantum interaction), and focusing on the comparative studies of quantum interaction and other four fundamental interactions. The law of conservation of energy is put forward to deal with all kinds of fundamental interactions (including five fundamental interactions, and the sixth fundamental interaction that may appear in the future) with unified manner; in this process, there will be the unified theories of any two fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any three fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any four fundamental interactions, and so on. When law of conservation of energy can be used to deal with five fundamental interactions with unified manner, this unified theory of five fundamental interactions can be printed on a T-shirt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1960] **viXra:1710.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 13:52:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1959] **viXra:1710.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 12:41:10*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Abstract:

I Follow up on the 2008 experiments of Tomasz Paterek et al, which link quantum randomness with logical independence. Analysis reveals, that the Paterek formalism (unwittingly) relaxes a Quantum Postulate. That relaxation denies the axiomatic imposition of unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space mathematics, while allowing these to arise freely, as logically independent structures. Surprisingly, the Paterek formalism demands a non-unitary environment — where unitary structures may freely switch on or off. The unitary environment is necessary in the formation of superposition states, but not eigenstates. This unitary condition is sustained by self-referential logical circularity around cyclic sequences of transformations. Amongst all possible self-referential systems, these generate stable, persistent structures we recognise as quantum mechanical vectors and operators. Circularity explains indeterminacy's non-causedness. Non-definiteness, stems from geometric ambiguity — typically, left|right handedness in the Bloch sphere. Collapse is caused when the unitary symmetry is deformed by some agency, such as a magnetic field or polariser.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, axiomatised quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, linear algebra, elementary algebra, imaginary unit, prepared state, measured state, eigenstate, superposition state, Hilbert space, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1958] **viXra:1710.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 07:11:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10]
Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1957] **viXra:1710.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 07:38:54*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The origin of gravitation and mass is explained by the fact that spherical shock fronts locally and temporarily extend the volume of the carrier of this vibration.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1956] **viXra:1710.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 14:09:49*

**Authors:** Nikolay Dementev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Justifications of Everett’s alternative interpretation of Quantum Mechanics are suggested

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1955] **viXra:1709.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 15:30:34*

**Authors:** Shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 29 Pages. We hope some one can make experiment that can explicitly test the time-reversal process and self-energy principle.

Abstract The photon energy transfer is from point to point. But the wave according to the Maxwell equation spreads from the source point to the entire empty space. In order to explain this phenomenon the concept of wave function collapse is created. This concept is very rough, if there are many partition boards with small holes between the emitter charge and the absorber charge. The light is clear can go through all these small holes from emitter to the absorber. But according to the concept of the wave function collapse the wave must collapse N times if there are N holes on the partition boards. Collapse one is strange enough, if the wave collapse N times, that is unbelievable! In another article we have proved that the photon energy is actually transferred by the “mutual energy flow” which is point to point instead of spread to the entire space. Since energy can be transferred by the mutual energy flow, the concept of the wave function collapse is not necessary. In order to build the mutual energy flow it is required to build the self-energy flow also. The self-energy flow is spread to the entire empty space. What will do for the self-energy flow, it is possible the self-flow also collapse to the absorber. However if self-energy flow collapse we have also meet the same problem as the whole wave collapse that means if there are partition sheets with N holes, the self-energy flow has to collapse N times. In the article about mutual energy principle we have propose another possibility in which the self-energy flow instead collapse, we believe it is returned. It is returned with a time reversal process, hence the self-energy dose not contributed to the energy transfer of the photon. The return process can be seen as also a collapse process, however it is collapse to the source of the wave instead of the target of the wave. In this article we will discuss the self-energy flow and the time reversal process in details.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1954] **viXra:1709.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 01:07:22*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Maybe the lack of results for several years... is an experimental result.
ICHEP: (International Conference of High Energy Physics), 21-22 September 2017 has
produced no publication, no information. The previous ICHEP in August 2016 was almost too
silent. Never in the present world, physicists of high energy physics, of elementary particles,
have had instruments and detectors as powerful and as sensitive to their provisions. Never,
they were able to accumulate as much data per week, with such high amounts. But here, they
cannot extract any new significant physics information, these physicists have nothing to tell
us, for the moment they are dumb.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1953] **viXra:1709.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 10:39:42*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Opaque strips in coherent light shows diffraction effects. The Hodge Experiment of the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model is the Fraunhofer pattern from a first mask with a slit impinges on a second mask. The Hodge Experiment is extended to model a second mask of an opaque strip. The STOE photon model suggests the wires in the Afshar Experiment cause small interference that redirects a small percentage of the photons away from the detectors. This could help interpret Afshar's ``$V^*$'' (non-perturbative measurement parameter) (Afshar et al.(2007) http://www.arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0702188). The STOE is consistent with actual light screen patterns from opaque strips.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1952] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 10:59:51*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle, Drs, MAEc, BAEc, BPhil

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

While the real and imaginary part of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction are, obviously, not to be looked as field vectors, the similarity between the geometry of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction and that of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave remains intriguing: from a mathematical point of view, only the relative phase differs. Also, if the physical dimension of the electromagnetic field is expressed in newton per coulomb (force per unit charge), then one might explore the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a similar physical dimension: force per unit mass (newton per kg). This leads to a remarkably elegant interpretation of the physical significance of the wavefunction and the wave equation:
1.The calculated energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities.
2.Schrödinger’s wave equation itself may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy itself.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1951] **viXra:1709.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 09:32:11*

**Authors:** M. W. Roberts

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A delayed choice experiment is proposed. A signal and idler pair of photons are sent to optical circulators. The fate experienced by the idler photon is described by two different cases. In case I, the idler photon has zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter and therefore always enters its optical circulator. In case II, the idler photon has a non-zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter without entering its optical circulator. Which case the idler photon actually experiences is selected by the method that is used to detect the signal photon of the pair. This is true, even if the detection of the signal photon occurs long after the detection of the idler photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1950] **viXra:1709.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-24 09:59:50*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Journal "Quanta" Aug. 28, 2017, but rejected without review.

The nature of electron spin has presented an enigma right from the beginning of quantum mechanics. We suggest that a simple realistic
picture of a real coherently rotating vector field can account for both the Schrödinger equation and electron spin in a consistent manner. Such a rotating field carries distributed angular momentum and energy in the same way as a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave. We derive the Schrödinger equation from the relativistic Klein-Gordon Equation, where the complex wave function maps onto a fixed-axis real rotating vector. Such a realistic picture can also explain the Stern-Gerlach experiment which first identified electron spin. Remarkably, the predictions of a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment within this realistic picture differ from those of the orthodox quantum superposition approach. This two-stage experiment has not actually been done, and could provide insights into the limits of realistic models. This realistic picture also avoids quantum paradoxes and enables realistic explanations for a variety of quantum phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1949] **viXra:1709.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-24 00:23:20*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is the 2nd part of《Universal and Unified Field Theory》. The 1st part is available at http://viXra.org/abs/1709.0308

Extend to the Universal Topology [1], this manuscript presents that the principles of World Equations, World Events and Motion Operations institute a set of Universal Equations and inaugurate the holistic foundations general to all dynamic fields. Defined as the First Universal Field Equations, its application to Quantum Mechanics demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Spinor Fields, and Weyl Spinor.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1948] **viXra:1709.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-22 09:55:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Even more than 100 years after Einstein's explanation of photoemission the process of electron emission from a solid material upon illumination with light still poses challenging surprises. [25]
Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1947] **viXra:1709.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-22 10:17:08*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1946] **viXra:1709.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-22 06:35:05*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 33 Pages. 5 Figures

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion (i.e. quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, taking into account the effect of the purpose, it has been tried to give very clear and complete explanations of the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons and photons. (As the photons are emitted from the orbiting electrons, which posses persistent spin motion, the photons also possess spin motion that they derive from the orbiting electrons.)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1945] **viXra:1709.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 05:15:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can be considered as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relation exists with integral balance equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1944] **viXra:1709.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 08:59:42*

**Authors:** Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Thank you

(The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered due to the influence of social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have become subject to a number of sensationalized story lines, which we refer to here as “quantum mysticism”. In this paper we demonstrate a three-pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into the mathematical details here to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystification the discipline withholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechanics is an entirely rational, intuitive, and accessible discipline. The world is full of mystery; however, a discipline devoted to quantifying and rationalizing behaviors of certain specific systems is hardly the place to go searching for mystery.)
由于社会压力的影响，围绕着各种数学和物理技术的叙述而被熟知的量子力学遇到了挫折。这些理论及其预测能力的不可思议的力量已经变成了一些耸人听闻的故事情节，我们称之为“量子神秘主义”。本文对这些力量进行了三方面的反击。精确的使用准确的术语，用直观的方法描述离散和微观现象的行为，这有效地揭开了量子力学的神秘面纱。我们不会在这里讨论数学细节，以使我们的讨论能够被普通人所理解。在我们揭开了这个学科的神秘性之后，它拥有了不可思议的预测能力，同时又不会吓跑一个理性的思考者。事实上，量子力学是一个完全理性的、直观的、易于理解的学科。这个世界充满了神秘；然而，这门学科致力于对某些特定系统的行为进行量化和合理化，并不是去寻找神秘事物的地方

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1943] **viXra:1709.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 12:43:43*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present interpretation of photon is as: A photon = a quantum of radiation energy + energy hn , where the quantum of radiation energy constitutes the photon and provides the particle like physical existence to it, similarly, as the quantum of charge (-e) constitutes the electron and provides the particle like physical existence to it. And the energy hn enables the photon to travel with velocity c, spin with frequency n (which the photon obtains from the orbiting electron, from which the photon is emitted), scatter electron in the Compton scattering, and eject electron penetrating into metals in the photoelectric effect. The present interpretation of photon enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to photons, including the phenomena of interference and diffraction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1942] **viXra:1709.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 14:29:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1941] **viXra:1709.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-20 15:19:35*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in french

We take a time in a spinorial manifold so that we can define a Dirac-Schrödinger equation when we remplace the derivative with respect to the time by the Dirac operator.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1940] **viXra:1709.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 11:33:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Canadian and US researchers have taken an important step towards enabling quantum networks to be cost-effective and truly secure from attack. [16] You can't sign up for the quantum internet just yet, but researchers have reported a major experimental milestone towards building a global quantum network-and it's happening in space. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1939] **viXra:1709.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 08:37:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Light travels fast – sometimes a little too fast when it comes to data processing. [25]
Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24]
A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23]
Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22]
Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1938] **viXra:1709.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 09:13:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1937] **viXra:1709.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 16:19:25*

**Authors:** Benjamin Allen Sullivan

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Cette publication comprend deux équations dérivées et extrapolées à partir d’un livre que j’ai créé en 2015/2016: Probabilité, Mécaniques quantiques, et Probabilité-Quanta. Le dernier est composé de plusieurs pensées expérimentales et de postulats. J’y ai inclus des numérisations de la publication originale afin d’illustrer mon travail et dans l’espoir de réaliser ces expériences.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1936] **viXra:1709.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 23:55:22*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Abstract
This paper presents an energy interpretation of quantum theory. It is proposed to deal with all the changes and interactions (including gravity) is not as power bodies interaction of charges of particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as the manifestations and consequences of energy processes in a unified cosmos. Measure these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power equal to Planck's constant. The motion of matter in the universe is seen as the dynamics of the vector field of energy, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. Energy is proposed interpretation of the hydrogen atom, in which the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and the radiation energy flux vector material-energy field. Planck values are shown in the dimensions of the LT. It is argued that a cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has no relation to the mythical "Big Bang". Shows the energy interpretation of the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1935] **viXra:1709.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 02:48:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Today, electrical bistable devices are the foundation of digital electronics, serving as building blocks of switches, logic gates and memories in computer systems. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1934] **viXra:1709.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 07:46:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1933] **viXra:1709.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 13:03:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated a new mode of electromagnetic wave called a "line wave," which travels along an infinitely thin line along the interface between two adjacent surfaces with different electromagnetic properties. [25]
The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1932] **viXra:1709.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 05:06:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1931] **viXra:1709.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 12:55:28*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to the G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1930] **viXra:1709.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 13:21:02*

**Authors:** Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Chinese Translation of Existing Paper

The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered under the influence of various social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have thus become subject to a number of sensationalized storylines, which we refer to here as quantum mysticism. In this paper we demonstrate a three pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into mathematical details, to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystificaion the discipline witholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechnics is entirely a rational, intuitive, and learnable discipline, no more subject to mysticism than any other aspect of the world around us. If you think you don't understand quantum mechanics, it's probably because you don't understand quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1929] **viXra:1709.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-16 02:37:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Kohn-Sham density functional theory is one of the most successful theories in chemistry. [19]
Researchers have now succeeded in formulating a mathematical result that provides an exact answer to the question of how chaos actually behaves. The researchers have analysed chaotic states at the atomic level. [18]
Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17]
New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16]
Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13]
Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1928] **viXra:1709.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 13:16:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The era of full-fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it. [17]
Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16]
For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15]
Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14]
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13]
The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1927] **viXra:1709.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 08:19:27*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The ultimate, elementary, internal clock, of the living world seems to have been discovered. If we refer to the discoveries of the neuroscientists and biologists, the human being has an endogenous clock that made him a transmitter of the beat of time. This essential beat is estimated at 10-25 second and is that what we are able to measure it? If so, no need to search a source in Nature. The time would be unreal. But the 'Presence' of the ‘Thinking Being’ is a first reality. If not, there is none knowledge's statement possible in physical science as in any other science.
Ref. viXra:1211.0149 ; viXra:1301.0157 ; viXra:1307.0018.
philip.maulion@paris7.jussieu.fr

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1926] **viXra:1709.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 08:37:32*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
The resulting model is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model.
As a consequence, the standard model could be extended with changes for an alternative Photonic Molecule based Higgs particle of different masses ( recent LHC measurements) based on different geometrical structures.
At the same time there seems to open a new field of physics around quantum gravity, the planetary mass related local lightspeed drag, and a topological superconductive vacuum.
In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface.
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles to form Quarks quantum knots and all other particles.
Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless singular transformer but rigid string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z and Higgs particles of different masses and even ball lightning and other black hole nuclei.
If we assume that different massive Higgs particle knots are the origin of different evaporation times, then there is reason to assume that the trajectory lengths measured from the source, before evaporation are covariant, without any radiation curvature.
Reason to suggest that the idea to use such a process for “lightsaber” projects with restricted length has some logic.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1925] **viXra:1709.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 08:38:46*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1924] **viXra:1709.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 09:49:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Simulating molecules on quantum computers just got much easier with IBM's superconducting quantum hardware. [17]
Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1923] **viXra:1709.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 05:07:45*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physics must be simple. This reasoning is the general idea behind Occam’s razor. However, it is also a general physical principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1922] **viXra:1709.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 13:40:05*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a traditional particle--like model. A single model of light has remained a mystery. Newton's speculations, Democritus's speculations, the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the fractal philosophy are combined. The resulting model of photon structure and dynamics is tested by toy computer experiments. The simulations include photons from a distance, in Young's experiment, and from a laser. The patterns on the screens show diffraction patterns fit by the Fresnel equation. The model is consistent with the Afshar experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1921] **viXra:1709.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 12:40:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. [21] Magnetic data storage has long been considered too slow for use in the working memories of computers. Researchers at ETH have now investigated a technique by which magnetic data writing can be done considerably faster and using less energy. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1920] **viXra:1709.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 07:37:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

How do we make an object invisible? Researchers from TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1919] **viXra:1709.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 07:05:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

NIST scientists have achieved a world record in detecting the intensity of an ultra-faint source of light, equaling the capabilities of the deep-space instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope but operating 100 times faster and with equivalent accuracy. [26] Graphene Flagship researches from CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Italy and the University of Cambridge, UK have shown that it is possible to create a terahertz saturable absorber using graphene produced by liquid phase exfoliation and deposited by transfer coating and ink jet printing. [25] By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1918] **viXra:1709.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 08:16:02*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1917] **viXra:1709.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 08:17:58*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1916] **viXra:1709.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 04:01:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Extreme environments are created in the labs at TU Wien. In an ion trap, large amounts of energy are used to rip a great number of electrons out of their atoms, leaving highly charged ions behind. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1915] **viXra:1709.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 09:30:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1914] **viXra:1709.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 09:48:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1913] **viXra:1709.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 11:29:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1912] **viXra:1709.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 16:18:52*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Large scale retrocausality is impossible. Simple logic on space-time diagrams shows it.

Following an earlier paper, an argument is presented that sets up a causality paradox with signals that claim to be retrocausal. This is not to be dismissive of claims of retrocausality over small scales by the mechanism of advanced and retarded waves, just that it is not possible over timescales greater than the energy-time uncertainty relationship.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1911] **viXra:1709.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 08:48:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1910] **viXra:1709.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-07 14:48:12*

**Authors:** Michael A. Sherbon

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science, 15, 4, 23-26 (2015). CC 4.0

An introduction is given to the geometry and harmonics of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid, with the metaphysical and mathematical determination of the fine-structure constant of electromagnetic interactions. Newton's gravitational constant is also presented in harmonic form and other fundamental physical constants are then found related to the quintessential geometry of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1909] **viXra:1709.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-07 12:08:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1908] **viXra:1709.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-07 10:13:54*

**Authors:** Martin Thomas Pollner

**Comments:** 3 pages in English, 2 Pages in German

English Summary: As a supplement to my publication on "The Quantization of the Physical Real Space and the Expansion of Space" in vixra.org 1203.088 of 29th March 2012 it will be described here how a flow of quantified space (flow of Dark Photons) especially within rotating spiral galaxies constitutes the so called Dark Matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1907] **viXra:1709.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 13:26:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1906] **viXra:1709.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 13:53:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1905] **viXra:1709.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 14:17:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1904] **viXra:1709.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 04:39:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[914] **viXra:1801.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-05 06:07:46*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

The reality is far more absurd than current physics demonstrates us

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[913] **viXra:1801.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-05 06:05:52*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De werkelijkheid is veel ongelofelijker dan de huidige natuurkunde ons voorspiegelt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[912] **viXra:1801.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-04 01:55:42*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De werkelijkheid is veel ongelofelijker dan de huidige natuurkunde ons voorspiegelt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[911] **viXra:1801.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-08 14:57:12*

**Authors:** Philip J. Carter

**Comments:** 29 pages, 16 figures. Adds step to derivation on page 10.

With scant regard for conventional paradigms we look squarely at the evidence and derive a space-time framework accounting for quantum non-locality and retro-causality. On this basis we gather insight into the origins of time, space and mass. We derive the mass-transformation formula according to Special Relativity and provide a context for the internal symmetries of the Standard Model. To provide a philosophical context we derive the central structure of the esoteric cosmological model from first principles while demonstrating its consistency with the framework. As a result of this unification, consciousness enters physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[910] **viXra:1712.0637 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-11 06:16:31*

**Authors:** Steve faulkner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract

Abstract Textbook theory says that the Canonical Commutation Relation derives from the homogeneity of space. This paper shows that the Canonical Commutation Relation does not derive from homogeneity of space or the homogeneity symmetry itself, but derives from a duality viewpoint of homogeneity, seen both from the viewpoint of position space, and from the viewpoint of momentum space, combined. Additionally, a specific particular fixed scale factor, relating position space with momentum space is necessary. It is this additional scaling information which enables complementarity between the system variables and makes the system unitary. Without this particular scaling, the Canonical Commutation Relation is left non-unitary and broken. Indeed, unitarity is separate information, unconnected and logically independent of the quantum system's underlying symmetry. This single counter-example contradicts the current consensus that foundational symmetries, underlying quantum systems, are ontologically, intrinsically and unavoidably unitary. And thus removes ‘unitary ontology’, as reason, for axiomatically imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) — by Postulate — on quantum mechanical systems.

Keywords

foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[909] **viXra:1712.0637 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-09 06:55:55*

**Authors:** Steve faulkner

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract

Textbook theory says that the Canonical Commutation Relation derives from the homogeneity of space. This paper shows that additionally, an a dual of accidental coincident scalings is needed, as extra information, without which the Canonical Commutation Relation is left non-unitary and broken. This single counter-example removes symmetry, as intrinsic ontological reason, for axiomatically imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) — by Postulate — on quantum mechanical systems.

Keywords

foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[908] **viXra:1712.0558 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-23 12:24:04*

**Authors:** Sarma N Gullapalli

**Comments:** Number of pages: 9

An Axiom is presented and justified which (a) Explains duality in interference without complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) observation (b) Shows the equivalence: Coherence and alignment ≡ Interference ≡ No “which way” observation; No coherence or alignment ≡ No interference ≡ “which way” observation (c) Explains Wheeler’s delayed choice thought experiment (d) Explains results of experimental implementations of Wheeler’s experiment which show retro-causality with and without entanglement (e) Explains non-local action at a distance, and (f) Rephrases Albert Einstein’s unanswered question “Is quantum mechanics complete?” at a more fundamental level than just duality and non-locality. The explanation given does not require that the particle (photon) somehow “know” about the test setup or “which way” observation or change its behavior from particle to wave and vice versa as required by currently accepted explanation based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity principle. No new assumptions are made, only a new complete interpretation of probability which is already a fundamental assumption of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[907] **viXra:1712.0558 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-22 15:09:29*

**Authors:** Sarma N Gullapalli

**Comments:** Number of pages: 9

Explaining Duality without Complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg)
And also Retro-Causality and Non-Locality
Sarma N. Gullapalli
sngullapalli@hotmail.com
Abstract
An Axiom is presented and justified which (a) Explains duality in interference without complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) observation (b) Shows the equivalence: Coherence and alignment ≡ Interference ≡ No “which way” observation; No coherence or alignment ≡ No interference ≡ “which way” observation (c) Explains Wheeler’s delayed choice thought experiment (d) Explains results of experimental implementations of Wheeler’s experiment which show retro-causality with and without entanglement (e) Explains non-local action at a distance, and (f) Rephrases Albert Einstein’s unanswered question “Is quantum mechanics complete?” at a more fundamental level than just duality and non-locality. The explanation given does not require that the particle (photon) somehow “know” about the test setup or “which way” observation or change its behavior from particle to wave and vice versa as required by currently accepted explanation based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity principle. No new assumptions are made, only a new complete interpretation of probability which is already a fundamental assumption of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[906] **viXra:1712.0540 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-31 07:39:19*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

Study of the physical reality can happen in two different ways that meet each other at a certain point and then complement each other.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[905] **viXra:1712.0540 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-29 07:44:35*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

Study of the physical reality can happen in two different ways that meet each other at a certain point and then complement each other.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[904] **viXra:1712.0540 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-22 03:31:06*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This paper is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Study of the physical reality can happen in two different ways that meet each other at a certain point and then complement each other.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[903] **viXra:1712.0509 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-04 02:02:34*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

Bestudering van de fysieke realiteit kan op twee verschillende wijzen gebeuren die elkaar op een bepaald moment ontmoeten en aanvullen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[902] **viXra:1712.0509 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-22 03:27:16*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

Bestudering van de fysieke realiteit kan op twee verschillende wijzen gebeuren die elkaar op een bepaald moment ontmoeten en aanvullen.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[901] **viXra:1712.0509 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-19 16:06:09*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[900] **viXra:1712.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-10 06:59:03*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

In contrast to the approach taken by mainstream physics, the Hilbert Book Model applies stochastic control of dynamic coherence and binding of module components. Each module owns its private stochastic process. All stochastic processes own a characteristic function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[899] **viXra:1712.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-09 03:30:52*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

Physical reality archives its dynamic geometric data in a read-only repository. This repository emerges from its foundation which is an orthomodular lattice. The repository is a combination of a series of separable Hilbert spaces that share the same infinite dimensional vector space. For the definition of the inner product of pairs of vectors the separable Hilbert spaces apply a private version of the quaternionic number system. A non-separable Hilbert space embeds the separable Hilbert spaces. The version of the quaternionic number system acts as a parameter space. These parameter spaces float over a background parameter space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[898] **viXra:1712.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-09 03:33:59*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Two kinds of super-tiny shock fronts represent nature’s basic dark quanta. All other discrete objects in nature are configured by these dark quanta.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[897] **viXra:1712.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-09 06:44:26*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[896] **viXra:1712.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 06:13:16*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[895] **viXra:1712.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-05 09:44:30*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[894] **viXra:1712.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 04:06:06*

**Authors:** Gordon watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Bringing an elementary knowledge of sums and averages to Bell (1964), we refute Bell’s theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[893] **viXra:1711.0434 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-30 02:19:06*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell's inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question Marcus du Sautoy's claim that Bell's theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[892] **viXra:1711.0421 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 22:07:18*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is a portion of the model I wrote to model the Electron/Positron and their associated fields; such as Electric, Magnetic, Vector Potential fields. It is written in the Delphi language and is the function that calculates the fields from the mathematical wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[891] **viXra:1711.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-26 12:30:18*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version 1 presents the wrong expression ‘angular moment’ in stead of ‘angular momentum’, now used in version 2.

Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach demonstrated in 1922 experimentally the “existence of space quantization in a magnetic field”, using their own words. The result of this experiment is later on used to introduce the so-called intrinsic spin angular momentum of elementary and other particles. This article describes what went wrong in the applied argumentation. In 1896 Zeeman and Lorentz showed experimentally and theoretically that atoms emit ‘shifted’ frequencies when exposed to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon has been used to demonstrate the existence of spinning electrons. However, it is shown that this demonstration is not convincing at all.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[890] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-23 22:39:18*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell’s inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question du Sautoy’s (2016) claim that Bell’s theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[889] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-16 18:38:56*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964), we amend Bell's inequality, reveal his mistake, refute his theorem: all in the hope of helping STEM students study one of the most famous—and strangest—works in the history of physics. For who else but Bell uses flawed approximations of unnecessary experiments to invalidate the flawed use of a fact: and then rejects that fact? Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[888] **viXra:1710.0325 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 07:47:38*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is all about wavefunctions and their interactions. If one seeks to understand Quantum Mechanics, then a deep intuitive understanding of wavefunctions and wavefunction collapse would seem essential, indispensable. That’s where it all starts, the causal origin of the quantum as manifested in the physical world. We introduce a wavefunction comprised of the geometric elements of the Pauli algebra of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with quantized electromagnetic fields. Wavefunction interactions are described by the geometric product of geometric Clifford algebra, generating the Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime, the particle physicist’s S-matrix. Electromagnetic synthesis of four fundamental forces becomes apparent via this Geometric Wavefunction Interpretation (GWI).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[887] **viXra:1710.0316 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-04 16:21:39*

**Authors:** Peter Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A theory (physics) needs to describe something that can exist in nature/reality, it needs to be realistic. But a lot of theories in modern theoretical physics are unnatural/unrealistic, physicists don't realize that they are lost in science fiction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[886] **viXra:1710.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-17 17:26:10*

**Authors:** Alexandre Furtado Neto

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[885] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 11:12:46*

**Authors:** shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

For photon we have obtained the results that the waves of photon obey the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation are introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A to infinite big sphere. The advanced wave started from point B to infinite big sphere. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two return waves. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intensity flow or electric current of the the electron. Hence the electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result can also extend to to Dirac equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[884] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 14:51:41*

**Authors:** Shuang-Ren Zhao

**Comments:** 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intencity flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[883] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 10:06:35*

**Authors:** shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[882] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 12:50:04*

**Authors:** Shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[881] **viXra:1710.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-09 05:41:01*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Bell's inequality is usually considered to belong to mathematics and not quantum mechanics. We think that this makes it difficult to understand Bell's theory. Thus in this paper, contrary to Bell's spirit (which inherits Einstein's spirit), we try to discuss Bell's inequality in the framework of quantum theory with the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation. And we clarify that whether or not Bell's inequality holds does not depend on whether classical systems or quantum systems, but depend on whether a kind of simultaneous measurements exist or not. And further we assert that our argument ( based on the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation) should be regarded as a scientific representation of Bell's philosophical argument (based on Einstein's spirit).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[880] **viXra:1710.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-07 01:36:36*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. submitted to Physics and Astronomy International Journal

Exact solutions to the stationary spherically symmetric Newton-Schroedinger equation are proposed
in terms of integrals involving $generalized$ Gaussians. The energy eigenvalues are also obtained in terms of these integrals which agree with the numerical results in the literature. A discussion of infinite-derivative-gravity follows which allows to generalize the Newton-Schroedinger equation by $replacing$
the ordinary Poisson equation with a $modified$ non-local Poisson equation associated with infinite-derivative gravity. We proceed to replace the nonlinear Newton-Schroedinger equation for a non-linear quantum-like Bohm-Poisson equation involving Bohm's quantum potential, and where the fundamental quantity is $no$ longer the wave-function $ \Psi$ but the real-valued probability density $ \rho$. Finally, we discuss how the latter equations reflect a $nonlinear$ $feeding$ loop mechanism between matter and geometry which allows us to envisage a ``Schwarzschild atom" as a spherically symmetric probability cloud of matter which curves the geometry, and in turn, the geometry back-reacts on this matter cloud perturbing its initial distribution over the space, which in turn will affect the geometry, and so forth until static equilibrium is reached.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[879] **viXra:1710.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-02 06:00:32*

**Authors:** Steve faulkner

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract:

In 2008 Tomasz Paterek et al published experiments demonstrating that quantum randomness results from logical independence. That independence is seen evident in a Boolean formalism. The job of this paper is to derive implications for Matrix Mechanics. Surprisingly (and apparently unwittingly), Paterek's Boolean formalism asserts and demands a non-unitary environment for eigenstates, which is freely restricted to logically independent unitary structure, wherever the creation of superposition states demands unitarity. Consequently, the Paterek experiments contradict the Quantum Postulate which imposes unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space structures, axiomatically as blanket ontology, across the whole theory. Examination of the ‘non-unitary to unitary transition’ reveals the machinery of quantum indeterminacy. That machinery involves self-referential circularity, inaccessible history, and the geometrical ambiguity of perfect symmetry. The findings here provide answers for researchers studying Foundations of Quantum Mechanics; they make intuitive good sense of indeterminacy; they provide reason and significance for observable operators and eigenvectors; and they should be helpful for those interested in the Measurement Problem, the EPR paradox and possibly those looking for a method to quantize Gravity.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[878] **viXra:1710.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-10 07:37:11*

**Authors:** Steve faulkner

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Abstract:

I Follow up on the 2008 experiments of Tomasz Paterek et al, which link quantum randomness with logical independence. Analysis reveals, that the Paterek formalism (unwittingly) relaxes a Quantum Postulate. That relaxation denies the axiomatic imposition of unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space mathematics, while allowing these to arise freely, as logically independent structures. Surprisingly, the Paterek formalism demands a non-unitary environment — where unitary structures may freely switch on or off. The unitary environment is necessary in the formation of superposition states, but not eigenstates. This unitary condition is sustained by self-referential logical circularity around cyclic sequences of transformations. Amongst all possible self-referential systems, these generate stable, persistent structures we recognise as quantum mechanical vectors and operators. Circularity explains indeterminacy's non-causedness. Non-definiteness, stems from geometric amb
iguity — typically, left|right handedness in the Bloch sphere. Collapse is caused when the unitary symmetry is deformed by some agency, such as a magnetic field or polariser.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, axiomatised quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, linear algebra, elementary algebra, imaginary unit, prepared state, measured state, eigenstate, superposition state, Hilbert space, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[877] **viXra:1710.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-03 16:16:10*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The origin of gravitation and mass is explained by the fact that spherical shock fronts locally and temporarily extend the volume of the carrier of this vibration. A surprising conclusion is that spherical shock fronts own an amount of mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[876] **viXra:1709.0444 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 15:46:20*

**Authors:** Shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The photon energy transfer is from point to point. But the wave according to the Maxwell equation spreads from the source point to the entire empty space. In order to explain this phenomenon the concept of wave function collapse is created. This concept is very rough, if there are many partition boards with small holes between the emitter charge and the absorber charge. The light is clear can go through all these small holes from emitter to the absorber. But according to the concept of the wave function collapse the wave must collapse N times if there are N holes on the partition boards. Collapse one is strange enough, if the wave collapse N times, that is unbelievable! In another article we have proved that the photon energy is actually transferred by the “mutual energy flow” which is point to point instead of spread to the entire space. Since energy can be transferred by the mutual energy flow, the concept of the wave function collapse is not necessary. In order to build the mutual energy flow it is required to build the self-energy flow also. The self-energy flow is spread to the entire empty space. What will do for the self-energy flow, it is possible the self-flow also collapse to the absorber. However if self-energy flow collapse we have also meet the same problem as the whole wave collapse that means if there are partition sheets with N holes, the self-energy flow has to collapse N times. In the article about mutual energy principle we have propose another possibility in which the self-energy flow instead collapse, we believe it is returned. It is returned with a time reversal process, hence the self-energy dose not contributed to the energy transfer of the photon. The return process can be seen as also a collapse process, however it is collapse to the source of the wave instead of the target of the wave. In this article we will discuss the self-energy flow and the time reversal process in details.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[875] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 20:53:03*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEc BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The geometry of the elementary quantum-mechanical wavefunction and a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave consist of two plane waves that are perpendicular to the direction of propagation: their components only differ in magnitude and – more importantly – in their relative phase (0 and 90° respectively). The physical dimension of the electric field vector is force per unit charge (N/C). It is, therefore, tempting to associate the real and imaginary component of the wavefunction with a similar physical dimension: force per unit mass (N/kg).
This is, of course, the dimension of the gravitational field, which reduces to the dimension of acceleration (1 N/kg = 1 m/s2). The results and implications are remarkably elegant and intuitive:
- Schrödinger’s wave equation, for example, can now be interpreted as an energy diffusion equation, and the wavefunction itself can be interpreted as a propagating gravitational wave.
- The energy conservation principle then gives us a physical normalization condition, as probabilities (P = |ψ|2) are then, effectively, proportional to energy densities (u).
- We also get a more intuitive explanation of spin angular momentum, the boson-fermion dichotomy, and the Compton scattering radius for a particle.
- Finally, this physical interpretation of the wavefunction may also give us some clues in regard to the mechanism of relativistic length contraction.
The interpretation does not challenge the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics: interpreting probability amplitudes as traveling field disturbances does not explain why a particle hits a detector as a particle (not as a wave). As such, this interpretation respects the complementarity principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[874] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-15 18:54:20*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEC BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This paper explores the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a physical dimension: force per unit mass – which is, of course, the dimension of acceleration (m/s2) and gravitational fields.
The classical electromagnetic field equations for energy densities, the Poynting vector and spin angular momentum are then re-derived by substituting the electromagnetic N/C unit of field strength (mass per unit charge) by the new N/kg = m/s2 dimension.
The results are elegant and insightful. For example, the energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities, which establishes a physical normalization condition. Also, Schrödinger’s wave equation may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy, and the wavefunction itself can be interpreted as a propagating gravitational wave.
As an added bonus, concepts such as the Compton scattering radius for a particle, spin angular momentum, and the boson-fermion dichotomy, can also be explained more intuitively. Finally, we show the interpretation may lead to a natural explanation of relativistic length contraction.
While the approach offers a physical interpretation of the wavefunction, the author argues that the core of the Copenhagen interpretation revolves around the complementarity principle, which remains unchallenged because the interpretation of amplitude waves as traveling fields does not explain the particle nature of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[873] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 13:39:09*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEc BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This paper explores the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a physical dimension: force per unit mass – which is, of course, the dimension of acceleration (m/s2) and gravitational fields.
The classical electromagnetic field equations for energy densities, the Poynting vector and spin angular momentum are then re-derived by substituting the electromagnetic N/C unit of field strength (mass per unit charge) by the new N/kg = m/s2 dimension.
The results are elegant and insightful. For example, the energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities, which establishes a physical normalization condition. Also, Schrödinger’s wave equation may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy, and the wavefunction itself can be interpreted as a propagating gravitational wave. As an added bonus, concepts such as the Compton scattering radius for a particle, spin angular momentum, and the boson-fermion dichotomy, can also be explained more intuitively. Finally, we show the formulas for the energy densities may lead to an explanation for the geometric shape of matter-particles.
While the approach offers a physical interpretation of the wavefunction, the author argues that the core of the Copenhagen interpretation revolves around the complementarity principle, which remains unchallenged because the interpretation of amplitude waves as traveling fields does not explain the particle nature of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[872] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-30 12:32:34*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEC BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This paper explores the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a physical dimension: force per unit mass – which is, of course, the dimension of acceleration (m/s2) and gravitational fields. The classical electromagnetic field equations for energy densities, the Poynting vector and spin angular momentum are then re-derived by substituting the electromagnetic N/C unit of field strength (mass per unit charge) by the new N/kg = m/s2 dimension.
The results are elegant and insightful. For example, the energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities, which establishes a physical normalization condition. Also, Schrödinger’s wave equation may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy, and the wavefunction itself can be interpreted as a propagating gravitational wave. Finally, as an added bonus, concepts such as the Compton scattering radius for a particle, spin angular momentum, and the boson-fermion dichotomy, can also be explained more intuitively.
While the approach offers a physical interpretation of the wavefunction, the author argues that the core of the Copenhagen interpretations revolves around the complementarity principle, which remains unchallenged because the interpretation of amplitude waves as traveling fields does not explain the particle nature of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[871] **viXra:1709.0383 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-06 08:52:46*

**Authors:** M. W. Roberts

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A delayed choice experiment is proposed. Signal and idler photon pairs are sent to optical circulators. The fate experienced by an idler photon is described by two different cases. In case I, the idler photon has zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter and therefore always enters its optical circulator. In case II, the idler photon has a non-zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter without entering its optical circulator. Which case the idler photon actually experiences is selected by the method that is used to detect the signal photon of the pair. This is true, even if the detection of the signal photon occurs long after the detection of the idler photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[870] **viXra:1709.0383 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 15:00:47*

**Authors:** M. W. Roberts

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A delayed choice experiment is proposed. A signal and idler pair of photons are sent to optical circulators. The fate experienced by the idler photon is described by two different cases. In case I, the idler photon has zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter and therefore always enters its optical circulator. In case II, the idler photon has a non-zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter without entering its optical circulator. Which case the idler photon actually experiences is selected by the method that is used to detect the signal photon of the pair. This is true, even if the detection of the signal photon occurs long after the detection of the idler photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[869] **viXra:1709.0358 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 16:35:42*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Abstract**: Harnessed with the *Universal Topology, mathematical Framework* and *Universal Field Equations*, the applications to contemporary physics demonstrate and derive concisely, but are not limited to, a) ** Special Relativity of Entangle Generators**, b)

*Consequently, *this unified theory is testified and complying precisely with the empirical physics of *Lorentz* *Generators*, *Pauli* matrices, *General Relativity*, *Planck* wave-energy and *Einstein* mass-energy equivalence, *Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger *and* Dirac Equations, Pauli Weyl *Spinor Fields*, QED Lagrangian*, *Yang-Mille* theory, *Standard Model*, *Gauge Theory*, and the others.

[868] **viXra:1709.0326 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-23 02:56:19*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[867] **viXra:1709.0326 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-22 12:36:13*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilisation's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[866] **viXra:1709.0325 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 06:24:56*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 34 Pages. 5 Figures

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The account of the effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion (i.e. quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, taking into account the effect of the purpose as why electrons and photons possess persistent spin motion (as the photons are emitted from the orbiting electrons, which posses persistent spin motion, the photons also possess spin motion that they derive from the orbiting electrons), it has been tried to give very clear and complete explanations of their phenomena of interference and diffraction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[865] **viXra:1709.0324 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-01 08:45:18*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can play as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relationship exists between the first order quaternionic partial differential equation and integral balance equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[864] **viXra:1709.0324 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 03:42:08*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can be considered as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relation exists with integral balance equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[863] **viXra:1709.0315 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 06:17:35*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present interpretation of photon is as: A photon = a quantum of radiation energy + energy hn, where the quantum of radiation energy constitutes the photon and provides the particle like physical existence to it, similarly, as the quantum of charge (-e) constitutes the electron and provides the particle like physical existence to it. And the energy hn enables the photon to travel with velocity c, spin with frequency n (which the photon obtains from the orbiting electron, from which the photon is emitted), scatter electron in Compton scattering, and eject electron penetrating into metals in photoelectric effect. The present interpretation of photon enables us to give very clear and complete explanations of all the phenomena related to photons, including the phenomena of interference and diffraction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[862] **viXra:1709.0259 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-19 07:26:35*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[861] **viXra:1709.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 07:17:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[860] **viXra:1709.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 07:05:59*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[859] **viXra:1709.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 15:27:20*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physics must be simple. This reasoning is the general idea behind Occam’s razor. However, it is also a general physical principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[858] **viXra:1709.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 03:44:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[857] **viXra:1709.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-16 16:09:20*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[856] **viXra:1709.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-12 14:41:36*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[855] **viXra:1709.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 06:51:13*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[854] **viXra:1709.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-12 15:08:00*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[853] **viXra:1709.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 06:23:37*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected a few typos and made a diagram clearer

Following an earlier paper, an argument is presented that sets up a causality paradox with signals that are claimed to be retrocausal. This is not to be dismissive of claims of retrocausality over small scales by the mechanism of advanced and retarded waves, just that it is not possible over timescales greater than the energy-time uncertainty relationship.

**Category:** Quantum Physics