[20] **viXra:1502.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-17 09:57:32*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page final version

According to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle [1], both, position and momentum of a particle, cannot be known with ultimate accuracy; the product: Δ x . Δ p > h . Whereas in the case of Laser-cooled atoms, we know that velocity of the particle is close to zero; and its position x is so perfectly known, that an atom is said to be held in Laser forceps [2]. These experiments show that both position and momentum of atoms are accurately knowable simultaneously! Similarly, when momentum of an atom is zero, the wavelength of its de Broglie wave is very very long; and according to quantum-mechanical interpretation, the atom is likely to be detected anywhere within its de Broglie wavelength, with higher probability at the peaks of the wave. Whereas the experiments with Laser-cooled atoms show that the atom is confined precisely within the Laser tweezers. Based on this observation a new experiment is proposed here in which, instead of quantum mechanical waves, which have wavelength h / m v , corresponding to phase velocity of the wave, we can carefully observe the waves corresponding to group-velocity, of the wavelength h v / m c^2. And we can expect that a particle may deterministically tunnel from one peak of the group-wave to next peak of the group wave; and can be detected at deterministically predictable points.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1502.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 08:28:50*

**Authors:** Suraj Kumar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we create a self similar
analogous image of spiral structure
of elementary particles with that of
sea shells, using the mathematical
description of pigmentation pattern
of sea shells, which describes the
various potentials of the spiral
structure of elementary particles. It
also introduces the sea shells
analogous parameters for spiral
structure of elementary particles for
quantising the property of the
elementary particles. It applies the
Reaction-Diffusion equation for
Activator-Inhibitor model to produce
the ingredient activated potential
which once after the formation of the
spiral structure of elementary
particles is being described by the
Activator- Substrate model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1502.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-27 12:17:17*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This article applies a simplified calculation of the effect of quantum entanglement of virtual particles in vacuum on electron motion

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1502.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-02 01:50:28*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Templeton Prize winner wrote: „In the second half of the eighteenth century, the deterministic character of Newton’s equations encouraged many people to see the physical world in strictly mechanical terms, as if the universe is a gigantic piece of cosmic clockwork.” Such wrong view comes from the believe, that the energy and momentum are always conserve.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1502.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-28 15:51:17*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of the delta minus particle, the neutron and the proton. This research suggests that the proton is unstable with a mean lifetime between 5×10^34 and 7×10^34 years, approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1502.0194 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-25 16:53:40*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The problem I shall address in this paper is concerned with the mean lifetimes of leptons
(except neutrinos). Based on the hydrogen unit of time and following two simple rules I propose a formula for the lifetime of the tau particle. Then, based on the same rules I derive a formula for the lifetime of the muon. Finally, based on the two previous formulas and on the same rules, I derive the formula for the mean lifetime of the electron. The formula I found through this extrapolation process indicates that the electron is unstable and that its mean lifetime is, approximately, (π /2)×10^90 years, which is about 10^80 times the age of the universe. Thus according to this formulation the lifetime of the
electron is extraordinarily long but not infinite as previously thought. This is in accordance with the author's belief that all matter is unstable.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1502.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 15:15:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

For nearly half a century, theoretical physicists have made a series of discoveries that certain constants in fundamental physics seem extraordinarily fine-tuned to allow for the emergence of a life-enabling universe. [9]
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1502.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-15 11:49:54*

**Authors:** Lori-Anne Gardi

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The challenge of this essay was to demonstrate that the units of Planck’s constant are not [J x s]. Borrowing from the logic of the calibration, an attempt was made to find a complete set of small scale measuring sticks for each of time, space, mass, charge and temperature. This however was not possible unless we let the units of Planck’s constant be [J]. It appears that Planck et al forgot to incorporate measure-time into the famous energy equation, E = hν. The extra unit of [s] that is normally assigned to h actually belongs to a previously hidden measure-time variable. This logic suggests that Planck’s constant is an energy constant and not an action constant. After correcting this error, a complete set of unit measuring sticks, calibrated to the time scale of the cycle was calculated. A self-similar unit set was then calibrated to the time scale of the second. The scalability and self-similarity of these unit sets opens the door to the fractal paradigm, one of the main motivations for this research. This small change to the units of Planck’s constant has far reaching implications. All equations that contain h need to be reevaluated. All interpretations founded in unit analysis need to be reexamined. Much work still needs to be done to vindicate this approach.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1502.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-19 18:28:48*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we shall show that the standard derivation of the non-locality
contains the logical error which invalidates the whole derivation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1502.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 02:09:59*

**Authors:** Padmanabhan Murali

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Experimental realization of Gedanken experiments on Quantum Mechanics continue to suggest inferences of action at a distance, action into the future or past as reported in Delayed choice Quantum entanglement experiments recently by Ma et al (2012). Is it possible to read through this and investigate through simple logic and experiments whether control of the past or future is possible? A set of experiments are suggested here to do the same whose results may be interesting.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1502.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-17 09:10:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper introduces a new exponential formula for the fine-structure constant. This approximate
formula is expressed in terms of the masses of the electron, the neutron and the proton. The error of
the formula is less than 1%. This accuracy suggests that there is an unknown parameter which has not been taken into account.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1502.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-06 14:41:14*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A formula for the mass of the electron is derived from a lepton mass factor, a Koidean ratio for
quarks and a dimensionless factor based on the fine-structure constant. If this formula were
found to be correct it would prove a profound relationship between the masses of leptons and
quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1502.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-16 17:41:53*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The possibility of the locality of quantum mechanics is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1502.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-15 12:47:00*

**Authors:** Christopher Thron

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

For a general quantum theory that is describable by a path integral formalism, we construct a mathematical model of an accumulation-to-threshold process whose outcomes give predictions that are nearly identical to the given quantum theory. The model is neither local nor causal in spacetime, but is both local and causal is in a non-observable path space. The probabilistic nature of the squared wavefunction is a natural consequence of the model. We verify the model with simulations, and we discuss possible discrepancies from conventional quantum theory that might be detectable via experiment. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of the model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1502.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 17:51:22*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is argued that the lesson we should learn from Bell inequalities (BI) is not that Quantum Mechanics (QM) is nonlocal, but that QM contains an error which must be corrected.
1

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1502.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-13 02:15:11*

**Authors:** Robert Mereau

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper illustrates a family of 2-dimensional graphs that admit pretty good state transfer over arbitrary distances.
ramereau@gmail.com

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1502.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 05:44:52*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

In this paper we identify the superposition principle as a main source of problems in QM (measurement, collapse, non-locality etc.). Here
the superposition principle for individual systems is substituted by the antisuperposition
principle: no non-trivial superposition of states is a possible individual state (for ensembles the superposition principle is true).
The modified QM is based on the anti-superposition principle and on the new type of probability theory (Extended Probability Theory [1]), which allows the reversible Markov processes as models for QM.
In the modified QM the measurement is a process inside of QM and the concept of an observation of the measuring system is defined. The outcome
value is an attribute of the ensemble of measured systems. The collapse of the state is substituted by the Selection process. We show that the derivation of Bell’s inequalities is then impossible and thus QM remains a local theory.
Our main results are: the locality of the modified QM, the local explanation of EPR correlations, the non-existence of the wave-particle duality, the solution of the measurement problem. We show that QM can be understood as
a new type of the statistical mechanics of many-particle systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1502.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-19 01:07:37*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a consequence of the postulate that coordinate
and momentum representations are related
to each other by the Fourier transform. This postulate has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory by analogy with classical electrodynamics. We argue that the postulate is based neither on strong theoretical arguments nor on experimental data. A position operator proposed in our recent publication resolves inconsistencies of standard approach and sheds a new light on important problems of quantum theory. We do not assume that the reader is an expert in the given field and the content of the paper can be understood by a wide audience of physicists.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1502.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-04 11:52:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Building a quantum computer can sometimes yield unexpected benefits — like providing the right environment to demonstrate that Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity is, in fact, correct. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1502.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-28 07:10:11*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract

I propose a model for indeterminate information in a mixed state.

Keywords

quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, mixed state, superposition, wave packet, measurement problem, epistemology, perfect symmetry, broken symmetry, symmetry breaking.

**Category:** Quantum Physics