[6] **viXra:0910.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 7 pages, Published in the Apeiron Journal, 2009, Vol. 4, pp.516-531:
http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V16NO4PDF/V16N4NYA.pdf

In its bare and natural form, the Dirac Equation describes only spin-1/2
particles. The main purpose of this reading is to make a valid and justified mathematical
modification to the Dirac Equation so that it describes any spin particle. We show that
this mathematical modification is consistent with the Special Theory of Relativity (STR).
We believe that the fact that this modification is consistent with the STR gives the present
effort some physical justification that warrants further investigations. From the vantage
point of unity, simplicity and beauty, it is natural to wonder why should there exist
different equations to describe particles of different spins? For example, the Klein-Gordon
equation describes spin-0 particles, while the Dirac Equation describes spin-1/2, and the
Rarita-Schwinger Equation describes spin-3/2. Does it mean we have to look for another
equation to describe spin-2 particles, and then spin-5/2 particles etc? This does not look
beautiful, simple, or at the very least suggest a Unification of the Natural Laws. Beauty
of a theory is not a physical principle but, one thing is clear to the searching mind - i.e.,
a theory that possesses beauty, appeals to the mind, and is (posteriori) bound to have
something to do with physical reality if it naturally submits itself to the test of experience.
The effort of the present reading is to make the attempt to find this equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:0910.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 6 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 46 pages, V1 In Italian, V2 in English

In a previous paper [1] we showed that the energy impulse four vector of the
propagation of electromagnetic fields into a waveguide and in free space can be
described by a Dirac spinor ψ .
This suggest an analogy with for example TE-electron, TM-positron and possibly
TEM-neutrino.
Aim of this work is an interpretation of the action, if any, of the electroweak gauge
group SU(2) ⊗ U(1) on the before mentioned e.m. fields (TE, TM, TEM modes). This
is based on the following observation: the energy impulse four vector is invariant
under a global transformation of SU(2) ⊗ U(1), so ψ can be "gauged" in order to verify
the effect not only of the electromagnetic force but also of the weak forces.
In other words, what are "weak forces", if any, on TE, TM and TEM?
Obviously this requires "a modification of the Dirac equation to accomodate the
larger gauge group" (Hestenes, [2]).
This is in fact done here, and it is shown that the analogous of the "weak forces" can
be roughly interpreted in the following way: the W boson acts as a horn antenna
(receiving or transmitting), performing the transformation TEM ↔ TE, TM, giving
or subtracting mass to the field; the Z^{0} boson is as a radar target acting on the TEM
(neutrinos) with a doppler frequency. Those objects have a mathematical counterpart
in gauge fields.
No Higgs boson is needed in the theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:0910.0059 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 51 pages, V1 and v3 in Italian, V2 and v4 in English, (slightly amended, corrected formula (123)) .

Following Hestenes and others we explore the possibility that the electron is a (sort
of) bound electromagnetic wave.
To do this a waveguide analogy is considered. The E, H field components in
waveguide satisfy the second order Klein Gordon equation. The question is if a (first
order) Dirac equation is involved.
Making use of Clifford Algebra, by first it is shown that a spinor ψ satisfying Dirac
equation describes, trough the relativistic energy impulse four vector, the energy
propagation of the electromagnetic field into a waveguide and in free space. At the
same time ψ automatically describes TE and TM modes (TEM in free space), each
with Right or Left polarization.
It is shown that this description with Dirac equation has been implicit in the
waveguide theory all the time. The equivalence is embedded in the usual V and I
mode description [1].
The Dirac equation for TE, TM modes opens new interesting interpretations. For
example the effect on ψ of a gauge transformation with the electromagnetic gauge
group generator ( iσ_{3} in the Hestenes notation [2]) is readily interpreted as a
modification of the TE, TM group velocity. This acts as the electromagnetic force on
a charge, and requires two opposite sign of (fictitious) charges for TE or TM.
Obviously this suggest an analogy with electron, positron and possibly neutrino for
the TEM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:0910.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 28 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** B. Serifo Balde

**Comments:** 17 pages, This manuscript is a preliminary draft of work in progress : Set Theoretic
Axiomatization of Physics. Comments , corrections and typo alerts are most welcome !

Motivated by Hilbert's sixth problem on axiomatization of physics, the author is proposing a rather
provocative abstract axiomatic framework called S - formalization, where S is an arbitrary physical
system .The proposal is an attempt to provide a general axiomatic framework , from which mathematical
frameworks of new physical theories can be formulated on firm axiomatic basis and the mathematical
frameworks of subjects such as standard (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics are naturally derived as
special cases of this general axiomatic framework.
Introduction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:0910.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** John L. Haller Jr.

**Comments:** 9 pages

The thermal diffusion of a free particle is a random process and generates entropy
at a rate equal to twice the particle's temperature, R = 2k_{B}T/ℎ (in natural units of information per
second). The rate is calculated using a Gaussian process with a variance of (Δx_{0} + Δp⋅t/m)^{2}. One
would be keen to notice that the solution to the quantum mechanical diffusion of a free particle is
(Δx_{0})^{2} + (Δp⋅t/m)^{2}, however we assume that concurrent to quantum diffusion, the center of the
wavepacket is also undergoing classical diffusion which adds an addition variance in the amount of
(ℎ⋅t/m), making up the difference. Derivations of the variance and subsequent entropy rate are given.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:0910.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Oct 2009*

**Authors:** Paul A. LaViolette

**Comments:** 30 pages, This paper was published in 2008 in the International Journal of General Systems., vol 37, pp. 649-676.

Subquantum kinetics, a physics methodology that applies general systems theoretic concepts
to the field of microphysics has gained the status of being a viable unified field theory.
Earlier publications of this theory had proposed that a subatomic particle should consist of an
electrostatic field that has the form of a radial Turing wave pattern whose form is maintained
through the ongoing activity of a nonlinear reaction-diffusion medium that fills all space.
This subatomic Turing wave prediction now finds confirmation in recent nucleon scattering
form factor data which show that the nucleon core has a Gaussian charge density distribution
with a peripheral periodicity whose wavelength approximates the particle's Compton
wavelength and which declines in amplitude with increasing radial distance. The subquantum
kinetics explanation for the origin of charge correctly anticipates the observation that the
proton's charge density wave pattern is positively biased while the neutron's is not. The
phenomenon of beta decay is interpreted as the onset of a secondary bifurcation leading from
the uncharged neutron solution to the charged proton solution. The Turing wave dissipative
structure prediction is able to account in a unitary fashion for nuclear binding, particle diffraction,
and electron orbital quantization. The wave packet model is shown to be fundamentally
flawed implying that quantum mechanics does not realistically represent the microphysical
world. This new conception points to the possible existence of orbital energy states below the
Balmer ground state whose transitions may be tapped as a new source of energy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics