[3] **viXra:1102.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 19 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:**
11 pages, no figure, no tables.

As currently understood since its discovery, the bare Klein-Gordon theory consists
of negative quantum probabilities which are considered to be physically meaningless if not
outright obsolete. Despite this annoying setback, these negative probabilities are what led
the great Paul Dirac in 1928 to the esoteric discovery of the Dirac equation. The Dirac
equation led to one of the greatest advances in our understanding of the physical World. In
this reading, we ask the seemingly senseless question, “Do negative probabilities exist in
quantum mechanics?’’. In an effort to answer this question, we arrive at the conclusion that
depending on the choice one makes of the quantum probability current, one will obtain
negative probabilities. We thus propose a new quantum probability current of the
Klein-Gordon theory. This quantum probability current leads directly to positive definite quantum
probabilities. Because these negative probabilities are in the bare Klein-Gordon theory,
intrinsically a result of negative energies, the fact that we-here arrive at a theory with
positive probabilities, it means that negative energy particles are not to be considered
problematic as is the case in the bare Klein-Gordon theory. From an abstract-objective
stand-point; in comparison with positive energy particles, the corollary is that negative
energy particles should have equal chances to exist. As to why these negative energy
particles do not exist, this is redolent to asking why is it that Dirac’s antimatter does not
exist in equal proportions with matter. This problem of why negative energy particles not
exist in equal proportions with positive energy particles is a problem that needs to be solved
by a future theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1102.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Elemér E Rosinger

**Comments:**
7 pages.

It is shown that under suitable compositions of systems, arbitrary
large amounts of entangled type states can easily be obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1102.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 12 pages.

The origin of physical dynamics and the reason of existence of special
relativity are explored. This endeavour is started by analysing the logic of nature.
Next, only mathematics is used in order to explore the dynamics of this model of
physical reality.
The model that is described here annihilates the old reality and creates a new
reality at each dynamic step. Hilbert space cannot treat dynamics. It contains
nothing that supports dynamics. In the contrary, dynamics manages the Hilbert
spaces. Like traditional quantum logic, Hilbert space cannot treat physical fields.
By embedding the separable Hilbert space in a rigged Hilbert space, it can house
fields by representing them as blurred sets of Hilbert vectors. The field is the
convolution of the blur with a set of Dirac delta functions that represent
Hilbert vectors. When the blur is differentiable, then the field is differentiable
as well. The field values are attached to the Hilbert vectors. In this way
traditional quantum logic can be expanded, such that it also treats fields.
This extended quantum logic still cannot handle dynamics. The logic only
describes a static status quo. Dynamics let nature step from one status quo to
the next. It does that by letting nature transform from configuration space to
Fourier space. There the fields control the difference between the past and the
future status quo. The Fourier transform converts the rather complicated
differentiation into a simple multiplication and since the multiplication factors
are close to unity, this comes down to still simpler addition. After the
confrontation in Fourier space, nature returns back to configuration space.
Feynman's path integral approach exploits this fact. The up and down Fourier
transforms reshuffle the Hilbert vectors. All Hilbert vectors are affected.
The Hilbert vectors represent virtual or actual quanta and present themselves
as shot noise.

**Category:** Quantum Physics