Quantum Physics

1102 Submissions

[3] viXra:1102.0031 [pdf] submitted on 19 Feb 2011

Deciphering and Fathoming Negative Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics?

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 11 pages, no figure, no tables.

As currently understood since its discovery, the bare Klein-Gordon theory consists of negative quantum probabilities which are considered to be physically meaningless if not outright obsolete. Despite this annoying setback, these negative probabilities are what led the great Paul Dirac in 1928 to the esoteric discovery of the Dirac equation. The Dirac equation led to one of the greatest advances in our understanding of the physical World. In this reading, we ask the seemingly senseless question, “Do negative probabilities exist in quantum mechanics?’’. In an effort to answer this question, we arrive at the conclusion that depending on the choice one makes of the quantum probability current, one will obtain negative probabilities. We thus propose a new quantum probability current of the Klein-Gordon theory. This quantum probability current leads directly to positive definite quantum probabilities. Because these negative probabilities are in the bare Klein-Gordon theory, intrinsically a result of negative energies, the fact that we-here arrive at a theory with positive probabilities, it means that negative energy particles are not to be considered problematic as is the case in the bare Klein-Gordon theory. From an abstract-objective stand-point; in comparison with positive energy particles, the corollary is that negative energy particles should have equal chances to exist. As to why these negative energy particles do not exist, this is redolent to asking why is it that Dirac’s antimatter does not exist in equal proportions with matter. This problem of why negative energy particles not exist in equal proportions with positive energy particles is a problem that needs to be solved by a future theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1102.0018 [pdf] submitted on 11 Feb 2011

On Systems, Subsystems, Composite Systems and Entanglement

Authors: Elemér E Rosinger
Comments: 7 pages.

It is shown that under suitable compositions of systems, arbitrary large amounts of entangled type states can easily be obtained.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1102.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Feb 2011

On the Origin of Physical Dynamics and Special Relativity.

Authors: Ir J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 12 pages.

The origin of physical dynamics and the reason of existence of special relativity are explored. This endeavour is started by analysing the logic of nature. Next, only mathematics is used in order to explore the dynamics of this model of physical reality. The model that is described here annihilates the old reality and creates a new reality at each dynamic step. Hilbert space cannot treat dynamics. It contains nothing that supports dynamics. In the contrary, dynamics manages the Hilbert spaces. Like traditional quantum logic, Hilbert space cannot treat physical fields. By embedding the separable Hilbert space in a rigged Hilbert space, it can house fields by representing them as blurred sets of Hilbert vectors. The field is the convolution of the blur with a set of Dirac delta functions that represent Hilbert vectors. When the blur is differentiable, then the field is differentiable as well. The field values are attached to the Hilbert vectors. In this way traditional quantum logic can be expanded, such that it also treats fields. This extended quantum logic still cannot handle dynamics. The logic only describes a static status quo. Dynamics let nature step from one status quo to the next. It does that by letting nature transform from configuration space to Fourier space. There the fields control the difference between the past and the future status quo. The Fourier transform converts the rather complicated differentiation into a simple multiplication and since the multiplication factors are close to unity, this comes down to still simpler addition. After the confrontation in Fourier space, nature returns back to configuration space. Feynman's path integral approach exploits this fact. The up and down Fourier transforms reshuffle the Hilbert vectors. All Hilbert vectors are affected. The Hilbert vectors represent virtual or actual quanta and present themselves as shot noise.
Category: Quantum Physics