[5] **viXra:1007.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** J. Bar-Sagi

**Comments:** 15 pages

The electromagnetic wave quantum-energy depends only on its frequency, not on the emitting
system's radiation power. The proportionality constant between the frequency and the quantumenergy
of the electromagnetic wave, the Planck's constant is in the essence of quantum mechanics.
This constant is known experimentally but till now there was no clue for calculating its value
on a theoretical basis. In the present work a methodology for calculating a lower bound for
Planck's constant is presented, based on simple principles. In order to get a reasonable good
lower bound it is necessary to have a model of a relativistic oscillator whose period is independent
of its energy and which efficiently radiates electromagnetic energy. It is highly desired that
the mathematics involved is simple enough to enable good insight into the results. Such a model
can also be used for other investigations, and therefore, in this work a potential that conserves the
vibration period of symmetric oscillators at relativistic velocities is found and analyzed. The
electrically charged system of constant period is used to calculate a lower bound H_{m} of the
Planck's constant h . The value of H_{m} is smaller than h by a factor very close to √3 . The
explanation of this factor also explains the value of Planck's constant. From this value the fine
structure constant value is calculated and a new interpretation of this constant obtained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1007.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Chun-Xuan Jiang

**Comments:** 1 page

The Formula of the Particle Radii

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1007.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 14 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 11/12 pages, v2 in Italian, v3 in English

This short paper explores intriguing analogies between helical structures of electron
and elementary particles and circular supercoiled DNA. I propose a strong relation
between the dispositions Lk=Tw+Wr (Lk=const., changing Twist and Writhe) and
the quark compositions Q=I3+Y/2 (examples: Q=const., varying Isospin an
Hypercharge; or Strangeness S or Y=const. varying Charge and Isospin).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1007.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 24 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** R.D. Bateson

**Comments:** 19 pages.

In this paper we discuss a causal network approach to describing relativistic quantum
mechanics where each vertex on a causal net represents a possible point event or particle
observation. By constructing the simplest causal net based on Reichenbach-like conjunctive
forks in proper time we can exactly derive the 1+1 dimension Dirac equation for a
relativistic fermion and correctly model quantum mechanical statistics. Symmetries of the
net provide various quantum mechanical effects such as quantum uncertainty and wavefunction,
phase, spin, negative energy states and the effect of a potential. The causal net can be
embedded in 3+1 dimensional space-time and is consistent with the conventional Dirac equation.
In the low velocity limit the causal net approximates to the Schrödinger equation and Pauli
equation for a fermion in an electromagnetic field. Extending to different momentum states
the net is compatible with the Feynman path integral approach to quantum mechanics that
allows calculation of well known quantum phenomena such as diffraction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1007.0003 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 19 pages

The author after clarifying the concepts of imaginary time and
reversible time shows that progressive time which is experienced
by macroscopic systems is a direct result of the vean (vacuum
energy absorption) process which also leads to the collapse of
wave function apart limits to entanglements [1]. He now shows
that the vean process could result in a gradient in the energy of
the vacuum fluctuations in the Higg's field near a massive body
which in turn could produce the gravitational field. According to
the author, the accumulation of the mass by a particle by the
vean process would be so small that an electron would have
increased its rest mass by only 10% over a period of 1 billion
years. It is shown that part of the red shift observed in distant
galaxies could be attributed to the reduced mass of electrons in
the distant past. He suggests that the observed expansion of
universe could be a direct result of the vean process.

**Category:** Quantum Physics