[9] **viXra:1004.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 17 pages, Also archived as arXiv:1004.1820 [physics.gen-ph].

It was pointed out in a previous paper that although neither the Klein-Gordon equation nor the Dirac
Hamiltonian produces sound solitary free-particle relativistic quantum mechanics, the natural square-root
relativistic Hamiltonian for a nonzero-mass free particle does achieve this. Failures of the Klein-Gordon
and Dirac theories are reviewed: the solitary Dirac free particle has, inter alia, an invariant speed well in
excess of c and staggering spontaneous Compton acceleration, but no pathologies whatsoever arise from the
square-root relativistic Hamiltonian. Dirac's key misapprehension of the underlying four-vector character
of the time-dependent, configuration-representation Schrödinger equation for a solitary particle is laid bare,
as is the invalidity of the standard "proof" that the nonrelativistic limit of the Dirac equation is the Pauli
equation. Lorentz boosts from the particle rest frame point uniquely to the square-root Hamiltonian,
but these don't exist for a massless particle. Instead, Maxwell's equations are dissected in spatial Fourier
transform to separate nondynamical longitudinal from dynamical transverse field degrees of freedom. Upon
their decoupling in the absence of sources, the transverse field components are seen to obey two identical
time-dependent Schrödinger equations (owing to two linear polarizations), which have the massless freeparticle
diagonalized square-root Hamiltonian. Those fields are readily modfied to conform to the attributes
of solitary-photon wave functions. The wave functions' relations to the potentials in radiation gauge are
also worked out. The exercise is then repeated without the considerable benefit of the spatial Fourier
transform.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1004.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Niels Vandamme

**Comments:** 7 pages

This paper propounds several hypotheses which offer an alternate
explanation to some of the real or purported effects encountered in quantum
mechanics and relativity, giving a mechanical explanation for the absolute speed
of light, the conversion of matter to energy, and the observed superluminal
expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1004.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 May 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 21 pages

The author introduces the concept of a primary gas which is an abstract
gas where the microstates are occupied successively in time unlike in the case of
a real gas where the microstates are occupied simultaneously. He shows that a
single plane wave associated with a standing wave formed by the confinement
of a luminal wave could be treated as the microstate of the primary gas that
represents a particle. This approach makes it possible to understand the
dynamics of a particle in terms of the thermodynamics of the primary gas. In
this approach, time and space turn out to be the intrinsic properties of the
primary gas that represents a particle and the quantized nature of time and space
emerges from it in a natural manner. It is shown that the action (with a negative
sign) of a particle could be identified with the entropy of the primary gas and the
principle of least action is nothing but the second law of thermodynamics. The
author shows that the uncertainty relation of quantum mechanics can be derived
directly from the equation for fluctuations and he explains the statistical basis of
the virtual interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1004.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 12 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Amrit S. Sorli

**Comments:** 5 pages

Clocks are systems for measuring frequency, velocity, duration and numerical order
t_{0},t_{1},t_{2},...,t_{n} of physical events. Time t obtained with clocks is not a forth dimension X_{4} of
space, time t is only a component of X_{4} = i * c * t. This view of clock/time as a
measuring system sees physical phenomena running exclusively in space and not in time.
This view is supported with several experiments which confirm that time t of physical event
can be zero. Time is not part of space; time is run of clocks in space. Past, present and
future exist as a psychological time in the mind only not in the universe. We experience
motion i.e. change in the space through the frame of psychological time. We "project" linear
psychological time "past-present-future" into the space, however it is not there. Observer who
distinguishes between space-time, physical time and psychological time is aware that in
quantum measurement he only measures physical events in space and not in time.
Clock/time is merely a measuring device. With this understanding observer's observation,
measurement and experience of quantum phenomena are closer to their real nature. Stream
of numerical order of quantum phenomena t_{0},t_{1},t_{2},...,t_{n} runs in space only and not in time.
Stream of quantum phenomena has no duration on its own. Duration is result of
measurement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1004.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 5 pages

Maxwell's equations describe the interactions of the electromagnetic field at
a macroscopic level. In the 1920s, Louis DeBroglie demonstrated that every
moving particle (including an electron) has a wave nature, and we know
from Einstein that every wave has a particle nature, which we call the
photon. Later in the 1930s, Paul Dirac's development of the famous Dirac
equation showed the quantum nature of the electron at relativistic speeds.
Then in 1948 Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger extended these
concepts in the development of quantum electrodynamics which gives a full
accounting (although a very strange one) of how an electron can borrow
energy from the vacuum of space and return it legally as long it does so
within limits of the uncertainty principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1004.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Michael Harney, Michael Weber, Milo Wolff

**Comments:** 2 pages

The method described is designed to increase laser output power using a concept from Wheeler-Feynman
absorber theory [1,2] and the work of Tetrode [3], where photons are modeled as sources of energy that
must also have a sink (an electron) to be absorbed. According to Wheeler-Feynman and Tetrode, if an
electron is not present to absorb the photon, then the photon can never be emitted. In Wheeler-Feynman
absorber theory, advanced and retarded potentials resemble time-reversal equations because there must be
communication faster than light between the source-photon and the sink-electron, reasoned Feynman, so
that the source photon's atom would know whether to emit a photon. This enigma was resolved by Milo
Wolff in his work "Exploring the Physics of the Unknown Universe" [4], where he describes the use of
spherical scalar in-waves and out-waves that travel at c and whose local speed is based on local-mass
density. The in-out waves form electrons and also allows communication between them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1004.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 4 pages

The authors of ArXiv:1003.5008 tell us they are searching
for the foundations of quantum mechanics, a theory they
say was born early in the twentieth century. As a matter
of fact, the theory was born in the eighteenth century.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1004.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 12 pages

The author develops his idea of the standing electromagnetic half
wave structure of the electron and proposes that the confinement of the
wave is effected by the interactions with the Higgs field which can be
explained on the basis of the uncertainty principle. These interactions
allow vacuum to act like a thermal bath with the standing half wave in
equilibrium with it. It is shown that this equilibrium is not destroyed
even when it is in uniform translational motion. This invariance of the
equilibrium to the velocity transformation is another way of looking at
the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1004.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 8 Aug 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** v3 169 pages In Italian, v4 164 pages in English.

A book of semi qualitative ideas on electron, quarks and life. We intend to make us a
purely electromagnetic image of all interactions and elementary particles, in
particular electron, and quarks. This would force even the idea of a single universal
vibration, a single field.
The electron is interpreted as a small electric current carrying the elementary charge,
elementary mass and Planck quantum of action. With the aid of a few math we
identify the electron as an electromagnetic half wave closed on a Moebius strip. This
is equivalent to a full wavelength making two turns on the border. It is also probably
not totally irrelevant to note that this leads to interesting numerics on the fine
structure constant. We identify a quark with a confined electromagnetic wave which
is not sufficient in itself to complete a closed loop in space. So quarks are pictured as
1/3 and 2/3 of a full wavelength. A space model of their combination leads in a
unique way to the entire set of all and only the mesons and baryons. In a quite
spontaneous way also the color theory is interpreted. Finally the various helices of
quarks are interpreted as living organisms and similarities with a biological behaviour
are showed.
Arguments here are of course admittedly primitive and mainly qualitative, also if
supported with some math, but to my knowledge this overall conjecture has not been
discussed elsewhere, and therefore may be useful for further research.

**Category:** Quantum Physics