Quantum Physics

1802 Submissions

[42] viXra:1802.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 07:17:31

On the Energy Commutators in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 2 Pages.

The solving the tasks of QM.
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1802.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 01:25:45

Controlling Quantum States of Single Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:1802.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 01:50:17

Improving Quantum Information Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1802.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 08:45:30

Collective Spins Relax

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1802.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 13:28:11

Three Photons Interacting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1802.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 00:28:31

The Quantum as Backwards Time, and How This Permits a First-Ever Working Algebraic Quantum Gravity

Authors: Jonathan Deutsch
Comments: 9 Pages.

ABSTRACT THE QUANTUM AS BACKWARDS TIME, AND HOW THIS PERMITS A FIRST-EVER WORKING ALGEBRAIC QUANTUM GRAVITY By Jonathan Deutsch Backwards time is inferred to exist from the superluminal implications of the universe’s proven non-locality. It exists as well in the standard quantum-mechanical formalism as an “advanced solution” to the Schrodinger wave equation. Regrettably, backwards time is ignored by most physicists, students, and by the general public. Very, very recently, however, careful experiments performed in Europe have confirmed the existence of backwards time in certain quantum situations. But nature makes absolutely no distinction at all between the quantum and the classical realms! Therefore, it won’t be long before backwards time is experimentally confirmed for you and I. We begin by creating and then using three original postulates: 1)The deBroglie wavelength (in centimeters) associated with the proton is really equal to –1. 2)The mass of the proton (in grams) is really equal to +1. 3)The time (In seconds) it takes light to travel the deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton is really equal to i, the square root of –1. With these three postulates, we demonstrate that the quantum, h, could really be a unit of backwards time. The inscrutability of quantum mechanics would then be seen as entirely due to the inscrutability of backwards time. We then combine Newton’s equation for universal gravity with the three postulates to create the first algebraic equation for quantum gravity that works for planets, quanta and everything in-between. The new gravity equation contains four elements: 1)The tiny quantum, h 2)The minute deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton 3)The miniscule time it takes light to travel that distance 4)A variable - - a coefficient for h - - that’s actually composite “quantum Newton”! We then demonstrate that this new equation magically reproduces, exactly, Newton’s classical gravity results! We begin to realize that the quantum, h, lies hidden in EVERY classical equation - - gravity, electromagnetism, etc. Therefore, classical physics becomes fully quantized too, uniting for the first time the very large - - classical physics, including gravity - - with the very small - - quantum physics - - into one essentially indivisible whole. We conclude by seeing that spacetime is the universe’s prime mover. Though invisible, it is physically real and powerful enough to create all the matter and all the gravity in the entire universe. What’s thought of as the geometric backdrop for matter is really the creator of it as well. Matter affects (warps) spacetime causatively in the forwards time-direction in Einstein’s General Relativity. And spacetime affects (creates) matter in the backwards time-direction equally significantly. Thus, a completely new window to understanding matter and gravity is opened up to us. But the outstanding feature of all this is backwards time - - a healing backwards time. Does the omnipresent existence of backwards time hold out any hope that we can get younger as we age? We strongly believe that such is the case, both quantumly and at the human, macro level. Older and younger simultaneously IS very quantum-like, after all. Could they somehow be EQUIVALENT? Again, we strongly believe that the answer is in the affirmative, and is mathematically provable! I encourage readers to respond in the Disqus comment section on the Abstract page. Or contact me personally at spqrwin@outlook.com. I will reply to all. My next article, to be published in March or April, intends to remove quantum contradictions by proving that supposed opposites are really identical. KEYWORDS Advanced solution: a backwards-time solution Backwards time: time running in reverse, from present to past; future to present; or future to past. This can be continuously, or discontinuously - - i.e., JUMPING to a much earlier time. c: the speed of light Classical physics: the science and mathematics of relatively large entities - - e.g., apples, people and planets. It also includes electromagnetism (See Entry.) Coefficient: the number (amount) of something, e.g., for 5 quanta (5h), the number “5”. A coefficient needn’t be a whole number, but it is, or should be, a positive number. deBroglie wavelength: the wavelength associated with every particle, according to Prince Louis deBroglie, famous 20th-century theoretical quantum physicist. Whether or not this deBroglie wavelength is physically real or not is a matter of some dispute, but the consensus leans toward the negative. Electromagnetism: the classical science of visible light and of invisible rays such as X-rays, infrared rays and ultraviolet rays. Electromagnetism has a quantum counterpart. General Relativity: Einstein’s theory of gravity (See the Entry for Gravity.) Its two essential ideas are: 1)Gravity is acceleration, not a force. 2)Gravity is matter warping (curving) spacetime, rather than “spooky action at a distance” - - one piece of matter affecting another without touching it. Gravity: for Newton, the attractive force between any two pieces of matter. For Einstein, it’s the warping (curving) of spacetime, caused by the presence of matter. h: the quantum of action, also known as Planck’s constant. It is absolutely central to all of quantum physics. Newton’s equation for universal gravity: the product of the two masses involved, divided by the square of the distance between them, multiplied by the strength of gravity. Non-locality: the proven fact that our world is supported by an invisible reality which links all points in space, making extremely large distances seem “on top of each other” - - i.e., very small. This means that SOME form of communication faster than light-speed exists, implying that backwards time exists for our whole universe. Non-locality does not diminish with distance. Postulate: an assumption, at least initially unproven. Our theory contains just four - - all eventually proven true. Quantized: measured in quanta - - i.e., in units of h (See Entry for h.) - - measured discontinuously, in little “chunks” or “packets”. Quantum gravity: the as-yet unaccomplished union of Einstein’s theory of gravity - - General Relativity - - and quantum mechanics. We firmly believe that our theory takes a huge first step in this direction. Quantum mechanics: that area of quantum physics which deals with the motion of extremely small subatomic particles. Quantum physics: the science and mathematics of very small subatomic particles - - e.g., protons, electrons, neutrons and neutrinos - - and their antiparticles. Schrodinger’s wave equation: the quantum mechanics equation that many physicists consider to be the only physical reality in the universe. Some physicists even believe that THIS is not physically real either. Superluminal: faster than light-speed. Unitless: a “pure” number - - e.g., 20.5 - - as opposed to 20.5 CENTIMETERS, in units Universal G: the strength of gravity - - a universal constant Variable: an entity with two or more possible values, as opposed to a constant which has one value. Variables are heavily used in algebra.
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1802.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-15 16:01:47

Structuur in de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 11 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De fysieke werkelijkheid bezit duidelijk structuur, en deze structuur heeft een of meer fundamenten. Deze fundamenten zijn vrij eenvoudig en derhalve gemakkelijk te begrijpen. Het belangrijkste fundament evolueert zoals een zaadje in meer gecompliceerde niveaus van de structuur, zodat na een reeks van stappen een structuur resulteert die fungeert als de structuur van de fysieke werkelijkheid die mensen tenminste gedeeltelijk kunnen waarnemen. Om de kracht van deze aanpak te tonen, verklaart dit document de oorsprong van de zwaartekracht en de fijnstructuur van fotonen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[35] viXra:1802.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 09:49:17

Quantum Entanglement Fingerprints

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Aleksandra Dimić from the University of Belgrade and Borivoje Dakić from the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna have developed a novel method for which even a single experimental run suffices to prove the presence of entanglement. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:1802.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 11:11:56

A Practical Perspective. It’s about time.

Authors: Theodore J. St. John
Comments: 14 Pages.

Physics, to some, is the study of motion. To others, it is about the underlying essence of reality. But to many practical minded (and some outraged) scientists, contemporary theoretical physics has become an uncontrolled haven for speculative theorizing giving rise to fairytale physics. It seems to have “crossed an important threshold of a kind that cannot be tested, that cannot be verified or falsified, a kind that is not subject to the mercilessness of the scientific method. The discipline has retreated into its own small, self-referential world. Its product is traded by its advocates as mainstream science within the scientific community, and peddled (or even missold) as such to the wider public.” (Baggott, 2013) The purpose of this essay is to present a practical perspective of what is meant by “time”– a perspective that opens a window to a better understanding of that “weird” world of quantum mechanics. The error of treating time as a real, absolute, independent, one-dimensional entity (that was created along with the rest of the universe in the big bang) is the source of the unanswerable question, “what happened before the beginning of time”. In this paper, by treating time as a measure of motion, quantum theory and relativity theory are integrated into a single model that makes practical sense of the particle-wave duality, the transformation of future into past, hidden variables, the constant that is perceived to be the speed of light, and the Schrodinger wave equation. Finally, it provides a practical basis for studying the holographic nature of physical reality and the field of consciousness.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33] viXra:1802.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 11:48:27

SCÉNARIO Pour L'origine DE la MATIÈRE

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 13 pages. «SCÉNARIO POUR L'ORIGINE DE LA MATIÈRE» is the French version of «SCENARIO FOR THE ORIGIN OF MATTER» on viXra.org/abs/1802.0171

Comment est apparue la matière ? D’où vient la masse de la matière ? Les physiciens des particules ont fait appel aux connaissances acquises sur la matière et l’espace pour imaginer un scénario standard afin de fournir des réponses satisfaisantes à ces grandes interrogations. La pensée dominante pour expliquer l’absence d’antimatière dans la nature est qu’on avait un univers initialement symétrique fait de matière et d’antimatière et qu’une dissymétrie aurait suffi pour qu’il reste plus de matière ayant constitué notre monde que d’antimatière. Cette dissymétrie serait issue d’une anomalie dans le nombre de neutrinos provenant de réactions nucléaires qui laissent supposer l’existence d’un nouveau type de neutrino titanesque qui dépasserait les possibilités du modèle standard et justifierait l’absence d’antimatière dans le macrocosme. Nous pensons qu’un autre scénario pourrait mieux expliquer pour quelle raison on observe que de la matière. Il implique la validation de la solution d’énergie négative de l’équation de Dirac, issue elle-même de l’équation de l’énergie d’Einstein. La théorie de la Relation décrit un océan d’énergie négative avec création de paires particule/antiparticule réelles. L’origine des masses des particules proviendrait de cet océan. Un mécanisme physique permettrait leur séparation en sens inverse, d’où il résulterait un enrichissement de la matière au détriment de l’océan. La matière serait favorisée sans avoir recours à la négation ou l’annihilation de l’énergie négative, sans avoir besoin d’une violation de CP (différence de comportement entre particule et antiparticule) qui serait responsable de l’asymétrie matière/antimatière dans l’univers. Et sans l’apport salvateur d’un neutrino obèse indétectable : sa recherche nous apparaît plus un acte désespéré vers une « catastrophe ultramassive » qu’un effort véritable pour essayer de découvrir ce qui s’est vraiment passé.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32] viXra:1802.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 13:03:54

Silicon Spin Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1802.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 06:19:46

Scenario for the Origin of Matter

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 13 Pages.

Where did matter in the universe come from? Where does the mass of matter come from? Particle physicists have used the knowledge acquired in matter and space to imagine a standard scenario to provide satisfactory answers to these major questions. The dominant thought to explain the absence of antimatter in nature is that we had an initially symmetrical universe made of matter and antimatter and that a dissymmetry would have sufficed for more matter having constituted our world than antimatter. This dissymmetry would arise from an anomaly in the number of neutrinos resulting from nuclear reactions which suggest the existence of a new type of titanic neutrino who would exceed the possibilities of the standard model and would justify the absence of antimatter in the macrocosm. We believe that another scenario could better explain why we observe only matter. It involves the validation of the negative energy solution of the Dirac equation, itself derived from the Einstein energy equation. The theory of Relation describes a negative energy ocean with the creation of real particle/antiparticle pairs. The origin of the masses of the particles would come from this ocean. A physical mechanism would allow their separation in the opposite direction and, therefore, the matter would be enriched at the expense of the ocean. The matter would be favored without resorting to negation or annihilation of negative energy, without the need for a CP (the behavioral difference between particle and antiparticle) violation that would be responsible for matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. And without the savior contribution of an undetectable obese neutrino: his search appears to us more a desperate act towards an "ultra-massive catastrophe" than a real effort to try to discover what really happened.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:1802.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 08:55:50

Stock Market Quantum Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Traditionally, a quantum harmonic oscillator model is used to describe the tiny vibrations in a diatomic molecule, but the description is also universal in the sense that it can be extended to a variety of other situations in physics and beyond. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1802.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 09:11:03

|00>+|11>=|01>+|10>?

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 1 Page.

Consider four-dimensional Hilbert space H over ℂ as a direct product of two two-dimensional Hilbert spaces over ℂ, in which two binary quantum states are represented, respectively, that is, |00 = (1, 0, 1, 0), |10> = (0, 1, 1, 0), |01> = (1, 0, 0, 1) and |11> = (0, 1, 0, 1). Then, |00>+|11> = |01> + |10> = (1, 1, 1, 1). Existence of such linear dependency is obvious considering three binary quantum states in six dimensional Hilbert space, because there are eight combinations of 0 and 1 in a six dimensional space. Moreover, though it may be surprising that basis set {|00>. |10>, |01>. |11>} is not enough to cover H, considering degree of freedom of quantum state spaces represented in four and two dimensional Hilbert spaces over ℂ counted by ℝ are 7 and 3, respectively, and 7-3*2=1, it is also obvious. The natural basis set of H is {(1, 0, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 0, 1)}. Considering practical communication with two binary quantum channels, (1, 0, 0, 0), which is a valid quantum state even traditionally, should mean that the first two-dimensional Hilbert space represent |0> is sent and the second one represent no photons sent, that is, vacuum . Moreover, (0, 0, 0, 0) should also represent a valid quantum state that no photons are sent in either channel, that is, total vacuum. Violation of Bell’s inequality not by quantum entanglement is discussed in a separate paper.
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1802.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 08:13:39

Path for Quantum Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1802.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 09:04:38

Quantum Effects for Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Researchers drawing on work conducted as part of the PAPETS project, explain in the journal Physical Review Letters how they recently managed to exploit temporality for quantum computation tasks performed on dynamic random networks. [36] An international team has shown that quantum computers can do one such analysis faster than classical computers for a wider array of data types than was previously expected. [35] A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34] Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1802.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 10:10:47

Topological Photonic Routing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1802.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 07:39:57

Experimental Support for a Debroglie-Bohm-Post Interpretation of Microphysics from the Evidence of Quantum Interference in the Femtometer Scale.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 4 Pages.

This short note supplements a recent paper by the author (http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0236). In that paper it is shown from detailed data analysis that rest energies and magnetic moments for baryons can be related in terms of the existence of coherent or incoherent currents in the femtometer scale. We argue that such evidence brings support to the kind of microphysics proposed by Louis de Broglie, David Bohm and Evert Post. Rest energy is concentrated in a core. In particular all results in the cited reference can be obtained from Post´s proposal of the determination of dynamical quantities of the core through period integrals involving essentially the phases of “wavefunctions”.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1802.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 13:12:49

A Defense of Local Realism

Authors: Cristian Dumitrescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Bell’s inequalities (and the CHSH inequalities) were used in order to rule out certain hidden variable theories (or interpretations of quantum mechanics). In this short note, I will prove that Bell’s results represent a strong argument in favor of a deeper, nonlinear underlying reality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1802.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 12:45:45

Quantum Leap in Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1802.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 07:08:20

Interference Cooling Quantum Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1802.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 08:07:56

Silicon Quantum Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1802.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-09 21:53:37

Experimental Report: Torsion Field Communication Attempts in 5 km

Authors: Gao Peng
Comments: 4 Pages.

Torsion field communication (TFC) is a very important research direction in torsion field research. A.E.Akimov conducted the first TFC experiment [1]. David. G. Yurth also made great contribution for the TFC, it’s said his group has made one prototype of torsion field transmitter and receiver for communication [2]. In 2010, Dr. M. Krinker conducted successful TFC experiments with colleagues in Moscow [3]. Author began to pay attention to this topic all because a book called “Torsion Field and Interstellar Communication [4]” by V. Shkatov and V. Zamsha. This book introduces some kinds of torsion field generators and sensors, and mainly the “Shkatov- Zamsha” approach – using the photo as the addressing component. They transmitted obvious signal in 2011 with this approach. After that, Dr. M. Krinker in New York also did successful TFC tests with Mr. Shkatov. And further, Dr. M. Krinker developed the “Cross-Photo” approach for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Cybertronica Research led by Dr. S. Kernbach developed many kinds of detectors, which can detect weak and super-weak signals – especially the torsion field non-local signals. Besides them, 1k replication experiments with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy have been finished nonlocally [5].
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1802.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 08:08:36

Bethe String Observed Experimentally

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

An international team of researchers has experimentally observed Bethe strings for the first time. [21] Understanding the causes and effects of the friction could pave the way for explorations into the composition of neutron stars and our universe. Here on Earth, the Aalto researchers' results will be invaluable for curtailing the production of heat and unwanted glitches in quantum computer components. [20] A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1802.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-16 04:50:04

Structure in Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 10 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has structure, and this structure has one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that is like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravitation and the fine structure of photons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1802.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 10:54:28

Light can Stop Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

By hitting electrons with an ultra-intense laser, researchers have revealed dynamics that go beyond 'classical' physics and hint at quantum effects. [18] The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1802.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 00:07:53

Antimatter. Hasty Name and Recognition.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubiniansky, Paved Churlyaev.
Comments: 15 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Two versions have been advanced, which explain "antimatter" as a rare quantum state of ordinary matter. Confirmatory arguments are given.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1802.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 02:30:55

A New Model for Quantum Mechanics and the Invalidity of no-go Theorems

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 57 Pages.

In this paper we define and study the new model for quantum mechanics (QM) – the hybrid epistemic model. We describe in detail its axiomatic definition and its properties. The new feature of this model consists in the fact that it does not contain the formal definition of the measurement process (as it is standard in other models) but the measurement process is one of possible processes inside of QM. The hybrid-epistemic model of QM is based on two concepts: the quantum state of an ensemble and the properties of individual systems. It is assumed that the quantum state (i.e. the wave function) can be attributed only to ensembles (with some exceptions) and not to individual systems. On the other hand, the properties of individual systems can be described by properties which are collected into classifications. Properties are assumed to be exclusive, i.e. a given individual system having certain property cannot have another property. We shall describe the internal measurement process in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM in all details. This description substitutes the formal definition of the measurement process in the standard QM. We show the local nature of EPR correlations in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM in all details. We show that the anti-correlations between measurements at the Alice’s part and the Bob’s part is completely analogical to the standard classical local anti-correlations originated in the correlation in the past. We define precisely the epistemic and the ontic models of QM for the goal to prove that these three models give the same empirical predictions, i.e. that they are empirically equivalent. This theorem on the empirical equivalence is proved in all details. We show that the no-go theorems (Bell’s theorem, the Leggett-Garg’s theorem and others theorems) cannot be proved in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM. This is one of the main results of this paper. We interpret this as the invalidity of no-go theorems in QM. This interpretation is sound since the true consequences of QM must be provable in all models of QM. We shall consider the possible inconsistences of the ontic model of QM. We show that there are many consequences of the ontic model of QM which are dubious or controversial. There are many such controversial consequences. In the next part we consider the internal inconsistency of the ontic model which is more serious and we consider this argument against the ontic model as the most serious. We introduce the property-epistemic model of QM which is the special case of the hybrid-epistemic model. We describe this model in all details and we show that this model of QM is the most suitable and most elegant model of QM. In this model many proofs are extremely simplified and almost trivial. Then we discussed possible arguments in this field and our answers to these arguments. We summarize our conclusions. At the end there are three appendices. In the first appendix we give proofs of all theorems. In the second appendix we give our conjectures, opinions and suggestions. In the third appendix we describe the ontic model for the Brownian motion. We think that this model shows clearly (by analogy) the absurdity of the ontic model of QM.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1802.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 03:12:18

Terahertz Wireless Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Electrical and optical engineers in Australia have designed a novel platform that could tailor telecommunication and optical transmissions. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1802.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 08:50:16

Ionic Wind

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1802.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 09:46:19

Two-Atom Quantum Computation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Now, a team of scientists around Professor Gerhard Rempe, director at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and head of the Quantum Dynamics Division, has demonstrated the feasibility a new concept for a quantum gate. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1802.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 11:57:40

Speaking Quantum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1802.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 12:54:23

Scaling Quantum Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1802.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-04 09:41:39

Meth8 Validation of Bayes Rule© Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Section 1. We ask: "Can we validate Bayes rule as defined in the captioned textbook link?" Result: Not validated. Section 2. We ask: "Can the argument from the text be resuscitated in the process of continuing to evaluate it?" Result: The textbook definitions of Bayes rule are not validated as tautologous and cannot be resuscitated from the textbook. Section 3. As an experiment, we ask: "Are the definitions of Bayes rule derivable from Eq 3, the only expression tautologous, from Section 1; in other words, can Meth8 produce a correct Bayes rule because Section 1 failed to do so?" Result: No.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1802.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 06:18:34

Changing the Logic of Science. a Bayesian Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: John Hemp
Comments: Pages. ERRATA available on request.

Abstract In the 1950s and 1960s it was causing interest among physicists that in the formalism of quantum mechanics (complex-valued) ‘probability amplitudes’ obeyed laws similar to the laws obeyed by probabilities in the ordinary probability calculus. But this did not then lead decisively to the claim that probabilities should be represented by complex numbers. It became fashionable instead to regard probability amplitudes as an abstract concept from which actual probabilities could be derived by taking the squared moduli of the amplitudes. In this monograph, however, we make another attempt to show how probability amplitudes might after all be identified with actual probabilities. To do this, probability itself is interpreted in a rational Bayesian manner (i.e. as an extension of logic) and a new (complex-valued) probability theory is formulated that incorporates the uncertainty principle (i.e. that takes account of the fact that acquisition of knowledge of a quantum mechanical process generally interferes with it). Taking this probability theory as the new logic of science, and assuming certain physical laws and properties of matter, an interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is built up. It is consistent with the usual quantum mechanical formalism but allows a clear distinction to be made between the physical world and our knowledge of it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1802.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 09:09:50

Quantum Turbulence in Superfluid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Understanding the causes and effects of the friction could pave the way for explorations into the composition of neutron stars and our universe. Here on Earth, the Aalto researchers' results will be invaluable for curtailing the production of heat and unwanted glitches in quantum computer components. [20] A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1802.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 10:20:48

New Way to Bend Light Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1802.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 14:18:23

Secure Quantum Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers at Laboratoire Kastler Brossel (LKB) in Paris have broken through a key barrier in quantum memory performance. Their work has enabled the first secure storage and retrieval of quantum bits. [17] Antiferromagnets have generated significant interest for future computing technologies due to their fast dynamics, their ability to generate and detect spin-polarized electric currents, and their robustness against external magnetic fields. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1802.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 12:43:03

Metasurface Converts Colors of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1802.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 07:33:06

Quantum-Cryptographic Protocols

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1802.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 09:06:36

Quantum Hardy's Paradox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1802.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 10:30:32

Quantum Computing 'Hack'

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Sydney have found a 'quantum hack' that should allow for enormous efficiency gains in quantum computing technologies. [36] An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics