Authors: Henok Tadesse
The puzzles of quantum mechanics are: 1. What is the medium for the photon and for the electron wave? i.e. what is waving? 2. How can a particle have an interference pattern 3. Observer effect. 4. Entanglement. In Quantum Erasure and Double-Slit experiments, how does the emitter know to direct the photon two both slits or only to one slit? And how does the detector know where to detect the photons to form an interference pattern and not a bell-shaped (Gaussian) pattern or vice versa? This paper proposes that the hint in the mystery of light waves without a medium (ether) is contained in the Planck’s relation itself: E = hf. It is shown that Planck’s relation itself hints on the mystery of light waves without medium, and is a consequence or manifestation of non-existence of a medium for light propagation. The subtle law of nature that has eluded physicists so far is that the photon energy density ( amplitude of electric and magnetic fields) at a given point in the spatial dimensions of the photon is directly related to the rate of change of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. The higher the frequency of the photon, the higher the rate of change of the fields at every point for that photon, compared to a photon of lower frequency. The higher the rate of change of the fields at a given point, the higher the amplitude of oscillation of the electric and magnetic fields at that point. It follows that the higher the frequency of the photon and the higher the amplitude of the electric and magnetic fields, which results in high intensity of vibration of the photon, the more localized it will be. A high frequency photon will spread less in space than a lower frequency photon of equal envelope amplitude because, if the high frequency photon spreads out, there would be high rates of change over a wider region of space, and the total energy would be greater than the finite photon energy. The photon energy will always be concentrated at regions of high rate of change of electric and magnetic fields. This theory explains how electric and magnetic fields can be their own ‘medium’ , 'dragging' of the electromagnetic energy by the wave, hence eliminating the need for any medium. Since the electromagnetic wave (the photon) is a traveling disturbance of electric and magnetic fields, the rate of change of the fields at a point in space will create the intensity (amplitude) of the fields at that point. Likewise, the electron wave is a travelling disturbance of the electron mass density wave on the electron ‘sea’. The higher the frequency of mass density variation of the electron at a given point of space, the higher the mass density of the electron at that point. This will make the electron ( the electron ‘sea’) its own medium of propagation. i.e. the electron ‘sea’ is the medium of propagation for the electron wave. This means that the electron wave 'drags' the electron with itself. The other theory proposed in this paper is the predetermination of interference fringes in double-slit experiments and predetermination of which slit the photon takes in which-way or quantum erasure experiments. We propose a fundamental law of nature that an electron, an atom or any source of electromagnetic waves will always emit a weak, continuous electromagnetic energy even when not excited, which implies that electrons and atoms are always in continuous, fundamental, weak vibrations (accelerations). Therefore, in double-slit experiments and in quantum erasure or which-way experiments, the atom (electron) of the light source is always emitting weak, continuous electromagnetic waves, even before the atom is excited. Therefore, even before the atom/the electron of the light source starts emitting a photon, a weak electromagnetic (light) wave exists as an entity, extending all the way from the light source (the atom) to the slits and to the detecting screen. This ‘precursor’ wave serves as the 'highway' for the propagation of the main photon energy packet, both of which are coherent and exist as an entity. When the atom is excited, it will just emit a photon that is coherent with the weak wave it had already been emitting continuously. Therefore, even before the atom is excited, a weak wave interference pattern already exists on the screen. The photon emitted after excitation simply follows the path already created by the weak ‘precursor’ wave and will land on the screen according to the predetermined interference pattern, collapsing to the point of detection at the instant of detection. The path to be taken by the photon is predetermined in which-way or quantum erasure experiments. The same theory explains quantum entanglement: the polarization of two entangled photons is predetermined even before the excitation of the atoms emitting the photons.
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[v1] 2018-02-24 08:33:09
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