Quantum Physics

1710 Submissions

[21] viXra:1710.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 23:30:00

A Conjecture On The Nature Of Time

Authors: Felix M Lev
Comments: 37 Pages.

In our previous publications we argue that finite mathematics is fundamental, classical mathematics (involving such notions as infinitely small/large, continuity etc.) is a degenerate special case of finite one, and ultimate quantum theory will be based on finite mathematics. We consider a finite quantum theory (FQT) based on a finite field or ring with a large characteristic $p$ and show that standard continuous quantum theory is a special case of FQT in the formal limit $p\to\infty$. Space and time are purely classical notions and are not present in FQT at all. In the present paper we discuss how classical equations of motions arise as a consequence of the fact that $p$ changes, i.e. $p$ is the evolution parameter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1710.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 09:09:35

Quantum Simulator of Plant Metabolism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A quantum simulator is the preliminary stage of a quantum computer. [25] By finding materials that act in ways similar to the mechanisms that biology uses to retain and process information, scientists hope to find clues to help us build smarter computers. [25] Scientists have made a crucial step towards unlocking the "holy grail" of computing-microchips that mimic the way the human brain works to store and process information. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1710.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 13:36:27

The Photoeffect by Dressed Photon

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 6 Pages. The original ideas

We calculate the photoelectric effect initiated by dressed photon. The photon propagator is composed from the electron positron pair.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1710.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 01:31:22

The Quantum Theory of the Electron and the Photon

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 87 Pages. I still plan to add a few more sections detailing the quantum behavior of the magnetic moment Hamiltionian, as has been done for the Schroedinger Hamiltionian. But the paper is sufficiently developed that sharing is warranted at this time.

Dirac’s seminal 1928 paper “The Quantum Theory of the Electron” is the foundation of how we presently understand the behavior of fermions in electromagnetic fields, including their magnetic moments. In sum, it is, as titled, a quantum theory of individual electrons, but in classical electromagnetic fields comprising large numbers of photons. Based on the electrodynamic time dilations which the author has previously presented and which arise by geometrizing the Lorentz Force motion, there arises an even-richer variant of the Dirac equation which merges into the ordinary Dirac equation in the linear limits. This advanced Dirac theory naturally enables the magnetic moment anomaly to be entirely explained without resort to renormalization and other ad hoc add-ons, and it also permits a detailed, granular understanding of how individual fermions interact with individual photons strictly on the quantum level. In sum, it advances Dirac theory to a quantum theory of the electron and the photon and their one-on-one interactions. Seven distinct experimental tests are proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1710.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 13:01:16

Quantum Entanglement of 16 Million Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1710.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 07:23:08

Spin Current Detection in Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1710.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-17 17:26:10

Quest for the Ultimate Automaton

Authors: Alexandre Furtado Neto
Comments: 43 Pages.

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1710.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 10:30:41

Fundamental Connection Between the Planck and Hubble Constants

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 10 Pages. (RUS)

In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1710.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 13:27:10

Electron Still Seems Round

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

JILA physicists have for the first time used their spinning molecules technique to measure the "roundness" of the electron, confirming the leading results from another group and suggesting that more precise assessments are possible. [18] The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1710.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 17:03:35

On the Validity of Quantum Physics Below the Planck Length

Authors: Joseph F. Messina
Comments: 7 Pages.

The widely held expectation that quantum physics breaks down below the Planck length ($10^{-33}$ cm) is brought into question. A possible experiment is suggested that might test its validity at a sub-Planckian length scale.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 14:51:41

Quantum Equations in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: Shuang-Ren Zhao
Comments: 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intencity flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1710.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 08:00:16

Reversal of Current Flow in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1710.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-09 05:41:01

Bell's Inequality is Violated in Classical Systems as Well as Quantum Systems

Authors: Shiro Ishikawa
Comments: 10 Pages.

Bell's inequality is usually considered to belong to mathematics and not quantum mechanics. We think that this makes it difficult to understand Bell's theory. Thus in this paper, contrary to Bell's spirit (which inherits Einstein's spirit), we try to discuss Bell's inequality in the framework of quantum theory with the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation. And we clarify that whether or not Bell's inequality holds does not depend on whether classical systems or quantum systems, but depend on whether a kind of simultaneous measurements exist or not. And further we assert that our argument ( based on the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation) should be regarded as a scientific representation of Bell's philosophical argument (based on Einstein's spirit).
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1710.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-07 01:36:36

Exact Solutions of the Newton-Schroedinger Equation, Infinite Derivative Gravity and Schwarzschild Atoms

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 14 Pages. submitted to Physics and Astronomy International Journal

Exact solutions to the stationary spherically symmetric Newton-Schroedinger equation are proposed in terms of integrals involving $generalized$ Gaussians. The energy eigenvalues are also obtained in terms of these integrals which agree with the numerical results in the literature. A discussion of infinite-derivative-gravity follows which allows to generalize the Newton-Schroedinger equation by $replacing$ the ordinary Poisson equation with a $modified$ non-local Poisson equation associated with infinite-derivative gravity. We proceed to replace the nonlinear Newton-Schroedinger equation for a non-linear quantum-like Bohm-Poisson equation involving Bohm's quantum potential, and where the fundamental quantity is $no$ longer the wave-function $ \Psi$ but the real-valued probability density $ \rho$. Finally, we discuss how the latter equations reflect a $nonlinear$ $feeding$ loop mechanism between matter and geometry which allows us to envisage a ``Schwarzschild atom" as a spherically symmetric probability cloud of matter which curves the geometry, and in turn, the geometry back-reacts on this matter cloud perturbing its initial distribution over the space, which in turn will affect the geometry, and so forth until static equilibrium is reached.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1710.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-04 09:43:29

EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) Experiments and Physical Reality.

Authors: W.Berckmans
Comments: 8 Pages.

Efforts based on the results of sophysicated experiments and meant to fit EPR effects in the accepted paradigms of Physics, remain unsatisfactory. A valid Physical Reality model (see Ref1: vixra.org/abs/1604.0230) may help to solve the puzzle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1710.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-04 10:06:22

Comparative Studies of Five Fundamental Interactions and Unified Theory of Five Fundamental Interactions Established by Law of Conversation of Energy - No.5 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 7 Pages.

As No.5 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the comparative studies of five fundamental interactions (gravitational interaction, electromagnetic interaction, weak interaction, strong interaction and quantum interaction), and focusing on the comparative studies of quantum interaction and other four fundamental interactions. The law of conservation of energy is put forward to deal with all kinds of fundamental interactions (including five fundamental interactions, and the sixth fundamental interaction that may appear in the future) with unified manner; in this process, there will be the unified theories of any two fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any three fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any four fundamental interactions, and so on. When law of conservation of energy can be used to deal with five fundamental interactions with unified manner, this unified theory of five fundamental interactions can be printed on a T-shirt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1710.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-02 13:52:09

Superconducting Qubits as Quantum Engines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1710.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-10 07:37:11

The Mathematical Machinery of Logical Independence Underlying Quantum Randomness and Indeterminacy

Authors: Steve faulkner
Comments: 21 Pages.

Abstract:
I Follow up on the 2008 experiments of Tomasz Paterek et al, which link quantum randomness with logical independence. Analysis reveals, that the Paterek formalism (unwittingly) relaxes a Quantum Postulate. That relaxation denies the axiomatic imposition of unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space mathematics, while allowing these to arise freely, as logically independent structures. Surprisingly, the Paterek formalism demands a non-unitary environment — where unitary structures may freely switch on or off. The unitary environment is necessary in the formation of superposition states, but not eigenstates. This unitary condition is sustained by self-referential logical circularity around cyclic sequences of transformations. Amongst all possible self-referential systems, these generate stable, persistent structures we recognise as quantum mechanical vectors and operators. Circularity explains indeterminacy's non-causedness. Non-definiteness, stems from geometric amb iguity — typically, left|right handedness in the Bloch sphere. Collapse is caused when the unitary symmetry is deformed by some agency, such as a magnetic field or polariser.

Keywords:
foundations of quantum theory, axiomatised quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, linear algebra, elementary algebra, imaginary unit, prepared state, measured state, eigenstate, superposition state, Hilbert space, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1710.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-02 07:11:30

Enhanced Optical Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1710.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-03 16:16:10

Origin of Mass

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

The origin of gravitation and mass is explained by the fact that spherical shock fronts locally and temporarily extend the volume of the carrier of this vibration. A surprising conclusion is that spherical shock fronts own an amount of mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1710.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-01 14:09:49

On Testability of “Relative State” Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Nikolay Dementev
Comments: 8 Pages.

Justifications of Everett’s alternative interpretation of Quantum Mechanics are suggested
Category: Quantum Physics