[14] **viXra:1504.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 10:08:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1504.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-25 05:11:40*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unfortunately the Bell's correlation formula violates the law of logic: it is not theoretically founded. Here is shown, that it hardly can be ever founded.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1504.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-01 11:58:44*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 6 Pages. arxiv link added

There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1504.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-22 16:57:30*

**Authors:** Vedat Tanriverdi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. spin, quantum mechanics

The historical development of spin and Stern-Gerlach experiment are summarized.
Then some questions on spin are stated.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1504.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-25 09:28:16*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2 (2015), e1804/1--12, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1101804

We study the relation between hidden variables theories and
quantum computation.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between a hidden variables theory and controllability of quantum computation.
To derive the inconsistency, we use the maximum value of
the square of an expected value.
We propose a solution of the problem by using new hidden variables theory.
Also
we discuss
an
inconsistency
between hidden variables theories and the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
hidden variables theories to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a specific case.
Hidden variables theories may not depicture quantum detector.
This is a quantum measurement theoretical profound problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1504.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-08 14:27:50*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** Pages. Newer versions may include change of title, shortened or rewritten abstract, editorial corrections and/or minor revisions of the text, but no major change of the content unless otherwise mentioned.

Our space-time is postulated to have the following characteristics: (1) the space is an ocean filled with the “Gamma elements” having energy and mass and of a certain size; (2) both time and distance are discretized by the process of light propagation from one Gamma element to the next in some process of relativistic boost of the internal energy. These postulates provide us with a theoretical basis to explain why the speed of light, c, should remain constant in all inertial reference frames. The discrete process of light propagation leads us to a set of natural units. As a result, new physically based “Planck element units” may be defined with the new mass scale being ~7.37 x 10-51 kg (~4.14 x 10-15 eV/c2). The length scale is estimated from the wavelength of the highest energy gamma rays, in the range of 1 x 10-19 m ‒ 1 x 10-25 m, and the new time scale then being in the range of 3.34 x 10-28 s ‒ 3.34 x 10-34 s. The Planck element units are shown to relate with the fundamental constants, c (speed of light), G (gravitational constant), and h (Planck constant) with the same dimensional relationship as the conventional Planck units, but the length and time units are larger than those of the latter by 109 – 1016 orders of magnitude while the mass is smaller by whopping 10-43 orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1504.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-17 21:55:26*

**Authors:** Brian B.K. Min

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A new relativistic quantum wave equation has been derived by applying the quantum prescription to the momentum and the kinetic energy rather than to the momentum and the total energy, since after all it is the kinetic energy that generates the momentum. The resulting equation reduces to the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit and to the Klein-Gordon equation for “massless particles” in the relativistic limit, i.e., if the velocity of the particle approaches that of light, c. For massive particles in general, the new equation deviates from the Klein-Gordon equation. The same equation is shown to decouple according to the Dirac formalism, yielding a modified form of Dirac equation. When applied to a rest particle, the modified Dirac equation is shown to avoid a negative energy solution and instead include a constant solution. The other, the time-dependent particle solution of the modified Dirac equation, has the characteristic frequency Mc2/(ћ/2) , i.e., twice those of the Dirac solutions, Mc2/ћ.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1504.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-05 09:31:28*

**Authors:** You-Bang Zhan

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum operations is an important subject of quantum information processes. For the local distinction, existing researches pointed out that, since any operation performed on a quantum system must be compatible with no-signaling constraint, local discrimination between quantum operations of two spacelike separated parties cannot be realized. We found that, however, local discrimination of quantum measurements may be not restricted by the no-signaling if more multi-qubit entanglement and selective measurements were employed. In this paper we report that local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) can be completed via selective projective measurements and numerous seven-qubit GHZ states without help of classical communication if both two observers agreed in advance that one of them should measure her/his qubits before an appointed time. As an application, it is shown that the teleportation can be completed via the LQMD without classical
information. This means that the superluminal communication can be realized by using the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1504.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-15 14:35:31*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I derive the lepto-baryonic formula for the electric charge. The formula is based on
the lepto-baryonic formula for the fine-structure constant that I published recently. This paper
shows that the electrical charge is a function of the ratio of the mass difference between the two
lightest charged leptons: the electron and the electrino; and the mass difference between the two
lightest baryons: the proton and the neutron. Thus the formula for the elementary charge is a
function of the mass of four elementary particles. Two of these particles (the electron and the electrino) control the sign of the electric charge. This allow us to derive the electric charge of the positron from the electric charge of the electron by interpreting the positron, as Feynman did, as an electron of negative energy travelling backward in time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1504.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-14 13:54:17*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this article we consider the variant of quantum mechanics (QM) which is based on the non-realism. There exists the theory of the modified QM introduced in [1] and [2] which is based on the non-realism, but it contains also other changes with respect to the standard QM (stQM). We introduce here the other non-realistic modification of QM (n-rQM) which contains the minimal changes with respect to stQM. The change consists in the replacement of the von Neumann`s axiom (ensembles which are in the pure state are homogeneous) by the anti-von Neumann`s axiom (any two different individual states must be orthogonal). This introduces the non-realism into n-rQM. We shall show that experimental consequences of n-rQM are the same as in stQM, but these two theories are substantially different. In n-rQM it is not possible to derive (using locality) the Bell inequalities. Thus n-rQM does not imply the non-locality (in contrast with stQM). Because of this the locality in n-rQM can be restored. The main purpose of this article was to show what could be the minimal modification of QM based on the non-realism, i.e. that the realism of stQM is completely contained in the von Neumann's axiom.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1504.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-18 08:09:15*

**Authors:** Richard D. Gill

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Revised version: added discussion of Doran and Lasenby's attempt to geometrize quantum information; more neutral, less extensive, evaluation of Christian's model

Geometric algebra has been proposed as an alternative framework to the quantum mechanics of interacting qubits in a number of pioneering papers by Chris Doran, Anthony Lasenby and others, building on the foundations laid by David Hestenes. This line of work is summarised in two chapters of the book Doran and Lasenby (2003). Since then however, the approach has been pretty much completely neglected, with one exception: in 2007 Joy Christian published the first of a series of works, culminating in a book Christian (2014), which took off in a completely different direction: he claimed to have refuted Bell's theorem and to have obtained a local realistic model of the famous singlet correlations by taking account of the geometry of space, as expressed through geometric algebra. His geometric algebraic model of the singlet correlations is completely different from that of Doran and Lasenby.
One of the aims of the paper is to explore geometric algebra as a tool for quantum information and to explain why it did not live up to its early promise. The short answer is: because the mapping between 3D geometry and the mathematics of one qubit is already thoroughly understood, while the extension to a system of entangled qubits does not bring in new geometric insights but on the contrary merely reproduces the usual complex Hilbert space approach in a slightly clumsy way. We also work through the mathematical core of two of Christian's shortest, least technical, and most accessible works (Christian 2007, 2011), exposing both a conceptual and an algebraic error at their heart.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1504.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 11:43:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1504.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-10 06:34:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1504.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-02 04:33:14*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Old comment letter, placed up here to show ongoing struggle by author to understand FTL signaling, if it is at all possible.

The author muses on precursor ideas on a mechanism for superluminal signaling via entanglement correlation and comes to the conclusion that, whatever it is, it would be highly unusual, if superluminal signaling is to be believed. (Date of publication Sept/Oct 2011).

**Category:** Quantum Physics