Quantum Physics

2001 Submissions

[59] viXra:2001.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:33:21

Laser Diode UV Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Nagoya University scientists, in cooperation with Asahi Kasei Corporation, have designed a laser diode that emits deep-ultraviolet light, and have published a paper in the journal Applied Physics Express. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[58] viXra:2001.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 11:54:29

Laser Based on Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

"The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:2001.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:07:59

Camera Takes 1 Trillion Frames

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A little over a year ago, Caltech's Lihong Wang developed the world's fastest camera, a device capable of taking 10 trillion pictures per second. It is so fast that it can even capture light traveling in slow motion. [45] "The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43] An explosion is a complex event involving quickly changing temperatures, pressures and chemical concentrations. [42] A team led by University of Utah physicists has discovered how to fix a major problem that occurs in lasers made from a new type of material called quantum dots. [41] A team of researchers from the University of Central Florida and Michigan Technological University has developed a laser system concept built on the principles of supersymmetry. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38] Physicists at the Kastler Brossel Laboratory in Paris have reached a milestone in the combination of cold atoms and nanophotonics. [37] The universal laws governing the dynamics of interacting quantum particles are yet to be fully revealed to the scientific community. [36] Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[56] viXra:2001.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 13:28:14

Terahertz Laser Beam Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Terahertz radiation is used for security checks at airports, for medical examinations and also for quality checks in industry. [45] "The new theory opens the door to exploiting the rich phenomenology of these effects in the design of new types of ML lasers, which could lead to new functionalities and uses, especially in areas such as precision metrology or optical communications," Germán de Valcárcel explained. [44] A team of researchers is using ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT) that involves amplifying the signal from a photoacoustic laser source using laser-absorbing patch made from an array of nanoparticles from candle soot and polydimethylsiloxane. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[55] viXra:2001.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 04:12:43

Chemical Bond with Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[54] viXra:2001.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-18 04:44:46

Photo-Excited Mott Insulators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Assistant Professor Ohmura Shu and Professor Takahashi Akira of the Nagoya Institute of Technology and others have developed a charge model to describe photo-excited states of one-dimensional Mott insulators under the JST Strategic Basic Research Programs. [37] The team believe that one day in future electron microscopy may become a general method for studying chemical reactions, similar to spectroscopic methods widely used in chemistry labs. [36] By breaking with conventionality, University of Otago physicists have opened up new research and technology opportunities involving the basic building block of the world—atoms. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[53] viXra:2001.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 06:38:25

Relativity, Light and Photons

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper adds some thoughts on relativity theory and geometry to our one-cycle photon model. We basically highlight what we should think of as being relative in this model (energy, wavelength, and the related force/field values), as opposed to what is absolute (the geometry of spacetime and the geometry of the photon). We also expand our photon model somewhat by introducing an electromagnetic vector combining electric and magnetic fields. Finally, we add a discussion on how we can think about photon-electron interactions and polarization.
Category: Quantum Physics

[52] viXra:2001.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 09:47:29

Spin Currents for Advanced Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Graphene-based van der Waals heterostructures could be used to design ultra-compact and low-energy electronic devices and magnetic memory devices, according to a study led by ICREA Prof. Sergio O. Valenzuela, head of the ICN2 Physics and Engineering of Nanodevices Group. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[51] viXra:2001.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 12:04:55

Force I. the One and Only Fundamental Interaction

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 4 Pages.

The world's first thought power meter is present. Its first result is that thought force with no electric field is able to change the current and voltage in an electric circuit . This result has conclusions. The most important is the following one: there is only one fundamental interaction, because every known interaction can be explained by one ultimate fundamental interaction called Force I of All. (Pronunciation: “Force the First”.) Force I is the interaction between space and matter. Thought force is one existing form of Force I and though force measured is the first evidence that Force I exists.
Category: Quantum Physics

[50] viXra:2001.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 02:54:09

Billions Quantum Entangled Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

In a new study, U.S. and Austrian physicists have observed quantum entanglement among "billions of billions" of flowing electrons in a quantum critical material. [36] Researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt have recently demonstrated the defect-free assembly of versatile target patterns of up to 111 single-atom quantum systems. [35] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have teleported a computer circuit instruction known as a quantum logic operation between two separated ions (electrically charged atoms), showcasing how quantum computer programs could carry out tasks in future large-scale quantum networks. [34] Scientists have developed a topological photonic chip to process quantum information, promising a more robust option for scalable quantum computers. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[49] viXra:2001.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 03:32:23

Measure Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Experimental physicists have combined several measurements of quantum materials into one in their ongoing quest to learn more about manipulating and controlling the behavior of them for possible applications. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[48] viXra:2001.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 04:01:55

Semiconductor Green Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Scientists and Engineers have used surface-emitting semiconductor lasers in data communications, for sensing, in FaceID and within augmented reality glasses. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[47] viXra:2001.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 05:47:47

Colloidal Quantum Dot Photodetectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

In their experiment, the researchers used a technique to electronically dope the quantum dots robustly and permanently. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[46] viXra:2001.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 08:20:40

Quantum Detector Sensitivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

One of the open questions in quantum research is how heat and thermodynamics coexist with quantum physics. [39] But one lesser-known field is also starting to reap the benefits of the quantum realm-medicine. [38] A quantum squeezing and amplification technique has been used to measure the position of a trapped ion to subatomic precision. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[45] viXra:2001.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 11:26:31

Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

As researchers develop clever approaches to achieve that goal, this subject alone could be a theme of another exciting symposium." [41] A team at Osaka University has created single-molecule nanowires, complete with an insulation layer, up to 10 nanometers in length. [40] Using optical and electrical measurements, a two-dimensional anisotropic crystal of rhenium disulfide was found to show opposite piezoresistant effects along two principle axes, i.e. positive along one axis and negative along another. [39] A team of researchers from the University of Konstanz has demonstrated a new aqueous polymerization procedure for generating polymer nanoparticles with a single chain and uniform shape, which, by contrast to previous methods, involves high particle concentrations. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[44] viXra:2001.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 12:35:06

Self-Organized Quantum Criticality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Writing in Nature, researchers describe the first-time observation of 'self-organized criticality' in a controlled laboratory experiment. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:2001.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 04:17:31

On Improper Integrals

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 4 Pages.

The writing intends to point out aspects of conflict regarding some standard improper integrals
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:2001.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 07:48:18

Quantum Dots Spinning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:2001.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 08:28:28

Diabolical Quantum Emitters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Diabolical points (DPs) introduce ways to study topological phase and peculiar energy dispersion. Scientists in China and partners from the United Kingdom demonstrated DPs in strongly coupled active microdisks. [30] These emerging magnetic properties suggest that the dots could, indeed, have potential in quantum computing as storage and processing devices. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:2001.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 11:00:23

Representing Basic Physical Fields by Quaternionic Fields

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 46 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Basic physical fields are dynamic fields like our universe and the fields that are raised by electric charges. These fields are dynamic continuums. Most physical theories treat these fields by applying gravitational theories or by Maxwell equations. Mathematically these fields can be represented by quaternionic fields. Dedicated normal operators in quaternionic non-separable Hilbert spaces can represent these quaternionic fields in their continuum eigenspaces. Quaternionic functions can describe these fields. Quaternionic differential and integral calculus can describe the behavior of these fields and the interaction of these fields with countable sets of quaternions. All quaternionic fields obey the same quaternionic function theory. The basic fields differ in their start and boundary conditions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:2001.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 10:14:00

AlphaZero Rule the Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

The chess world was amazed when the computer algorithm AlphaZero learned, after just four hours on its own, to beat the best chess programs built on human expertise. Now a research group at Aarhus University in Denmark has used the very same algorithm to control a quantum computer. [39] Researchers have discovered that input-output maps, which are widely used throughout science and engineering to model systems ranging from physics to finance, are strongly biased toward producing simple outputs. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:2001.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 09:43:04

Post-Moore Brain-Inspired Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

In their paper published this week in Applied Physics Reviews authors Jack Kendall, of Rain Neuromorphics, and Suhas Kumar, of Hewlett Packard Labs, present a thorough examination of the computing landscape, focusing on the operational functions needed to advance brain-inspired neuromorphic computing. [22] A computer built to mimic the brain's neural networks produces similar results to that of the best brain-simulation supercomputer software currently used for neural-signaling research, finds a new study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:2001.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 02:21:09

Einstein Mass–energy Equivalence Equation E=mc^2 is Wrong Because Does not Contains Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 486 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Einstein mass–energy equivalence equation E=mc^2 is wrong because does not contains Dark Matter Einstein in 1905 did not formulate exactly the equation E=mc^2 but he said: ’if a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c^2’. Thus means for Einstein the inertial mass of an object changes if the object absorbs or emits energy. “We do not see Dark Matter energy because at light speed the Dark Matter electron energy is not released” ‘The Ferent factor is the Lorentz factor where the speed of the photon is replaced by the Dark photon speed” “Ferent’s Dark Matter mass-energy equivalence equation: E = md × vp^2” “The electron energy is the sum of the photon energy and the Dark Matter electron energy” “The particle energy E, is the sum of Matter energy and Dark Matter energy: E = Em + Edm” ”Ferent’s mass–energy equivalence equation: E=mc^2 + md × vp^2 “ “We do not see Dark Matter energy because at light speed the Dark Matter energy is not released”
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:2001.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 06:58:20

A Toroidal or Disk-Like Zitterbewegung Electron?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present Oliver Consa’s classical calculations of the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron, pointing out some of what we perceive to be weaker arguments, and adding comments and questions with a view to possibly arrive at a more elegant approach to the problem on hand in the future.
Category: Quantum Physics

[35] viXra:2001.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 08:03:04

Quantum Dot Laser Diodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Los Alamos scientists have incorporated meticulously engineered colloidal quantum dots into a new type of light emitting diodes (LEDs) containing an integrated optical resonator, which allows them to function as lasers. [31] Tiny, easy-to-produce particles, called quantum dots, may soon take the place of more expensive single crystal semiconductors in advanced electronics found in solar panels, camera sensors and medical imaging tools. [30] North Carolina State University researchers have developed a microfluidic system for synthesizing perovskite quantum dots across the entire spectrum of visible light. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:2001.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 11:41:44

Extremely Fast Quantum Calculations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Transistors based on germanium can perform calculations for future quantum computers. This discovery by the team of Menno Veldhorst is reported in Nature. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[33] viXra:2001.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 12:02:52

Quantum Loop Communication Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago launched a new testbed for quantum communication experiments from Argonne last week. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32] viXra:2001.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 12:44:09

Quantum Chips Computing Correctly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

In a step toward practical quantum computing, researchers from MIT, Google, and elsewhere have designed a system that can verify when quantum chips have accurately performed complex computations that classical computers can't. [41] Researchers at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a quantum communication chip that is 1,000 times smaller than current quantum setups, but offers the same superior security quantum technology is known for. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:2001.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 13:02:24

Complex Problems at Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Many of the most challenging optimization problems encountered in various disciplines of science and engineering, from biology and drug discovery to routing and scheduling can be reduced to NP-complete problems. [28] AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:2001.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 02:48:08

Infrared Silicon Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

In a new report published on Scientific Reports, Milan M. Milošević and an international research team at the Zepler Institute for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Etaphase Incorporated and the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, in the U.S. and the U.K. Introduced a hyperuniform-disordered platform to realize near-infrared (NIR) photonic devices to create, detect and manipulate light. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:2001.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 03:21:35

Optical Resonators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

In the quantum realm, under some circumstances and with the right interference patterns, light can pass through opaque media. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:2001.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 03:43:02

Super Cold Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have experimentally demonstrated a novel cryogenic, or low temperature, memory cell circuit design based on coupled arrays of Josephson junctions, a technology that may be faster and more energy efficient than existing memory devices. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:2001.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 11:24:56

Influential Electrons Quantum Relationship

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 73 Pages.

A team of physicists has mapped how electron energies vary from region to region in a particular quantum state with unprecedented clarity. [47] Observation of Spin-Charge Deconfinement in Fermionic Hubbard Chains"), they used a so-called quantum simulator. [46] From raindrops rolling off the waxy surface of a waterlily leaf to the efficiency of desalination membranes, interactions between water molecules and water-repellent "hydrophobic" surfaces are all around us. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:2001.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 07:59:23

One-Dimensional Quantum Divorce

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Observation of Spin-Charge Deconfinement in Fermionic Hubbard Chains"), they used a so-called quantum simulator. [46] From raindrops rolling off the waxy surface of a waterlily leaf to the efficiency of desalination membranes, interactions between water molecules and water-repellent "hydrophobic" surfaces are all around us. [45] The ever-more-humble carbon nanotube may be just the device to make solar panels—and anything else that loses energy through heat—far more efficient. [44] When traversing a solid material such as glass, a light wave can deposit part of its energy in a mechanical wave, leading to a color change of the light. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:2001.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-12 07:46:45

Energy Efficient Computers and Smartphones

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

With enhanced properties such as greater strength, lighter weight, increased electrical conductivity and chemical reactivity, nanomaterials (NMs) are widely used in areas like ICT, energy and medicine. [35] Scientists at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have developed a light-based device that can act as a biosensor, detecting biological substances in materials; for example, harmful pathogens in food samples. [34] A tightly focused, circularly polarized spatially phase-modulated beam of light formed an optical ring trap. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:2001.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 06:03:26

Laser Explore Supramolecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Curtis Menyuk, professor of computer science and electrical engineering at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), has collaborated with a team directed by Philip Russell at the Max-Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPI) in Erlangen, Germany, to gain insight into naturally-occurring molecular systems using optical solitons in lasers. [41] Researchers have developed a compact laser that emits light with extreme spectral purity that doesn't change in response to environmental conditions. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:2001.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 06:21:09

Laser Pulse of a Light Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics (MPQ) have developed a novel type of detector that enables the oscillation profile of light waves to be precisely determined. [41] Researchers have developed a compact laser that emits light with extreme spectral purity that doesn't change in response to environmental conditions. [40] A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg/Germany presents evidence of the amplification of optical phonons in a solid by intense terahertz laser pulses. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:2001.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 08:10:40

Twist in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Physicists at ETH Zurich have observed a surprising twist in a quantum system caused by the interplay between energy dissipation and coherent quantum dynamics. [35] Cloning of quantum states is used for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. [34] Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:2001.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 08:37:47

Photons Protons and Quarks, Hypotheses Contrary to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Bruce A. Lutgen
Comments: 30 Pages.

What is presented in the following pages is somewhat of a straightforward engineering approach to quantum particle physics. This approach is integrated to an extent with the considerable work done by those in the physics community. I became aware of what I would call conundrums in what was being presented in the literature on quantum particle physics. My engineering approach to resolving these alleged conundrums is seemingly ideal (to me anyway), but then surely time and others will tell.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:2001.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 09:37:40

Controlling Qubits via Microwave Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

In order to reduce error rates even further and provide reliable operations much faster, researchers at Leibniz University Hannover and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) have now developed a new method. [45] Scientists with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago have made two breakthroughs in the quest to develop quantum technology. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:2001.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 11:40:08

Randomness AttoPhotography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

One of the last obstacles hindering the photography and filming of processes occurring on a scale of attoseconds, i.e. billionths of a billionth of a second, has disappeared. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:2001.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 11:58:05

Milestone in Advanced Light Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

An upgrade of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has passed an important milestone that will help to maintain the ALS' world-leading capabilities. [33] One of the last obstacles hindering the photography and filming of processes occurring on a scale of attoseconds, i.e. billionths of a billionth of a second, has disappeared. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality-a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:2001.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 11:13:23

Structure Model of Atomic Nuclei

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

Neutrons are the particles that move on circular orbits inside the nuclei (with the remaining half of their kinetic energy) around immobilized protons which have spin only. If protons were rotating they would cause orbital magnetism, which has never been observed, beyond magnetic dipole moment of nucleons spin. In addition, no regression of proton has occurred, because it would cause alternating magnetism, which has also never been observed. The first nuclear units are the deuterium, the tritium, the helium-3 and the, so-called, upper-order nuclear unit the helium-4, which is the basic structure unit of the large nuclei. The spin, the magnetic moment and the mass deficit of the above units and of the bonding neutrons are the three experimental constants upon which the nuclei structure is based.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:2001.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 08:00:06

Quantum Computer with up to 61 Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 94 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory significantly reduced this gap by using data compression techniques to fit a 61-qubit simulation of Grover's quantum search algorithm on a large supercomputer with 0.4 percent error. [57] Quantum computation represents a fundamental shift that is now under way. What is most exciting is not what we can do with with a quantum computer today, but the undiscovered truths it will reveal tomorrow. [56] Scientists from the University of Bath, working with a colleague at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, have devised an ingenious method of controlling the vapour by coating the interior of containers with nanoscopic gold particles 300,000 times smaller than a pinhead. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51]
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:2001.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 09:18:16

Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect can combine topology and magnetism to produce precisely quantized Hall resistance at zero magnetic field (an environment carefully screened from magnetic fields). [12] Using ultracold atoms trapped in a periodically modulated two-dimensional superlattice potential, the scientists could observe a dynamical version of a novel type of quantum Hall effect that is predicted to occur in four-dimensional systems. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:2001.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 10:14:30

Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team headed by Professor Frank Stienkemeier at Freiburg's Institute of Physics and Dr. Marcel Mudrich, professor at the University of Aarhus in Denmark, has observed the ultrafast reaction of nanodroplets of helium after excitation with extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) using a free-electron laser in real time. [15] Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:2001.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 02:30:23

Atomic Electron Cloud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers at SAGA Light Source, the University of Toyama, Hiroshima University and the Institute for Molecular Science have demonstrated a method to control the shape and orientation of an electron cloud in an atom by tuning the attosecond spacing in a double pulse of synchrotron radiation. [39] Experiments with ultra-cold atoms at the TU Wien have shown surprising results: coupled atom clouds synchronize within milliseconds. This effect cannot be explained by standard theories. [38] Scientists forged quantum connections between separate regions within clouds of ultracold atoms, demonstrating entanglement between thousands of particles in two different locations. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:2001.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 03:15:46

Probability of Electron Capture

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

A large international team of researchers has empirically measured the probability of electron capture by the neon-20 isotope (20 Ne) for the first time. [40] Researchers at SAGA Light Source, the University of Toyama, Hiroshima University and the Institute for Molecular Science have demonstrated a method to control the shape and orientation of an electron cloud in an atom by tuning the attosecond spacing in a double pulse of synchrotron radiation. [39] Experiments with ultra-cold atoms at the TU Wien have shown surprising results: coupled atom clouds synchronize within milliseconds. This effect cannot be explained by standard theories. [38] Scientists forged quantum connections between separate regions within clouds of ultracold atoms, demonstrating entanglement between thousands of particles in two different locations. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:2001.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 08:41:08

Moving Domain Walls in Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists have shown that the motion of domain walls can be detected by monitoring voltage generated in superconducting devices. [38] Northeastern researchers have used a powerful computer model to probe a puzzling class of copper-based materials that can be turned into superconductors. [37] A NIMS-Ehime University joint research team succeeded in discovering new materials that exhibit superconductivity under high pressure using materials informatics (MI) approaches (data science-based material search techniques). [36] Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:2001.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-10 03:51:40

Protons and Neutrons: What Are They?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article offers an alternative explanation of nuclear processes based on a discussion of the first steps in solar nuclear fusion: hydrogen combining into helium. With alternative, we mean an explanation that does not involve the concept of a weak force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:2001.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 06:04:24

Laser Creates Frequency Doubling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:2001.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 07:11:04

Cutting Through with Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Research from The University of Queensland aimed at controlling light in scattering materials, such as fog or biological tissues, will benefit future biomedical imaging and telecommunications. [15] Researchers have demonstrated a new all-optical technique for creating robust second-order nonlinear effects in materials that don't normally support them. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:2001.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 07:50:36

Indeterministic Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Classical physics is characterized by the precision of its equations describing the evolution of the world as determined by the initial conditions of the Big Bang—meaning there is no room for chance. [34] There was a period in the very early universe—known as the "cosmic dark ages"—when elementary particles, formed in the Big Bang, had combined to form neutral hydrogen but no stars or galaxies existed yet to light up the universe. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:2001.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-05 07:58:42

Quantum Cryptography Through Some Algorithm for Quantum Computers

Authors: Koji Nagata, Do Ngoc Diep, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Volume 4, Issue 1, (2020) Page 7--13

We propose quantum cryptography based on an algorithm of determining a function. The security of our cryptography is based on the Ekert 1991 protocol, that is, we use an entangled state. Eve must destroy the entangled state. Consider a function. Alice knows all the mappings concerning the function. Bob knows none of them. His aim is of obtaining all of them without Eve's attack. In classical case, Bob needs some queries. In quantum case, Bob needs just a query. By measuring the single entangled state, which is sent by Alice, Bob can obtain all the mappings concerning the function, simultaneously. This is faster than classical cryptography.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:2001.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-19 07:47:37

The Atemporal Platonic World

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. Added a comment (p. 5) on the invariant speed of light.

Introduction to the atemporal Platonic world, called 'It'.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:2001.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 03:11:45

Elusive Majorana Quasiparticle Still a Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

"When the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana predicted the possibility of a new fundamental particle which is its own antiparticle, little could he have envisioned the long-lasting implications of his imaginative idea," said Nitin Samarth, Downsbrough Department Head and professor of physics at Penn State. [34] As mysterious as the Italian scientist for which it is named, the Majorana particle is one of the most compelling quests in physics. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:2001.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 03:48:24

Superconducting Quantum Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Northeastern researchers have used a powerful computer model to probe a puzzling class of copper-based materials that can be turned into superconductors. [37] A NIMS-Ehime University joint research team succeeded in discovering new materials that exhibit superconductivity under high pressure using materials informatics (MI) approaches (data science-based material search techniques). [36] Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:2001.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 02:56:59

From Astronomy to the Nano-Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers at Columbia University and University of California, San Diego, have introduced a novel "multi-messenger" approach to quantum physics that signifies a technological leap in how scientists can explore quantum materials. [39] This inherent flexibility should enable many interesting applications in, for instance, computation and health care. [38] New research from Washington University in St. Louis and Argonne National Laboratory coaxes electrons down the track that they typically don't travel-advancing understanding of the earliest light-driven events of photosynthesis. [37] UK researchers have developed world-leading Compound Semiconductor (CS) technology that can drive future high-speed data communications. [36] "Regarding new perspectives, this could lead to similar fantastic developments as in the field of magnetism, such as electronic coherence in quantum computing," says Schultze hopefully, who now leads a working group focusing on attosecond physics A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:2001.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 03:32:06

Performance Benchmark for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 91 Pages.

Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a quantum chemistry simulation benchmark to evaluate the performance of quantum devices and guide the development of applications for future quantum computers. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics