Quantum Physics

1911 Submissions

[70] viXra:1911.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 08:37:04

Building Block for Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Nanooptical traps are a promising building block for quantum technologies. Austrian and German scientists have now removed an important obstacle to their practical use. [37] The experiments showed that quantum light can be used to probe enzyme activities in real time without perturbing the sample. [36] The biological technique of 'optogenetics' uses light to control cells within living tissues that have been genetically modified to be light-sensitive. [35] Not much is known about the course of events leading to Alzheimer’s disease, but the formation of toxic β-amyloid plaques and phosphorylated tau proteins have long been described as major hallmarks of the disease. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[69] viXra:1911.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 09:16:16

Magneto-Optic Dual-Comb Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Dual-comb spectroscopy is a new spectroscopy that uses two precisely controlled ultrashort pulse lasers, known as optical frequency combs (optical combs). [38] Nanooptical traps are a promising building block for quantum technologies. Austrian and German scientists have now removed an important obstacle to their practical use. [37] The experiments showed that quantum light can be used to probe enzyme activities in real time without perturbing the sample. [36] The biological technique of 'optogenetics' uses light to control cells within living tissues that have been genetically modified to be light-sensitive. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[68] viXra:1911.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:20:27

Quantum Computers Mark Their Work

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 93 Pages.

A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realized. [56] A new test to check if a quantum computer is giving correct answers to questions beyond the scope of traditional computing could help the first quantum computer that can outperform a classical computer to be realized. [56] In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[67] viXra:1911.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:57:59

Hydrogen Tuning Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Researchers at TU Delft have discovered a method to stretch and compress quantum materials using hydrogen gas. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1911.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 09:03:07

The Words Implicit and Explicit Seem to Describe All that "IS"

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 19 Pages.

I conceptually discuss what I consider the naturally occurring construct of universal reality might be. I talk about what I consider to be the random conditions, influences and effects that might help to conceptually explain how the universe might have come into being in the first place. I debate that there are two continuums in the universe. One of these is the implicit continuum and the other is the explicit continuum. I suggest that quantum non-locality theory in physics provides a useful tool in order to help to understand the concurrent relationship between both these continuums. I demonstrate that non-locality [metaphysical-implicitness] is real and that this is why science must learn to accommodate this notion if it is ever to be able to describe and demonstrate a theory of everything. Email: conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[65] viXra:1911.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 07:16:29

The Inescapable Duality of All “things”

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 3 Pages.

I present the notion that our space time universe is “swimming” in a sea of sub-quantum [non-local] weirdness. I also conceptually postulate that all “things” and events in our universe are somehow in a dual and entangled relationship with each other. I imagine this relationship as being a concurrent one and that they are not materially connected to each other. However, I believe that they do influence and effect each other in some way. I refer to this sea of weirdness as being non-physical implicit phenomena and physical phenomena entangled within this sea as being explicit phenomena. I discuss what my concept of the duality of all that “IS” might mean in helping us to better understand the workings of the wider universe as well as what such a conceptual theory might mean for future scientific research and understanding. Email: conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[64] viXra:1911.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 08:00:20

Better Light-Trapping Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A study published in Nature describes a new design for optical resonators that are more effective at trapping light, an important fundamental step towards making more efficient optical devices. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[63] viXra:1911.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 17:07:29

On the Neutrino Theory of Light

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

This is a review article. We show that the mass of neutrinos in accelerating fields behaves radically differently than masses other particles. Abandonment of the idea that photons are systems of entangled neutrino-antineutrino (NAN) pairs creates great problems today in a coherent description of dark matter, dark energy, nuclear plasma and spin and mass of the proton. In fact, objects built from entangled or/and confined NAN pairs create the illusion of the existence of quarks. Here we calculated the neutrino charge and the lower and upper limits for photon mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[62] viXra:1911.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 16:36:39

Theory of God's Creation

Authors: Christopher L A Smith
Comments: 5 Pages. theory of everything would like it well handled

Pyramids they are everything’s particle constituent as I explain you will get to know the basic structure of the universe they are magnetic in nature and have both a field release and field return of magnetism as a force continuum. These Pyramid’s release and intake force into each other’s field continuum they stream force into each other’s field continuum force intake releases force into return fields force intake spirals into release into a vortex of motion spiraling around release. The force releases straight out the tip to return normally but can move slightly towards greater force of returning magnetism the release field of the base seeks the return field in release direction and the base can split into several release and return points. These Pyramids are gluons permeate as heat make up all particles when together as fields.
Category: Quantum Physics

[61] viXra:1911.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 14:47:29

Nature Astronomy Journal Has Been Published Plagiarism of Leonov's Concept of a Quantized Ball-Shaped Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

In 1996, I developed and published the scientific concept of the quantized ball-shaped universe in Russian [1]. This concept was published a second time in English in 2010-2011 in my fundamental the theory of Superunification [2-4]. The concept of a quantized universe is my development. Our universe is a quantized universe and the universe is filled with quantons. Quanton is a quantum of space-time and it was discovered by me in 1996. Quanton has four integer quark two electric (±e) and two magnetic (±g). The calculated diameter of the quanton is 10^—25 m. The concentration of quantons is the quantum density (is an average ~10^75 q/m3) of the medium (space) and this is a variable function that describes the deformation (Einstein's analogue of curvature) of quantized space-time. A quantized universe can only have the shape of a ball and at the moment it is in a white hole state. Our universe is not flat. It is spherically deformed and the deformation (force) vector is directed to the periphery of the universe forcing the galaxies to run with acceleration. A quantized universe has no expansion and its diameter is a constant parameter. We are observing only the accelerated scattering (recession) of galaxies inside of the quantized deformed universe. This is a new physics; this is a new methodology for calculating the parameters of the universe and its state as at the present moment and for the future. I was glad when I read the article “Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology” in the “Nature Astronomy” [5], which once again confirms the correctness of the theory of Superunification. But I was surprised when I did not see a reference to my theory of Superunification and to the Leonov's concept of a quantized ball-shaped universe. We must make references to publications that were made earlier. This is customary in the scientific community. The lack of reference to the publication is plagiarism.
Category: Quantum Physics

[60] viXra:1911.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 20:08:51

Testing the No-Signaling Hypothesis

Authors: Bruce Holton
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here we describe an experiment that demonstrates how messages might be sent using entangled photons. While super-luminal signaling is considered impossible due to the statistical nature of quantum processes, we suggest a possible loophole has been found. Provided the reasoning here is correct, we have an open conflict between quantum mechanics and special relativity. If we can send messages, we can time them. Quantum mechanics predicts instantaneous action-at-a-distance. Special relativity tells us that no information can be transmitted faster than the speed of light. Hence, whether the timing turns out to be super-luminal or not, we have an apparent contradiction between the results and one of these two theories. We hypothesize that a timing test will demonstrate super-luminal signaling.
Category: Quantum Physics

[59] viXra:1911.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 04:58:19

Hot Electrons Harvested

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Semiconductors convert energy from photons (light) into an electron current. However, some photons carry too much energy for the material to absorb. These photons produce "hot electrons," and the excess energy of these electrons is converted into heat. [26] Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[58] viXra:1911.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 07:04:28

Photoemission Electron Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A research group led by Prof. Fu Qiang and Prof. Bao Xinhe at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have developed near ambient pressure photoemission electron microscopy (AP-PEEM) with a tunable deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser source as the excitation source. [27] Semiconductors convert energy from photons (light) into an electron current. However, some photons carry too much energy for the material to absorb. These photons produce "hot electrons," and the excess energy of these electrons is converted into heat. [26] Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:1911.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 08:58:17

Complex Scenes from Long Distances

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at Heriot-Watt University, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Toulouse, France, have proposed a novel framework that combines statistical models with highly scalable computational tools from the computer graphics community to accurately extract the 3-D information in real-time (50 frames per second). [25] The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[56] viXra:1911.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 02:58:53

Split Photons in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

"Perhaps quantum computers might one day use this method to communicate with each other and form a kind of quantum Internet," says Weitz with a view towards the future. [23] Researchers led by Tracy Northup at the University of Innsbruck have now built a quantum sensor that can measure light particles non-destructively. [22] A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[55] viXra:1911.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 03:30:27

Reroute Light in Computer Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

The team is now working to make the device even smaller by shortening the distance between the silicon disk and the gold membrane. This would further reduce signal loss, making the technology even more appealing to industry. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon-the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy-in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[54] viXra:1911.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 05:36:23

Terahertz Laser with Laughing Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Within the electromagnetic middle ground between microwaves and visible light lies terahertz radiation, and the promise of "T-ray vision." [15] A team of scientists from DESY and the University of Hamburg has achieved an important milestone in the quest for a new type of compact particle accelerator. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[53] viXra:1911.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-15 06:15:04

Spring and Gravity Laws of Vibration Energy Harvesting

Authors: Emmanuel F.C. Chimamkpam
Comments: 15 pages of texts/equations and 11 pages of figures. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3530639

Usual theory has it that large power is only attained by using large mass in harvesting of vibration energy. But can a heavy harvester be displaced at all or meaningfully under small vibration sources? Large mass means large materials with high costs, less ease of transportation and high difficulty of integration into portable technologies. Herein, a theory is proposed and validated for power as inversely proportional to mass but directly proportional to the stiffness of spring, meaning that large mass is not always needed. A further concept is established that more local gravity gives higher power but on condition that mass, spring stiffness and displacement amplitude of vibration source remain unchanged. Nonlinear multi-phase power spectrum arises when displacement amplitude of a vibration source is constant, whereas linear single-phase spectrum is the result when this amplitude fluctuates in non-zero gravity. All theoretical findings concur with results of real-life applications, giving new design pathways for high performance harvesters.
Category: Quantum Physics

[52] viXra:1911.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 07:19:42

Quantum Transition Electron Lack Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

The phenomenon occurs at extremely low temperatures very close to absolute zero. When temperatures fall this low, thermodynamic fluctuations practically disappear, and quantum fluctuations are observed, constituting the "medium" in which interactions among electrons take place. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[51] viXra:1911.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 08:48:22

Spin Dynamics in Rydberg Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Rydberg molecules are giant molecules made up of tens or hundreds of atoms bound to a Rydberg atom. [39] The three-year Rydberg Quantum Simulators (RYSQ) project was set up to capitalize on the versatility of Rydberg atoms in order to address a variety of quantum simulations. [38] Using lasers, U.S. and Austrian physicists have coaxed ultracold strontium atoms into complex structures unlike any previously seen in nature. [37] A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do-but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information-known as qubits-that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[50] viXra:1911.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 09:45:02

Quantum Objective Reality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Clearly these are all deeply philosophical questions about the fundamental nature of reality. Whatever the answer, an interesting future awaits. [37] Researchers at the University of Vienna study the relevance of quantum reference frames for the symmetries of the world. [36] Researchers in Singapore have built a refrigerator that's just three atoms big. This quantum fridge won't keep your drinks cold, but it's cool proof of physics operating at the smallest scales. [35] Researchers have created a new testing ground for quantum systems in which they can literally turn certain particle interactions on and off, potentially paving the way for advances in spintronics. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[49] viXra:1911.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 15:07:54

Diffusion Gravity: An Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: DH Fulton
Comments: 13 Pages. Fourth paper in series on Diffusion Gravity

Diffusion Gravity is a theory based upon established physical principles including Newtonian mechanics, quantum mechanics, and the Principle of Least Action. Radial flows of virtual particles from all masses due to mass diffusion is proposed as the fundamental cause of gravity, along with the corresponding quantum mechanisms underlying the macroscopic phenomenon. The Poisson equation for gravity and the corresponding “sink” or depletion zone is presented as the attraction mechanism for gravity; this current research installment applies the equation to large scale gravitational equipotential point-surfaces in galactic star orbits, where the acceleration according to Newton-Kepler should fall to a0<10-10 m/sec2, but observationally does not. By steradial geometry and the Gaussian transform of volume virtual particle flows to equipotential surface fluxes, the diffusion gravity model demonstrates how a gravitational “locking” and “equipotential-locking” at galactic scale affects centripetal acceleration and velocity rotation curves of galaxies, without invoking dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[48] viXra:1911.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 12:27:00

Capture Objects with Ghost Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Researchers have developed a way to capture moving objects with the unconventional imaging method known as ghost imaging. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[47] viXra:1911.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 07:55:01

Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Oscillators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

With the demonstration of a sub-picosecond thin-disk laser oscillator delivering a record-high 350-watt average output power, physicists at ETH Zurich set a new benchmark and pave the path toward even more powerful lasers. [28] But in new experiments by physicists at MIT and elsewhere, the opposite happens: When a pattern called a charge density wave in a certain material is hit with a fast laser pulse, a whole new charge density wave is created-a highly ordered state, instead of the expected disorder. [27] Scientists from Universität Hamburg have united the two research fields and succeeded in observing the emergence of ions in ultracold atoms. [26] Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[46] viXra:1911.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 12:53:29

Massive Photons in Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An international research collaboration from Poland, the UK and Russia has created a two-dimensional system-a thin optical cavity filled with liquid crystal-in which they trapped photons. [26] This novel technology could be used to produce molecular junctions in a scalable fashion-allowing millions of them to be manufactured in parallel. [25] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have successfully generated controlled electron pulses in the attosecond range. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[45] viXra:1911.0219 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-14 17:59:07

Minimal Fractal Manifold as Foundation of Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 7 Pages.

Derived from the mathematics of the Renormalization Group, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) represents a spacetime continuum endowed with arbitrarily small deviations from four dimensions. The geometrical structure of the MFM can be conveniently formulated using the concept of dimensional quaternion, a vector-like entity built from component deviations along the four spacetime coordinates. Our analysis shows that dimensional quaternions form a natural basis for qubit systems and Quantum Information Theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[44] viXra:1911.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 03:17:24

Our Quantized Universe is a Spherical White Hole in the Shape of a Ball

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 14 Pages, 6 Figures

Astronomers have found that galaxies in our universe move with acceleration in towards the periphery of the universe, creating the appearance that the universe is expanding. In fact, we are seeing an accelerated recession of galaxies. The paradox is that according to Newton, motion with acceleration is possible only under the influence of external force, gravitation and antigravitation. There are no other explanations for this paradox. Galaxies do not have engines to create an external force. Gravity is contrary to the effect of expansion. It remains only to consider the effect of antigravitation that explains the movement of galaxies with acceleration (recession of galaxies). I have explained the antigravitation in 1996 when I discovered superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) - the global energy field in the form of a quantized space-time consisting of quantons. Antigravitation is created as a result of deformation (Einstein's curvature) of quantized space-time in the form of a gradient of the quantum density of the medium and the energy gradient of the SEI. For this, the space-time of our universe must be deformed and curved, it must not be flat. The deformation vector of the quantum density of the medium should be directed to the periphery of the universe providing accelerated movement of galaxies. Antigravitation is realized by the gravitational field of a white hole with minus-mass (negative mass). Our quantized universe is a spherical white hole in the shape of a ball. This fact was established by me and published in 1996 [1] and then published a second time in the theory of Superunification in 2010 [2].
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:1911.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 07:24:18

Spin Atomic Transport

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

This regime is difficult to study otherwise, but is of considerable fundamental and practical interest, not least for applications in spintronic devices and to explore fundamental phases of matter. [31] Scientists find surprising way to affect information storage properties in metal alloy. [30] A new method allows the quantum state of atomic "qubits"—the basic unit of information in quantum computers—to be measured with twenty times less error than was previously possible, without losing any atoms. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1911.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 03:41:48

Interference at the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

It also provides new theoretical frameworks and models for working with sophisticated electron microscopes, like the facilities present at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1911.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:09:01

Energy Density of a Vacuum Observed by Background Radiation

Authors: Filip Kozarski
Comments: Four pages, no figures. Known physics, new results.

In the paper zero-point energy density of free photons is estimated for an empty space surrounded by — and observed by — a bath of thermal background photons. Interpreting the results, the outline of the cosmological arrow of time is suggested.
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:1911.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:00:50

Quantum Internet Future

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

This proposal represents a new step towards quantum information networks, since it sets a solid theoretical framework on what is physically possible in the field of automated classification and distribution of quantum information. [27] Researchers from QuTech have achieved a world's first in quantum internet technology. [26] The achievement represents a major step towards a "quantum internet," in which future computers can rapidly and securely send and receive quantum information. [25] Scientists have used precisely tuned pulses of laser light to film the ultrafast rotation of a molecule. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1911.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 05:29:41

Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics—yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] A ground-breaking study conducted by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has revealed a method of using quantum mechanical wave theories to "lock" heat into a fixed position. [47] Researchers at the University of Konstanz have recently carried out a study exploring the quantum states of light and vacuum fluctuations, as well as their interplay with time. [46] Physicists at the University of Innsbruck are proposing a new model that could demonstrate the supremacy of quantum computers over classical supercomputers in solving optimization problems. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1911.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:33:40

Imaging Limits by Information Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25] Social, economic, environmental and health inequalities within cities can be detected using street imagery. [24] Citizen science is a boon for researchers, providing reams of data about everything from animal species to distant galaxies. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1911.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:42:23

Speed of Light Mathematics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1911.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 07:57:50

Frequency Combs Shape Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Today, optical frequency combs (OFCs) are routinely employed in applications as diverse as time and frequency metrology, spectroscopy, telecommunications, and fundamental physics. [28] AMOLF researchers and their collaborators from the Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC/CUNY) in New York have created a nanostructured surface capable of performing on-the-fly mathematical operations on an input image. [27] Narimanov has gone a step further in abstracting the imaging process by only considering information transfer, independently of how that information is encoded. [26] A UCLA research team has devised a technique that extends the capabilities of fluorescence microscopy, which allows scientists to precisely label parts of living cells and tissue with dyes that glow under special lighting. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[35] viXra:1911.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 08:46:50

Benefits and Harms of Relativism for Fundamental Science

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 6 Pages, 1 Figure

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Space” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 36-41. In this article, I drew attention to the controversial issue of the contradictions of relativism at that time. Then many physicists believed that the action of relativism is possible only in an absolutely empty vacuum of space. This was contrary to my concept of quantized space-time consisting of quantons. I had to unite relativity and the concept of quantized space-time. I came to the conclusion that the principle of relativity is a fundamental property of quantized space-time. I found that every object of the universe from an elementary particle to cosmological objects obeys the principle of spherical invariance and it behaves as an independent center a relatively of quantized space-time, being its part. This idea was set forth in detail by me in my monograph: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:1911.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 09:17:56

Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Space (Eqs)

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 41 Pages, 17 Figures

I have read these four reports at the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia. My reports were published as a separate brochure "Four reports on the theory of elastic quantized space (EQS)" in the conference proceedings. In this publication I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33] viXra:1911.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 14:45:07

Relativism as a Special Case of Newton's Classical Mechanics

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages, 2 Figures

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 14-23. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs. In the theory of Superunification, I have unified relativism and classical mechanics as unique properties of quantized space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32] viXra:1911.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 14:52:55

How does Measurement Affect the Real Result?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The real mass of the W boson is 80.423 GeV but we explain why experiments should give 80.388 GeV - this result is consistent with the PDG experimental value 80.379(12) GeV. We also answered the question of how measurements change the real masses of particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1911.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 15:31:04

Spherical Invariance in the Development of Absolute Cosmological Model

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 12 Pages, 6 Figures

This article was published by me in English 2000 in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 24-35. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs. In the end, I came to the conclusion that the principle of relativity is a fundamental property of quantized space-time. I found that every object of the universe from an elementary particle to cosmological objects obeys the principle of spherical invariance and it behaves as an independent center a relatively of quantized space-time, being its part.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:1911.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 23:52:06

Quanglebit and Hopf Fiber Fields - Two Projects in Progress

Authors: Jennifer Lorraine Nielsen
Comments: 1 Page.

A description of two related proposed projects in mathematical quantum physics are presented, each involving the Hopf fibration, one providing steps towards defining a unit measure of quantum information, a quanglebit, and the other towards redefining the fields [EM and QFT] and Schrodinger equation on the Hopf fiber bundle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1911.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 07:31:00

Role of Superstrong Interaction in Synthesis of Elementary Particles

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 11 Pages, 8 Figures

This article was published by me in English in a separate brochure: “Four Reports on the Theory of Elastic Quantized Medium.” in the materials of the Sixth International Conference "Modern Problems of Natural Science", August 21-25, 2000, St.-Petersburg, Russia, pp. 3-13. In this article I set out the basic principles of the theory of Superunification, which was completed by me in 1999 in the period 1996-1999. It was only ten years later the theory of Superunification was published in the UK in English in 2010 with a volume of over 700 pages: V. S. Leonov. Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pgs.
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1911.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 07:37:42

Nanophotonic Synchrotron-Like Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Vacuum fluctuations just a few nanometres from the surface of a material can cause a passing beam of relativistic electrons to emit X-rays and other high-frequency electromagnetic radiation — according to calculations done by scientists in the US, Israel and Singapore. [31] A simple, passive photonic structure made only of glass and air bubbles could perform artificial neural computing for applications in areas like facial recognition. [30] Most artificial intelligence (AI) systems try to replicate biological mechanisms and behaviors observed in nature. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1911.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 08:44:37

Floating Atoms Measure Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, has found a new way to measure gravity—by noting differences in atoms in a supposition state, suspended in the air by lasers. [20] An international group of astronomers, including physicists at the University of St Andrews, has revived a previously debunked theory of gravity, arguing that motions within dwarf galaxies would be slower if close to a massive galaxy. [19] While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1911.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-08 09:32:49

Causality in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 96 Pages.

Two researchers at the University of Massachusetts and Universidade Federal Rural in Rio de Janeiro have recently carried out a study discussing and synthesizing some of the key aspects of causality in quantum field theory. [57] Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a method that allows them to characterize the fluctuations in detail. [56] A team of researchers from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Griffith University in Australia have constructed a prototype quantum device that can generate all possible futures in a simultaneous quantum superposition. [55]
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1911.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 15:06:59

The Higgs field and the Grid Dimensions

Authors: Eran Sinbar
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Higgs boson (or Higgs particle), that was confirmed on 2012 in the ATLAS detector at CERN is supposed to be a quantum excitation of the condensate field which fills our universe and is responsible for the mass of elementary particles and is named the Higgs field. In this paper I will explain why this Higgs field is part of new dimensions which I refer to as the Grid extra dimensions (or grid dimensions). This paper will explain what are the expected measurements regarding the Higgs boson (particle) based on this assumption. In this paper I will show what will be the future measured evidence that the Higgs particle measured at the particle accelerators is a quantum excitation of the Grid dimensions themselves. This exciting evidence will enable us for the first time to probe new dimensions and open our perspectives to accept the option of extra dimensions and many worlds staggered within our known universe. This understanding might enable future communication through these dimensions between the staggered worlds themselves. Modern Physics has two leading theories that contradict each other: (1) The Einstein’s deterministic, local “smooth” General Relativity theory for the large scale with the relativistic behavior and the limitation on the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. (2) Quantum theory with the quantized characteristics, non-local Schrodinger wave equations with its probabilistic behavior and the collapse of the wave function or the many worlds interpretation of Hugh Everett. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle which is dependent on the Planck constant, the photonic energy which is dependent on Planck constant, the chaotic behavior of physics below the Planck length and Planck time, the non-local behavior of entanglement, the delayed choice quantum eraser, the Bekenstein – Hawking black hole entropy calculation and the Einstein special relativity limitation on the speed of light in all the inertial frames of reference, lead me to look for a new disruptive structure of the space-time fabric. One option is to quantize space into three dimensional “space cells” in the size of Planck length l_P in each dimension and to quantize time into time pulses (Planck time).Our understanding of time is dependent on the number of Planck pulses that we count and for each Planck pulse, a physical step in the length of Planck length can occur with a probability between zero to one. A massless photon has a probability of one to pass one Planck length for each pulse of Planck time and that is the limitation of the velocity in each frame of reference and it is defined as the speed of light. An elementary particle which has mass has a probability lower than one to pass one Planck length for each pulse of Planck time. The exciting question is what divides our fabric of space-time to these space cells and time pulses, and my assumption is that there are extra non local space time dimensions stretched like a four dimensional greed between the space cells and the time pulses. Another way to imagine the space feature of the grid dimensions is by imagining a three dimensional extra non local space in which our known three dimensional space cells are floating ,vibrating, moving, turning, flipping or rotating like ice cubes(space cells) in water (grid extra dimensions) . The probability to move from one space cell to the next for each Planck pulse of time is correlated to the mass of the elementary particle, where a photon with zero mass has a probability of one. Based on that I assume that the Higgs field is part of the extra grid dimensions. This paper will show a way to test this thesis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1911.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 15:13:30

Hidden Energy of a Particle (Body). Energy Balance

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

The energy of a particle (body) inside a quantized space-time has a hidden energy. When the speed of the particle is increased, the increase of the dynamic energy of the particle takes place as a result of the decrease of its hidden component, ensuring the balance of energy. As a result, the energy of a particle (body) is the energy turning into the real energy from its hidden form inside the quantized space-time. The hidden form of energy explains to us the reasons for the growth of energy when there is an increase in the speed of a particle (body). The source of energy of a particle (body) is the spherical deformation of quantized space-time which provides us with the equivalence of mass and energy. Mass has its birth from the quantized space-time. Mass is a bunch of energy of a spherically deformed quantized space-time. Mass is the energy of spherical deformation of the quantum density of the medium inside the quantized space-time. This fact was established and mathematically described by me in the theory of Superunification [1-7].
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1911.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-07 05:12:24

Hidden Mass of a Particle (Body). Mass Balance

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

The mass of a particle (body) inside a quantized space-time has a hidden mass and a hidden energy. When the speed of the particle is increased, the increase of the dynamic mass of the particle takes place as a result of the decrease of its imaginary component, ensuring the balance of mass. As a result, the mass of a particle (body) is the mass turning into the real mass from its hidden form inside the quantized space-time. The hidden form of mass explains to us the reasons for the growth of mass when there is an increase in the speed of a particle (body). The source of mass of a particle (body) is the spherical deformation of quantized space-time. Mass has its birth from the quantized space-time. This fact was established and mathematically described by me in the theory of Superunification [1-7].
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1911.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 22:29:11

The Balance of Gravitational Potentials

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

The gravitational state of a particle (body) is characterized by four parameters of the gravitational potentials of the medium inside the quantized space-time. We have: the gravitational potential of undeformed quantized space-time; the gravitational action potential of deformed quantized space-time outside of the particle (body); the gravitational potential of deformed quantized space-time inside a particle (body); the Newton potential of the quantized space-time. This is a fundamentally new method of gravitational analysis based on the quantum theory of gravity. The balance of the gravitational potentials of the gravitational field of a particle (body) inside the deformed quantized space-time is a constant. [1-8].
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1911.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 02:28:49

Ultrafast Quantum Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

KAIST researchers have reported the detection of a picosecond electron motion in a silicon transistor. [30] In quantum physics, some of the most interesting effects are the result of interferences. [29] When Nebraska's Herman Batelaan and colleagues recently submitted a research paper that makes the case for the existence of a non-Newtonian, quantum force, the journal asked that they place "force" firmly within quotes. [28] Computing the dynamics of many interacting quantum particles accurately is a daunting task. There is however a promising calculation method for such systems: tensor networks, which are being researched in the theory division at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1911.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-14 07:51:24

Quaternionic Field Theory

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 44 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The correct specification of the concept of physical fields requires a platform in which these physical fields can be defined. This platform represents a base model that emerges from a Hilbert lattice, a vector space, and a number system. The number system must be an associative division ring. Dynamic fields require the selection of the quaternionic number system. Quaternionic fields are constructed eigenspaces of normal operators in a quaternionic Hilbert space. The base model supports symmetry-related fields and a field that always and everywhere exists. It acts as a repository for dynamic geometric data.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1911.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 08:46:06

Microscope Snapshots of Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

This camera is currently the fastest electron detector in the world, capturing atomic snapshots at 87,000 frames per second: about 50 times faster than the current state of the art. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1911.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-06 09:17:59

The Balance of the Quantum Density

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

The gravitational state of a particle (body) is characterized by four parameters of the quantum density of the medium inside the quantized space-time: p0, p1, p2, pn (1). Where 0 is quantum density of undeformed quantized space-time; p1 is quantum density of deformed quantized space-time outside of the particle (body); p2 is quantum density of deformed quantized space-time inside a particle (body); pn is imaginary quantum density of the quantized space-time. This is a fundamentally new method of gravitational analysis based on the quantum theory of gravity. The balance of the quantum density of the gravitational field of a particle (body) inside the quantized space-time is a constant: p0=p1+pn=Const [1-7].
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1911.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 15:30:58

The Balance of the Quantum Density of a Medium in Statics

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 1 Figures

The balance of the quantum density in dynamics is describing the state of a dynamic particle (body) in the entire range of speeds including the speed of light. The equations of dynamics are including the normalized relativistic factor. In the region of relativistic speeds, we observe a decrease in the quantum density of the medium around the particle (body) and the formation of a deeper gravitational well. Inside a particle (body) we observe an increase in the quantum density of the medium. Upon reaching the speed of light, the particle has the state of a black micro-hole. In this case, we will see that inside of the particle the quantum density doubles, and outside it there is a drop in the quantum density to zero [1-8].
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1911.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 02:43:32

Spooky Quantum Tunneling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 96 Pages.

This allowed the researchers to explore quantum tunneling, a phenomenon often used in undergraduate chemistry courses to demonstrate one of the "spookinesses" of quantum mechanics, Field says. [56] Measurements at the attosecond scale not only add an extra dimension for the future quantum technologies but also can fundamentally help in understanding the elephant of the quantum room: what is time? [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1911.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 03:11:28

Light-Based Tractor Beam

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

The team adapted a light-based technology employed widely in biology-known as optical traps or optical tweezers-to operate in a water-free liquid environment of carbon-rich organic solvents, thereby enabling new potential applications. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1911.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 10:49:42

Theory of an Electro-Cordic Field in Quantum Systems. I. (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 17 Pages.

A theory of electro-cordic guidewaves is developed to supplement the standard acausal statistical laws of quantum mechanics and account for the growth of accurate information from apparently random quantum events. Every effort is made to reveal the physical reality of the guidewaves which organise photons or electrons into predictable states. Einstein’s equations of general relativity have also been applied to hydrogen to yield energy levels identical to those of Dirac’s theory. A companion paper covers applications of electro-cordic guidewaves to interference, entanglement and superconductivity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1911.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 12:35:07

Quantum Coherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

In quantum physics, some of the most interesting effects are the result of interferences. [29] When Nebraska's Herman Batelaan and colleagues recently submitted a research paper that makes the case for the existence of a non-Newtonian, quantum force, the journal asked that they place "force" firmly within quotes. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1911.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 17:48:26

Quantum Density of the Medium and Gravitational Potentials

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 2 Pages

The quantum theory of gravity characterizes the state of quantized space-time with a new parameter: the quantum density of the medium. The new parameter is the concentration of quantons in a unit volume of space. Quanton is a quantum of space-time is the basic particle in the quantum theory of gravity. The gravitational field inside the quantized space-time is characterized by four parameters of the quantum density of the medium: ρ0, ρ1 ρ2 ρn. The quantum density of the medium is an analogue of the gravitational potentials. Each parameter of the quantum density of the medium has its own analog of the gravitational potential: φ0, φ1 φ2 φn. Previously, the theory of gravity had only one gravitational potential: the Newtonian gravitational potential φn. Because of this, we had big problems for gravitational computing. The quantum density of the medium and additional gravitational potentials allowed us to solve many problems of the theory of gravity that were previously considered unsolvable. But we have the main thing: we created the quantum theory of gravity almost a quarter century ago [1, 2]. I am surprised when I see thousands of articles with the big names of the theory of quantum gravity, and inside these articles are empty and uninteresting. In theoretical physics, we have fierce competition between scientists. And only a few of them manage to say a newer word in physics once a century. I created the theory of Superunification, the theory of quantum gravity, quantum thermodynamics, quantum energy, a quantum engine and much more. The theory of Superunification is the basis of new energy and space technologies [1-6].
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1911.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 00:36:43

The Formula of the Speed of Light in a Quantized Space-Time

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

There is Einstein’s formula of 1911 which shows that the speed of light is not a constant, but it is a function of the gravitational potential [1]. This formula is not written correctly because the speed of light с enters the left and right sides of the formula. At that time, Einstein did not know that space-time is quantized space-time and it has its own gravitational potential equal to the square of the speed of light. This fact was established by me in 1996 [2, 3]. In the theory of Superunification, the formula of the speed of light is a very simple formula and it is equal to the square root of the gravitational action potential or it is equal to the square root of the quantum density of quantized space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1911.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-04 09:43:03

Quantum Communication Randomness

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Random bit sequences are key ingredients of various tasks in modern life and especially in secure communication. In a new study researchers have determined that generating true random bit sequences, classical or quantum, is an impossible mission. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26] Researchers at the University of Florence and Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, in Italy, have recently proved that the invasiveness of quantum measurements might not always be detrimental. [25] Now, researchers in the UK and Israel have created miniscule engines within a block of synthetic diamond, and have shown that electronic superposition can boost their power beyond that of classical devices. [24] In the latest wrinkle to be discovered in cubic boron arsenide, the unusual material contradicts the traditional rules that govern heat conduction, according to a new report by Boston College researchers in today's edition of the journal Nature Communications. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1911.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 05:04:40

Printer Creates Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new printer that produces digital 3-D holograms with an unprecedented level of detail and realistic color. [14] A professor and head of the Quantum Gravity Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), he grapples with this conundrum on a daily basis. [13] A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1911.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 15:14:11

Quantum Gravity Inside of the Gravitational Well

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 7 Pages, 3 Figures

Gravity is determined by the presence of a gravitational well around the gravitational mass. A gravitational well is a potential well that describes an inhomogeneous gravitational field of an energy gradient, a quantum density gradient of a medium, and a gravitational action potential gradient. The force of gravity is determined by the gradient of gravitational energy, the deformation vector of quantized space-time and the strength of the gravitational field. It should be noted that the force F of gravity is always directed to the bottom of the gravitational well in the direction of decreasing gravitational energy, quantum density of the medium and gravitational action potential [1-7].
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1911.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-02 09:16:26

The Energy Gradient is a Unified Formula for all Fundamental Forces

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

Scientists around the world have been looking for a unified physics formula for over a hundred years. But this formula has been known since the time of Newton. This formula is very simple - the force F is equal to the energy W gradient: F = gradW (1). This formula of the force (1) rarely used in the calculations. We use the calculations mainly according to Newton’s formula when the force F is equal to the mass m multiplied by the acceleration a: F=ma (2), where acceleration is the first derivative of velocity v with respect to time t or acceleration is the second derivative of the displacement x with respect to time t. Which formula is the main? The basic formula is: F = gradW (1). From the basic formula (1) all other formulas are derived including formula (2) and the law of universal gravitation. Formula (2) is secondary. Why the basic formula (1) is still in the shadows? The fact is that the energy gradient is based on the condition that energy fills all space-time like the ocean. This is an energy ocean. However, the Standard Model (SM) of Physics considers the zero energy level of a physical vacuum. But the zero energy gradients are zero. In a cosmic vacuum with a zero energy level should be no forces. But this contradicts the observed facts. In space there is a lot of forces and energy. It turns out that SM is a fake. In quantum the theory of Superunification I corrected all the errors of SM. In 1996, I discovered superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) - the fifth force (Superforce). SEI is the global energy field of the universe with the maximum level of energy. The SEI field has gradients of energy levels and it is heterogeneous. These energy gradients describe the action of all fundamental forces [1, 2].
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1911.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 00:44:07

Problems in Quantum Mechanics: Textbook. (In Russian)

Authors: Galitsky V. M., Karnakov B. M., Kogan V. I.
Comments: 648 Pages. in Russian. M.: Science, the Main edition of physical and mathematical literature, 1981.

The book contains 800 problems mainly on non-relativistic quantum mechanics, covering both the basic provisions and mathematical apparatus of the theory, as well as its numerous applications to atomic physics, nuclear and particle physics and physics of multiparticle systems. Considerable attention is paid to the computational methods of quantum mechanics: perturbation theory, quasiclassical approximation, variational method, sudden impact approximation, adiabatic method. Two chapters (out of a total of 16) include problems on elementary quantum radiation theory and relativistic wave equations. These problems are a useful introduction to the study of quantum field theory and particle physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1911.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 02:22:29

The Normalized Relativistic Factor: the Leonov's Factor

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages

Relativistic factor relate to the theory of relativity. The fact of the unification of the theory of relativity and quantum theory takes place in the theory of quantum gravitation as a part of the theory of Superunification [1, 2]. Therefore, it became possible for us to relate the region of relativism to quantum physics. The main problem of relativism is the problem of infinite values of mass and energy during the acceleration of an elementary particle to the speed of light. We solved this problem by introducing a normalized relativistic factor - the Leonov's factor which was introduced into theoretical physics after the discovery of the quanton in 1996. The normalized relativistic factor limits the upper limit of the mass and energy of relativistic particles and excludes infinity. So, a proton when reaching the speed of light should have a limited mass equal to the mass of an iron asteroid with a diameter of 1 km. When the speed of light is reached, the relativistic particle passes into the state of the relativistic black micro-hole, limiting its parameters.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1911.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 03:25:13

Evading Heisenberg Quantum Uncertainty

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 95 Pages.

EPFL researchers, with colleagues at the University of Cambridge and IBM Research-Zurich, unravel novel dynamics in the interaction between light and mechanical motion with significant implications for quantum measurements designed to evade the influence of the detector in the notorious 'back action limit' problem. [56] We don't have to get into what they claimed was the mechanism for destroying interference, because our experiment has shown there is an effect on the velocity of the particle, of just the size Heisenberg predicted. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1911.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 07:31:17

Gravitational Diagram of a Non-Ideal Black Hole

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

In [1], we examined the parameters and properties of an ideal black hole. The ideal black holes characterized discontinuities of the quantized space-time on the surface of the black hole. Its formation is completed. Such a black hole is completely invisible. Non-ideal black holes do not have discontinuities of quantized space-time on the surface of a black hole. Its formation is not completed. Such a black hole has a visible glow due to the reflection of photons from its surface. We describe the state of a black hole by a system of equations in the form of a two-component solution of the Poisson equation for the quantum density of the medium and gravitational potentials. An analysis of the spherical deformation of quantized space-time allows us to look inside a black hole and describe its external gravitational field.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1911.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 08:09:32

Hall Response in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A few months ago, a team of researchers led by Louis Taillefer at the University of Sherbrooke measured the thermal Hall conductivity in several compounds of copper, oxygen and other elements that are also high-temperature superconductors known as 'cuprates.' [26] Now, a new study in the journal Nature by scientists from Spain, the U.S., China and Japan shows that superconductivity can be turned on or off with a small voltage change, increasing its usefulness for electronic devices. [25] Superconducting nanowires could be used as both targets and sensors for the direct detection of dark matter, physicists in Israel and the US have shown. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1911.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 08:24:40

Josephson Vortices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Josephson Vortices MIPT physicists have learned how to locally control Josephson vortices. The discovery can be used for quantum electronics superconducting devices and future quantum processors. [27] A few months ago, a team of researchers led by Louis Taillefer at the University of Sherbrooke measured the thermal Hall conductivity in several compounds of copper, oxygen and other elements that are also high-temperature superconductors known as 'cuprates.' [26] Now, a new study in the journal Nature by scientists from Spain, the U.S., China and Japan shows that superconductivity can be turned on or off with a small voltage change, increasing its usefulness for electronic devices. [25] Superconducting nanowires could be used as both targets and sensors for the direct detection of dark matter, physicists in Israel and the US have shown. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics