[55] **viXra:1604.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 22:06:51*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the speed of light is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[54] **viXra:1604.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-30 03:52:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[53] **viXra:1604.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 14:05:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It might be said that the most difficult part of building a quantum computer is not figuring out how to make it compute, but rather finding a way to deal with all of the errors that it inevitably makes. Errors arise because of the constant interaction between the qubits and their environment, which can result in photon loss, which in turn causes the qubits to randomly flip to an incorrect state. [16]
Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15]
University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[52] **viXra:1604.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 03:05:44*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 12 pages; German language – Deutsch: Quantentheorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Modell zur anschaulichen Erklärung quantentheoretischer Effekte

This paper describes a physical model to intuitively explain quantum theoretical effects. The developed model describes a mechanism, which gives a logical sense to the calculation of probability amplitudes. Hence the double-slit experiment and Schrödinger’s cat become understandable. The here described model is an extension of the physical model described in the prior manuscript “Theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave”. That paper describes a model which postulates a particle as a real matter wave in a 4-dimensional and absolute space. With that theory it is possible to describe the relativistic effects in qualitatively and quantitatively accuracy.
The quantum theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave shows that this model already presages a way to explain the quantum theoretical effects. From the introduction of the long extent in the 4th dimension it is not far to a model in which a particle uses many paths simultaneously. It is a conclusive derivation of the quantum theoretical effects using the model to describe the relativistic effects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[51] **viXra:1604.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-27 16:37:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this note we are rewriting the reduced mass formula into a form that potentially gives more intuition on what is truly behind the reduced mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[50] **viXra:1604.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-27 17:42:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this note we are simplifying the Klein--Gordon Equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[49] **viXra:1604.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 02:47:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[48] **viXra:1604.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 17:10:47*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Hodge Experiment was designed to support the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) particle model of the photon. It also rejected the wave models of light. The general model of light waves within the Hodge Experiment's conditions is shown to lead to unobserved effects. It also provides an insight into inertia. The STOE model of particles and the wave model of a continuous medium yield indistinguishable results for the screen image in the traditional diffraction experiment. Therefore, the Hodge Experiment provides a method to distinguish between a direct wave caused diffraction pattern and a particle caused diffraction pattern that resolves the wave--particle duality conundrum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[47] **viXra:1604.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 13:16:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[46] **viXra:1604.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 14:39:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[45] **viXra:1604.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 04:10:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Publishing in Nature Physics April 25, the scientists, led by Professor of Physics Mingzhong Wu in CSU's College of Natural Sciences, are the first to demonstrate using non-polarized light to produce in a metal what's called a spin voltage - a unit of power produced from the quantum spinning of an individual electron. Controlling electron spins for use in memory and logic applications is a relatively new field called spin electronics, or spintronics, and the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics. [12]
Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[44] **viXra:1604.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-25 07:01:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Small objects like electrons and atoms behave according to quantum mechanics, with quantum effects like superposition, entanglement and teleportation. One of the most intriguing questions in modern science is if large objects – like a coffee cup-could also show this behavior. Scientists at the TU Delft have taken the next step towards observing quantum effects at everyday temperatures in large objects. They created a highly reflective membrane, visible to the naked eye, that can vibrate with hardly any energy loss at room temperature. The membrane is a promising candidate to research quantum mechanics in large objects. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[43] **viXra:1604.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 09:38:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[42] **viXra:1604.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 05:47:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Quantum Tunneling Water Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[41] **viXra:1604.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 03:51:49*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 3 pages

We investigate the violation factor of the Bell-Mermin inequality.
Until now, we use an assumption that the results of measurement are $\pm 1$.
In this case, the maximum violation factor is $2^{(n-1)/2}$.
The quantum predictions by $n$-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)
state violate
the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with $n$.
Recently, a new measurement theory based on the truth values is proposed.
The values of measurement outcome are either $+1$ or 0.
Here we use the new measurement theory.
We consider multipartite GHZ state.
It turns out that the
Bell-Mermin inequality is violated
by the amount of $2^{(n-1)/2}$.
The measurement theory based on the truth values provides
the maximum violation of the Bell-Mermin inequality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[40] **viXra:1604.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 04:03:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In a proof-of-principle experiment, researchers at UNSW Australia have demonstrated that a small group of individual atoms placed very precisely in silicon can act as a quantum simulator, mimicking nature-in this case, the weird quantum interactions of electrons in materials. [9] Dartmouth College and Griffith University researchers have devised a new way to "sense" and control external noise in quantum computing. Quantum computing may revolutionize information processing by providing a means to solve problems too complex for traditional computers, with applications in code breaking, materials science and physics, but figuring out how to engineer such a machine remains elusive. [8] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[39] **viXra:1604.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-22 08:36:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Experiments provide evidence for one-way quantum steering—an effect by which distant entangled systems can influence one another in a directional way. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[38] **viXra:1604.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-12 10:48:29*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Abstract:

In 2008, Tomasz Paterek et al published ingenious research, proving that quantum randomness is the output of measurement experiments, whose input commands a logically independent response. Following up on that work, this paper develops a full mathematical theory of quantum indeterminacy. I explain how, the Paterek experiments imply, that the measurement of pure eigenstates, and the measurement of mixed states, cannot both be isomorphically and faithfully represented by the same single operator. Specifically, unitary representation of pure states is contradicted by the Paterek experiments. Profoundly, this denies the axiomatic status of Quantum Postulates, that state, symmetries are unitary, and observables Hermitian. Here, I show how indeterminacy is the information of transition, from pure states to mixed. I show that the machinery of that transition is unpreventable, logically circular, unitary-generating self-reference: all logically independent. Profoundly, this indeterminate system becomes apparent, as a visible feature of the mathematics, when unitarity --- imposed by Postulate --- is given up and abandoned.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, measured state, pure states, mixed states, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[37] **viXra:1604.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 14:00:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from across the country, led by Alexander Spott, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA, have built the first quantum cascade laser on silicon. The advance may have applications that span from chemical bond spectroscopy and gas sensing, to astronomy and free-space communications. [14] A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1604.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 10:40:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Quantum physics has a reputation for being mysterious and mathematically challenging. That makes it all the more surprising that a new technique to detect quantum behaviour relies on a familiar tool: a "zip" program you might have installed on your computer. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[35] **viXra:1604.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 02:02:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Dartmouth College and Griffith University researchers have devised a new way to "sense" and control external noise in quantum computing. Quantum computing may revolutionize information processing by providing a means to solve problems too complex for traditional computers, with applications in code breaking, materials science and physics, but figuring out how to engineer such a machine remains elusive. [8] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[34] **viXra:1604.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-19 03:49:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

While Bell inequalities have been proven to be an optimal tool for ruling out local realism in quantum experiments, Lucas Clemente and Johannes Kofler from the Theory Division of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) in Garching, Germany, have now shown that inequalities can never be optimal for tests of macroscopic realism. [11] Physicists have developed a new protocol to detect entanglement of many-particle quantum states using a much easier approach. The new protocol is particularly interesting for characterizing entanglement in systems involving many particles. These systems could help us not only to improve our understanding of matter but to develop measurement techniques beyond current existing technologies. [10] Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[33] **viXra:1604.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 13:04:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:1604.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 13:20:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

RMIT University researchers have trialled a quantum processor capable of routing quantum information from different locations in a critical breakthrough for quantum computing. [12] EPFL scientists have built a single-atom magnet that is the most stable to-date. The breakthrough paves the way for the scalable production of miniature magnetic storage devices. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[31] **viXra:1604.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 13:47:45*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 2016, 4, 881-887. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.45096

In contrast to many other physical theories quantum mechanics is generally regarded as above any theory we have ever had and perhaps the best candidate for a universal and fundamental de-scription of objective realty as such. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is not the only aspect of the conceptual difference between quantum and classical physics but is certainly one of the most important and famous aspects of quantum mechanics. As we will see, quantum mechanics as a theory and especially Heisenberg's uncertainty principle challenges not only our imagination but violates some fundamental principles of classical logic as such. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is refuted.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[30] **viXra:1604.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 06:20:03*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I want to show that the formulation of the theory of relativity in the form of an integrated four-dimensional complex time , provides new insights into the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[29] **viXra:1604.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-15 07:51:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

EPFL scientists have built a single-atom magnet that is the most stable to-date. The breakthrough paves the way for the scalable production of miniature magnetic storage devices. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1604.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 06:59:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Advances in quantum communication will come from investment in hybrid technologies, explain Stefano Pirandola and Samuel L. Braunstein. [9] A University of Oklahoma-led team of physicists believes chip-based atomic physics holds promise to make the second quantum revolution-the engineering of quantum matter with arbitrary precision-a reality. With recent technological advances in fabrication and trapping, hybrid quantum systems are emerging as ideal platforms for a diverse range of studies in quantum control, quantum simulation and computing. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1604.0228 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-05 15:20:33*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Larmor formula at the Planck scale is simply the Planck power multiplied by $\frac{1}{2\pi}$. The Larmor formula is used to describe the total power radiated by charged particles that are accelerating or decelerating. \citet{Hau16h} has recently shown that the Coulomb's electrostatic force is the same (at least mathematically) as the gravitational force at the Planck scale. The findings in this paper strengthen the argument that electricity is not so special and that at the Planck scale, we likely only have one force and thereby only one power as well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1604.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 14:30:14*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2016. >I am very grateful for the possiblity to be able to boykot arXiv.org<

Both from the points of view of recognition and understanding, the knowledge of fallacies can arm us against many kinds of mistakes and can help us to overcome serious scientific disagreements in a reasonable way. Being able to avoid or to detect fallacies can been viewed as a supplement to criteria of good scientific reasoning. Fallacies can be identified in several different ways. One way is to derive a logical contradiction such as +0 = +1. Still, a unified theory of fallacies giving us a systematic framework for demarcating fallacies and other kinds of mistakes is to be achieved. The present inquiry focuses on the logical and mathematical content of Bell's theorem. As we shall see, Bell's theorem itself is a false but popular belief, a deceptively bad argument. Bell's theorem is the most profound logical fallacy of physics and of science as such.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1604.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 09:44:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1604.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 07:13:57*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Ever since the celebrated 1964 paper of John Bell, the statement that "Quantum systems violate the Bell inequalities", [1,2], has a very large support among quantum physicists as well as others claiming some knowledge about quanta. Amusingly, it has so far escaped the general notice that, if indeed, quanta do violate that Bell inequalities, then - due to elementary facts of Logic - they must also violate {\it all} other valid mathematical relations, thus among them, the equation 0 = 0. Here the respective elementary facts of Logic are presented.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1604.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 07:28:22*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

n a recent series of papers [1, 2, 3] of this author, we generalized
quantum field theory to any curved spacetime. More in particular, in
[1] we derived the spin statistics theorem without appealing to anything
isomorphic to the vanishing of the field (anti-)commutatation relations
at spacelike distances. The correct propagators were derived by means
of other principles and no reference towards an operational approach has
ever been made; this casts into doubt the operational principle of quantum
causality since up till now it is widely believed to constitute a necessity
rather than just an axiom added to the theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1604.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 13:24:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In phase transitions, for instance between water and water vapor, the motional energy competes with the attractive energy between neighboring molecules. Physicists at ETH Zurich have now studied quantum phase transitions in which distant particles also influence one another. [14] A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1604.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-23 12:39:04*

**Authors:** Pal Sahota

**Comments:** 61 Pages.

The hypothesis re-introduces the concept of the Aether through tiny spinning negatively charged particles called alpha-negatrons with large spaces in between. This compressed medium forms a three dimensional crystalline structure in the shape of "The flower of life" and as a result the speed of propagation is fixed. Electromagnetic and gravity waves propagate through this medium utilizing compression / rarefaction and through the spinning action of these particles. The negatively charged electron spins around the nucleus and also on its own axis, perpendicular to its rotation around the nucleus. The nucleus spins on its own axis and the phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is proof of that fact. The movement of the alpha-negatron particles in different directions as a result of the spins of electron and the spinning action of the nucleus is responsible for the phenomenon of magnetism, gravitism, electromagnetic and gravity waves. Time is caused by the vibration energy inherent in these particles which links time with the velocity of light. Consciousness is a separate dimension like time. Consciousness is a manifestation of the alpha-positron particle, the positive counterpart of the alpha-negatron. Consciousness and time move in opposite directions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1604.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-19 05:36:01*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Recently in [3] it was shown that the so called Bell Inequalities are {\it irrelevant} in physics, to the extent that they are in fact {\it not} violated either by classical, or by quantum systems. This, as well known, is contrary to the claim of John Bell that the mentioned inequalities {\it would be} violated in certain quantum contexts. The relevant point to note in [3] in this regard is that Bell's mentioned claim, quite of a wider acceptance among quantum physicists, is due to a most simple, elementary and trivial {\it mistake} in handling some of the involved statistical data. A brief presentation, simplified perhaps to the maximum that still presents the essence of that mistake, can be found in [10], see also [9]. The present paper tries to help in finding a way to the understanding of the above by quantum physicists, an understanding which, typically, is obstructed by an instant and immense amount and variety of ``physical intuitions" with their mix of ``physics + philosophy" considerations which - as an unstoppable avalanche - ends up making a hopeless situation from one which, on occasion, may in fact be quite simple and clear, as shown in [3] to actually happen also with the Bell Inequalities story. The timeliness of such an attempt here, needless to say not the first regarding the Bell Inequalities story, is again brought to the fore due to the no less than {\it three} most freshly claimed to be fundamental contributions to the Bell Inequalities story, [4,5,13], described and commented upon in some detail in [6].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1604.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 03:07:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Protons can tunnel in solutions and at temperatures above the boiling point of water, found scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1604.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 10:10:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1604.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 07:32:18*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The distinction of quantum measurements is one of the fundamentally important problems in quantum information science. In this paper we present a novel protocol for distinguishing local quantum measurement (DLQM) with multi-particle entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two spacelike separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-particle GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the DLQM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1604.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 12:37:51*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Atom size, the superstring theory by the elementary particle pulsation principle.
Size of "the strings" in the current superstring theory is 10-33cm Planck size.
The expanse of the cloud of measurable probability, "the string" of atom size, the superstring theory are 10-8cm size.
The figure of elementary particle pulsation principle energy wave pattern assumes the average energy density of dark energy the horizon and supposes the horizon to be energy zero.
I assume a place of the dark energy a general place, and the energy of the negative wave offsets it plus every pulsation 1 cycle, and the energy grand total of a place pulsating by the supersymmetry that it is offers zero and the supersymmetry that it is to zero.
I explain nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism by the physics of the material wave to express by Schrodinger equation and explain a film (three-dimensional space) equivalent to D brainy person as four dimensions space and the section and explain gravity as minus number energy space (equivalent to the ring of the super string) of a pulsating wave.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1604.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 08:30:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A team led by researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has achieved a major breakthrough in magnetic interaction. By adding a special insulator, they make electrons "twirl" their neighbouring "dance partners" to transfer magnetic information over a longer range between two thin layers of magnetic materials. This novel technique enables magnetic information to make their way from one magnetic layer to another, synonymous to the encoding and transmission of data. [11] Researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have identified a system that could store quantum information for longer times, which is critical for the future of quantum computing. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1604.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 05:03:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A bright laser beam was used to draw energy out of waves on the surface of the superfluid. Dr Christopher Baker and Professor Warwick Bowen Australian researchers from the University of Queensland have, for the first time, used laser light to cool a special form of quantum liquid, called a superfluid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1604.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:00:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1604.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:10:04*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a previous paper of this author [1], I introduced a novel way of
looking at and extending at quantum field theory to a general curved
spacetime satisfying mild geodesic conditions. The aim of this paper is
to further extend the theory and clarify the construction from a physical
point of view; in particular, we will study the example of a single particle
propagating in a general external potential from two different points of
view. The reason why we do this is mainly historical given that the
interacting theory is after all well defined by means of interaction vertices
and the Feynman propagator and therefore also applicable to this range
of circumstances. However, it is always a pleasure to study the same
question from different points of view and that is the aim of this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1604.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 03:38:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Spin-waves are promising candidates for future information processing schemes as there is almost no frictional heating in magnetic transport. Information encoding, however, is only possible in spin-wave packets. A group of CUI researchers has succeeded in creating and capturing such defined wave-packets in slow-motion videos. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1604.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 03:53:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Almost all electronic devices operate by using an electron charge controlled by electrical means. In addition to a charge, an electron has a spin as a magnetic property. A groundbreaking concept for information processing based on electron spins is proposed using electron spins in semiconductors. Quantum computing enables us to exceed the speed of conventional computing and a spin transistor reduces energy consumption. [14] Spin-waves are promising candidates for future information processing schemes as there is almost no frictional heating in magnetic transport. Information encoding, however, is only possible in spin-wave packets. A group of CUI researchers has succeeded in creating and capturing such defined wave-packets in slow-motion videos. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1604.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-05 04:40:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1604.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-22 15:46:34*

**Authors:** Ioannis Xydous

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The Author presents an alternative interpretation to Quantum phenomena based on a non-constant speed of light concept with fundamental consequences on quantum level. Besides its enormous significance about the interaction between charged particles, it leads ultimately to the complete description and unification of all fundamental forces as to the development of a new Mass-Energy equivalence that supplements Einstein’s original one. The technological implications of this discovery may actually open the “doors” for real gravito-inertial control (e.g. invisibility, antigravity, teleportation) through electromagnetic means.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1604.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 10:16:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A proposed interferometry experiment could test nonrelativistic quantum gravity theories by entangling two mirrors weighing as much as apples. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1604.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 10:54:35*

**Authors:** Sudhanva Joshi

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this paper, I have studied the properties of atomic and molecular world along with General and special theories of relativity. This is an attempt to merge Gravity into the standard model in order to complete the Grand Unification Theory. The merger of gravity into the other forces i.e. electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear forces should be well defined and in the boundaries of Gauge Group theory. The Lorentz transformations used in the theory too are invariant under SU(2) type of space. The relative force exerted on two separate quantum systems is also discussed along with Dark matter and Dark energy at a quantum level. I have also tried to solve the Banach-Tarski theorem by applications of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle in the later part of the paper. Detailed particle Chirality in standard model is redefined to fit in the criterion of operators used in the same process. Possible existence of a new quasi particle is also included in the paper along with its properties.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1604.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 04:06:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The distillation and dilution process allows measuring the strength of coherence of the initial state of superposition with experiments tailored to each particular case. [10] University of Vienna physicists have, for the first time, evaluated the almost 100-year long history of quantum delayed-choice experiments—from the theoretical beginnings with Albert Einstein to the latest research works in the present. The extensive study now appeared in the renowned journal Reviews of Modern Physics. [9] Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1604.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 15:21:20*

**Authors:** Fernando Arthur Tollendal Pacheco, Fernando Antônio Tollendal Pacheco

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There is no wave front collapse

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1604.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 11:54:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

University of Vienna physicists have, for the first time, evaluated the almost 100-year long history of quantum delayed-choice experiments—from the theoretical beginnings with Albert Einstein to the latest research works in the present. The extensive study now appeared in the renowned journal Reviews of Modern Physics. [9] Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1604.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 12:43:20*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

1) An elementary particle is the quantum which assumed darkness energy to meet outer space a place and repeats a particle trip, a wave trip, the pulsation of the minus number particle trip.
2)The pulsation is expressed in the wave function of the Schrodinger equation, and the real number axis of the equation is equivalent to horizon (mc²=0) of the pulsation model.
3)The wave packet representing the particle which an equation shows is elementary particle pulsation, and the natural collapse of the wave packet does not occur. It is not a pilot wave leading a particle.
4)The elementary particle has minus number mass by original mass, a minus number particle trip by a particle trip, and it is a particle having size intermittently, and it is by the wave trip with the point that there is not of the size.
5)All mass of the elementary particle converts it into energy by a pulsatile wave trip and are released in the horizon (three-dimensional space) and it is absorbed again and becomes the particle.
6)Negative energy is offset plus every pulsation 1 cycle, and the energy grand total of the place of the dark energy to pulsate becomes zero. (supersymmetry).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1604.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 08:34:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A University of Oklahoma-led team of physicists believes chip-based atomic physics holds promise to make the second quantum revolution-the engineering of quantum matter with arbitrary precision-a reality. With recent technological advances in fabrication and trapping, hybrid quantum systems are emerging as ideal platforms for a diverse range of studies in quantum control, quantum simulation and computing. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics