[29] **viXra:1003.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 48 pages

As a continuation of a preceding paper "The trapped light" a preliminary attempt of
how to construct a spinor theory of radar scattering or radar signal-target interaction
with the gauge theories of quantum mechanics is presented. This way radar signals
and radar targets may become visible macroscopic objects to be put in analogy with
Standard Model particles and interactions. The basic idea is that particles and forces
are all of electromagnetic nature, light, and appear different due to the size and shape
of interacting objects.
For the purpose that we propose here, you must first deal with a generic radar signal
in spinor form (note: it is TEM, TE, TM or evanescent. I mean "radar signal" in a
wide sense, ie for ex. also into a waveguide).
This is done by deriving a spinor representation of the TE TM through the Dirac
equation for plane wave, starting rigorously from Maxwell's equations without any
use of equivalent V, I as in previous papers.
As a byproduct the representation is extended to the TEM.
Then I introduce a tentative procedure to express the deflection of the field in a
different direction, and its variation in frequency, and rest mass. This is accomplished
through the interaction with SU(2)xU(1) gauge fields ie electroweak interactions.
Some simple but illustrative examples are given.
The ideas set out here need of course further research.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1003.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 pages

In the context of some recent papers suggesting CT-symmetric QM in order to
generalize PT-symmetric QM, in this paper we present an idea that there is quite
compelling reasoning to argue in favour of supersymmetric extension of Klein-Gordon
equation. Its numerical solutions in some simplest conditions are presented.
Since the potential corresponding to this supersymmetric KGE is neither Coulomb,
Yukawa, nor Hulthen potential [2a], then one can expect to observe a new type of
matter, which may be called 'supersymmetric-meson'. Its presence may be expected
in particular in the process of breaking of Coulomb barrier in low energy schemes.
Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1003.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 pages

In the preceding article we argue that biquaternionic extension
of Klein-Gordon equation has solution containing imaginary
part, which differs appreciably from known solution of
KGE. In the present article we discuss some possible interpretation
of this imaginary part of the solution of biquaternionic
KGE (BQKGE). Further observation is of course recommended
in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1003.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 pages

It is known that quaternion number has wide application in theoretical physics and engineering fields alike,
in particular to describe Maxwell electrodynamics. In the meantime, recently this quaternion number has
also been used to draw fractal graph. The present note is intended as an introduction to this very interesting
study, i.e. to find linkage between quaternion/biquaternion number, quantum mechanical equation
(Schrödinger equation) and fractal graph. Hopefully this note will be found useful for subsequent study.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1003.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** L. Stephen Young

**Comments:** 44 pages

The Smarandache Quantum Paradoxes ["Nature", Vol. 413, No. 6854] and Smarandache
Hypothesis (FTL) are defined as a formal set of (anti-logic) statements inclusive in modern
quantum theory. To determine whether they constitute theoretical artifacts or can be considered
true physical paradoxes, G Dimensional Theory, a unique, logical and physically congruent
system of physics, at significant variance with modern and classical theory, is presented in
Sections 3-4. A comparative analysis of the Smarandache quantum paradoxes within context of
the two theories follows in Section 5.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1003.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 8 pages

In a number of preceding papers we introduced a new PT-symmetric periodic potential, derived
from biquaternion radial Klein-Gordon equation. In the present paper we will review our
preceding result, and continue with numerical solution of Gamow integral for that periodic
potential. And then we also compare with other periodic potentials which are already known,
such as Posch-Teller or Rosen-Morse potential. We also discuss a number of recent development
in the context of condensed matter nuclear science, in particular those experiments which are
carried out by Prof. A. Takahashi and his team from Kobe University. There is hint to describe
his team's experiment as 'mesofusion' (or mesoscopic fusion). We then analyze possibility to
enhance the performance of Takahashi's mesofusion experiment under external pulse field.
Further experiments are of course recommended in order to verify or refute the propositions
outlined herein.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1003.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 pages

In recent years there are new interests on special symmetry
in physical systems, called PT-symmetry with various ramifications.
Along with the isodual symmetry popularized by RM
Santilli, these ideas form one of cornerstone in hadron physics.
In the present article, we argue that it is plausible to generalise
both ideas to become iso-PT symmetry which indicate there
should be new potential obeying this symmetry. We also discuss
some possible interpretation of the imaginary solution of
the solution of biquaternionic KGE (BQKGE); which indicate
the plausible existence of the propose iso-PT symmetry. Further
observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify
this proposition.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1003.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 15 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Jonathan J. Dickau

**Comments:** 6 pages, The author notes that revisions are needed for this paper to be rigorously
accurate, but wishes to foster conversation on this topic.

Both researchers and educators have expressed displeasure with the definition of entropy as a
measure of disorder. Instead, it is argued by Leff, Lambert, and others that the increase of
entropy can be far more accurately described using terms such as 'dispersal of energy,' 'spreading
and sharing of energy,' and 'spatial and temporal spreading.' In decoherence theory, a similar
metaphor is used to describe the phenomena involved with quantum non-locality, superposition,
and entanglement. Specifically the wavefunction of a quantum entity, such as a sub-atomic particle
or photon is not seen to collapse but rather is transferred through interactions to a system and/or
its environment. This suggests there may be a common basis for entropy and non-locality. I explore
the idea that energy is motive and extensive by nature, and that all its forms of expression
involve motion, action, and propagation, which clearly leads to its being spread and shared when
unconstrained, among the available microstates of its local system and the larger environment. Thus
a single description, focusing on this universal quality of energy, explains both 2nd Law entropy
and quantum non-locality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1003.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 17 pages, slightly amended

Examines the possibility of a purely electromagnetic formation of the physical world,
and in particular electron.
For this purpose presents a number of parallels between elementary particles and
radar signals and radar target.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1003.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 5 pages

The present article discusses Neutrosophic logic view to Schrödinger's cat paradox.
We argue that this paradox involves some degree of indeterminacy (unknown) which
Neutrosophic logic can take into consideration, whereas other methods including Fuzzy
logic cannot. To make this proposition clear, we revisit our previous paper by offering
an illustration using modified coin tossing problem, known as Parrondo's game.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1003.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 pages

It was known for quite long time that a quaternion space can be generalized to a Clifford
space, and vice versa; but how to find its neat link with more convenient metric form
in the General Relativity theory, has not been explored extensively. We begin with a
representation of group with non-zero quaternions to derive closed FLRW metric [1],
and from there obtains Carmeli metric, which can be extended further to become 5D
and 6D metric (which we propose to call Kaluza-Klein-Carmeli metric). Thereafter
we discuss some plausible implications of this metric, beyond describing a galaxy's
spiraling motion and redshift data as these have been done by Carmeli and Hartnett
[4, 5, 6]. In subsequent section we explain Podkletnov's rotating disc experiment. We
also note possible implications to quantum gravity. Further observations are of course
recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1003.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

In the preceding article we argue that biquaternionic extension of Klein-Gordon equation
has solution containing imaginary part, which differs appreciably from known solution
of KGE. In the present article we present numerical /computer solution of radial
biquaternionic KGE (radialBQKGE); which differs appreciably from conventional
Yukawa potential. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or
verify this proposition.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1003.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Alexander Yefremov, Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 9 pages

Analysis of covariant derivatives of vectors in quaternion (Q-) spaces performed
using Q-unit spinor-splitting technique and use of SL(2C)-invariance of quaternion
multiplication reveals close connexion of Q-geometry objects and Yang-Mills (YM)
field principle characteristics. In particular, it is shown that Q-connexion (with
quaternion non-metricity) and related curvature of 4 dimensional (4D) space-times
with 3D Q-space sections are formally equivalent to respectively YM-field potential
and strength, traditionally emerging from the minimal action assumption. Plausible
links between YM field equation and Klein-Gordon equation, in particular via its
known isomorphism with Duffin-Kemmer equation, are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1003.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 4 pages

Using phion condensate model as described by Moffat [1], we consider a plausible
explanation of (Tifft) intrinsic redshift quantization as described by Bell [6] as result
of Hall effect in rotating frame. We also discuss another alternative to explain redshift
quantization from the viewpoint of Weyl quantization, which could yield Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1003.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 5 pages

In this paper we present four possible extensions of Bell's Theorem: Bayesian and
Fuzzy Bayesian intrepretation, Information Fusion interpretation, Geometric interpretation,
and the viewpoint of photon fluid as medium for quantum interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1003.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 5 pages

In the present article, we argue that it is possible to generalize Schrödinger equation
to describe quantization of celestial systems. While this hypothesis has been described
by some authors, including Nottale, here we argue that such a macroquantization was
formed by topological superfluid vortice. We also provide derivation of Schrödinger
equation from Gross-Pitaevskii-Ginzburg equation, which supports this superfluid
dynamics interpretation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1003.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 5 pages

This article discusses Neutrosophic Logic interpretation of the Schrodinger's cat
paradox. We argue that this paradox involves some degree of indeterminacy (unknown)
which Neutrosophic Logic could take into consideration, whereas other methods
including Fuzzy Logic could not. For a balanced discussion, other interpretations
have also been discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1003.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Dmitri Rabounski, Larissa Borissova, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 pages

This article shows, Synge-Weber's classical problem statement about two particles
interacting by a signal can be reduced to the case where the same particle is located
in two different points A and B of the basic space-time in the same moment of time,
so the states A and B are entangled. This particle, being actual two particles in the
entangled states A and B, can interact with itself radiating a photon (signal) in the
point A and absorbing it in the point B. That is our goal, to introduce entangled states
into General Relativity. Under specific physical conditions the entangled particles in
General Relativity can reach a state where neither particle A nor particle B can be the
cause of future events. We call this specific state Quantum Causality Threshold.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1003.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

In this short paper, as an extension and consequence of Einstein-Podolski-Rosen
paradox and Bell's inequality, one promotes the hypothesis (it has been called the
Smarandache Hypothesis [1, 2, 3]) that: There is no speed barrier in the Universe
and one can construct arbitrary speeds, and also one asks if it is possible to have an
infinite speed (instantaneous transmission)? Future research: to study the composition
of faster-than-light velocities and what happens with the laws of physics at faster-thanlight
velocities?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1003.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

There can be generated many paradoxes or quasi-paradoxes that may occur from
the combination of quantum and non-quantum worlds in physics. Even the passage
from the micro-cosmos to the macro-cosmos, and reciprocally, can generate unsolved
questions or counter-intuitive ideas. We define a quasi-paradox as a statement which
has a prima facie self-contradictory support or an explicit contradiction, but which
is not completely proven as a paradox. We present herein four elementary quantum
quasi-paradoxes and their corresponding quantum Sorites paradoxes, which form a
class of quantum quasi-paradoxes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1003.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 34 pages, In Russian language

Essence Neutrosophy

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1003.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 109 pages

This book was intended to discuss some paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics
from the viewpoint of Multi-Valued-logic pioneered by Lukasiewicz, and a
recent concept Neutrosophic Logic. Essentially, this new concept offers new
insights on the idea of 'identity', which too often it has been accepted as
given.
Neutrosophy itself was developed in attempt to generalize Fuzzy-Logic
introduced by L. Zadeh. While some aspects of theoretical foundations of
logic are discussed, this book is not intended solely for pure mathematicians,
but instead for physicists in the hope that some of ideas presented herein will
be found useful.
The book is motivated by observation that despite almost eight decades,
there is indication that some of those paradoxes known in Quantum Physics
are not yet solved. In our knowledge, this is because the solution of those
paradoxes requires re-examination of the foundations of logic itself, in particular
on the notion of identity and multi-valuedness of entity.
The book is also intended for young physicist fellows who think that somewhere
there should be a 'complete' explanation of these paradoxes in Quantum
Mechanics. If this book doesn't answer all of their questions, it is our
hope that at least it offers a new alternative viewpoint for these old questions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1003.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 15 pages

In this paper we consider two entangled particles and study all the possibilities:
when both are immobile, or one of them is immobile, or both are moving in
different directions, or one of them is moving in a different direction. Then we
study the causality between them and the paradoxes, which are generated. We
define the Causality Threshold of a particle A with respect to another particle B.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1003.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 516 pages

The present book discusses, among other things, various quantization phenomena found in
Astrophysics and some related issues including Brownian Motion. With recent discoveries of
exoplanets in our galaxy and beyond, this Astrophysics quantization issue has attracted
numerous discussions in the past few years.
Most chapters in this book come from published papers in various peer-reviewed journals,
and they cover different methods to describe quantization, including Weyl geometry,
Supersymmetry, generalized Schrödinger, and Cartan torsion method. In some chapters
Navier-Stokes equations are also discussed, because it is likely that this theory will remain
relevant in Astrophysics and Cosmology
While much of the arguments presented in this book are theoretical, nonetheless we
recommend further observation in order to verify or refute the propositions described herein.
It is of our hope that this volume could open a new chapter in our knowledge on the
formation and structure of Astrophysical systems.
The present book is also intended for young physicist and math fellows who perhaps will
find the arguments described here are at least worth pondering.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1003.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 4 pages

In the light of some recent hypotheses suggesting plausible unification of thermostatistics
where Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein and Tsallis statistics become its special
subsets, we consider further plausible extension to include non-integer Hausdorff
dimension, which becomes realization of fractal entropy concept. In the subsequent
section, we also discuss plausible extension of this unified statistics to include
anisotropic effect by using quaternion oscillator, which may be observed in the
context of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Further observation is of course
recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1003.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

In the preceding article we argue that biquaternionic extension of Klein-Gordon equation
has solution containing imaginary part, which differs appreciably from known solution
of KGE. In the present article we discuss some possible interpretation of this
imaginary part of the solution of biquaternionic KGE (BQKGE); thereafter we offer a
new derivation of biquaternion Schrödinger equation using this method. Further observation
is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1003.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 2 pages

In this note we propose the extension of the Big Bang Theory of the origin of the
Universe to the model that there are cycles of beginning and ending.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1003.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Z.Y. Wang

**Comments:** 6 pages.

The waveguide can be regarded as a potential barrier to microwaves and we apply
quantum mechanics to study the coefficient of reflection R and transmission T . An initial
experimental result is also presented in this paper that the transverse momentum of the
electromagnetic field in a waveguide is zero which is no longer in proportion to the transverse wave
vector. We're preparing to detect under other conditions and will report as soon as possible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1003.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

The authors of [arxiv:1003.0247] neglect to consider
that the source of radiation is an accelerated electron,
that an emitted photon reacts, or pushes back, on the
electron that releases it. This is a linear process, therefore
a nonlinear Schrödinger equation is not applicable.

**Category:** Quantum Physics