[11] **viXra:1203.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-29 13:10:53*

**Authors:** Janne Mikael Karimäki

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Other people have had this idea before me. This may still be interesting for some people interested in the foundations of physics.

In this paper the relationship of classical physics and quantum physics is studied
by introducing a partial differential equation, which describes classical mechanics,
but looks very similar to the Schrödinger wave equation of quantum mechanics.
This work is largely based on David Bohm's causal interpretation of quantum
mechanics, but is in some sense complementary to it. In Bohm's theory the Schrödinger
wave equation is used to derive classical looking equations of motion for quantum
physics. Here exactly the opposite is done. The equations of classical physics
are put into a form resembling the Schrödinger equation of quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1203.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-29 13:17:13*

**Authors:** Janne Mikael Karimäki

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is presented
in the spirit of Erwin Madelung’s hydrodynamic formulation of QM [1]
and Louis de Broglie’s and David Bohm’s pilot wave models [2, 3]. The
aims of the approach are as follows: 1) to have a clear ontology for QM, 2)
to describe QM in a causal way, 3) to get rid of the wave-particle dualism
in pilot wave theories, 4) to provide a theoretical framework for describing
creation and annihilation of particles, and 5) to provide a possible connection
between particle QM and virtual particles in QFT. These goals are
achieved, if the wave function is replaced by a fluid of so called virtual
particles. It is also assumed that in this fluid of virtual particles exist a
few real particles and that only these real particles can be directly observed.
This has relevance for the measurement problem in QM and it
is found that quantum probabilities arise in a very natural way from the
structure of the theory. The model presented here is very similar to a
recent computational model of quantum physics [4] and recent Bohmian
models of QFT [5, 6].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1203.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-26 04:52:23*

**Authors:** Elemer E Rosinger

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The often cited book [11] of Asher Peres presents Quantum Mechanics without the use of the Heisenberg Uncertainty
Principle, a principle which it calls an "ill-defined notion". There is, however, no argument in this regard in the
mentioned book, or comment related to the fact that its use in the realms of quanta is not necessary, let alone,
unavoidable. A possible comment in this respect is presented here. And it is related to certain simple, purely logical
facts in axiomatic theories, facts which are disregarded when using "physical intuition" and "physically meaningful"
axioms or principles in the development of mathematical models of Physics, [16-18].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1203.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-25 17:17:39*

**Authors:** Eric S Reiter

**Comments:** 39 Pages. Available on author's unquantum.net website and uspto.gov since 2005

The method typically uses spontaneous gamma rays from radioisotopes, either cadmium-109 at 88 keV or cobalt-57 at 122 keV, detected with NaI(Tl) or HPGe. After a two-part split, detection pulses are windowed for the characteristic gamma ray pulse amplitude and measured in coincidence. By using high resolution detectors and gamma rays that match the part of the spectrum where the detector has a high photoelectric effect efficiency, coincidence rates are found to substantially exceed the chance rate. This refutes the quantum mechanical prediction of energy quantization. This unquantum effect implies that photons are an illusion, and is explained by an extension of the abandoned loading theory of Planck to derive the photoelectric effect equation. In scattering gamma rays in a beam splitter geometry, changes in response to magnetic fields, temperature, and crystal orientation are tools for measuring properties of atomic bonds. With detectors in a tandem geometry where the first detector is both scatterer and absorber, tests reveal properties consistent with a classical gamma ray model. The method has also shown use in discovering that different crystalline states of the gamma ray source change the extent coincidence rates exceed chance, whereas conventional gamma ray spectroscopy shows no substantial dependence upon these applied variables.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1203.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-29 17:22:13*

**Authors:** Eric S Reiter

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Available on author's www.unquantum.net website since 2003

In a thought experiment, Einstein proposed that a single light quantum (photon) would go one way or
another at a beam-splitter. Here, newly described beam-split tests of the photon implement gamma-rays from spontaneous decay of 109Cd and 57Co, whereby a single primary gamma-ray splits and is detected in coincidence in two detectors. The experimental coincidence rates are found to substantially exceed the chance coincidence rate. These results directly violate the quantum mechanical probabilistic model of light, and indirectly violate the concept of quantized charge. These are full-height pulses, characteristic of the chosen gamma under study. To help understand how all this can possibly be true, I have identified conceptual and experimental flaws in previous works, and have developed the long abandoned loading theory. This developed loading theory avoids wave-particle duality by thresholds, a pre-loaded state, and by having electromagnetic energy emitted quantized but absorbed continuously. By forcing a choice between conservation of energy and photons, the experimental results spell the long overdue death of the photon.
______________________________

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1203.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-29 13:06:45*

**Authors:** Martin Thomas Pollner

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The translation of the german part will follow as soon as possible

The three physical elements: three-dimensional space, the time and the energy were generated in the big bang and formed the first quantum of space. This can be identified as a photon. This generation has been reproducing itself since the big bang, which caused the expansion of space. Since the big bang this expansion requires a force of expansion of the space. Based on the fluctuation of the photons the three-dimensional space can be filled infinitesimal completely by quantum of space. Under the influence of the force of expansion the propagation of light occurs completely different as previously described. Mass could condense only after the generation of the photons had been set off in the big bang as it requires space for its existence. The force of expansion of space can be identified as force of gravitation. Based on all these discoveries the questions about the nature of the so-called dark energy and about the cosmic jets of black holes can be answered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1203.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-28 23:57:15*

**Authors:** Eric S Reiter

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Available on author's website since 2001

In an analysis of experiments famous for particle models of light and charge, a non-classical wave model is developed to explain these particle-like properties in terms of waves. The experiments and issues examined include: charge diffraction, charge quantization, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, black body radiation, spin, and antimatter. The model has three postulates: (a) a threshold concept whereby charge, mass, and action are maximums at e, m, and h respectively, (b) a ratio concept whereby free space measures of e, m, and h will always reveal themselves in ratios e/m, e/h, or h/m, allowing components of these ratios to individually diminish as the wave spreads while the ratio value remains intact, and (c) an envelope property of the (psi)wave (Schrödinger’s amplitude) whereby the envelope is full and stable with a graphic area of h. The envelope concept is developed by replacing the phase wavelength in de Broglie’s equation with the group length. Some conclusions: Our constants h, e, and m, can only be independently measured in atoms or collisions where the envelopes are full, but not in free-space diffraction, or in deflection experiments. The particle-like properties of charge are explained with envelopes displacing each other in space as they reach threshold h. Particles of light then become an illusion of these threshold and ratio properties of the charge-wave.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1203.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-24 08:51:45*

**Authors:** Kelly Loum

**Comments:** 5 pages

This paper describes an extremely simple and fundamentally different view of the concept of “photon” which removes the mystery of wave-particle duality, locality versus non-locality (entanglement, etc.), causality, wave-particle duality for massive particles, superposition, and reveals the basic tenets of distance, time, and gravity. A proof is provided.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1203.0039 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-03-19 08:23:30*

**Authors:** James B Gallagher

**Comments:** 7 Pages. v2 small revisions/corrections

We suggest that 3 "spatial" degrees of freedom are dynamically emergent from unitary evolution
of the state vector

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1203.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-04-05 15:40:49*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper presents a reason for the existence of the wave function. Most physicist use a complex wave function as the representative of a quantum physical item without further thinking about why that choice is made.
A slightly different choice for the wave function throws a completely new light on fundamental physics. For example, a quaternionic wave function converts each linear equation of motion into a balance equation and turns fundamental physics into a space streaming problem.
The fact that such a slight change has such deep and unexpected effects shows that the fundaments of physics are still not well comprehended.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1203.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-03-04 13:41:15*

**Authors:** Stephen Crowley

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This article distills many of the essential definitions from the very thorough book, Clifford Algebras: An Introduction, by Dr D.J.H. Garling, with some minor additions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics