**Authors:** Eric S Reiter

In an analysis of experiments famous for particle models of light and charge, a non-classical wave model is developed to explain these particle-like properties in terms of waves. The experiments and issues examined include: charge diffraction, charge quantization, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, black body radiation, spin, and antimatter. The model has three postulates: (a) a threshold concept whereby charge, mass, and action are maximums at e, m, and h respectively, (b) a ratio concept whereby free space measures of e, m, and h will always reveal themselves in ratios e/m, e/h, or h/m, allowing components of these ratios to individually diminish as the wave spreads while the ratio value remains intact, and (c) an envelope property of the (psi)wave (Schrödinger’s amplitude) whereby the envelope is full and stable with a graphic area of h. The envelope concept is developed by replacing the phase wavelength in de Broglie’s equation with the group length. Some conclusions: Our constants h, e, and m, can only be independently measured in atoms or collisions where the envelopes are full, but not in free-space diffraction, or in deflection experiments. The particle-like properties of charge are explained with envelopes displacing each other in space as they reach threshold h. Particles of light then become an illusion of these threshold and ratio properties of the charge-wave.

**Comments:** 34 Pages. Available on author's website since 2001

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[v1] 2012-03-19 18:56:47

[v2] 2012-03-21 19:15:13

[v3] 2012-03-28 23:57:15

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