[18] **viXra:1503.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-02 14:19:11*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new quantum-cosmological principle that I shall call the
'electro-gravitational principle'. Based on this principle I shall derive a formula for the age of the Universe. The formula coincides with formula I published in a previous paper in 2014 and that I derived from the Scale Law. The age of the Universe obtained through this formulation agrees with the latest measurements carried out in 2013 by the Planck
mission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1503.0272 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-27 11:07:37*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the prediction of a new particle with a mass of approximately 55.6 eV /c2 . This prediction is based on a new equation that I call: the fermionic “alpha” formula. This hypothetical particle could be either a new type of neutrino or a completely new type of neutral particle with sufficiently large abundance to
account for most of the observed dark matter content of the Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1503.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-29 16:28:19*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Part 2 of the answer to the critique of Ghirardi.

This paper follows on from the author’s previous thoughts on the subject of the “No-communication Theorem” and Ghirardi’s critique of a communication scheme by the author and then his response to this. It is an addendum to lay bare the inadequate use of the formalism by Ghirardi, Hall et-al. To make our argument convincing, we find it necessary to explicitly lay out the machinery of the density matrix formulated argument, so that it can be seen by the incredulous, the gapping hole in the Ghirardi-Hall belief. We shall see that phase information, crucial to the interferometer setup in previous papers, is lost when: the joint evolution of the system is not considered, superposition is not explicitly brought in as an operation itself and finally, when the act of taking the reduced trace is taken too early (the act of exclusion of one system). This has lead to the limiting belief that components of entangled systems considered in isolation, are only ever in a mixed state. We shall see that when the reduced trace is taken at the right point in the analysis, phase information pertaining to the remote system is still present and this concurs with the state vector approach used to analyse the same problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1503.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 11:57:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1503.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 06:24:19*

**Authors:** Nikolai V. Volkov

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Keywords: Virtual proper time – Virtual scalar-electric field - Elimination of the infrared catastrophe - Field origin of the electron mass - Single-particle wave Dirac equation.

With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the metric of the physical Minkowski
space we pass to the four-dimensional bimetric space-time. Now a complete description
of the occurring physical processes includes both physical (observable) and virtual
(unobservable) objects that enter in the physical expressions. In classical electrodynamics
this conversion leads to the appearance of the virtual scalar-electric field that complements
the physical electromagnetic field and is a massive in the presence of sources. This allows
to eliminate the infrared catastrophe and to proof the field origin of the virtual (bare)
electron mass and self-energy. With inclusion of the virtual proper time in the classical
quantum theory we obtain the single-particle wave Dirac equation for which the electron
wave function retains the simple probabilistic interpretation. In the single-particle Dirac
theory the virtual scalar-electric field shifts the physical energy levels for the hydrogen
atom in an external field and this leads to two additional amendments.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1503.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-25 19:06:38*

**Authors:** J Gregory Moxness

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Constructing an E8 Based Standard Model (SM): An approach to a Theory of Everything (ToE)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1503.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-21 18:36:42*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Proof and apparatus showing No-communication Theorem is wrong.

This short letter is a response to an analysis by Ghirardi of a supposed flaw in a communication scheme involving entangled state collapse. We find his analysis entirely correct but missing the point, which is subtle, the no communication theorem merely expresses the truth of the locality of quantum state information on measurement but surprisingly says nothing about the particle being present or not by dint of the communication scheme itself. Ghirardi’s analysis using the density matrix approach does not deal correctly with the analysis of superposition in the interferometer and as such, doesn’t even correctly replicate the case for non-entanglement, as did the state vector method used by Cornwall.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1503.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-18 23:31:03*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We show that the complex number structure of the probability allows
to express explicitly the relationship between the energy function H and
the Laplace principle of equal ignorance (LPEI). This nonlinear relation-
ship reflecting the measurement properties of the considered systems, to-
gether with the principle of causality and Newton principle separating the
dynamics from initial conditions, lead to the linear Schrodinger equation
with the Max Born interpretation, for micro and macro systems!

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1503.0140 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-27 11:04:14*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The formula presented in this paper predicts the masses of 17 baryons, one lepton and 6
other particles. The formula uses non-consecutive quantum numbers. The maximum
accuracy of the formula is 3 decimal places and the minimum is 2. This paper predicts a new
particle with a rest mass between 4557.2 MeV /c2 and 4658.2 MeV /c2 . The formula
suggests the existence of a more general formula for the masses of all known particles, which is yet, to be discovered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1503.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-18 08:49:56*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Eight-page final version

Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G . Tank showed that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle; and his unit of mass is a geometric-mean of two un-equal masses, namely total mass of the universe and the smallest conceivable mass h H0 / c2 ; so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of four fundamental-constants, ( h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant), so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different ones. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a strong possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1503.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-14 00:28:54*

**Authors:** Jiri Soucek

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

From the dichotomy "nonlocality vs non-realism" which is the consequence of Bell Inequalities (BI) we shall choose the non-realism. We shall present here the modified Quantum Mechanics (modQM) in the axiomatic form. ModQM was introduced in [5] and we shall show its non-realism in the description of an internal measurement process. ModQM allows the restoration of locality, since BI cannot be derived in it. In modQM it is possible to solve: the measurement problem, the collapse problem, the problem of a local model for EPR correlations (see[5]). ModQM is a unique explicit realization of non-realism in QM. ModQM should be preferred as an alternative to the standard QM mainly since it restores the locality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1503.0102 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-22 06:42:58*

**Authors:** CJ Blackwood

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The four forces: electromagnetic, strong nuclear, the weak force and gravity can all be described using statistics. Using a Riemann spacial construct as the framework for inflation, the interaction of the basic forces can be be represented as an interaction of different statistical systems modifying the Riemann grid.
The use of an altered Higgs boson as an element of an inflationary grid creates the framework for this concept. It allows for the creation of a single simple equation which can calculate the mass of elementary particles as well as describe their composition.
This model can show a direct link between all elementary particles and the photon therefore establishing a construct for all elementary particles as well as the elements themselves.
Using this model allows for the construction of a different model for atomic structure not based on Bohr, but which achieves the same valence values for each element. This new atomic model also is based on Riemann.
This theory does not conflict with relativity. It also agrees with and compliments Quantum Theory, particularly QED and therefore can be seen to link the two concepts.
It can also replicate the result of standard theory and many of the physical constants without the need for exchange particles or a mass gap.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1503.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-17 07:43:53*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Abstract:** I give a short explanation of how quantum mathematics representing pure states, is logically distinct from the mathematics of mixed states. And further: how standard quantum theory easily shows itself to contain logical independence. This work is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a complete theory of quantum randomness.**Keywords:** quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, wave packet, unitary, orthogonal, scalar product, mathematical logic, arithmetic, formal system, axioms, Soundness Theorem, Completeness Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, semantics, syntax.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1503.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-05 15:17:06*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted for Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest on Physics and Math, Feb. 4, 2015: http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2338

It is widely believed that mathematics provides the fundamental basis for physics. On the contrary, it is argued here that pictures of real objects moving in real space provide the proper basis for physics, and that mathematics merely provides quantitative models for calculating the dynamics of these objects. Such models may distort or even hinder the development of new physics, particularly if a consistent physical picture is lacking. This is discussed in connection with quantum mechanics, which discarded realism in favor of mathematical abstraction almost a century ago. A realistic, spin-quantized wave picture of quantum mechanics is presented that avoids the paradoxes and abstractions of the orthodox quantum theory. Quantum indeterminacy stems from an inappropriate application of a statistical point-particle model to extended soliton-like wave packets. Quantum transitions are continuous, rather than the abrupt transitions of the Hilbert space model. Quantum entanglement is an artifact of mathematical constructions incompatible with local realism. These are not merely matters of philosophical interpretation; several experimental implications are presented. It is time to remove the mathematical blinders that have prevented consideration of realistic quantum pictures.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1503.0019 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-14 00:11:03*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Open Access Library Journal, Volume 2, e1798.

We review the new type of Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm proposed
in {[K. Nagata and T. Nakamura,
Int. J. Theor. Phys. {\bf 49}, 162 (2010)]}.
We suggest that
the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm can be used for quantum key distribution.
Alice sends input $N+1$ partite uncorrelated state to
a black box. Bob measures output state.
Now, Alice and Bob has promised to use a function $f$
which is of one of two kinds; either the value of $f$ is constant or balanced.
To Eve, it is secret.
Alice's and Bob's goal is to determine with certainty whether they have
chosen a constant or a balanced function.
Alice and Bob get one bit if they determine the function $f$.
The speed to get one bit improves by a factor of $2^{N}$.
This may improve the speed to establish quantum key distribution by a factor of $2^{N}$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1503.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-02 11:24:40*

**Authors:** Asim M. Babikr

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

● The theory in this stage is merely a proposal, an attempt to start looking and find the missing variables of Quantum Mechanics raised by Einstein in his papers, where he stated that "Quantum Mechanics is correct indeed, but it is not the complete way of describing reality", we try to continue after his footsteps here.
● I am not saying or considering the theory as an empirical fact yet, -even if the style of writing would give such an impression, the style meant to help readers to live the possibility of the hypothesis and also for the purpose of convergence of views- but what I'm really saying, it deserves the investigation.
● The theory is intending to build upon the current theories and complete them, and it is not intending to replace them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1503.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-04 17:15:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper I estimate the mass of the electrino (new lepton) through two formulas. The first formula we shall explore is the lepto-baryonic formula for the fine-structure constant which I published in a previous paper entitled: Exponential Formula for the Fine Structure Constant. Unlike the formula presented there, this paper introduces an exact formula which is given as a function of the masses of the two lightest charged leptons: the electron and the electrino; and the lightest baryons: the neutron and the proton. The second formula we shall explore is the “alpha-23” formula for the mass of the electron. Both formulas suggest the existence of a new super-light lepton which I have called: electrino. I predicted the existence of this particle in a previous paper entitled: Is the Electron Unstable?. This investigation suggests that the mass of the electrino, if this elusive particle exists, must have a value between me /529.3 and me /517.8 approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1503.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-01 10:52:36*

**Authors:** V.Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. The paper was published in the site vps137.narod.ru/phys/ at 20/01/2013.

In the frame of the model of 4D matter («4D medium» or «4D ether») it is given the description of some basic notions of the quantum mechanics such as the uncertainty principle of Heisenberg, the atomic spectrum, the wave function, the de Broglie's wave
and some other.

**Category:** Quantum Physics