Quantum Physics

1506 Submissions

[26] viXra:1506.0214 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-18 07:44:11

The Theory About One Special Function for Quantum(中译本)

Authors: ChengGang.Zhang
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper will research one special function and it’s physics principle , the special function which has quantum properties ; Two hypothesis of quantum theory can be derived from the special function , and the special function also applies to atoms successfully;This paper proves that the special function is related to Coulomb force in the end , and reveals the essential reason .
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1506.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-30 08:52:49

Quantum Hyperentanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

A team of researchers led by UCLA electrical engineers has demonstrated a new way to harness light particles, or photons, that are connected to each other and act in unison no matter how far apart they are —a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1506.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-28 06:59:16

Entanglement And The Special Theory Of Relativity

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 8 pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015,

The exact nature of non-locality and entanglement is still a matter of an ongoing controversy. Especially, the concept of non-locality as postulated by the orthodox Copenhagen quantum mechanics is claiming to reflect any non-locality in the quantum realm. Attention should be called to the obvious but very disconcerting fact that the concept of non-locality cannot contradict the theory of special relativity, as long as the same is not refuted theoretically or by experiments. Another way of expressing the peculiar situation is, under conditions of the special theory of relativity it remains rather discomforting to alter the properties of a distant system instantaneously (i. e. no light signal can travel) by acting on a local system. The purpose of this publication is to solve the problem of non-locality and entanglement from the standpoint of the special theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1506.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-28 02:55:01

Quantum Harmonics

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1506.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-27 15:15:56

The Role of the Number 12 in Physics

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 3 Pages.

The number 12 is found not only as a factor but also as a power in different equations. Thus, the purpose of this article is to highlight the role of the number 12 in physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1506.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-27 10:22:50

Is Gravity Control Propulsion Viable?

Authors: Paul A. Titze
Comments: 29 Pages.

In 2015 the answer is still no. However this paper will look at what current physics has to say on this topic and what further questions need to be put forward to advance our enquiries. This work is a modified compilation of several posts that were originally published in the author's blogsite [1] on Gravity Control Propulsion (GCP) looking at several papers that deal with related topics with some ideas and speculations for further research.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1506.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-26 08:39:20

Does a Single Spin-1/2 Pure Quantum State Have a Counterpart in Physical Reality? (Accepted Version)

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 78--89.

We discuss the fact that a single spin observable $\sigma_x$ in a quantum state does not have a counterpart in physical reality. We consider whether a single spin-1/2 pure state has a counterpart in physical reality. It is an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$ or an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$. We assume a state $|+_z\rangle$, which can be described as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_z$. We assume also a state $|+_x\rangle$, which can be described as an eigenvector of Pauli observable $\sigma_x$. The value of transition probability $|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2$ is 1/2. We consider the following physical situation. If we detect $|+_z\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$. If we detect $|+_x\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$. The existence of a single classical probability space for the transition probability within the formalism of the measurement outcome does not coexist with the value of the transition probability $|\langle +_z|+_x\rangle|^2=1/2$. We have to give up the existence of such a classical probability space for the state $|+_z\rangle$ or for the state $|+_x\rangle$, as they define the transition probability. It turns out that the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_z\rangle$ or the single spin-1/2 pure state $|+_x\rangle$ does not have counterparts in physical reality, in general. We investigate whether the Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories. We discuss that the existence of the two spin-1/2 pure states $|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out the existence of probability space of specific quantum measurement. If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$. If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$. This hidden-variables theory does not accept the transition probability $|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$. Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory. This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the hidden-variables theory. A single spin-1/2 pure state (e.g., $|\uparrow \rangle\langle \uparrow|$) is a single one-dimensional projector. In other word, a single one-dimensional projector does not have a counterpart in such physical reality, in general. The one-dimensional projectors $|\uparrow\rangle\langle\uparrow|$ and $|\downarrow\rangle\langle \downarrow|$ are commuting with each other. Our discussion shows that we cannot assign the specific definite values ($+1$ and $-1$) to the two commuting operators, simultaneously. We study whether quantum phase factor accepts a hidden-variables theory. We discuss that the existence of two spin-1/2 pure states $|0\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ and $|\theta\rangle=(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$ rules out the existence of probability space of a hidden-variables theory. If we detect $|0\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $+1$. If we detect $|\theta\rangle$, then we assign measurement outcome as $-1$. The hidden-variables theory does not accept the transition probability $|\langle 0|\theta\rangle|^2=\cos^2(\theta/2)$. Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory for quantum phase factor. We explore phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical. Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1506.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-26 04:19:47

Quantum Coherence and Entanglement Via Electromagnetic Diffraction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1506.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-25 13:37:51

Huge Molecules show Wave-Particle Duality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1506.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-24 04:30:18

Conversion from Spin Currents to Charge Currents in a Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A University of Tokyo research group has successfully measured the spin Hall Effect in a superconductor for the first time. The spin Hall Effect is responsible for the conversion of magnetic flow to current flow and has not been thoroughly examined in superconductors. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1506.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-20 10:37:09

Genetic Basis of Brain Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine found that synchronized physiological interactions between remote brain regions have genetic underpinnings. [8] Sometimes, you can picture something so vividly in your head that it feels as though you’re actually looking at what you’re imagining. But no matter how good your imagination is, information will flow through your brain in the opposite direction compared to when you actually perceive something. That’s the conclusion of a new study, published in NeuroImage, which looked at brain activity in participants when they were either watching clips or recalling them in their heads. [7] The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with “Spooky Activation at Distance” formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word’s associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1506.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-20 07:10:49

The Physical Meaning Of The Wavefunction II

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 9 Pages. (C) Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany, 2015. PUBLISHED BY: Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics Vol.4 No.4, April 27, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2016.46106

The hottest and one of the major unresolved problems of today’s quantum mechanics is the physical meaning of the wave function. The debate about the physical meaning of the wave function raises broader issues as well. In brief, the difficulties stemmed from an apparent conflict about the existence of an objective reality existing independent of the human mind and consciousness. The purpose of this publication is to investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the relationship between the wave function and Einstein’s special theory of relativity and. As we will see, the wavefunction and “co-ordinate” time of Einstein’s special theory of relativity are identical.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1506.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-19 09:51:03

Theoretical Study of the no-Cloning Theorem

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 3, Issue 6 (2015), Page 49--53.

We review the no-cloning theorem that relies on the properties of the quantum theory. Usually, the no-cloning theorem implies that two quantum states are identical or orthogonal if we allow a cloning to be on the two quantum states. Here, we rely on the maximum value of the square of an expected value. We may result in the fact that the two quantum states under consideration could not be orthogonal if we consider the maximum value of the square of the expected value. The no-cloning theorem may imply that the two quantum states under consideration may be identical if we consider the maximum value of the square of the expected value. The no-cloning theorem itself has this character.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1506.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-17 15:27:58

Quantum Decoherence due to Gravitational Time Dilation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1506.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-26 06:42:42

Theory of Harmonic Propagation of Condensed Matter

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable quantum devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1506.0111 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-10 08:04:16

Quaternionic Versus Maxwell Based Differential Calculus

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 26 Pages.

Two quite different forms of differential calculus exist that both have physical significance. The most simple version is quaternionic differential calculus. Maxwell based differential calculus is based on the equations that Maxwell and others have developed in order to describe electromagnetic phenomena. Both approaches can be represented by four-component “fields” and four-component differential operators. Both approaches result in a dedicated non-homogeneous second order partial differential equation. These equations differ and offer solutions that differ in details. Maxwell based differential calculus uses coordinate time t, where quaternionic differential calculus uses proper time τ. The consequence is that also the interpretation of speed differs between the two approaches. A more intriguing fact is that these differences involve a different space-progression model and different charges and currents. The impacts of these differences are not treated in this paper. By adding an extra Maxwell based differential equation the conformance between the two approaches increases significantly. The formulation of physics in Maxwell based differential calculus differs significantly from the formulation of physics in quaternionic differential calculus. It results in a different space-progression model. The choice between the two approaches influences the description of physical reality. However, the selected formulation does not affect physical reality. The description does not affect the described field. The conclusion of the paper is that depending on the type of investigated phenomena either the Maxwell based approach or the quaternionic approach fits better as a descriptor. The Maxwell based approach fits better for describing wave behavior. The quaternionic approach fits better for the description of the embedding process. Quaternionic differential calculus also fits better with the application of Hilbert spaces in quantum physics than Maxwell based differential calculus does. However, Maxwell based differential calculus is the general trend in current physical theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1506.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-13 22:07:45

The Toe.

Authors: Joan Manuel Rodriguez Nunez.
Comments: 42 Pages. This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence the DEPENDABILIDAD universal, by the fact that Unis de all the theories that there are on all Einstein's theory of gener

This theory, not so much to unify the gravitational field, but gives us a theoretical concept of the universe can be correlated, hence the DEPENDABILIDAD universal, by the fact that Unis de all the theories that there are on all Einstein's theory of general relativity and the theory of gravity dynamics of tesla, and among others. We are living in a giant time clock, with two different poles - one positive and one negative, that the turn gives us our time for life, that is our universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1506.0095 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-02 13:34:35

Quantum Gravitational Relativity - Part III

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 11 Pages.

The theory presented here is the third part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. I shall derive two new relativistic formulas. Firstly, based on 'quantum length to classical length transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational length contraction equation introduced without proof in Part I. Secondly, based on 'quantum time interval to classical time interval transformations', I shall derive the quantum gravitational time dilation equation. I have shown, in Part I, that the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction formulation violates the space quantization postulate, and consequently, a new quantum gravitational equation was introduced. If the second postulate I put forward in Part I turns out to be correct, then the new length contraction formula should be preferred over the Fitzgerald-Lorentz length contraction counterpart. On the other hand, Einstein's time dilation formula does not violate the time quantization postulate. This means that when we apply the same technique to time we obtain a new time dilation formula that differs from that of Einstein. But then the question arises: which of the two time dilation formulas is the correct one? I found that I do not have solid arguments in favour of either of them, except for a feeling in favour of Einstein's equation. It seems that only the experiment can answer this question beyond reasonable doubt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1506.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-10 07:35:43

God Does Not Play Dice: Matter-Wave Duality, Quantum Phase Transition and Bose-Einstein Condensate as Deterministic and Local Phenomena

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 9 Pages.

The non-locality of quantum mechanics continues to be an unexplainable phenomenon. In a previous paper [1] I utilized a recently proposed relativity theory, termed Information Relativity (IR) to account, both qualitatively and quantitatively for the entanglement in an EPR type experiment. IR rests on two well accepted propositions: The relativity axiom, plus an axiom specifying the information carrier and its velocity. The theory is deterministic and local. It is also complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. Contrary to special relativity which predicts that an object's length will always contract along the direction of its relative motion with respect to an observer, IR predicts length contraction for approaching bodies and length stretching for departing bodies. In the present paper I demonstrate that IR is also successful in explaining and predicting de Broglie's matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, and the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate. Quite strikingly, I found that the critical "stretch" associated with a particle's wave phase transition is equal to the critical value of de Broglie wave length ζ(3/2) ≈ 2.612, where ζ(x) is the Riemann zeta function. This result enables to calculate the Planck's constant, the corner stone of all quantum mechanics, based on a completely deterministic and local theory. The unavoidable conclusion of the present analysis is that Einstein's intuition that "God does not play dice" is correct.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1506.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-09 02:49:09

Quantum Cheshire Cat Effect Explained

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

"A grin without a cat" is how Lewis Carroll describes the Cheshire Cat's mysterious way of disappearing while leaving its grin behind in his 1865 classic, Alice in Wonderland. The fanciful character raises a question that has captured physicists' attention over the past few years: can an object be separated from its properties? [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1506.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-08 14:02:57

Dynamical Analysis of Grover's Search Algorithm in Arbitrarily High-Dimensional Search Spaces

Authors: Wenliang Jin
Comments: 8 Pages.

We discuss at length the dynamical behavior of Grover's search algorithm for which all the Walsh-Hadamard transformations contained in this algorithm are exposed to their respective random perturbations inducing the augmentation of the dimension of the search space. We give the concise and general mathematical formulations for approximately characterizing the maximum success probabilities of finding a unique desired state in a large unsorted database and their corresponding numbers of Grover iterations, which are applicable to the search spaces of arbitrary dimension and are used to answer a salient open problem posed by Grover [L. K. Grover, Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf{80}, 4329 (1998)].
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1506.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-07 08:15:28

Disproof of the no-Communication Theorem by Decoherence Theory

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: Slight correction to wording on the bottom of left column, page 3.

The No-communication Theorem has been seen as the bar to communication by quantum state collapse. The essence of this theory is the procedure of taking the partial trace on an entangled, hence inseparable multi-particle system. This mathematical procedure applied unthinkingly, strikes out the off-diagonal elements from the ensemble density matrix and renders the reduced trace matrix representative of a mixed state. Decoherence theory is able to justify this mathematical procedure and we review it to show: the partial trace results for both unitary and non-unitary processes (hence measurement) on one, several or all particles of the ensemble; and that a unitary process keeps interference terms in the trace reduced matrix.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1506.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-05 06:54:42

Qubit Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1506.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-03 08:41:39

Physics of the Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1506.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-30 21:49:34

Proof of no Johnson Noise at Zero Temperature

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 8 Pages. Refuted on arXiv

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that the Callen-Welton derivation has conceptual errors such as neglecting phonon scattering, disregarding the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and using bosonic (linear oscillator) energies leading to the zero-point noise artifact. Following Kleen's proposal, the possible origin of the heterodyne (Koch - van Harlingen - Clark) experimental results are also discussed in terms of Heffner theory of quantum noise of frequency/phase-sensitive linear amplifiers. Experiments that failed to see the zero-point noise term are also mentioned.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1506.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-01 13:44:49

Quantum Gravitational Relativity – Part II

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 8 Pages.

The theory presented in this paper is the second part of the quantum gravitational formulation of Einstein's special theory of relativity. This paper presents another plausible solution to the problem of length contraction introduced in Part I.
Category: Quantum Physics