[16] **viXra:1301.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-31 04:10:38*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 Pages. French version of « THE ENERGY IN VIRTUE OF THE PRINCIPLE OF COMPENSATION » on viXra

La théorie de la Relation est basée sur l’existence de deux structures qui vont en directions opposées et sur une transformation réelle, tout au long du temps cosmologique, de l’énergie négative de la structure de l’expansion en énergie positive de la structure de la condensation. L’énergie-masse négative, inversée en vertu du principe de Compensation, donne une énergie-masse positive. La théorie explore la situation du « vide » quantique qui contient une énergie minimale à la surface d’un océan d’énergie négative, ce qui alimente la matière ordinaire positive au-dessus. En vertu du principe de Compensation, les fluctuations d’énergie du vide se matérialisent spontanément non seulement en nombreux couples virtuels mais aussi réels. Il y aurait, superposé au vide, un champ « gravicoloré » qui fournirait la densité d’énergie gravitationnelle nécessaire pour séparer les couples virtuels de particules et les matérialiser. Deux sortes de masse et énergie seraient ainsi reliées. Le processus de cette conversion tout au long de l’expansion implique une flèche de temps irréversible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1301.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-29 15:41:11*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory of Relation is based on the existence of two structures going in opposite directions and, throughout the cosmological time, on a real conversion of the negative energy of the structure of expansion into the positive energy of the structure of condensation. The negative energy-mass, inversed in virtue of the principle of Compensation, gives the positive energy-mass. The theory explores the situation of the quantum vacuum which contains a minimum energy at the surface of an ocean of negative energy, fueling the ordinary positive matter above. Under the principle of Compensation, the energy fluctuations of the vacuum are spontaneously materialized not only in numerous short-lived virtual particles but also in real particles. There would be a "gravicolored" field, superimposed on the vacuum, which would provide the necessary density of gravitational energy to materialize the virtual state. Two sorts of mass and energy are so connected. The process of this transformation throughout the expansion involves an irreversible arrow of time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1301.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-29 09:42:30*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy recognizes Quantum Field Theory as mathematical and conceptual framework that implements elementary particles in particle physics. This also acquired the theory as a sub subject of both Quantum Physics and Particle Physics. Stanford University uses those facts to explain QFT as a widely discussed subject in the field of science and mathematics itself. In comparison to other theories on the composition of out universe and matter itself, there is no conical definition for QFT. This has been quoted on the first paragraph of section one of the Stanford Encyclopedia. So far, there is a different way to access QFT in its relation with special general relativity theory and general relativity theory as well as its relation to statistical and solid physics. Though, we may not know the complete composition of the universe we know that everything living in this planet has a cellular structure and that we are all made of dry matter as well as composed of atoms. However, the theory that those atoms combine as strands and strings in order to compose us related more on the topic of Super String Theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1301.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-02 12:04:41*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The quantum mechanics status of the probability vector current density has long seemed to be marginal. On one hand no systematic prescription for its construction is provided, and the special examples of it that are obtained for particular types of Hamiltonian operator could conceivably be attributed to happenstance. On the other hand this concept's key physical interpretation as local average particle flux, which flows from the equation of continuity that it is supposed to satisfy in conjunction with the probability scalar density, has been claimed to breach the uncertainty principle. Given the dispiriting impact of that claim, we straightaway point out that the subtle directional nature of the uncertainty principle makes it consistent with the measurement of local average particle flux. We next focus on the fact that the unique closed-form linear-superposition quantization of any classical Hamiltonian function yields in tandem the corresponding unique linear-superposition closed-form divergence of the probability vector current density. Because the
probability vector current density is linked to the quantum physics only through the occurrence of its divergence in the equation of continuity, it is theoretically most appropriate to construct this vector field exclusively from its divergence -- analysis of the best-known "textbook" special example of a probability vector current density shows that it is thus constructed. That special example in fact leads to the physically interesting "Ehrenfest subclass" of probability vector current densities, which are closely related to their classical peers.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1301.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-26 12:22:35*

**Authors:** David E. Rutherford

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive the equations of relativistic quantum mechanics from a modified version of classical electrodynamics, where probability is replaced by potential. As a result, a particle is not a localized entity, in the classical sense, but has a localized energy extremum. The particle/wave aspect of matter is inherent in the particle/wave equation describing elementary particles. Furthermore, the Heisenberg uncertainty and Planck-Einstein-de Broglie relations, and the Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Proca equations follow naturally from the particle/wave equation. In addition, we incorporate a new and more physical interpretation of spin angular momentum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1301.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-26 04:29:00*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In 'A World in 'Presence' II', I propose to strengthen the validity of the title of the article that I have submitted on 11/26/2012, 'A World in 'Presence''(viXra 1211.0149v1)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1301.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-23 18:36:44*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

As Newton's mysterious action at a distance law of gravity was explained as a Riemannian geometry by Einstein, it is proposed that the likewise mysterious non-local quantum mechanics is explained by the analytic continuation below the Planck length into a complex Teichmuller space. Newton's theory worked extremely well, as does quantum mechanics, but no satisfactory explanation has been given for quantum mechanics. In one space dimension, sufficient to explain the EPR paradox, the Teichmuller space is reduced to a space of complex Riemann surfaces. Einstein's curved space-time theory of gravity was confirmed by a tiny departure from Newton's theory in the motion of the planet Mercury, and an experiment is proposed to demonstrate the possible existence of a Teichmuller space below the Planck length.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1301.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-23 23:20:48*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The author after introducing the concept of the vean (vacuum energy absorption) process shows that it not only crystallizes the progressive nature of time but also causes gravitation and the red shift of light emitted by far off galaxies [1]. He now shows that the principle of equivalence on which the general theory of relativity is based can be understood in terms of the thermodynamics of the primary gas. The curvature of the space-time is seen to emerge from the anisotropy of the vacuum fluctuations background in the neighborhood of a massive body arising from the vean process. According to him unlike the currently accepted interpretation of general relativity, the gravitational field based on the vean process does not exhibit non-linearity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1301.0125 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-24 00:00:07*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The author after clarifying the concepts of the imaginary time, reversible time and the progressive time based on the vean (vacuum energy absorption) process now shows that the same process will also result in a gradient in the energy of the vacuum near a massive body resulting in a force field which could be identified with the gravitational field. According to the author, the accumulation of the mass by a particle by the vean process would be so small that an electron’s rest mass would have increased by only 10% over a period of 1 billion years. It is shown that part of the red shift observed in distant galaxies could be attributed to the reduced mass of electrons in the distant past.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1301.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-21 23:22:21*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The author after clarifying the physical implications of the imaginary time approach and the reversible real time approach goes on to explain how they differ from the progressive time which is experienced by all macroscopic systems. He proposes that the progressive nature of time is a direct result of the increase in the entropy at the sub-quantum level. According to him just as the interactions with the vacuum fluctuations create the confined helical wave (CH wave) which is the basic structure of a particle, a small part of the energy gets converted into its jiggling motion. It is proposed that this random motion arising from the absorption of the vacuum energy contributes to infinitesimal increase in the rest mass which results in the increase in entropy right at the level of the elementary particle. He calls the process by which the particles absorb energy from vacuum “the vean process”. He proposes that this increase in entropy at the level of the structure of the elementary particles results in time acquiring its progressive nature. With this interpretation of the progressive nature of time, the problem of the collapse of wave function gets resolved without invoking the presence of a conscious observer. Even the process of entanglement appears to have space-time limitations. He suggests that the existence of gravitational field and expansion of the universe may be direct outcome of the proposed vean process.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1301.0108 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-20 19:53:04*

**Authors:** V.Skorobogaotov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is given the description of some basic notions of the quantum mechanics in the frame of the model of 4D medium ("4D ether"): the uncertainty relation of Heisenberg, the spectrum of the energy for the hydrogen atom, the wave function, the de Broyle wave and some others.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1301.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-17 06:05:08*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The author shows that that for each quantum mechanical property of a micro-system there is a corresponding thermodynamic one in the primary eigen gas approach. He further shows that the basic postulates of quantum mechanics have equivalents in the primary eigen gas approach provided time is accorded directional symmetry. The interference pattern obtained in Young’s double slit experiment is explained in terms of the primary eigen gas approach using the directional symmetry of time

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1301.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-16 00:35:23*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The author discusses the similarity between the expression for the state function of the primary eigen gas representing a particle and that of the wave function. It is observed that the only difference between these two expressions is that in the former time appears as a real function while in the latter it appears as an imaginary function. He shows that the primary eigen gas approach which treats time as real and the quantum mechanical approach which treats time as imaginary are two ways of representing the same reality and points to a new symmetry called the Wick symmetry. He shows that the probability postulate of quantum mechanics can be understood in a very simple and natural manner based on the primary eigen gas representation of the particle. It is shown that the zero point energy of the quantum mechanics is nothing but the energy of the thermal bath formed by the vacuum fluctuations. The author shows that the quantum mechanics is nothing but the thermodynamics of the primary eigen gas where time has not lost its directional symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1301.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-15 10:51:24*

**Authors:** V.A.I.Menon

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

The author introduces the concept of the primary eigen gas which is an abstract gas where the microstates are occupied successively in time unlike in the case of a real gas where the microstates are occupied simultaneously. He shows that the energy-momentum eigen state of a particle represented by a plane wave can be treated as a primary eigen gas which makes it possible to understand the dynamics of a particle in terms of the thermodynamics of such a gas. In this approach, time and space turn out to be the intrinsic properties of the primary eigen gas representing a particle and the quantum nature of time and space emerges from it in a natural manner. It is shown that the action (with a negative sign) of a particle can be identified with the entropy of the primary eigen gas and the principle of least action is nothing but the second law of thermodynamics. Besides, it is shown that the uncertainty relations of quantum mechanics can be derived directly from the equation for the fluctuations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1301.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-08 13:14:05*

**Authors:** A.Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, we present several equations that generate the ratio of the sum of the roots of the masses of the quarks with respect to the electron, likewise the ratio of the sum of the masses of the quarks in relation to the mass of the electron. Both equations depend exclusively, and in a very simple and logical way from quantum dimensionless length derived from the fine structure constant to zero momentum; lengths in seven dimensions, the number of quarks and the three charges of color group SU(3).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1301.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-03 14:27:44*

**Authors:** A. Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we present a very simple formulas that generate the quark masses as a very direct functions sine and cosine of the Cabibbo angle.
The accuracy of the results are very big in relation to the latest experimental values.

**Category:** Quantum Physics