[15] **viXra:1412.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-30 09:47:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Prospects of developing computing and communication technologies based on quantum properties of light and matter may have taken a major step forward thanks to research by City College of New York physicists led by Dr. Vinod Menon. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1412.0266 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-03 06:06:35*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven page letter

Quantum entanglement of pair of particles is now an established fact as described in [1]. But its theoretical explanation is yet to be found. So this letter attempts to propose one possible explanation, based on the previous works. In a paper titled: “Some conjectures on the nature of energy and matter” [2], and its latest version titled: “ On the emergence of physical world from the ultimate reality” [3] it was proposed that ‘space’ or ‘vacuum’ can be viewed as a ‘super flexible continuum (SFC), and ‘particles’ of ‘matter’ as ‘spherical standing wave patterns’ of fluctuations generated in SFC. Einstein tried to do-away with ether in his special theory of relativity, but when he had to assign curvature to space, he told: " Well, in that sense, there exists an ether" But majority of scientists still stick to emptiness of space, and are facing understanding observations like quantum entanglement and collapse of the quantum-mechanical wave-function. In this manuscript space is assumed to be a super-flexible-continuum, and you will find that it helps gaining an insight into the quantum entanglement and collapse of q-m wave-function. Since, in a continuum, when a labeled dot moves from point A to A’, as shown in the figure1 here, the point B behind it has to move from B to B’; and this chain of displacements has to complete a closed circular path, whose radius can be as small as a few nano-meters or as large as a few thousand kilometers. Since there is no preferred axis about which the point A should orbit, it moves partly about x-axis, partly about y-axis and partly about z-axis; forming a small circle on the spherical shell. This motion of point A, of completing a small circle on the surface of a spherical shell, takes some time t, giving rise to a wave in the radial directions. The propagation of this wave in the radial directions is at the speed of light; whereas the displacements of points on the surface of spherical shell are instantaneous and simultaneous; because of the continuum nature of ‘space’. When such a wave of fluctuations moves in radial direction its mirror-wave, of the same frequency and amplitude, has to move in radially opposite direction, giving rise to a pair of pulses moving apart in radial directions. Since, the spin and polarization of ‘photons’ are perpendicular to the direction of photon’s motion, they are in the tangential-direction of the spherical shell, on which displacements of points take place instantaneously. Therefore, when spin, or polarization, of one photon is measured the spin and polarization of the mirror-particle gets instantaneously affected, because of the instantaneous displacement of points on the surface of the spherical shell. Similarly, when a photon is absorbed by one atom on the spherical shell, the wave collapses, because of simultaneous displacement of points on the spherical shell. Thus, the observed entanglement of photons, and other particles, imply the presence of an underlying ‘super flexible continuum’ (SFC), as was anticipated in [2] in the year 1988.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1412.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 22:54:52*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Bell oversimplified his model based on confusing a provisional precession eigenvalue equation with Dirac's fundamental helicity eigenvalue equation. I derive a local classical model based on energy-exchange physics that Bell intentionally suppressed and I show that Bell's constraints determine whether the model is local or non-local. The physical theory upon which the model is based can be tested experimentally; if valid, Bell's claims of non-locality will be proved wrong.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1412.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 08:25:50*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

This letter proposes an explanation for the century-old puzzle of the wave-particle-duality of light, which thousands of physicists, including Einstein, Plank, Feynman …, have been trying to resolve. Since a ‘particle’ is localized in space, it is mathematically characterized here as an impulse-function in space. Then it is argued that if this ‘particle’ has anything to do with waves then we can know it by taking Fourier-transform of the impulse-function in space. When Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain; we find that a ‘particle’ should contain a wide ‘set’ of waves, and not just a single frequency. Then we show that in the experiments performed so far [1] the red lasers had significantly wide line-width, means the sources have been producing a wide set of waves, and not just a pure single frequency. Similarly, in the single-particle interference-experiments incandescent filament-lamps were used with green filters inserted to isolate single photons; but it is obvious that at the frequencies of light very narrow-band-filters are not yet technically feasible, so the green filters used allowed significantly wide band of waves. So in the experiments performed so far we got ‘particles’ localized in space. And in the double-slit-interference-experiments this wide band of waves passed from both the slits, interfered like waves, and whenever and wherever they got coherently added, a ‘particle’ called ‘photon’ got detected. Atoms emit short-duration pulses of radiation, so their Fourier transform contains a wide band of frequencies. And at the time of detection, an atom needs only a small piece of continuous ‘wave’, of a suitable duration, amplitude and frequency, for ejection of an electron. So it is concluded here that: emission and detection of light is in the form of ‘photons’; whereas its propagation in space is in the form of a wide band of ‘waves’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1412.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 23:01:47*

**Authors:** Jia Yongxin, Jia Xiangyun, Jia Yuxuan

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

In the current optical theory, the moving mass of light quantum is usually studied as the basic mass where the photon energy is concerned. In the paper titled "The Relationship between light translation and fluctuation and ether energy and momentum", the relations between ether photon, energy of the ether field and its momentum can also be considered in light of the manifestation of the mass and momentum, This can show the situation of light quantum based on energy divergence, which has certain significance for an accurate understanding of ether. It can be seen that this method ignores systematicness and independent space of ether photon itself and only the overall relative manifested state of light quantum but not the essential state is revealed. In this context, it is difficult for us to understand the relationship between real photon mass and moving mass, which is quite unacceptable just like the principle of qualitative change in theory of relativity. From the perspective of quantum property of light quantum momentum, the relationship between the real mass of photon, moving mass and motion itself as well as the relationship between ether photon particle group and motion of astral body and hence the relationship with frequency are analyzed. Our discussion can accurately reflect the real conditions of mass, momentum and energy of light quantum. Many results conforming to the observation are obtained, which can provide explanations for the following relations: the relations between light radiation and motion of pulsating star, volume expansion and motion of astral body, nova eruption and motion, transverse Doppler effect, and the frequency difference in solar spherical radiation. The section can also be used as further development of the classical particle physics, and it can become the compressible fluid mechanics featured by failure of universal gravitation, no strength, non-viscosity and continuous media by changing the mechanics of a single mass point to the mechanics of mass point groups and the manifested group mechanics due to the energy expansion of the single mass point. By bypassing the too general concept of energy in theory of relativity, the energy is defined as the quantity of mass points and momentum points, so that the relationship between energy and momentum is analyzed more clearly.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1412.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 04:21:43*

**Authors:** C. Burton, H. Isaaks

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A new variation on the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics is introduced, and its
effects on the evolution of the Universe are reviewed. It is demonstrated that this modified
form of quantum mechanics will produce a habitable Universe with no required tuning of the
parameters, and without requiring multiple Universes or external creators.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1412.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 12:44:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1412.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 19:39:41*

**Authors:** ChengGang.Zhang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It will be considered that microscopic particle does not have wave nature , diffraction experiment of microscopic particle should indirectly and objectively reflect the existence of one force which can lead to particle’s diffraction phenomenon , the force belongs to deeper theory under the quantum mechanics , and will be proved that it relates to electrostatic force in this paper .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1412.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-15 05:33:15*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Discussion about limits of no communication theorems

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1412.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 04:38:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1412.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-10 06:43:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1412.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-19 14:45:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the derivation of the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy, E = mc^2 , from the universal uncertainty relations. These relations are a generalization of the original uncertainty relations developed by Werner Heisenberg in 1927. Thus, this approach unifies two of the most important laws of physics as provides the proof of a) the quantum mechanical nature of the above formula, and, b) the correctness of the universal uncertainty relations that I found in 2012.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1412.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-08 11:09:38*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

When photons hit a material surface they exert a pressure on it. It was shown that this pressure has a negative component (opposite to the direction of propagation of the photons) due to the existence of the negative linear momentum transported by the photons. Here we show that, in the photoelectric effect, the electrons are ejected by the action of this negative component of the momentum transported by the light photons. It is still shown that, also the gravitational interaction results from the action of this negative component of the momentum transported by specific photons.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1412.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-04 01:35:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Although the idea of heavy photons has been around for almost 30 years, it gained new interest just a few years ago when theorists suggested that it could explain why several experiments detected more high-energy positrons—the antimatter partners of electrons—than scientists had expected in the cosmic radiation of space. Data from the PAMELA satellite experiment; the AMS instrument aboard the International Space Station; the LAT experiment of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and others have all reported finding an excess of positrons. [13]
Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter.
In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1412.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 13:34:33*

**Authors:** Omer Zvi Dickstein

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It has been stated time and again that up to date, superluminal communication is beyond our reach. But, is superluminal communication an impossibility or an improbability? Observing current No Communication Theorems (NCT) one must conclude that it is a mere improbability, and that communication may be possible in the future.

**Category:** Quantum Physics