Quantum Physics

1910 Submissions

[133] viXra:1910.0652 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 00:06:21

An Entropy Perspective of the Pilot-Wave Theory in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Krishna RP
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article, a modified picture of de Broglie-Bohm (dBB) picture is presented from the perspective of information exchange. The vacuum zero-point energy (ZPE) fluctuations are incorporated into the entropy because the interactions between the particle and ZPE should be treated similar to measurements in that they result in a pilot- wave. The inclusion of a term in the entropy resulting from mutual exchange of information between the particle and the vacuum (through ZPE) necessarily leads to the dBB picture.
Category: Quantum Physics

[132] viXra:1910.0651 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 01:28:44

Gravitational Diagram of an Ideal Black Hole

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

Black holes can only be inside quantized space-time. Without quantized space-time, black holes cannot exist. In this regard, all known work on black holes requires adjustment. We describe the state of a black hole by a system of equations in the form of a two-component solution of the Poisson equation for the quantum density of the medium and gravitational potentials. An analysis of the spherical deformation of quantized space-time allows us to look inside a black hole and describe its external gravitational field. We consider two types of black holes: black holes ideal and non-ideal black holes. The ideal black holes characterized discontinuities of the quantized space-time on the surface of the black hole. Its formation is completed. Such a black hole is completely invisible. Non-ideal black holes do not have discontinuities of quantized space-time on the surface of a black hole. Its formation is not completed. Such a black hole has a visible glow due to the reflection of photons from its surface. The quantum density of the medium inside the black hole is doubled due to its gravitational compression. Cosmic bodies falling into a black hole break up into quarks already on its surface. Only quarks can penetrate inside a black hole through its surface. Quarks can restore matter inside a black hole. The giant black hole inside may look like a new universe. The gravitational forces inside the black hole are determined by the gradient of the quantum density of the medium, which is characterized by the deformation vector of quantized space-time. It is possible that within a giant black hole can form star systems and planets with weak gravity like Earth where life is possible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[131] viXra:1910.0646 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 07:58:39

Switchable Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Now, a new study in the journal Nature by scientists from Spain, the U.S., China and Japan shows that superconductivity can be turned on or off with a small voltage change, increasing its usefulness for electronic devices. [25] Superconducting nanowires could be used as both targets and sensors for the direct detection of dark matter, physicists in Israel and the US have shown. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[130] viXra:1910.0643 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 10:46:11

Quantum Chip 1000 Times Smaller

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Researchers at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a quantum communication chip that is 1,000 times smaller than current quantum setups, but offers the same superior security quantum technology is known for. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[129] viXra:1910.0631 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 02:11:21

Light Promises Secure Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Structured light is a fancy way to describe patterns or pictures of light, but deservedly so as it promises future communications that will be both faster and more secure. [17] The experiment has managed to prepare a remote quantum state; i.e., absolutely secure communication was established with another, physically separated quantum computer for the first time in the microwave regime. [16] Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[128] viXra:1910.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 08:26:56

Microcavity Boosts Nonlinear Optics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Silica optical microcavities are mainstay photonic devices, valued for their intrinsically ultra-low loss in the broadband spectra and mature fabrication processes, but unfortunately, they suffer from low second-and third-order optical nonlinearity. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[127] viXra:1910.0625 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 09:05:52

Superconductor Remembers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

This discovery opens a new avenue of research into how these intriguing materials work, bringing scientists one step closer to a complete picture of electronic behavior in cuprates. [34] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity-considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[126] viXra:1910.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 09:25:01

Next-Generation Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Metasurfaces are optically thin metamaterials that can control the wavefront of light completely, although they are primarily used to control the phase of light. [37] Researchers from the Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD) have invented a new type of anti-counterfeiting technology called holographic colour prints for securing important documents such as identity cards, passports and banknotes. [36] Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/photon/" photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/information+processing/" information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[125] viXra:1910.0621 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 10:35:51

Gravitational Diagram of a Nucleon for Gravitational Potentials

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 7 Pages, 2 Figures

In [1], we examined the properties of the gravitational diagram for the quantum density of a medium. The gravity diagram clearly shows us the process of deformation of quantized space-time under the influence of gravitation. Up to this point, the theory of gravity has been limited to Einstein's curvature and its geometry of four-dimensional space-time. We retained Einstein's concept of gravity of curved space-time, and instead of its curvature, we introduced a deformation vector D into the theory of quantum gravity [2-5]. The theory of quantum gravity does not use probabilistic methods like wave mechanics. Einstein was right when he claimed that "God does not play dice." The quantum theory of gravity uses a new parameter - the quantum density of the medium and determinism [6]. This is the concentration of quantons per unit volume. The deformation of the quantum density of the medium is the basis of quantum gravity. Such models of deformation of the quantum density of the medium are very convenient for us for the analysis of gravity and the gravitational field. These models are visual and can avoid methodological errors in the calculations of the gravitational field and its energy. However, we are not used to new gravity models using the quantum density of the medium and the deformation vector D. But the quantum density of the medium is an analogue of the gravitational potentials familiar to us. We propose to do an analysis of the gravitational diagram for gravitational potentials.
Category: Quantum Physics

[124] viXra:1910.0610 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 03:42:52

Gravitational Diagram of a Nucleon for Quantum Density of a Medium

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 6 Pages, 2 Figures

The gravity diagram shows a graphical distribution of the quantum density of the medium or gravitational potentials around the nucleon and inside it. The gravitational field of a proton is a gravitational well around a proton. This is a potential well. The presence of a gravitational well at a proton and atomic nucleus was not previously taken into account in the physics of elementary particles and the atomic nucleus. However, the gravitational pit around the atomic nucleus is fundamental in describing the properties of an orbital electron. On the surface of a proton at its gravitational boundary, we observe a jump in the quantum density of the medium. The quantum density of the medium is an analogue of the gravitational potential. However, the processes of deformation of quantized space-time are much more convenient and easier to study by analyzing the change in the quantum density of the medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[123] viXra:1910.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 03:46:19

Valleytronics Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 100 Pages.

An international research team led by physicists at the University of California, Riverside, has revealed a new quantum process in valleytronics that can speed up the development of this fairly new technology. [59] Scientists from the University of Bristol and the Technical University of Denmark have found a promising new way to build the next generation of quantum simulators combining light and silicon micro-chips. [58] Researchers at the University of Southampton and the Korea Institute for Advanced Study have recently showed that supersymmetry is anomalous in N=1 superconformal quantum field theories (SCFTs) with an anomalous R symmetry. [57] Researchers at ETH Zurich have developed a method that allows them to characterize the fluctuations in detail. [56] A team of researchers from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Griffith University in Australia have constructed a prototype quantum device that can generate all possible futures in a simultaneous quantum superposition. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[122] viXra:1910.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 04:13:53

Topological Nanoelectronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The topological QPC, first implemented at JMU Würzburg, offers an exciting perspective in this respect. [27] A certain kind of material, called a topological insulator, acts partially like one and partially like the other-it behaves like a conductor at its surface and an insulator in its interior. [26] Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[121] viXra:1910.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 04:39:26

Quantum Supremacy Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

For the first time ever, a quantum computer has performed a computational task that would be essentially impossible for a conventional computer to complete, according to a team from Google. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1910.0604 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 05:48:03

Energy Transmit with Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

On one end of the of the testing facility-one of the largest test facilities for model ships in the world-the receiver was converting the laser energy to DC power, which an inverter was turning into AC power to run lights, several laptops, and a coffeemaker that the organizers were using to make coffee for the attendees, or "laser lattes." [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[119] viXra:1910.0601 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 07:34:13

Light with Intrinsic Chirality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Light is the fastest way to distinguish right-and left-handed chiral molecules, which has important applications in chemistry and biology. [36] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have fabricated a multiplexer/demultiplexer module based on a property of light that was not being exploited in communications systems: the optical vortex. [35] Optical chips are still some way behind electronic chips, but we're already seeing the results and this research could lead to a complete revolution in computer power. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[118] viXra:1910.0599 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 08:41:08

Electromagnetic Duality of Maxwell Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers at the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI) and Tohoku University in Japan have recently identified an anomaly in the electromagnetic duality of Maxwell Theory. [37] Light is the fastest way to distinguish right-and left-handed chiral molecules, which has important applications in chemistry and biology. [36] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology have fabricated a multiplexer/demultiplexer module based on a property of light that was not being exploited in communications systems: the optical vortex. [35] Optical chips are still some way behind electronic chips, but we're already seeing the results and this research could lead to a complete revolution in computer power. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[117] viXra:1910.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 02:58:48

Deformation Vector D of Quantum Density is the Basis of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 5 Pages

The fact of unification the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum theory takes place in the theory of Superunification. The Standard Model (SM) is an imperfect model of physics that is incapable of unification with gravity. Physicists have been searching for a new particle such as graviton, strings, Higgs boson and others particles to create the Superunification for many decades. But they could not do this. It was a difficult task and I solved it. I made the theory of Superunification [1]. Quanton is a new four-dimensional particle of time and space which forms the basis of the theory of Superunification. The quantum density of a medium is the concentration of quantons in a unit volume of quantized space-time. The deformation (Einstein's curvature) of quantized space-time is the basis of gravity. The deformation vector D of the quantum density of the medium determines the magnitude and direction of gravitational forces. Gravity occurs when there is a gradient of the quantum density of the medium inside the quantized space-time. The gradient of the quantum density of the medium characterizes the strength of the gravitational field and is described by the deformation vector D. This concerns the creation of artificial gravity (antigravity) forces in the development of non-reactive quantum engines for space. My company has created several types of Leonov's quantum engines that have been successfully tested. The test results of quantum engines were formalized in a protocol and published in scientific journals [1, 2, 3]. A quantum engine is 100 times more efficient than a liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE). We see the triumph of the theory of Superunification.
Category: Quantum Physics

[116] viXra:1910.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 08:17:00

Optical Regimes using Spin Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A University of Wyoming researcher and his team have shown that the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) can be used to detect light across a broad optical range-ultraviolet through visible to near-infrared. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors-materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures-can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[115] viXra:1910.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 23:35:16

Derivation of Born's Rule as a Limiting Case of the Relative Frequency of Detection Using Single-Quamtum Events

Authors: N Gurappa
Comments: 18 pages, 1 figure, this paper is a completely rewritten version of the first part of the paper viXra:1908.0538

A new 'wave-particle non-dualistic interpretation of quantum mechanics at a single-quantum level' is presented by interpreting the Schrödinger wave function as an 'instantaneous resonant spatial mode' (IRSM) to which a quantum is confined and moves akin to the case of a test particle in the curved space-time of the general theory of relativity. This union of the wave and particle natures into a single entity is termed as non-duality. Using quantum formalism, the IRSM is shown to induce dual-vectors at the boundaries and interacts according to the inner-product. The overall phase associated with the state vector, which never contributes to the inner-product, is related to a particular eigenstate of an observable where the particle resides. This eigenstate becomes the natural outcome during observation of a single-quantum's single event. Observation over a large number of identical quanta, differing only by overall phases, results in the relative frequency of detection which yields Born's rule as a limiting case proving the absence of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The non-duality not only provides the actual mechanism for the 'wave function collapse' but also statistically becomes equivalent to the Copenhagen interpretation. An explicit derivation for the Born rule using individual quantum events is provided by considering an example of spin-1/2 particles in the Stern-Gerlach experiment. In this regard, a generalized representation for the SU (2) algebra, facilitating the description of single-quantum events, is constructed without any deviations from the quantum formalism.
Category: Quantum Physics

[114] viXra:1910.0561 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-05 03:36:48

An Inconsistency in Modern Physics and a Simple Solution

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we will point out an important inconsistency in modern physics. When relativistic momentum and relativistic energy are combined with key concepts around Planck momentum and Planck energy, we find an inconsistency that has not been shown before. The inconsistency seems to be rooted in the fact that momentum, as defined today, is linked to the de Broglie wavelength. By rewriting the momentum equation in the form of the Compton wavelength instead, we get a consistent theory. This has a series of implications for physics and cosmology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[113] viXra:1910.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 07:49:52

The Universe Should Not Actually Exist, CERN Scientists Discover

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 24 Pages

CERN scientists cannot explain the absence of antimatter in the universe (Nature) [1]. An analysis of the methods of their experiments is not theoretically substantiated. They do not know the structure of the proton and antiproton. They measure the magnetism of proton and antiproton with the highest accuracy. But they did not find a difference in the magnetic properties of these particles. But they make strange statements to the media: “The Universe Should Not Actually Exist” [2]. But the universe existed and will exist regardless of the results of the CERN experiments. This only confirms the fact that these experiments are not theoretically substantiated. Scientists at CERN are required to study the theory of Superunification [3, 4] in order to correctly conduct their experiments. They need to know that in nature there is no antimatter but there is a quantized space-time that is characterized by electromagnetic symmetry [5] and electrical asymmetry [6]. All the diversity of animate and inanimate nature in the universe is determined by only four quarks: two electrical ±e and two magnetic ±g [3, 4].
Category: Quantum Physics

[112] viXra:1910.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 11:35:11

Shortest Refutation of the Gaus, Rodrigues, and Hamilton Quaternion

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate the definitions of the Gaus, Rodrigues, and Hamilton quaternion as not tautologous for the shortest refutation of the quaternion, to form a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[111] viXra:1910.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 13:04:20

Two-Component Solution of the Poisson Gravitational Equation

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages, 1 Figures

The theory of Superunification is a quantum theory of gravity or a theory of quantum gravity [1]. The theory of Superunification combines the general relativity (GR) and quantum theory. The theory of Superunification is a new quantum theory. Its basis is a new four-dimensional particle quanton - a quantum of space-time. The development of quantum theory is unthinkable without a quanton. The old quantum theory was limited by probabilistic parameters. Einstein was right when he claimed that "God does not play dice". The theory of Superunification as a new quantum theory is the theory of determinism which makes the description of complex quantum phenomena simple and understandable by classical methods. This is a new methodology in quantum theory. Two-Component Solution of the Poisson Gravitational Equation for the Quantum Density of a Medium there is an example of this new methodology. Einstein showed us that the basis of gravity is the curvature of four-dimensional space-time. But if we have a space curvature then this curvature should be compensated by its compression. Otherwise, we will have an unstable system capable of gravitational collapse. But four-dimensional space-time as a quantized medium is a stable system. And this stability of space-time gives us a two-component solution of the Poisson gravitational equation for the quantum density of the medium. So at the birth of the mass of an elementary particle inside quantized space-time, its spherical deformation occurs. We observe a compression of the quantum density of the medium inside the particle due to its extension from the outside. Thus was born the mass of an elementary particle. The two-component solution of the Poisson equation for the first time describes the process the birth of the mass of an elementary particle inside quantized space-time at the quantum level [1].
Category: Quantum Physics

[110] viXra:1910.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 03:04:18

Hidden Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Imaging techniques that employ quantum light are increasing in importance nowadays, since their capabilities in terms of resolution and sensitivity can surpass classical limitations and, in addition, they do not damage the sample. [28] At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[109] viXra:1910.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 03:05:43

Electromagnetic Symmetry of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

Our universe has an electromagnetic symmetry and electrical asymmetry. These physical phenomena are described in detail in the theory of Superunification [1, 3]. I want to draw your attention once again to the fact that quantized space-time has an electromagnetic structure and it has electromagnetic symmetry. This symmetry manifests itself as the complete equivalence of the electric and magnetic forces acting between the quarks inside the quanton. Quanton consists of four quarks: two electrical and two magnetic. Quanton is a particle of the field that serves as a carrier of electromagnetism inside quantized space-time. Electromagnetic symmetry is observed experimentally in the electromagnetic wave in vacuum at equivalence its electrical and magnetic components.
Category: Quantum Physics

[108] viXra:1910.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 04:30:42

Google's Quantum Supremacy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Google’s Sycamore quantum processor hit the headlines in September when a leaked draft paper suggested that the device is the first to have achieved quantum supremacy by solving a problem more than a billion times faster than a conventional (classical) supercomputer. [24] According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence—the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[107] viXra:1910.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 04:51:48

Hard Sell of Quantum Software

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Quantum computers certainly have potential. In theory, they can solve problems that classical computers cannot handle at all, at least in any realistic time frame. [25] Google’s Sycamore quantum processor hit the headlines in September when a leaked draft paper suggested that the device is the first to have achieved quantum supremacy by solving a problem more than a billion times faster than a conventional (classical) supercomputer. [24] According to product chief Trystan Upstill, the news app "uses the best of artificial intelligence to find the best of human intelligence—the great reporting done by journalists around the globe." [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[106] viXra:1910.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-08 01:25:53

Quantum Optics Experiment on the Test of Empty Wave Hypothesis

Authors: V.A. Skrebnev, M.V. Polski
Comments: 9 Pages.

The experiment measured the absorption of single photons by absorbers with various absorption coefficients, in one of the beams, after the photons interacted with the beam splitter. The measurements showed that the absorption corresponds to single photon traveling in either one or another beam. The measurements support the original empty wave hypothesis which has been advanced in a number of works.
Category: Quantum Physics

[105] viXra:1910.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 08:20:20

Quantum Battery Doesn't Lose Charge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Scientists from the universities of Alberta and Toronto developed a blueprint for a new quantum battery that doesn't leak charge. [36] Researchers of the Institute of Photonic Integration of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) have developed a 'hybrid technology' which shows the advantages of both light and magnetic hard drives. [35] Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[104] viXra:1910.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 09:49:56

Single-Atom Qubits under Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Our team at IBM Research made a breakthrough in controlling the quantum behavior of individual atoms, demonstrating a versatile new building block for quantum computation. [23] The team showed that the single-atom magnets can endure relatively high temperatures and strong external magnetic fields. The work could lead to the development of extremely high-density data storage devices. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[103] viXra:1910.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 10:20:36

Rapid Laser Solve Phase Retrieval

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Physicists can explore tailored physical systems to rapidly solve challenging computational tasks by developing spin simulators, combinatorial optimization and focusing light through scattering media. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[102] viXra:1910.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 10:33:48

Two-Color Laser Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 70 Pages.

When photons of light interact with particles of matter, a diverse variety of physical processes can unfold in ultrafast timescales. [40] Physicists can explore tailored physical systems to rapidly solve challenging computational tasks by developing spin simulators, combinatorial optimization and focusing light through scattering media. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[101] viXra:1910.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 15:25:25

Hidden Global Energy of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages, 2 Figures

Is the total energy measurable in the universe? I found this question on the Internet www.quora.com. No one answered this question. The zero-energy universe hypothesis proposes that the total amount of energy in the universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity [1, 2]. But is it really so? I have the opposite opinion. New physics in the form of the quantum theory of Superunification gives us new knowledge about the universe and its energy [3]. The theory of Superunification is physics on the contrary. The Standard Model (SM) of physics has a zero energy level of cosmic vacuum. The theory of Superunification, on the contrary, establishes the maximum energy level of the cosmic vacuum. This maximum energy level is due to the quantized space-time structure which consists of quantons. Quanton has a small diameter (Leonov's length) and it consists of four quarks: two electrical ±e and two magnetic ±g [4]. Such a system of quarks makes it possible to calculate the energy accumulated in it. We multiply the energy of one quanton by the quantum density of the medium [5] and obtain the energy accumulated in one cubic meter of space vacuum which is equivalent energy to the mass of the substance of the whole universe. These energy values are incomparable. So, the calculations showed that 100% of the energy is accumulated inside the quantized space-time. This is the hidden global energy of the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[100] viXra:1910.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 17:53:29

Tensioning of the Electromagnetic Superstring

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 2 Figures

We have a sign-alternating superstring composed of quantons inside quantized space-time. Quanton includes four quarks: two electrical ±e and two magnetic ±g. Quarks have attractive forces according to Coulomb's law. The diameter of the quanton is Leon's length. The quantons have a tight packing inside the superstring. We can calculate the attractive forces between the quantons inside the superstring. A thin superstring composed of quantons can alone hold the Earth in orbit around the Sun. The quantized space-time has tremendous elasticity and tensioning.
Category: Quantum Physics

[99] viXra:1910.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 15:44:46

Electrical Asymmetry of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 5 Figures

Our universe is characterized by electromagnetic symmetry and electrical asymmetries. These new problems of symmetry and asymmetry of quantized space-time were raised for the first time in the theory of Superunification [1, 2]. We needed to understand how substance and its mass are born from quantized space-time. This applies to both elementary particles and cosmological objects (planets, stars, galaxies, black holes), as well as the state of the universe itself. We need to describe the parameters of elementary particles and cosmological objects in the language of mathematics from the standpoint of quantum theory. This is possible only after unification the general theory of relativity (GR) and the quantum theory that was made in the theory of Superunification. In this case, all events unfold in a single field in the form of quantized space-time and players in the role of which are the electrical charges-quarks. The field of quantized space-time is characterized by electromagnetic symmetry, and the players in this field are due to the appearance of the electrical asymmetry of the Universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[98] viXra:1910.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 22:09:17

Consciousness and the Problem of Quantum Measurement

Authors: Chris Allen Broka
Comments: Pages.

A variant of the von Neumann-Wigner Interpretation is proposed. It does not make use of the familiar language of wave functions and observers. Instead it pictures the state of the physical world as a vector in a Fock space and, therefore not, literally, a function of any spacetime coordinates. And, rather than segregating consciousness into individual points of view (each carrying with it a sense of its proper time), this model proposes only unitary states of consciousness, Q(t), where t represents a fiducial time with respect to which both the state of the physical world and the state of consciousness evolve. States in our world's Fock space are classified as either 'admissible' (meaning they correspond to definite states of consciousness) or 'inadmissible' (meaning they do not). The evolution of the state vector of the world is such as to always keep it restricted to 'admissible' states. Consciousness is treated very much like what Chalmers calls an "M-Property." But we try to show that problems with the quantum Zeno effect do not arise from this model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[97] viXra:1910.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 02:33:33

Basis of the Theory of Superunification

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

The basis of the theory of Superunification is electric e and magnetic g integer (whole) charges-quarks. Entire quarks have no mass. Entire electric quark has an electric charge e equal to the elemental charge of an electron. The elementary magnetic charge g is related to the elementary electric charge e by the ratio g=Ce and is measured in Leons, where C is the speed of light [2]. The value of the elementary electric charge e is verified with tremendous precision. Entire quarks are the most stable constants in the universe and are independent of pressure, temperature, speed, the quantum density of the medium, gravitation, and the entire range of natural factors. Entire quarks are part of a quanton and quantized space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[96] viXra:1910.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 04:41:56

Molecular Spintronics for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

With the advantage of small size and long-lived spins, it is only a matter of time before they cement their spot in the roadmap for quantum technologies. [36] The characteristics of a new, iron-containing type of material that is thought to have future applications in nanotechnology and spintronics have been determined at Purdue University. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[95] viXra:1910.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 06:52:25

Flexible, Transparent Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The interest in plastic electronics and photonics has experienced a significant increase in the last decades due to the exceptional optical, semiconducting and mechanical properties of these materials. [24] Although previous research shows that metal nanoparticles have properties useful for various biomedical applications, many mysteries remain regarding how these tiny materials form, including the processes that generate size variations. [23] With a novel electrochemical biosensing device that identifies the tiniest signals these biomarkers emit, a pair of NJIT inventors are hoping to bridge this gap. [22] The dark skin pigment melanin protects against the sun's damaging rays by absorbing light energy and converting it to heat. [21] Wang, Bren Professor of Medical Engineering and Electrical Engineering, is using PAM to improve on an existing technology for measuring the oxygen-consumption rate (OCR) in collaboration with Professor Jun Zou at Texas A&M University. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[94] viXra:1910.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 07:16:46

Infrared Detectors for Night Vision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

Much like some snakes use infrared to "see" at night, University of Central Florida researchers are working to create similar viper vision to improve the sensitivity of night-vision cameras. [49] Plasmonic materials can uniquely control the electromagnetic spectrum due to nano-scale surface architecture. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[93] viXra:1910.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 11:31:43

Electromagnetic Quantization of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages, 4 Figures

We live in an electromagnetic universe. Electromagnetism it is the foundation of our universe. Galaxies, stars, planets and nature have arisen from this electromagnetism as primordial matter. This is the global electromagnetic field of the universe that I discovered in 1996 [1, 2]. Quanton is a new particle of the quantum of space-time and it is the carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). Quanton includes four quarks: two electrical ± e and two magnetic ± g and it unite electricity and magnetism in the global field SEI [1, 4]. The diameter of the quanton is very small; it is 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the diameter of the proton. It is an ultra microworld. This is an ultra microcosm at the level of fundamental Leonov's length [5, 6]. Therefore, we cannot observe the SEI field at the level of real dimensions. We can observe only a violation of the electromagnetic equilibrium of the SEI field as a manifestation of the laws of electromagnetic induction and Maxwell's equations. Gravity is a deformation of the SEI field (Einstein's curvature). Quantization of the universe is the physical process of filling quantons of its volume. But we don’t know who did it [1].
Category: Quantum Physics

[92] viXra:1910.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 15:49:01

Fundamental Length - Leonov's Length

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 4 Pages, 6 Figures

Physicists have searched for the fundamental length of nearly a hundred years. Physicists did not have a clear physical definition of the fundamental length. In my opinion, the fundamental length determines the linear boundary between the continuous spatial continuum and its transition to a discrete state. Namely, the diameter of a quanton characterizes the discreteness of quantized space-time. The diameter of a quanton is a fundamental length - Leon's length.
Category: Quantum Physics

[91] viXra:1910.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 02:00:03

Quantum Density of the Universe

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 1 Pages

Quantum density of the universe is one of the basic parameters that describe its condition. Our universe is heterogeneous and curved (it is not flat). Quantum density is the concentration of quantons in a unit volume of quantized space-time. This parameter was first introduced by me in the theory of Superunification [1]. Quantum theory now allows us to mathematically describe a quantized universe as a function of the distribution of the quantum density of a medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[90] viXra:1910.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 07:22:20

Quantum Leap in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Scientists claimed Wednesday to have achieved a near-mythical state of computing in which a new generation of machine vastly outperforms the world's fastest super-computer, known as "quantum supremacy". [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[89] viXra:1910.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 07:52:18

Quantum Material Explained

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

The characteristics of a new, iron-containing type of material that is thought to have future applications in nanotechnology and spintronics have been determined at Purdue University. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[88] viXra:1910.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 08:15:36

Bendable Light Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Bendable light beams have significant applications in optical manipulation, optical imaging, routing, micromachining and nonlinear optics. [26] Karimi's team has successfully built and operated the first-ever quantum simulator designed specifically for simulating cyclic (ringed-shaped) systems. [25] A new Tel Aviv University study explores the generation and propagation of excitons in 2D materials within an unprecedented small time frame and at an extraordinarily high spatial resolution. [24] An international team of researchers led out of Macquarie University has demonstrated a new approach for converting ordinary laser light into genuine quantum light. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[87] viXra:1910.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 08:29:03

Magnetic Image Spins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Cornell researchers have put a new spin on measuring and controlling spins in nickel oxide, with an eye toward improving electronic devices' speed and memory capacity. [27] Bendable light beams have significant applications in optical manipulation, optical imaging, routing, micromachining and nonlinear optics. [26] Karimi's team has successfully built and operated the first-ever quantum simulator designed specifically for simulating cyclic (ringed-shaped) systems. [25] A new Tel Aviv University study explores the generation and propagation of excitons in 2D materials within an unprecedented small time frame and at an extraordinarily high spatial resolution. [24] An international team of researchers led out of Macquarie University has demonstrated a new approach for converting ordinary laser light into genuine quantum light. [23] Beyond the beauty of this phenomenon, which connects heating processes to topology through an elegant quantization law, the results reported in this work designate heating measurements as a powerful and universal probe for exotic states of matter. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[86] viXra:1910.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 08:47:21

Excitons of Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Excitons are quasiparticles made from the excited state of electrons and-according to research being carried out EPFL-have the potential to boost the energy efficiency of our everyday devices. [30] After developing a method to control exciton flows at room temperature, EPFL scientists have discovered new properties of these quasiparticles that can lead to more energy-efficient electronic devices. [29] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[85] viXra:1910.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 15:20:26

Unit of Measurement of Magnetic Charge is Leon

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages, 3 Figures

The problem of magnetic charge is the main scientific problem in creating the theory of Superunification. I knew the Dirac formula of magnetic charge for a magnetic monopole. Dirac considered the magnetic monopole as a free magnetic charge similar to a free electric charge. We observe experimentally the electrical charges. But the magnetic monopole was not discovered experimentally. This meant that the magnetic monopole does not exist in nature. But we observed magnetic fields. I perfectly understood that there should be a material carrier of a magnetic field in the form of a magnetic charge. The existing explanation that the cause of magnetism is electric current did not suit me. I found the correct answer to the question "Where is hidden magnetic charge?" in 1996. There is no magnetic monopole but inside the quanton there are integers magnetic quarks connected in pairs into magnetic dipoles. Magnetic quarks were first introduced into physics by me. Quanton consists of two magnetic and two electric quarks forming an electromagnetic quadrupole. Analyzing the electromagnetic properties of the quanton, I derived in 1996 the formula g = Ce correctly connecting magnetic g and electric e charges in the SI system through the speed of light C. The unit of measurement for magnetic charge is Leon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[84] viXra:1910.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 01:40:33

Quantum World, Absolute Time , Schrodinger Equation and Pilot Waves.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 10 Pages. The meaning of Pilot wave in quantum world.

Modern physics is plagued by Copenhagen interpretation and relativistic space-time with a confusion on meaning of time . My pilot wave theory may give a direction to our misunderstanding from Copenhagen interpretation and a meaning of absolute time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[83] viXra:1910.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 02:21:51

Quantum Knots Untie

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[82] viXra:1910.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 02:53:23

Strong Interaction of Light and Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. [18] Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[81] viXra:1910.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 04:05:49

Distribution of Accurate Time Signals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

JILA physicists and collaborators have demonstrated the first next-generation "time scale"-a system that incorporates data from multiple atomic clocks to produce a single highly accurate timekeeping signal for distribution. [19] Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. [18] Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[80] viXra:1910.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 05:10:11

Quantum Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

UC Santa Barbara engineer Galan Moody, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, has proposed a solution to overcome the poor efficiency and performance of existing quantum computing prototypes that use light to encode and process information. [20] JILA physicists and collaborators have demonstrated the first next-generation "time scale"-a system that incorporates data from multiple atomic clocks to produce a single highly accurate timekeeping signal for distribution. [19] Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. [18] Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[79] viXra:1910.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 06:25:15

Atomic-Scale Magnetic Signal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Probing the properties of a Mott insulator, a team of researchers from Boston College, MIT, and U.C. Santa Barbara has revealed an elusive atomic-scale magnetic signal in the unique material as it transitions from insulator to a metal, the team reported recently in the journal Nature Physics. [21] UC Santa Barbara engineer Galan Moody, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering, has proposed a solution to overcome the poor efficiency and performance of existing quantum computing prototypes that use light to encode and process information. [20] JILA physicists and collaborators have demonstrated the first next-generation "time scale"-a system that incorporates data from multiple atomic clocks to produce a single highly accurate timekeeping signal for distribution. [19] Researchers have succeeded in creating an efficient quantum-mechanical light-matter interface using a microscopic cavity. [18] Our researchers were the first to produce these knots as part of a collaboration between Aalto University and Amherst College, U.S., and they have now studied how the knots behave over time. [17] The groundbreaking result sheds light on an elusive phenomenon whose existence, a natural outcome of the hundred-year-old theory of superconductivity, has long been speculated, but never actually observed. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[78] viXra:1910.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-22 06:39:31

A Computer Violation of the Chsh

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 11 Pages.

If a clear no-go for Einsteinian hidden parameters is real, it must be in no way possible to violate the CHSH with local hidden variable computer simulation. In the paper we show that with the use of a modified Glauber-Sudarshan method it is possible to violate the CHSH. The criterion value comes close to the quantum value and is $> 2$. The proof is presented with the use of an R computer program. The important snippets of the code are discussed and the complete code is presented in an appendix.
Category: Quantum Physics

[77] viXra:1910.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 09:11:28

The Calculated Diameter of the Space-Time Quantum (Quanton)

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 8 Pages, 4 Figures

The diameter of the quantum of space-time (quanton) cannot be found experimentally, given that the diameter of the quanton 10^—25 m is ten orders of magnitude smaller than the classical radius 10^—15 m of the electron. The region of such small sizes 10^—25 m belongs to the region of the ultra microworld. We do not have devices that could look inside the quantized space-time. We can penetrate into the region of the ultra microworld of quantons only by the power of our mind using mathematical calculations. To perform this work requires an ingenious theoretical physicst. Prior to this, no one has managed to penetrate the power of the mind into the interior of quantized space-time in the region of the ultra microworld of quantons 10^—25 m. The diameter of a quanton 10^–25 m is a new fundamental length — Leonov's length. It establishes the discreteness of quantized space-time, and it is 10 orders of magnitude greater than the Planck length of 10^–35 m.
Category: Quantum Physics

[76] viXra:1910.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 13:10:19

Preface of the Vladimir Leonov to Volume 1 Quantum Energetics. Theory of Superunification

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 9 Pages

I wrote the preface to Volume 1 in 2009 when I was preparing a translation into English of my main book Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, 745 pages. This book in Russian was written by me in 1996...2000. Finally, the very fact of creating the theory of Superunification as the main physical theory of all times and nations was accomplished. However, the scientific community does not know practically anything about the theory of Superunification, because it does not read thick books, and I did not write small articles. I was always very busy and did not have time to write small articles in magazines. In addition, the editorial policy of magazines left much to be desired. If you have written a new theory that its publication in the magazine will have a problem. Given the existing editorial policy of magazines, even Einstein could not publish his articles. The theory of Superunification is a new quantum theory in which so far no one understands anything. But I am not only a theoretical physicist, but I am also an experimenter, inventor and entrepreneur in the field of new energy and new space technologies. My quantum engine (Leonov’s drive) without fuel is 100 times more efficient than a liquid rocket engine (LRE). The e-print viXra is a very convenient archive for quickly and freely posting new scientific discoveries and inventions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[75] viXra:1910.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 15:54:45

Ginzburg’s List and Leonov’s List

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 5 Pages

The possibilities of the theory of Superunification are unlimited. This is the most powerful analytical apparatus for studying matter. I am the author of the fundamental theory of Superunification and for me there is no unquestioned authority on science. As a theoretical physicist, I do not see any real competition in the world for me. For a quarter of a century now I have been working on complex scientific problems almost alone with my assistants. None of the physicists could even come close to understanding the theory of Superunification. I get a lot of scientific information, but do not find it interesting for myself. I do not see breakthrough discoveries in a fundamental way. Fundamental science stopped at the level of Newton and Einstein and without the theory of Superunification the further development of fundamental science and breakthrough technologies is unthinkable.
Category: Quantum Physics

[74] viXra:1910.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 02:44:48

The Gravitational Potential of Quantized Space-Time Has a Maximum Value and is not Equal to Zero

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages, 2 Figures.

A quarter of a century ago, I found that cosmic vacuum has a maximum level of energy and it is characterized by a maximum value of the gravitational potential. One of Newton's potential is not enough to describe the state of gravitational mass in a quantized space-time. It is necessary to take into account the maximum gravitational potential (4) in the equation of the balance of gravitational potentials inside the quantized space-time [1, 4].
Category: Quantum Physics

[73] viXra:1910.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 15:33:18

Gravitational Waves. Wave Equations

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 48 Pages, 13 Figures

This article was published like chapter 9 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 603-650. Waves in a cosmic vacuum can only form in an elastic medium that is a quantized space-time. This is a global electromagnetic field consisting of electromagnetic quantons whose concentration characterizes the quantum density of the medium. Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves of electromagnetic polarization of quantons and it does not lead to a change in the quantum density of the medium. Gravitational waves are longitudinal wave oscillations of a quantons inside quantized space-time and gravitational waves lead to changes in the density of the quantum medium, its compression and tension in the longitudinal direction. Such an understanding of the nature of gravitational waves allows us to create quantum generators of gravitational waves - grazers (Leonov’s patent). The fundamental problem is the experimental measurement of the speed of a gravitational wave in a vacuum. There is reason to believe that the elastic modulus of quantized space-time in the longitudinal direction is much larger than in the transverse direction. This means that the velocity of a longitudinal gravitational wave can be greater than the velocity of a transverse electromagnetic wave. It may turn out that the speed of the gravitational wave will depend on its frequency and amplitude. Only an experiment on measuring the speed of gravity can answer these questions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[72] viXra:1910.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 01:37:25

Two-Rotor Structure of the Photon. Photon Gyroscopic Effect

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 91 Pages, 18 Figures

This article was published like chapter 6 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 421-511. The structure of a photon as a wave particle has long remained incomprehensible to us. Analysis of the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field in the vacuum indicates that the spherical wave cannot expand in the relativistic region. This allows us to represent the electromagnetic field of a photon in the form of two rotors: electric and magnetic. These rotors are located in orthogonal planes with the possibility of rotation of the polarization planes. This ensures the constancy of the speed of the photon with the speed of light. Now that we know the two-rotor structure of a photon, we can analyze photon-photons interactions. This is a very important fundamental knowledge that is needed for the development of new quantum technologies: quantum computers, quantum entanglement, quantum generators (lasers) and others.
Category: Quantum Physics

[71] viXra:1910.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 01:53:01

Quantum Processors out of Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

An international team of scientists from Australia, Japan and the United States has produced a prototype of a large-scale quantum processor made of laser light. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[70] viXra:1910.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 02:10:29

Blanket of Light Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

This makes it a potential candidate for the next generation of larger and more powerful quantum computers," adds Ulrik Lund Andersen. [23] An international team of scientists from Australia, Japan and the United States has produced a prototype of a large-scale quantum processor made of laser light. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[69] viXra:1910.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 03:58:38

Ultrasensitive Measure Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

A team of UO physicists has drummed up a new way of measuring light: using microscopic drums to hear light. [33] Rice University scientists have found revealing information where light from a molecule meets light from a nanoparticle. [32] A University of Wyoming researcher and his team have shown, for the first time, the ability to globally align single-wall carbon nanotubes along a common axis. [31] The fight against global antibiotic resistance has taken a major step forward with scientists discovering a concept for fabricating nanomeshes as an effective drug delivery system for antibiotics. [30] The solution consisting of colloidal quantum dots is inkjet-printed, creating active photosensitive layer of the photodetector. [29] I'm part of a group of nanotechnology and neuroscience researchers at the University of Washington investigating how quantum dots behave in the brain. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[68] viXra:1910.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 04:45:04

Ultrafast Particle Interaction Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Lengthening the time during which a system is capable of retaining energy before losing it to the local environment is a key goal for the development of quantum information. [28] At the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, researchers have realized the swap of electron spins between distant quantum dots. [27] A quantum circuit that can unambiguously test for information scrambling in an experiment could help verify the calculations of quantum computers and even shed more light on what happens to quantum information when it falls into a black hole. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[67] viXra:1910.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 06:16:25

Nature of Non-Radiation and Radiation of the Orbital Electron

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 71 Pages, 13 Figures

This article was published like chapter 7 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 512-582. The atomic nucleus is located inside the gravitational well which is created by the mass of the nucleus. The presence of a gravitational well around an atomic nucleus was never taken into account in theory. Ignorance of this fact created many problems in describing and explaining the behavior of the orbital electron. The fact that the orbital electron rotates inside the gravitational well of the atomic nucleus was first established in the theory of Superunification. When an orbital electron falls on an atomic nucleus inside a gravitational well, its gravitational energy decreases as much as its electric energy increases. In this case, the total energy of the orbital electron remains constant regardless of the complexity of its trajectory. Therefore, the orbital electron does not emit photons, no matter how complex its trajectory inside the electron cloud. An orbital electron emits a photon at the moment of transition from one complex trajectory to another complex trajectory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[66] viXra:1910.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 07:32:08

Thermal Photons. Molecule Recoil in Photon Emission

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 20 Pages, 3 Figures

This article was published like chapter 8 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 583-602. This article is the basis of quantum thermodynamics. The fact is that the molecular-kinetic theory of heat is morally outdated and does not reflect modern requirements. We cannot formulate the correct concept of temperature. We only state the fact that with increasing temperature the chaotic vibrations of molecules and atoms increase. But this is a consequence. The cause of the phenomenon is the recoil of the molecule (atom) upon emission of a photon. The recoil force of a molecule (atom) upon emission of a photon was first calculated only in the theory of Superunification. And here we are faced with another paradox of quantum theory. It turns out that the recoil force is inversely proportional to the energy of the photon when it is emitted. The maximum recoil force per molecule (atom) is produced by low-energy thermal (infrared) photons. High-energy photons do not produce thermal effects. The temperature of a substance is determined by the concentration of thermal photons in it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[65] viXra:1910.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 07:33:35

Quantum Simulator Spacetime

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

Quantum simulation plays an irreplaceable role in diverse fields, beyond the scope of classical computers. [43] In a cooperative project, theorists from the the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching anf the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) have now developed a new toolbox for quantum simulators and published it in Science Advances. [42] An international team headed up by Alexander Holleitner and Jonathan Finley, physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers with an accuracy of just a few nanometers. [41] The physicists, Brian Skinner at MIT, Jonathan Ruhman at MIT and Bar-Ilan University, and Adam Nahum at Oxford University, have published their paper on the phase transition for entanglement in a recent issue of Physical Review X. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[64] viXra:1910.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-18 07:48:27

One-Dimensional Quantum Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The quantum mechanical equivalent consists of two charged ions which are immersed in a "liquid" formed by lighter neutral atoms. [15] ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"-that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[63] viXra:1910.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 02:58:00

Quantum Dots Revolutionize Healthcare

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The solution consisting of colloidal quantum dots is inkjet-printed, creating active photosensitive layer of the photodetector. [29] I'm part of a group of nanotechnology and neuroscience researchers at the University of Washington investigating how quantum dots behave in the brain. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[62] viXra:1910.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 06:45:04

Age Affects Perception of White LED Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Although LEDs are increasingly used in low-energy lighting and displays, consumers sometimes find their light harsh or unpleasant. [31] The fight against global antibiotic resistance has taken a major step forward with scientists discovering a concept for fabricating nanomeshes as an effective drug delivery system for antibiotics. [30] The solution consisting of colloidal quantum dots is inkjet-printed, creating active photosensitive layer of the photodetector. [29] I'm part of a group of nanotechnology and neuroscience researchers at the University of Washington investigating how quantum dots behave in the brain. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[61] viXra:1910.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 07:28:29

Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation. Antigravitation

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 95 Pages, 20 Figures

This article was published like chapter 3 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 167-261. The problem of unification of electromagnetism and gravitation was formulated by Einstein. But only I solved this problem in the theory of Superunification. For this, I had to find a common particle which is the carrier of electromagnetism and gravity at the same time. This particle is a quanton - a quantum of four-dimensional space-time. Gravity appears inside the quantized space-time as a result of its deformation (Einstein's curvature) under the influence of the gravitational mass of the body (particle). And vice versa, the mass of a body (particle) is born as a result of spherical deformation of quantized space-time. Mass is a cluster (bunch) of electromagnetic energy of deformed quantized space-time. The electromagnetic energy of deformation of this cluster is equivalent to mass according to Einstein’s formula mC’2. The movement of mass is the wave transfer of the spherical deformation of quantized space-time in accordance with the principle of wave-particle duality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[60] viXra:1910.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 10:22:10

The Quantized Structure of the Electron and the Positron. the Neutrino

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 90 Pages, 16 Figures

This article was published like chapter 4 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 262-351. What is an electron? Previously, we believed that an electron has an electric charge and mass that are inseparable from each other. In the theory of Superunification, an entire electric quark is used as the electron charge. An electric quark has no mass. The mass of an electron is formed as a result of spherical deformation of quantized space-time around a central electric charge-quark. Thus itself electric quark cannot be in a free state without mass inside the quantized space-time. Inside a quantized space-time an electric quark acquires mass. The same applies to the quantized positron structure. When the electron and positron approach each other, they annihilate. After annihilation, electric quarks form an electric dipole in the form of an electron neutrino that has no mass. The destruction of spherical deformation around the electron and positron leads to the release of the electromagnetic energy of their mass through the emission of gamma rays.
Category: Quantum Physics

[59] viXra:1910.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 12:17:24

Quantized Structure of Nucleons. the Nature of Nuclear Forces

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 69 Pages, 18 Figures

This article was published like chapter 5 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 352-420. To solve the problem of nuclear forces, I had to destroy part of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). None of the physicists directly measured the fractional electric charge in QCD. Only an entire electric charge of physics was measured with the highest accuracy. Elementary electric charge e is the most stable constant in nature. Only entire electric quarks with a charge of ±1e make up the structure of nucleons to create a sing-alternating (sing-changing) shell with alternating charges in sign. The presence of a sing-alternating shell for nucleons provides spherical deformation of quantized space-time and the formation of mass. The sing-alternating shells of the nucleons create short-range electric forces, regardless of the presence of an excess charge on the nucleon. These short-range electrical forces are equivalent to nuclear forces.
Category: Quantum Physics

[58] viXra:1910.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 16:42:02

Electromagnetic Nature and Structure of Cosmic Vacuum

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 99 Pages, 25 Figures

This article was published like chapter 2 in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 68-166. Space vacuum is a specific electromagnetic field which in the region of the ultra microworld of Leonov’s length of 10-25 m can be considered as a static electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic phenomena (electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic waves) arise in a cosmic vacuum as a result of the violation of its electromagnetic equilibrium. Gravitational phenomena (gravitation and antigravity) arise in a cosmic vacuum as a result of its deformation (Einstein's curvature). The carrier of this electromagnetic field is quanton and quantized space-time. The analytical derivation of Maxwell's equations was first obtained by me as a result of electromagnetic polarization of the quantized space-time. The quantized space-time is carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) - fifth fundamental force (Superforce). SEI is a global electromagnetic field permeating our entire universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:1910.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 06:06:37

Skyrmions Dynamic Pattern

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Now a team has succeeded in measuring the dynamics of these skyrmions in detail for the first time using a single-crystal sample of Cu2OSeO3. [33] Skyrmions are formed in magnetic systems via a variety of mechanisms, some of which work together. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[56] viXra:1910.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 08:01:52

Quantum Light in Thin Layers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

When a current is applied to a thin layer of tungsten diselenide, it begins to glow in a highly unusual fashion. In addition to ordinary light, which other semiconductor materials can emit, tungsten diselenide also produces a very special type of bright quantum light, which is created only at specific points of the material. [30] Molecules that are involved in photosynthesis exhibit the same quantum effects as non-living matter, concludes an international team of scientists including University of Groningen theoretical physicist Thomas la Cour Jansen. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[55] viXra:1910.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 08:17:13

Quantum Photon-Style

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, working in partnership with Tehran's Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), have proved that this arrangement allows for a new form of quantum correlation in theory. [31] When a current is applied to a thin layer of tungsten diselenide, it begins to glow in a highly unusual fashion. In addition to ordinary light, which other semiconductor materials can emit, tungsten diselenide also produces a very special type of bright quantum light, which is created only at specific points of the material. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[54] viXra:1910.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 10:09:11

Trions at Room Temperature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A University of Maryland-led team of researchers has discovered a method to reliably synthesize and trap trions that remain stable at room temperature. [32] Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, working in partnership with Tehran's Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), have proved that this arrangement allows for a new form of quantum correlation in theory. [31] When a current is applied to a thin layer of tungsten diselenide, it begins to glow in a highly unusual fashion. In addition to ordinary light, which other semiconductor materials can emit, tungsten diselenide also produces a very special type of bright quantum light, which is created only at specific points of the material. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[53] viXra:1910.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 10:48:30

Transmission Electron Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has built a high-voltage transmission electron microscope small enough to reside in a university lab. [38] Using a familiar tool in a way it was never intended to be used opens up a whole new method to explore materials, report UConn researchers in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. [37] "We put the optical microscope under a microscope to achieve accuracy near the atomic scale," said NIST's Samuel Stavis, who served as the project leader for these efforts. [36] Researchers have designed an interferometer that works with magnetic quasiparticles called magnons, rather than photons as in conventional interferometers. [35] A technique to manipulate electrons with light could bring quantum computing up to room temperature. [34] The USTC Microcavity Research Group in the Key Laboratory of Quantum Information has perfected a 4-port, all-optically controlled non-reciprocal multifunctional photonic device based on a magnetic-field-free optomechanical resonator. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[52] viXra:1910.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:06:13

Cryptography Without Secret Keys

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

Using a physical unclonable key (PUK), which can be a stroke of white paint on a surface, and the quantum properties of light, researchers of the University of Twente and Eindhoven University of Technology have presented a new type of data security that does away with secret keys. [42] Cryptography is often used in information technology security environments to protect sensitive, high-value data that might be compromised during transmission or while in storage. [41] In a step forward for information security for the Internet of Things, a team of researchers has published a new paper in the online edition of Nano Letters in which they have engineered a new type of physically unclonable function (PUF) based on interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy (IAE). [40] Researchers from Linköping University and the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden have proposed a new device concept that can efficiently transfer the information carried by electron spin to light at room temperature-a stepping stone toward future information technology. [39] Now writing in Light Science & Applications, Hamidreza Siampour and co-workers have taken a step forward in the field of integrated quantum plasmonics by demonstrating on-chip coupling between a single photon source and plasmonic waveguide. [38] Researchers at University of Utah Health developed a proof-of-concept technology using nanoparticles that could offer a new approach for oral medications. [37] Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), extremely high resolution imaging of the molecule-covered surface structures of silver nanoparticles is possible, even down to the recognition of individual parts of the molecules protecting the surface. [36] A fiber optic sensing system developed by researchers in China and Canada can peer inside supercapacitors and batteries to observe their state of charge. [35] The idea of using a sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[51] viXra:1910.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:20:58

Ultrashort Flashes of Light Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Bayreuth and the University of Göttingen have now discovered a new method for adjusting the extremely short time intervals between laser flashes with exceptional speed and precision. [39] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has built a high-voltage transmission electron microscope small enough to reside in a university lab. [38] Using a familiar tool in a way it was never intended to be used opens up a whole new method to explore materials, report UConn researchers in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[50] viXra:1910.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:37:03

Fundamental Discoveries of the Space-Time Quantum (Quanton) and Superstrong Electromagnetic Interaction (Sei)

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 68 Pages, 24 Figures

The quantum of space-time (quanton) was discovered by me in 1996. Quanton is a real particle of time that sets the pace of the spatial clock. Quanton is a real particle of time that sets the pace (rhythm) of a spatial clock. It is a volume electromagnetic resonator with elastic properties like an oscillating clock spring. Quanton counts Leonov’s time, which are 10 orders of magnitude slower than Planck time. Quanton occupies an elementary volume in space and has dimensions (Leonov's length), establishing the discreteness of quantized space-time. Leonov's length is a new fundamental length that is 10 orders of magnitude greater than the Planck length. A quanton consists of four integers quarks: two electric and two magnetic, located at the vertices of the tetrahedron inside the spherical particle. These integer quarks have no mass but have a charge. The magnetic quark was introduced into physics for the first time in the theory of Superunification. Магнитный кварк был введен в физику впервые в теории Суперобъединения. Only four quarks inside a quanton determine the electromagnetic structure of quantized space-time and its electromagnetic symmetry between electricity and magnetism. Colossal electromagnetic energy is accumulated inside the quanton. If you activate one cubic meter of quantized space-time (space vacuum), then this energy will be equivalent to the energy of the material part of our universe. We have finally found the source of energy for the Big Bang, if this fact has take place in reality. But we do not know who quantized our universe? The colossal energy of the quanton confirms that the quanton and quantized space-time is the carrier of superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI). SEI is the fifth fundamental force (Superforce) that unifies gravity, electromagnetism, nuclear and electroweak forces.
Category: Quantum Physics

[49] viXra:1910.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:44:38

A Resolution to the Vacuum Catastrophe

Authors: Siamak Tafazoli
Comments: 2 Pages.

This paper presents a theoretical estimate for the vacuum energy density which turns out to be near zero and thus much more palatable than an infinite or a very large theoretical value obtained by imposing an ultraviolet frequency cut-off. This result helps address the "vacuum catastrophe" and the "cosmological constant problem".
Category: Quantum Physics

[48] viXra:1910.0258 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-16 17:50:07

Fraudulent Theories

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

When a theory (physics) is based on an unrealistic/unknown/impossible term then it becomes an unrealistic theory, such a theory cannot describe something in nature/reality. So if you act as if that unrealistic theory is realistic then you are a fraud, and if your grant application is based on that unrealistic theory then it's a fraudulent grant application.
Category: Quantum Physics

[47] viXra:1910.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 04:31:09

Friction in Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[46] viXra:1910.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 10:29:57

Quantum Computing Diversity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 91 Pages.

In quantum computing, as in team building, a little diversity can help get the job done better, computer scientists have discovered. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[45] viXra:1910.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 10:50:25

Photons Recover Interference

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

This interference is important for everything from fundamental tests of quantum physics to the speedy calculations of quantum computers, but creating it requires exquisite control over particles that are indistinguishable. [28] Scientists from the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, in collaboration with the University of Oxford and NIST, have shown that quantum interference enables processing of large sets of data faster and more accurately than with standard methods. [27] Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[44] viXra:1910.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 14:24:34

A Proposed Basis for Quantum Uncertainty Effects

Authors: Richard Lawrence Norman, Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 14 Pages.

Quantum scale “uncertainty” effects limiting measurement accuracy appear to reflect the actual properties of quantum particles as has been well substantiated in numerous experimental examples. However, the concept of uncertainty appears to lack any clear physical basis and stands as an effects descriptor, not as a causal description of actual particulate physical properties. The famous EPR paradox is examined, assessed and placed into current perspective then new theory is presented defining the functional causal basis of observed uncertainty effects. Lastly, experimental evidence will be presented in support of this new model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:1910.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 08:05:50

Organic Quantum Dots Nanoarray

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

This system has exciting implications for fields such as computer memory, light-emitting devices and quantum computing. [28] Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1910.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 08:23:34

Layered Superconducting Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists from Tokyo Metropolitan University have created a new layered superconducting material with a conducting layer made of bismuth, silver, tin, sulfur and selenium. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around -200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1910.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-14 09:23:36

Impressive Holography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Physicists and materials scientists have developed a compact optical device containing vertically stacked metasurfaces that can generate microscopic text and full-color holograms for encrypted data storage and color displays. [40] Laser physicists have succeeded in reducing the acquisition time for data required for reliable characterization of multidimensional electron motions by a factor of 1000. [39] Princeton researchers have demonstrated a new way of making controllable "quantum wires" in the presence of a magnetic field, according to a new study published in Nature. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:1910.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 11:33:07

Quantum Energetics. Theory of Superunification. Contents

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 23 Pages

Quantum energetics is based on new fundamental discoveries of quantum of space-time (quanton) and super-strong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) made by Vladimir Leonov in 1996. On the basis of new fundamental discoveries the theory of Superunification of fundamental interactions of electromagnetism, gravitation, nuclear and electro-weak forces is completed. It is important that new fundamental discoveries have the widest practical application in the development of quantum energetics. It is discovered that the single source of energy in the Universe is the quanton in the structure of quantized space-time, which is the carrier of super-strong interaction (SEI). All known methods of energy generation (chemical and nuclear reactions etc.) are reduced to the release and transformation of SEI energy. Quantum energetics is a more general concept in energetics, which includes both the new energetic cycles, and traditional ones, including nuclear energetics. Chapters: 1. Fundamental discoveries of the quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction. 2. Electromagnetic nature and structure of cosmic vacuum. 3. Unification of electromagnetism and gravitation Antigravitation. 4. The quantized structure of the electron and the positron. The neutrino. 5. Quantized structure of nucleons. The nature of nuclear forces. 6. Two-rotor structure of the photon. Photon gyroscopic effect. 7. Nature of non-radiation and radiation of the orbital electron. 8. Thermal photons. Molecule recoil in photon emission. 9. Gravitational waves. Wave equations. 10. Superstrong electromagnetic interaction and prospects for the development of quantum energetics in the 21st century.
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1910.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 04:18:05

The Universe: Boiling ‘bouillon’ of Quantons

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 45 Pages, 21 Figures.

This article was published in the Leonov's book: Quantum Energetics. Volume 1. Theory of Superunification. Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2010, pp. 9-55. The theory of Superunification is based on my discovery in 1996 of a quantum of space-time (quanton) and superstrong electromagnetic interaction (SEI) – the fifth fundamental force (Superforce). SEI is a global electromagnetic field that permeates our universe. This field consists of quantons and represents a quantized space-time. In the region of the ultra microworld of quantons, we can observe their microscopic vibrations and rotation that resemble a boiling “bouillon” of quantons. Quanton consists of four integers quarks: two magnetic and two electric. Quarks have no mass. This article shows that the Superforce (fifth force) unites all known fundamental forces from a single position: gravitation, electromagnetism, nuclear and electroweak forces. The theory of Superunification is new quantum physics; it unites the general theory of relativity (GR) and quantum theory. Our universe is not flat, but it is curved according to Einstein. This fact explains the accelerated motion of galaxies from the center of the universe to its periphery by the forces of the global antigravity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1910.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 08:54:52

The Upper Limit of the Mass and Energy of the Relativistic Particles

Authors: Vladimir Leonov
Comments: 3 Pages

It is shown that a relativistic particle has an upper limit of the mass and energy when it is accelerated to the speed of light. Now we can calculate the limiting parameters of the relativistic particles by the use of the normalized relativistic factor in Einstein's relativistic equations. For example, the maximum mass of the relativistic proton is a limited number. The state of the relativistic particle is described by a mass balance and an energy balance. The energy balance includes the maximum energy of a relativistic particle and her real energy and her hidden energy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1910.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 09:46:51

Refutation of Gleason’s Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2019 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that Disqus comments here are not read by the author; reply by email only to: info@cec-services dot com. Include a list publications for veracity. Updated abstract at ersatz-systems.com.

We evaluate Gleason’s theorem in four variables which is not tautologous and forms a non tautologous fragment of the universal logic VŁ4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1910.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-12 02:06:50

Nanoparticles Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

With this control, researchers can integrate topology information into the photons, which can then be used as messengers for carrying quantum information. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene-the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms-by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[35] viXra:1910.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 01:31:23

Material Power Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

"We've found that a certain superconducting material contains special properties that could be the building blocks for technology of the future," says Yufan Li, a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Physics & Astronomy at The Johns Hopkins University and the paper's first author. [50] Researchers have successfully used sound waves to control quantum information in a single electron, a significant step towards efficient, robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. [49] Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:1910.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 08:32:10

Controlling Superconducting Regions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at EPFL have created a metallic microdevice in which they can define and tune patterns of superconductivity. [20] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have developed a method to accurately measure the "exact edge" or onset at which a magnetic field enters a superconducting material. [19] TU Wien has now made a major advance towards achieving this goal and, at the same time, has furthered an understanding of why conventional materials only become superconducting at around-200°C [18] The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33] viXra:1910.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 08:56:00

Radiation Detector Boosts Quantum Work

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Researchers from Aalto University and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland have built a super-sensitive bolometer, a type of thermal radiation detector. [50] Researchers have successfully used sound waves to control quantum information in a single electron, a significant step towards efficient, robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. [49] Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48] Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[32] viXra:1910.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 04:57:59

Modified Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have synthesized magnetically-doped quantum dots that capture the kinetic energy of electrons created by ultraviolet light before it's wasted as heat. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1910.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-23 19:02:58

Conjectures About Modulated Maxwell Signals And, Or, Ranada Solutions

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 22 Pages.

I present some methods to generate electromagnetic fields wich, in my opinion, have a good chance to represent linked and knotted fields and, maybe, the electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:1910.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 10:37:38

Distance Record in Spin Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Rochester and Purdue University have demonstrated the ability to manipulate the interactions between electron spin qubits in the form of spin swapping between electron pairs. [29] Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have synthesized magnetically-doped quantum dots that capture the kinetic energy of electrons created by ultraviolet light before it's wasted as heat. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1910.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 11:27:11

Single Photons from Trapped Ion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47] As reported in Nature Physics, a Berkeley Lab-led team of physicists and materials scientists was the first to unambiguously observe and document the unique optical phenomena that occur in certain types of synthetic materials called moire; superlattices. [46] Physicists at the University of Basel have now shown for the first time the combination with a third layer can result in new material properties also in a three-layer sandwich of carbon and boron nitride. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1910.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 12:27:12

Simulation of Quantum Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48] Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47] As reported in Nature Physics, a Berkeley Lab-led team of physicists and materials scientists was the first to unambiguously observe and document the unique optical phenomena that occur in certain types of synthetic materials called moire; superlattices. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1910.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-10 12:44:20

Quantum Electrons on Sound Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Researchers have successfully used sound waves to control quantum information in a single electron, a significant step towards efficient, robust quantum computers made from semiconductors. [49] Searching for new substances and developing new techniques in the chemical industry: tasks that are often accelerated using computer simulations of molecules or reactions. [48] Quantum networks can be practically implemented to interface with different quantum systems. In order to photonically link hybrid systems with combined unique properties of each constituent system, scientists must integrate sources with the same photon emission wavelength. [47] As reported in Nature Physics, a Berkeley Lab-led team of physicists and materials scientists was the first to unambiguously observe and document the unique optical phenomena that occur in certain types of synthetic materials called moire; superlattices. [46] Physicists at the University of Basel have now shown for the first time the combination with a third layer can result in new material properties also in a three-layer sandwich of carbon and boron nitride. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1910.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-09 13:37:08

Key Components of Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Münster (Germany) have now developed an interface that couples light sources for single photons with nanophotonic networks. [35] Researchers led by Delft University of Technology personnel have made two steps in the conversion of quantum states between signals in the microwave and optical domains. [34] A scientist involved in expanding quantum communication to a network of users, is continuing his work at the University of Bristol. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1910.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-09 12:27:43

Hamiltonian Learning Quantum Spin Register

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Researchers have developed an efficient way to characterize the effective many-body Hamiltonian of the solid-state spin system associated with a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond. [32] Their goal is to create an observable case of quantum spin ice, a bizarre magnetic state found in a special class of materials that could lead to advances in quantum computing technologies. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1910.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-09 12:38:35

Connecting Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Researchers led by Delft University of Technology personnel have made two steps in the conversion of quantum states between signals in the microwave and optical domains. [34] A scientist involved in expanding quantum communication to a network of users, is continuing his work at the University of Bristol. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1910.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 13:47:00

Non-Rocket, Non-Reactive Quantum Engine: Idea, Technology, Results, Prospects

Authors: Vladimir Leonov et al.
Comments: 9 Pages, 8 Figures, 2 Tables.

The control tests of the two prototypes of non-jet propulsion of quantum engine KvD-1-2009 (model of 2009) with horizontal thrust and antigravitator KvD-1 with vertical thrust, were conducted on March 3rd, 2018 by a public commission of specialists chaired and initiated by the former Minister of General Machine-Building Industry of the USSR (space branch) Oleg D. Baklanov. KvD-1-2009 developed a specific thrust of more than 100 N/kW, which is more than 100 times more efficient than the liquid rocket engine (LRE).
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1910.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 08:07:42

Single Quantum Vibration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Now scientists at MIT and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have for the first time created and observed a single phonon in a common material at room temperature. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors-sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1910.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 08:35:23

Quantum-Mechanical Twin Paradox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

For a recent publication, scientists from Leibniz University Hannover and Ulm University have taken on the twin paradox known from Einstein's special theory of relativity. [36] Now scientists at MIT and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have for the first time created and observed a single phonon in a common material at room temperature. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures-coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule-occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1910.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 11:00:07

Quantum Symmetries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

New research from Washington University in St. Louis realizes one of the first parity-time (PT) symmetric quantum systems, allowing scientists to observe how that kind of symmetry-and the act of breaking of it-leads to previously unexplored phenomena. [37] For a recent publication, scientists from Leibniz University Hannover and Ulm University have taken on the twin paradox known from Einstein's special theory of relativity. [36] Now scientists at MIT and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology have for the first time created and observed a single phonon in a common material at room temperature. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1910.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-07 14:43:10

Multi-Photon Processes in Double-Inverted Y System

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, the effect of multi-photon processes, occurring via different probe beam channels, on the absorption of probe beams in double-inverted Y system is investigated and the results are reported.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1910.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-10 17:31:50

The Electron and De Broglie Wavelength

Authors: Tim Dooling
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this guess at a classical electron model a classical recipe calculation for the electric and magnetic fields isn't done because I don't have the mathematical ability. The circulation speed of the electron is the speed of light, c. I try to show the electric fields parallel and perpendicular to the direction of motion are due to a deformation of the surfaces of the electron. The De Broglie wavelength is indirectly related to an actual length of the perimeter of the electron. The reason for the electron's mass, or inertia is due to the magnetic binding forces of the surface.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1910.0079 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-03 08:46:09

Photon is Interpreted by the Particleization/normalization of the Mutual Energy Flow of the Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 28 Pages.

Quantum mechanics has the quantization. The quantization offer us a method from the mechanic equation to build the quantum wave equation. For example the Canonical quantization offers a method to build the Schrödinger equation from Hamilton in classical mechanics. This is also referred as first quantization. In general, Maxwell equation itself is wave equation, hence, it doesn't need the first quantization. There is second quantization, for electromagnetic field. The second quantization discuss how many photons can be created when the energy of electromagnetic field is known. This is not interesting to this author. This author is interested how to build a particle from the wave equations (Maxwell equations or Schrödinger equation). Here the particle should confined in space locally. It should has the properties of wave. Our traditional quantization is to find the wave equation. This author try to build a particle from this wave equation, this process can be called as particleization. This author has introduced the mutual energy principle, the mutual energy principle successfully solved the problem of conflict between the Maxwell equations and the law of the energy conservation. The mutual energy flow theorem is derived from the mutual energy principle. The mutual energy flow is consist of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. The mutual energy flow theorem tell us the total energy of the energy flow passes through any surfaces between the emitter to the absorber are all exactly same. This property is required by the photon and any particle in quantum mechanics. Hence, this author has linked the mutual energy flow to the photon and also other particle. The mutual energy flow has the property of waves and also confined in space locally. However there is still a problem, the field of an emitter or the field of an absorber decreases according to the distance from the field point to the source point. If the current (or charge) of a source or sink for a photon is constant. The energy of the photon which equals the inner product of the current and the field will depended on the distance between the the source and the sink of the photon. If the distance increases, the amount of photon energy will decrease to infinite small. This is not correct. The energy of a photon should be a constant E=hv. The energy of the photon cannot decrease with the distance between the emitter and the absorber. In order overcome this difficulty, this author suggests a normalization for the mutual energy flow. It is assume that the retarded wave sent from the emitter has collapse back in all direction. But the mutual energy flow build a energy channel between the source and sink. Since the energy can only go through this channel, the total energy of one photon must go through this channel. Hence, the total energy of the mutual energy flow has to be normalized to the energy of one photon. The mutual energy flow will increase to the energy of one photon. This leads that the amplitude of the wave does not decrease on the direction along the energy channel. The amplitude of the advanced wave also does not decrease on the direction of the energy channel. The electromagnetic wave in the space between an emitter (source) and an absorber (sink) looks like a wave inside a wave guide. The wave in a wave guide, the amplitude does not decrease alone the wave guide if the loss of energy can be omitted. This wave guide can be referred as the “nature wave guide”. In the nature wave guide the advanced wave leads the the retarded wave, hence, the retarded wave can only goes at the direction where has advanced wave. The retarded wave also leads the advanced wave. The advanced wave can only goes in the direction of the retarded wave. This normalization process successfully particularized the the mutual energy flow. This author believe this theory about the normalization/particleization of the mutual energy flow is also correct for other particle for example electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1910.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:37:05

Trapped Atom Shape Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

The first system for reshaping the time-varying profiles of individual photons has been created by Olivier Morin and colleagues at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching, Germany. [30] Recently, the chemists Sebastian Mai and Leticia González from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna succeeded in simulating the extremely fast spin flip processes that are triggered by the light absorption of metal complexes. [29] University of Tokyo researchers have announced a new approach for electrical cooling without the need for moving parts. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1910.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:38:59

Fast Dance of Electron Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Recently, the chemists Sebastian Mai and Leticia González from the Faculty of Chemistry of the University of Vienna succeeded in simulating the extremely fast spin flip processes that are triggered by the light absorption of metal complexes. [29] University of Tokyo researchers have announced a new approach for electrical cooling without the need for moving parts. [28] When electrons that repel each other are confined to a small space, they can form an ordered crystalline state known as a Wigner crystal. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1910.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:52:01

Coupling in Hybrid Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers have thus been trying to develop techniques to enable nonreciprocal signal propagation, which could help to block the undesired effects of backward noise. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1910.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:54:38

Cool with Quantum Wells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

University of Tokyo researchers have announced a new approach for electrical cooling without the need for moving parts. [28] When electrons that repel each other are confined to a small space, they can form an ordered crystalline state known as a Wigner crystal. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1910.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:56:44

Spintronics and Quantum Thermodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The team utilized analytical and ab-initio theories to establish a link between this spin engine concept and room-temperature experiments on a solid-state spintronic device called a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1910.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:58:35

Optical Chip for Quantum Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Researchers have created a silicon carbide (SiC) photonic integrated chip that can be thermally tuned by applying an electric signal. [32] Compact quantum devices could be incorporated into laptops and mobile phones, thanks in part to small devices called quantum optical micro-combs. [31] Taking their name from an intricate Japanese basket pattern, kagome magnets are thought to have electronic properties that could be valuable for future quantum devices and applications. [30] A team of Cambridge researchers have found a way to control the sea of nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots so they can operate as a quantum memory device. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1910.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 08:40:51

Synthesize Impossible Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers from the U.S., Russia, and China have bent the rules of classical chemistry and synthesized a "forbidden" compound of cerium and hydrogen—CeH9—which exhibits superconductivity at a relatively low pressure of 1 million atmospheres. [30] Hong Ding's group from the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science reported the superconducting gap of topological surface state is larger than that of bulk states in β-Bi2Pd thin films using in-situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and molecular beam epitaxy. [29] Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1910.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 11:01:31

Less than Zero Quantum Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Quantum theory, however, allows negative energy. "According to quantum physics, it is possible to borrow energy from a vacuum at a certain location, like money from a bank," says Daniel Grumiller. [30] Ant-Man knows the quantum realm holds shocking revelations and irrational solutions. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1910.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 12:16:34

Peek Schrodinger Cat Without Disturbing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Associate Professor Holger F. Hofmann from Hiroshima University and Kartik Patekar from the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay have tried to solve one of the biggest puzzles in quantum physics: how to measure the quantum system without changing it? [31] Quantum theory, however, allows negative energy. "According to quantum physics, it is possible to borrow energy from a vacuum at a certain location, like money from a bank," says Daniel Grumiller. [30] Ant-Man knows the quantum realm holds shocking revelations and irrational solutions. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal-a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse-in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1910.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 12:49:49

Information from Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

The current work demonstrates how to distinguish between trivial and topological insulators at an ultra-fast rate, in other words, to "read out" the topological information of the system using laser spectroscopy. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1910.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 13:17:21

Finding Magic Angle Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at The Ohio State University, in collaboration with scientists around the world, have made a discovery that could provide new insights into how superconductors might move energy more efficiently to power homes, industries and vehicles. [34] Now, new experiments conducted at Princeton give hints at how this material-known as magic-angle twisted graphene-gives rise to superconductivity. [33] Finally, we can look at a key property of superconductivity that previously couldn't be seen." [32] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have found that crystals of a recently discovered superconducting material, a layered bismuth chalcogenide with a four-fold symmetric structure, shows only twofold symmetry in its superconductivity. [31] Russian physicist Viktor Lakhno from Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS considers symmetrical bipolarons as a basis of high-temperature superconductivity. [30] Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates-the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures-contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1910.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 04:09:51

Mystery Surrounding Photon Momentum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Physicists at Goethe University are now able to answer this question. To do so, they developed and constructed a new spectrometer with previously unattainable resolution. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1910.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 04:34:28

Insight into Photoelectric Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

In the long term, it is conceivable that this and other basic science knowledge on how atoms and molecules function will provide an opportunity to improve the way reactions are controlled in molecules, which in turn can pave the way for more effective chemistry. [34] Physicists at Goethe University are now able to answer this question. To do so, they developed and constructed a new spectrometer with previously unattainable resolution. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1910.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 05:01:16

Quantum Foam Explain Cosmic Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Steven Carlip, a physicist at the University of California, has come up with a theory to explain why empty space seems to be filled with a huge amount of energy-it may be hidden by effects that are canceling it out at the Planck scale. [35] In the long term, it is conceivable that this and other basic science knowledge on how atoms and molecules function will provide an opportunity to improve the way reactions are controlled in molecules, which in turn can pave the way for more effective chemistry. [34] Physicists at Goethe University are now able to answer this question. To do so, they developed and constructed a new spectrometer with previously unattainable resolution. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1910.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 05:30:39

Metronome for Quantum Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A new measurement protocol, developed at TU Wien (Vienna), makes it possible to measure the quantum phase of electrons-an important step for attosecond physics. [35] In the long term, it is conceivable that this and other basic science knowledge on how atoms and molecules function will provide an opportunity to improve the way reactions are controlled in molecules, which in turn can pave the way for more effective chemistry. [34] Physicists at Goethe University are now able to answer this question. To do so, they developed and constructed a new spectrometer with previously unattainable resolution. [33] Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26] Cuprates hold the record high superconducting temperature at ambient pressure so far, but understanding their superconducting mechanism remains one of the great challenges of physical sciences listed as one of 125 quests announced by Science. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1910.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 04:31:41

Quantum Material Criticality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Rice University physicist Qimiao Si began mapping quantum criticality more than a decade ago, and he's finally found a traveler that can traverse the final frontier. [32] Physicists studying the strange behavior of metal alloys called heavy fermions have made a surprising discovery that could be useful in safeguarding the information stored in quantum bits, or qubits, the basic units of encoded information in quantum computers. [31] Properties of complex materials are often determined by the interplay of several electron properties. TU Wien (Vienna) has now succeeded in disentangling this mess. [30] Physicists have found "electron pairing," a hallmark feature of superconductivity, at temperatures and energies well above the critical threshold where superconductivity happens. [29] It was a three-hour nighttime road trip that capped off a journey begun seven years ago. [28] Discovered more than 100 years ago, superconductivity continues to captivate scientists who seek to develop components for highly efficient energy transmission, ultrafast electronics or quantum bits for next-generation computation. [27] One of the greatest mysteries in condensed matter physics is the exact relationship between charge order and superconductivity in cuprate superconductors. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics