[10] **viXra:1110.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 8 pages

It is easy to check that both algebraic equation Det(^p - m) = 0 and Det(^p + m) = 0 for
4-spinors u- and v- have solutions with (see paper) The same is true for higherspin
equations. Meanwhile, every book considers the p0 = Ep only for both u- and v- spinors of
the (see paper) representation, thus applying the Dirac-Feynman-Stueckelberg procedure
for elimination of negative-energy solutions. Recent works of Ziino (and, independently, of
several others) show that the Fock space can be doubled. We re-consider this possibility on the
quantum field level for both s = 1/2 and higher spins particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1110.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

If we imbue Bohr's electron in the hydrogen atom with spin,
the total energy number n consists of the electron's spin energy
and the electron's orbital energy. If we define the spin energy
number to be 1/2, then the orbital energy number is (n-1/2).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1110.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 19 pages

Ever since quantum mechanics was first developed, it has been unclear what it really tells us about
reality. A novel framework, based on 5 axioms, is presented here which offers an interpretation of quantum
mechanics unlike any considered thus far: It is postulated that physical objects can exist in one of two
distinct modes, based on whether they have an intrinsic actual spacetime history or not. If they do,
their mode of existence is actual and they can be described by classical physics. If they do not, then
their mode of existence is called actualizable and they must be described in terms of an equal-weight
superposition of all possible actualizable (not actual) histories.
The distinction is based on an axiom according to which there exists a limit in which spacetime reduces
to a one-dimension reduced version, called areatime, and that objects which merely actualizably exist
in spacetime actually exist in areatime. The operational comparison of the passage of time for such
objects to the passage of time for a spacetime observer is postulated to be made possible by what is
called an angular dual bilateral symmetry. This symmetry can be decomposed into the superposition of
two imaginary phase angles of opposite sign. To mathematically describe the spacetime manifestation
of objects which actually exist in areatime, each actualizable spacetime history is associated with an
actualizable path, which in turn is associated with the imaginary phases. For a single free particle, the
complex exponent is identified with a term proportional to its relativistic action, thus recovering the
path integral formulation of quantum mechanics.
Although based on some highly unfamiliar ideas, this framework appears to render at least some of
the usual mysteries connected with quantum mechanics amenable to simple conceptual understanding.
It also appears to connect the foundations of quantum theory to the foundation of the special theory
of relativity while clarifying its relationship to the general theory of relativity and yields a testable
prediction about a type of experiment, as yet unperformed, which under the current paradigm is utterly
unexpected, namely, that the gravitational field of radiation is zero. The paper concludes with some
speculations about how the theory may be extended to a metatheory of nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1110.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 10 pages

After a providing a review of the EPR paradox which draws a distinction between what is here called
the locality and the in
uence paradoxes, this paper presents a qualitative overview of a framework recently
introduced by this author in which spacetime is assumed to emerge from areatime. Two key assumptions
from this framework allow one to make the notion of quantum effects originating from `outside' spacetime
intelligible. In particular, this framework assumes that until a quantum object is measured, it does not
actually exist in spacetime and that there are connections between quantum particles in areatime which
are independent of metric relations in spacetime. These assumptions are then shown to permit one to
conceptually understand both the locality and the in
uence paradoxes, and lead to the overall conclusion
that spacetime is emergent in the sense that a very large number of discrete events which correspond to
`measurements' in quantum mechanics aggregate to give rise on a large scale to the apparently smooth
reality we experience in our daily lives.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1110.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 7 pages

The quantum superposition principle, which expresses the idea that a system can exist simultaneously
in two or more mutually exclusive states is at the heart of the mystery of quantum mechanics. This paper
presents an axiom, called the principle of actualizable histories, which naturally leads to the quantum
superposition principle. However, in order to be applicable to massive systems, it requires introducing a
novel distinction between actualizable and actual mass. By means of arriving in conjunction with two
previously introduced axioms at the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, it is shown that
actualizable mass is the central concept of mass in quantum theory, whereas actual mass is the central
concept in classical theories, and in particular general relativity. This distinction sharply segregates the
domains of validity of the two theories, making it incompatible with any theory of quantum gravity which
does not respect this segregation. Finally, an experiment is suggested to test this idea.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1110.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 9 pages

The quantum phase has profound effects on quantum mechanics but its physical origin is currently
unexplained. This paper derives its general form from two physical axioms: 1) in the limit in which space
goes to zero, spacetime reduces to a constant quantity of areatime, and 2) the proper time dimensions
of areatime and of spacetime are orthogonal but can be compared to each other according to what will
here be called an angular dual bilateral symmetry. The mathematical derivation and the explanation of
the physical origin of the quantum phase from these two axioms is straightforward and implies that the
quantum phase is intimately related to the quantization of spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1110.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 5 pages

This paper makes a case for ontology, the study of existence, to be explicitly and formally incorporated
into foundational physics in general and the wave function collapse of quantum mechanics in particular.
It introduces a purely ontological distinction between two modes of physical existence-actualizable and
actual- into the conventional mathematical representation of the wave function collapse, and examines the
implications of doing so, arguing that this may lead to insights that permit one to understand seemingly
mysterious aspects of the wave function collapse, such as 'Schrödinger's cat paradox', as well as how
quantum theory in general and Einstein's general theory of relativity relate to one another. A specific
empirical prediction is given, which if confirmed, may move ontology outside the exclusive purview of
philosophy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1110.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 4 Nov 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 21 pages

The continuity equation is specified in quaternionic format. It means that the density
and current of the considered "charge" is combined in a quaternionic probability amplitude distribution
(PAD). Next, the Dirac equation is also put in quaternionic format. It is shown that it is a special
form of continuity equation. Further it is shown that two other quaternionic continuity equations can
be derived from the quaternionic Dirac equation. The square and the squared modulus of the PAD play an
essential role in these new equations. Further, a whole series of equivalent equations of motions is
derived from the possible flavor couplings. The corresponding particles are identified. The mass of
the particles can be computed from their fields. In this way all of the particles in the standard
model can be identified.
The interpretation of these extra equations leads to the insight that when fermions take a new position,
they must step over a forbidden region. Finally, the role of the quaternionic covariant derivative is
explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1110.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lukasz Andrzej Glinka

**Comments:** 7 pages

The mass of a photon is one of the most intriguing ideas of theoretical
physics, and their existence is consistently justified in the
light of certain experimental data. In this paper the proposal for
explanation of the nonzero photon mass in frames of the waveparticle
duality is concisely presented. The standard formulation
of the wave-particle duality is modified by the constant frequency
field, which can be interpreted as the Zero-Point Frequency field.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1110.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

**Comments:** 13 pages. This paper can also be found at deep blue, the University of Michigan's
repository, at http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/86651

Written at a level appropriate for an educated lay audience, this paper
attempts to give a primarily conceptual overview of a framework recently
introduced in reference [3] by this author, which attempts to clarify what
quantum mechanics tells us about reality. Physicists may find this
paper useful because it focuses on the central ideas of the framework at a
conceptual level, thereby lessening their unfamiliarity, an unavoidable
feature of truly novel ideas. The author hopes that this article will motivate
physicists to seriously evaluate the mathematical details of the framework
given in the original reference.

**Category:** Quantum Physics