[8] **viXra:1106.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Martin Alpert

**Comments:** 23 pages.

In this paper we define information as any observable difference which exists
only at boundaries. We hypothesize, based on this, that matter (particle) is composed of
many small interfaces (differences) in space and energy becomes a function of the
distribution of differences (distinguishability) and no differences (indistinguishability).
Based on this definition of information, superposition in quantum mechanics will be
shown to be analogous to statistical thermodynamics. An observable consists of two
processes: the observation which is limited by the uncertainty equation, ΔE Δt ≥ h and
the entropy change in the observer. When combined, these are shown to result in a
modified Heisenberg Uncertainty.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1106.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Ir J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Every time when I read an article about the phenomena, which occur far from us in the universe, I'm surprised
about the attention that this Farawayistan gets compared to the phenomena in the world of the smallest.
Everything that happens there is dismissed with collective names such as “quantum mechanics” and “field theory”.
Rarely or never the treatise goes deeper. In this sub-nano-world spectacular images, such as appear in stories
about the cosmos are not available.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1106.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 5 pages.

In a previous preprint, [1], reproduced here within the appendix in its revised version, we were
confronted, to reach the validity of the second law of thermodynamics for an unique collapse of
an unique quantum object, to the necessity of an ensemble of measures to be accomplished within
copies of identical isolated systems. The validity of the second law of thermodynamics within the
context of the wave function collapse was sustained by the large number of microstates related
to a given collapsed state. Now, we will consider just one pure initial state containing just one
initial state of the quantum subsystem, not an ensemble of identically prepared initial quantum
subsystems, e.g., just one photon from a very low intensity beam prepared with an equiprobable
eigenset containing two elements, an unique observation raising two likelihood outcomes. Again, we
will show the statistical interpretation must prevail, albeit the quantum subsystem being a singular,
unique, pure state element within its unitary quantum subsystem ensemble set. This feature leads
to an inherent probabilistic character, even for a pure one-element quantum subsystem object.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1106.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Subhajit Ganguly

**Comments:** 7 pages.

Making use of the laws of physical transactions, we study symmetrical many-points systems. Relation of
group-theory to physical transactions in such symmetrical systems is dealt with. Studying perturbations
in the stability states in the attractor-maps for transactions, approximate values of the observables are
to be predicted for such systems. Further, Abstraction Theory is typified with respect to studying the
properties of irreducible representations, if any, inside a given such group.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1106.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 1 Aug 2011*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this letter we study two dierent aspects of general covariance,
rst we quantize a reparametrization invariant theory, the free particle in
Minkowski spacetime and point out in detail where this theory fails
(notably these comments appear to be missing in the literature). Second we
study the covariance of quantum eld theory and show how it connects
to causality, the outcome of this study is that QFT is what we shall call
ultra weakly covariant with respect to the background spacetime. Third,
we treat the question of whether evolution in quantum theory (apart from
the measurement act) needs to be unitary, it is easily shown that a
perfectly satisfying probabilistic interpretation exists which does not require
unitary evolution. Fourth, we speculate on some modications quantum
theory should undergo in order for it to be generally covariant. This paper
is primarily written for the student who wishes to study quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1106.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-20 17:20:36*

**Authors:** DJ Pons, AD Pons, AM Pons, AJ Pons

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Pre-print, DOI: http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/0836-1398-25.1.13

There are several integration problems of fundamental physics that still lack coherent solutions, the case in point being wave-particle duality. While empiricism and mathematical modelling have served physics well, they have not yet been able to achieve integrated causal models. Conventional theories and approaches have only provided partial solutions, and it is possible that a more radical reconceptualisation of fundamental physics may be required. This work comes at the issue from a totally different approach: it applies design thinking to the problem. The result is the cordus conjecture, which proposes that the photon, and indeed every matter ‘particle’, has an internal structure comprising a 'cordus': two reactive ends that each behave like a particle, with a fibril joining them. The reactive ends are proposed to be a small finite distance apart, and energised [typically in turn] at a frequency. When energised they emit a transient force pulse along a line called a hyperfine fibril [hyff], and this makes up the field. This concept is used to explain the path dilemmas of the single photon in the double-slit device, and the wave behaviour of light including the formation of fringes by single photons and beams of light. In addition it provides a tangible explanation for frequency. It also yields new quantitative derivations for several basic optical effects: critical angle, Snell’s law, and Brewster’s angle. Thus the cordus structure offers an alternative conceptual explanation for wave-particle duality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1106.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Peter A Jackson

**Comments:** 6 pages

It may seem that we have no more natural intuition about Relativity than we have about quantum mechanics
(QM) yet nature has revealed far more than we yet understand, including in the elements on Earth. Einstein
said; “we don't yet understand 1,000th of 1% of what nature has revealed to us.” But with mathematics
being considered the only language of physics we suggest we are missing and failing to translate important
parts of the language of nature. Intuition can only come with good knowledge and experience, and
assumption is the enemy of knowledge and destroyer of logic. We give an example of a better approach to
empiricism, one of conceptual logic informed by both experience of nature and knowledge of physics theory.
The results support the discrete field model (DFM) of mutually exclusive reference frames, which unifies
Relativity and QM on a united field basis, explaining the constant speed of light for all emitters and observer
frames, removing all the paradox from physics and many of the anomalies from astrophysics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1106.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 16 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 3 pages

Academically, among students, an apparent paradox may arise when one tries to interpret the
second law of thermodynamics within the context of the quantum mechanical wave function collapse.
This is so because a quantum mechanical system suddenly seems to undergo, from a less restrictive
state constructed from a superposition of eigenstates of a given operator, to a more restrictive state:
the collapsed state. This paper is intended to show how this picture turns out to be a misconception
and, albeit brie
y, furtherly discuss the scope of Max Born's probabilistic interpretation within the
second law of thermodynamics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics