Biochemistry

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[30] viXra:1409.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-13 21:45:39

Epigenetic Effects of Cytosine Derivatives Are Caused by Their Tautomers in Hoogsteen Base Pairs

Authors: Denis A. Semyonov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Deoxycitidine in solution exists as two tautomers one of which is an “uncanonical” imino one. The latter can dominate with such derivatives as 5-methyl, 5-hydroxymethyl- and 5-formylcytosine. The imino tautomer potentially is able to form a hoosteen GC base pair. To detect such pair, it is suggested to use 1H15N NMR. Formation of GC-Hoogsteen base pair with imino tautomer of cytosine can be a reason for epigenetic effects of 5-methyl- and , 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.
Category: Biochemistry

[29] viXra:1407.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-07 11:13:40

The Whole Clear Picture of the Discovered Host Immunological Pathways

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.
Category: Biochemistry

[28] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-22 13:06:03

Bugs and Chills: Seasonality and the Effect of Temperature Fluctuations on the Replication and Transmission of Respiratory Viruses

Authors: Patrick D Shaw Stewart
Comments: 46 Pages.

Overdue weight may have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that may have used recycled viral strains that had accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that epidemics of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. Moreover, the seasonality of colds and influenza is unexplained. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs may frequently be underestimated, and that colds and influenza frequently infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Biochemical understanding may have been hindered by the use of laboratory respiratory viruses that were propagated in conditions that reduce temperature sensitivity. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Several mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered.
Category: Biochemistry

[27] viXra:1404.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-13 23:13:17

Gluathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a Extracellular Selenoenzyme Expression Modulates Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 3 Pages.

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.
Category: Biochemistry

[26] viXra:1402.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-14 19:42:43

Are Herbal Remedies Safe for Cancer Treatment?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

There are various herbal medicines for cancer treatment in the market nowadays, therefore it seems worth to discuss their safety and effectiveness.
Category: Biochemistry

[25] viXra:1312.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-30 19:08:02

G6PD, Exon 12 is an Exonic Splicing Silencer Containing/substituted Define Codon Regions Involved in the G6PD MRNA¹

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 5 Pages.

An exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 Using the G6PD model and exon 12, may define Exon 12 an exonic splicing silencer containing other-(exons II, III-IV, V, VI-VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI-XIII)-spliced exons regions and an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12. Using the G6PD model.
Category: Biochemistry

[24] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-17 12:38:06

Bugs and Chills; the Impact of Temperature Shifts on Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D Shaw Stewart
Comments: 45 Pages.

Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer experiments with viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that may have used recycled viral strains that had accidentally lost their temperature-sensitive character. Perhaps for this reason, science has closed its eyes to detailed and clear-cut evidence that epidemics of VRTIs are closely correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. Moreover, the seasonality of colds and influenza is unexplained. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs may frequently be underestimated, and that colds and influenza frequently infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Biochemical analysis may have been hindered by the use of laboratory respiratory viruses that were propagated in conditions that reduce temperature sensitivity. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. I propose here the hypothesis that viruses may locate the upper respiratory tract by its lower temperature, that temperature changes are often used by viruses to synchronize their development at one or more steps in their life cycles, that temperature changes can allow temporary increases in the level of virulence of viruses, and that temperature changes provide a mechanism whereby a subset of susceptible individuals can become infected.
Category: Biochemistry

[23] viXra:1310.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 19:41:09

Are there Alternatives to Dopamine Hypothesis in Order to Explain Schizophrenia?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This paper discusses a number of answers to the question posed in researchgate.net: http://www.researchgate.net/post/Are_there_alternatives_to_dopamine_hypothesis_in_order_to_explain_schizophrenia?. Hopefully the readers will find some clues for further investigation.
Category: Biochemistry

[22] viXra:1309.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 21:30:58

Intra and Interchromosomal Interactions of Point Mutations Occurring in the Vicinity of the Normal 5-and 3 Ends Via Low and High O(2)-Affinities on the Beta-Globin Complex.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages. Includes 4 Figures with description requires the introduction.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.
Category: Biochemistry

[21] viXra:1308.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 20:26:52

The Role of Bioinformatics as Auxilliary Tools for Molecular Biology

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 7 Pages. Proceeding of World-Wide Indonesian Student Association Scientific Writing Olympic. Pp:23-29. (The Ianguage of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is an emerging science, which has an active role in supplementing the field of medicine, agriculture, and environment. The data gathered from the wet experiment was already submitted to on line database. Bioinformatics is a new science, based upon the combination between biology and computer science. It has sucessfully managing those on line database as a source of genome and proteome data. The available genome and proteome database are GenBank from United States, DDBJ from Japan, and EBI from European Union. Molecular biology experiment needs biochemical regent, and they are very expensive. A certain breakthrogh is necessary, to reduce the cost of wet laboratory experiment. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the cost. The task of Bioinformatician is to convert those online data, into a useful biomedics information. It has been applied for drug, vaccine, and PCR primer synthesis. Pharmaceutical industry has utilized bioinformatics tools extensively. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the wet experiment cost. However, bioinformatics could not replace wet experiment totally.
Category: Biochemistry

[20] viXra:1308.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 20:31:16

The Role of Bioinformatics in Protein-Protein Interaction Study

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 9 Pages. 2010. Sigma Journal of Science and Technology Vol: 13. No: 1.p:1-7 . University of Sanata Dharma Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (The language of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is advancing through the protein-protein interaction studies. Its wet experiment has generated a massive amount of data. Bioinformatics was set up for converting those data into useful information. Protein-protein interaction wet experiment was a long and expensive labors. Bioinformatics are here to remedy those labors. Online experimentations at protein-protein interaction database are possible. The available databases are InterPare, ClusPro, and PROTORP. InterPare is an open and public database server for protein interaction interface information. ClusPro is an algorithm for filtering docked protein conformations, and rank them. While PROTORP is a database to calculates a series of physical and chemical parameters of the protein interaction sites that contribute to the binding energy of the association. The online databases are useful tools for aiding the wet laboratory protein-protein interaction experiment.
Category: Biochemistry

[19] viXra:1304.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-11 03:52:39

Analytical Results on Systems Arising in Enzymatic Reactions with Application to Phosphofructokinase Model

Authors: Jean-Paul MORILLON
Comments: 8 Pages.

A reaction-diffusion system based on some biological systems, arising in enzymatic reactions, has been considered. The iterative method by means of a fixed point theorem has been applied in order to solve this system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The existence, uniqueness and positiveness of the solution to system with Robin-type boundary condition have been obtained. A biochemical system has been extended and solved analytically. Quasi-steady states and linear stability analysis have been proved.
Category: Biochemistry

[18] viXra:1303.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 13:30:18

Spectrin Alpha, Erythrocytic 1 Isoform Gata1 Strand B Cdna Containing the ef Hand Domain of P17678 Gata3 and a Heterodimer Assembly Complexed with Transmembrane SCF Neural Cell (Slc4a1) Band 3 Aspect of the Alpha Complex Analogue Spna1.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 2 Pages.

Spectrin alpha, erythrocytic 1 [ Mus musculus ] suggested the following scheme, which supports up or downstream of this site the study of numerous molecular regulating mechanisms the characterize the alpha-chain that mediates the binding of the EF-hand complex SPNA1-protein/P17687.
Category: Biochemistry

[17] viXra:1303.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-05 11:46:11

A Brief History of the Ford Rouge

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages. Source: Green Rouge Factory Tour 2012

Well, you may be wondering what a green roof is? A green roof is a roof that is filled with plants that created vegetation, an inexpensive sewage system which can use heat from the sun to power up energy. A green roof is very urgent efficient. It can insulate the plants while helping vegetate crops. In some corners of green roofs there can be solar panels that also have water inside them for vegetation.
Category: Biochemistry

[16] viXra:1301.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-17 11:04:54

Methods in Treating Acid Reflux

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

A paper on the symptoms of acid reflux as well as a guide to comforting it. This will provide an informative biochemical and organic description on the chemicals that can be used to treat acid reflux disease.
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1301.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-15 12:59:57

A Guide of the Alternatives in Biomedical Research

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a guide to alternatives in biomedical technology as well as biochemistry. This includes using skin cells to replace nervous tissue, using artificial blood cells, and alternatives to stem cell research as well as possibly cures for aids or cancer.
Category: Biochemistry

[14] viXra:1301.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-08 10:46:36

Fluoridation of Water, Good or Bad?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

Water Fluoridation is the process of adding fluoride to public water supplies in order to reduce the possibility of tooth decay. Its use began in 1945, as a study of children and the effects of them drinking fluoride in their water. The experiment remained a success, however the use of fluoride in water didn't increase dramatically until 1994 when a world health committee brought the idea of adding .8ml of fluoride/liter of water. The idea then went to congress and passed. Today, over 400 million houses have fluoride in their water.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1209.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-21 12:08:34

Composition, Structure of Mangroves in Gamui Estuary, Chudamani, Orissa, India

Authors: G. M. Narasimha Rao, P. Prayaga Murty
Comments: 8 Pages.

Mangroves and halophytic vegetation of Chudamani region and Dhamara mouth region of Gamui estuary, Orissa was studied by using the transect with 4x4m quadrate. In each station, 5 transect samples were collected and total samples analyzed for getting relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency of individual species in the studied area. Maximum Important Value Index (IVI) was obtained for the species Suaeda maritima and minimum value for Sonneratia apetala. A total of 11 plant species were reported, out of them 3 were true mangroves species, remaining 8 were halophytes. Along with data on plant populations hydrographical and sediment analysis was gathered to correlate with distribution and abundance of mangrove species. Maximum density was reported Suaeda maritima and minimum density for Prosophis juliflora. Maximum height of forest is only 2 to M 2.5 meters with diameter of plant species is not more than 26cm. Sediment analysis and low input of fresh water may be responsible for degraded mangroves with stunted growth.
Category: Biochemistry

[12] viXra:1209.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-19 12:28:24

A Comparative Study of Physico-Chemical and Biological Analysis of Sewage Water

Authors: Mohit Kumar
Comments: 12 Pages.

When sewage is untreated and is discharged into any water course will be effected severely. Sewage which has many pathogens and is rich in organic matter and high BOD when released into water course the dissolved oxygen of the stream decreases drastically which effects flora and fauna of the stream and also makes the water unfit for any purpose. Visakhapatnam is a city where nearly 18 lakh (384 per km2) (Eenadu, dated on 1st April) people resides. The day – to – day sewage which generates in the city has been collected and treated in the municipal sewage treatment plants at Appugar, Port area, Old town and Mudarsalova. Where Appugar plant holds 25 MLD, Port area plant holds 10 MLD, Old town plant holds 38MLD and Mudarsalova plant holds 13MLD of sewage of Visakhapatnam. The sewage treatment plants are not enough to hold the existing huge volume of sewage that is generated in the city. People and tourists are attracted more towards locations like Lumbini Park, Tenneti Park, Tourists Resorts located along the Beach and make frequent visits to those places. Aim of this study is to estimate physico-chemical and biological parameters of the sewage samples from different sewage disposal points along the coast of Visakhapatnam and to identify that objectionable parameters of the sewage ,which should be minimized before it is being disposed off.
Category: Biochemistry

[11] viXra:1209.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-15 13:56:57

Parasite Stress Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio

Authors: Madhukar Shivajirao Dama
Comments: 18 Pages. This article is accepted for publication in PLOS ONE (August 30, 2012)

In this study, I predict that the global variation of offspring sex ratio might be influenced in part by the level of parasite stress. From an energetic standpoint, higher gestational costs of producing a male offspring could decrease male births in a population with limited resources. This implies that, any factor that limits the parental resources could be expected to favor female offspring production. Human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is believed to be influenced by numerous socioeconomic, biological, and environmental factors. Here, I test a prediction that parasite stress, by virtue of its effects on the general health condition, may limit the parental investment ability and therefore could influence the SRB at the population level. The statistical analysis supports this prediction, and show that the level of parasite stress has a significant inverse relation with population SRB across the world. Further, this relation is many-folds stronger than the association of SRB with other factors, like; polygyny, fertility, latitude, and son-preference. Hence, I propose that condition affecting ability of parasites (but not adaptive significance) could be a likely causal basis for the striking variation of SRB across populations.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1209.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-04 05:55:45

Towards Personalised Drug Ranking in Clinical Decision Support

Authors: David W. Wright, Shunzhou Wan, S. Kashif Sadiq, Stefan J. Zasada, Peter V. Coveney
Comments: 23 Pages.

Many infectious diseases as well as cancers are strongly influenced by molecular level processes. In several cases, the advent of rapid genetic sequencing, already available in the case of HIV, means that patient-specific treatment based on genetic data becomes conceivable. Targeted therapies use drugs to interfere with specific biomacromolecules involved in disease development. Given the complexity of emergent mutations in such biomacromolecules and in the disease itself, clinicians need to resort to decision support software for patient-specific treatment. Incorporating model based molecular level information into such decision support systems offers the potential to substantially enhance personalised drug treatment by providing first principles based ranking of drug efficacy on a specific patient. Patient specific molecular models of targeted macromolecules are constructed and molecular dynamics simulations are used to rank drug binding affinities. Here we present results from clinically relevant protein variants that arise from two distinct pathologies: HIV and lung carcinoma. Our findings demonstrate the potential for molecular simulations to achieve an accurate ranking of drug binding affinities on clinically relevant time scales and represent the first steps towards the eventual goal of providing data derived from patient specific simulation to enhance clinical decision support systems. The approach gives rapid, robust, and accurate computational results and is dependent on an automated workflow for building, simulating and analysing models distributed over petascale computing resources which are comprised of tens to hundreds of thousands of compute cores.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1204.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-03 09:09:40

Seed Treatment Effects on Emergence of Luffa Aegyptiaca

Authors: Glen Gilchrist
Comments: 5 Pages.

Luffa aegyptiaca (Luffa sponge gourd) is increasingly seen as both a source of vegetative nutrition and as a source of the “luffa” used as to exfoliate during bathing. As such, the commercial growing of Luffa aegyptiaca is increasingly being investigated using more intensive farming methods. Two factors traditionally used to promote / speed germination and emergence of vegetable seeds is investigated. It is concluded that temperature pre-treatment of the seeds (-12°C,24 hours) yields a p=0.004 significance in promoting emergence, whilst pre soaking (water, 18°C, 24hrs) yields p=0.821
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1110.0058 [pdf] submitted on 19 Oct 2011

What is Life?

Authors: Minas Sakellakis
Comments: 6 pages

This article deals with the phenomenon of life,and shows how can a different approach change all that we know about it.Making the simpliest and most objective assumption that the difference between earth and other planets is just that there is a huge number of chemical reactions near the surface of earth(even a stone travelling in the universe can admitt that, because life means nothing for the stone).These chemical reactions , although partially(organism per organism) they seem to have self sustaining and self organizing properties that violate the laws of thermodynamics,when they are seen as a whole, they seem to be more random ,and not violating the laws of thermodynamics.This is very difficult for a person to realize(especially if you are living in big cities), because we see things from inside the whole system, and so it is very difficult to judje objectively what is life.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1105.0025 [pdf] submitted on 16 May 2011

Proteins and Genes, Singletons and Species

Authors: Branko Kozulic
Comments: 41 pages

Recent experimental data from proteomics and genomics are interpreted here in ways that challenge the predominant viewpoint in biology according to which the four evolutionary processes, including mutation, recombination, natural selection and genetic drift, are sufficient to explain the origination of species. The predominant viewpoint appears incompatible with the finding that the sequenced genome of each species contains hundreds, or even thousands, of unique genes - the genes that are not shared with any other species. These unique genes and proteins, singletons, define the very character of every species. Moreover, the distribution of protein families from the sequenced genomes indicates that the complexity of genomes grows in a manner different from that of self-organizing networks: the dominance of singletons leads to the conclusion that in living organisms a most unlikely phenomenon can be the most common one. In order to provide proper rationale for these conclusions related to the singletons, the paper first treats the frequency of functional proteins among random sequences, followed by a discussion on the protein structure space, and it ends by questioning the idea that protein domains represent conserved units of evolution.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1011.0014 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2010

Identity Charge and the Origin of Life

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 pages

"Identity" charge (also known as "number" charge) is the fundamental charge of the weak force and the most important of the particle charges. Identity charge is the symmetry debt of light's anonymity, or complete lack of identity. One photon cannot be distinguished from another, but the elementary leptonic particles are distinct from photons and from each other, and hence carry identity charges. Neutrinos are the explicit or "bare" form of identity charge, which is also carried in a "hidden" or implicit form by the massive leptonic elementary particles - electrons and their heavier kin. Single elementary particles cannot enter or leave the 4-dimensional realm of manifest reality without a conserving identity charge - the functional equivalent of a human "soul" or a citizen's passport. The utility of identity charge (in terms of symmetry conservation) is to facilitate particle-antiparticle annihilations by helping particles identify their appropriate "anti-mates" in a timely fashion - ensuring a conserved pathway for elementary particles returning to their original state of symmetry (light). For more on the function of identity charge see: "Identity Charge and the Weak Force", and "The Origin of Matter and Information".
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Oct 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] submitted on 13 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:0911.0026 [pdf] submitted on 9 Nov 2009

Origin of Life: Newton, Darwin, and the Abundance of Life in the Universe

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 3 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Two giants of British science, Newton and Darwin, developed theories of negentropic force in physics and biology. The two scientists are adjacently interred in Westminster Abby, and their theories of gravity and evolution likewise share common ground and a fractal resonance with DNA. Because DNA/RNA is both a replicating molecule and part of the universal 4x3 fractal pattern, the implications for the abundance of life in the Cosmos are enormous.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:0910.0056 [pdf] submitted on 28 Oct 2009

Theory of Originating Protolife on the Earth

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 2 pages

This theory concerns to systems, which one yet not living, but already and not dead. The solution of a problem of an origin of life lies through a solution of a problem of a genesis protolife, being a link between the living and not living nature.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:0907.0028 [pdf] submitted on 22 Jul 2009

Evolution of a Replicating Protocell

Authors: Terrance Cameron Stewart
Comments: 18 pages. e-mail: TC_STEWART20 (at) YAHOO (dot) COM

This model proposes a minimally constructed replicating protocell that exploits only a positive, a negative and a neutral amino acid to build membranes, genes and ion channels. This transition from chemical to biological evolution would result from a charged peptide that can function as a template to fuse peptide fragments, and act as a membrane gate. The nucleic genetic code may have originated as a single base codon that recognized three types of amino acid residue. A two base codon with three base types could code for nine types of residue. An increase to four base types would produce 16 residue possibilities. The modern code now utilizes a three base codon and four base types to yield 20 types of amino acid. tRNA synthetases and the genetic code appear to be linked together by mutual evolution. The evolving transition to a nucleic code would support a greater variety of amino acids and proteins, and thus complete the creation of life.
Category: Biochemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[11] viXra:1407.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-08 01:58:49

The Whole Clear Picture of the Discovered Host Immunological Pathways

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 7 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 21:10:35

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 47 Pages.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1404.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-04 15:47:54

Gluathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a Extracellular Selenoenzyme Expression Modulates Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 3 Pages. Corrected syntax in several sentences to translate the subject adequately into English by the addition of several requisite words in relation to or dependent on the phrase, and changed an image (figure 4).

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-28 15:48:51

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 40 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Abstract Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost rapidly in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost some of their natural temperature-sensitivity. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-28 13:30:52

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 38 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-10 14:02:39

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 38 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 21:33:04

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 47 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1309.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-13 00:31:00

Intra and Interchromosomal Interactions of Point Mutations Occurring in the Vicinity of the Normal 5-and 3 Ends Via Low and High O(2)-Affinities on the Beta-Globin Complex.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages. 5 cartoons with description required the article fis a retrospective report.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] replaced on 10 Nov 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] replaced on 28 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] replaced on 23 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry