Biochemistry

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[117] viXra:1611.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 03:58:02

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions, and Genotypic Pattern of Biofield Treated Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine such as biofield energy therapies are highly popular in biomedical health care. The study evaluates the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to evaluate its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Methods: P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to biofield treatment and analyzed for antibiogram, biochemical reactions, and biotype number using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system on day 10. The treated sample was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship, the epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics. Results: Data showed altered sensitivity pattern in antibiotic cefotaxime from intermediate to decreased β-lactamases activity, with four-fold decreased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), i.e. 32 to ≤8 µg/mL as compared to control. Similarly, cefotetan and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL-b Scrn) showed decrease in MIC values as compared to the control group. Nitrate reported for negative biochemical reaction i.e. positive (+) to negative (-) after biofield treatment on P. aeruginosa. The biotyping showed a change in biotype number (02063722) as compared to the control (02063726), without altering the microorganism. RAPD analysis showed an average range of 30 to 50% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA sequencing analyzed treated sample as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GenBank Accession Number: EU090892) with 99% identity of gene sequencing data. Conclusion: These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment on P. aeruginosa has an impact to alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and MIC values, thus it can be used as an alternate integrative approach of energy medicine in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[116] viXra:1610.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 06:22:29

Cystic Fibrosis: Computing the World's First Cure for a Genetic Disease

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 80 Pages.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects millions of people worldwide. In this book we discuss both the technical and non-technical reasons science has been unable to find cures for inherited diseases such as CF, despite the exponential increase in knowledge of disease mechanisms we currently witness. New directions in scientific research and protocols are suggested that may help bring about actual cures for genetic diseases through medicinal gene therapy. A new computational approach, called the omega algorithm, is developed, implemented and applied to find compounds that could potentially correct the delta F508 mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis. Links to downloadable files, including an extensive chemical reaction database, are given in an appendix to assist the reader with their own further studies. All computer code in the book is written in the Mathematica language.
Category: Biochemistry

[115] viXra:1610.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 23:59:46

Evaluation of Biochemical Marker Glutathione and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Oryza Sativa

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Food production needs to increase to satisfy the demand due to increasing human population worldwide. To minimize this food crisis, an increase in the rice production is necessary in many countries. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on rice (Oryza sativa) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in seedling and mature plants, indole acetic acid (IAA) content in shoots and roots and DNA polymorphism by random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD). The sample of O. sativa cv, 644 was divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi for biofield energy treatment and denoted as treated sample. The growth-germination of O. sativa seedling data exhibited that the biofield treated seeds was germinated faster on day 3 as compared to control (on day 5). The shoot and root length of seedling was slightly increased in the treated seeds of 10 days old with respect to untreated seeds. Moreover, the plant antioxidant i.e. GSH content in seedling and in mature plants was significantly increased by 639.26% and 56.24%, respectively as compared to untreated sample. Additionally, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA level in root and shoot was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 106.90% and 20.35%, respectively with respect to control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD, revealed that the treated sample showed an average range of 5 to 46% of DNA polymorphism as compared to control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on rice seeds showed a significant improvement in germination, growth of roots and shoots, GSH and IAA content in the treated sample. In conclusion, the treatment of biofield energy on rice seeds could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of rice.
Category: Biochemistry

[114] viXra:1609.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 23:33:55

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Antimicrobials Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Baumannii an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Global emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions and biotype number of A. baumannii. A. baumannii cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 19606) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two parts i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived) analyzed on day 5 and 10, respectively; likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized) and was assessed on day 10. Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield and were analyzed for its antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC value, biochemical reactions and biotype number with respect to control. Experimental results showed the impact of biofield treatment directly onto the revived and lyophilized form of A. baumannii and found alteration both in qualitative and quantitative aspect as compared with untreated groups. These results showed altered sensitivity pattern of antimicrobials in biofield treated group as compared to control. Apart from altered MIC values, changes were also observed in biotype number of revived treated group as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to A. baumannii.
Category: Biochemistry

[113] viXra:1609.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 23:35:08

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Proteus Mirabilis: Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is widespread in nature, mainly found in soil, water, and the flora of human gastrointestinal tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effects of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on P. mirabilis both in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical characteristics, and biotype. P. mirabilis cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA, in a sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25933) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol until needed for experiments. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. The ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, the ATCC B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The result of antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 6.67% and 9.38% alteration, respectively in treated cells of P. mirabilis as compared to the control. In addition, the overall biochemical reactions were significantly altered (42.42%) in the treated groups with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in the treated cells, Gr. II, day 5 (40061546) and day 10 (77365764), while without alteration of organism as compared to the control (40061544; Proteus mirabilis). The results suggested that biofield treatment has an impact on P. mirabilis in revived state predominately.
Category: Biochemistry

[112] viXra:1609.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 02:24:59

In Vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Sensitivity Assay of Biofield Energy Treated Fungi

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Fungi are the group of eukaryotic organisms such as yeast, mold, and mushrooms. The present work investigated the impact of biofield treatment on different pathogenic species of fungi in relation to antifungal sensitivity pattern. Each fungal sample was divided into three parts: C, control; T1, treatment (revived); T2 treatment (lyophilized). Treatment groups received the biofield treatment, and control group was remained as untreated. Mini-API ID32C strip employed for evaluation of antifungal sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results showed that sensitivity of Candida albicans in T1 cells was changed against itraconazole from intermediate (I) to resistance (R) on day 10. The Candida kefyr exhibited a change in susceptibility against itraconazole in T2 cell from S→I, on day 10. Likewise, Candida krusei showed the alterations in sensitivity against two antifungal drugs: fluconazole from S→I (T1 on day 10) and itraconazole S→I (T1 and T2 on all assessment days). The Cryptococcus neoformans changed from S→I in T1 cell on day 5 and 10, against itraconazole. Sensitivity of Candida tropicalis was also altered from I→R against flucytosine (T1 and T2, on all assessment days). Similarly, Saccharomyces cerevisae altered from S→I (T1) and S→R (T2) on day 10. The MIC values of antifungal drugs were altered in the range of 2-8 folds, as compared to the control. Fungal identification data showed the significant changes in species similarity of few tested fungi as C. albicans changed from 91.9% to 98.5 and 99.9% in T1 and T2 cells, respectively on day 10. C. krusei was changed from 97.9% to 85.9% (T2 day 10), and C. tropicalis was altered from 88.7% to 99.6% (T1 day 5) and 99.0% (T2). These findings suggest that biofield treatment could be applied to alter the susceptibility pattern of antifungal drug therapy in future.
Category: Biochemistry

[111] viXra:1609.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 07:36:35

Worlds in Collision and the Origin of Life

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 8 Pages. Published in: Proceedings of the Conference "On the Origin of Life", 7 August 2015, London, United Kingdom

Earth and Moon were formed 4.6 billion years ago by the collision of the two protoplanets Gaia and Theia. Afterwards the Earth formed a crust where colliding comets provided the water of the oceans. This Hadean Eon was terminated 3.9 billion years ago during the Late Heavy Bombardment when an eccentric orbit of Jupiter caused a bombardment of the Earth by asteroids. Soon thereafter, 3.8 billion years ago, there is geochemical evidence of terrestrial life which performed photosynthesis. The terrestrial life witnessed and survived several cataclysms including the snowball Earth 760 to 580 million years ago, an ice age 440 million years ago which was possibly caused by a gamma-ray burst, and an asteroid impact 65 million years ago which generated the Chicxulub crater and contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs. The 1908 Tunguska explosion was caused by a small stony asteroid. Amino acids, purines, pyrimidines and sugars, but no proteins, nucleotides or extraterrestrial unicellular organisms were detected in meteorites. This argues against the hypothesis of panspermia. The synthesis of amino acids, small peptides, purines and pyrimidine ribonucleotides under conditions of the primitive Earth (Stanley Miller experiments) and the polymerization of RNA nucleotides on clay minerals suggests that viroids and an RNA world could have existed during the Hadean Eon.
Category: Biochemistry

[110] viXra:1609.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:36:31

Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Pseudomonas Fluorescens After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Global emergence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Due to its strong ability to acquire resistance, there is a need of some alternative treatment strategy. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of P. fluorescens. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two groups (Gr) i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr.II and III were given biofield treatment and were measured by MicroScan Walk-Away® system before and after treatment. Parameters studied in experiment were antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number of both control and treatment groups using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Experimental results showed antimicrobials such as cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tetracycline, and tobramycin showed altered sensitivity and MIC values in treated group as compared to control. Biochemical reactions showed positive reaction in malonate, melibiose, nitrate, galactosidase, ornithine, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, tobramycin and Voges-Proskauer in Gr.II. Arabinose, colistin, glucose, and rhaminose also showed positive reactions in Gr.II on day 10 while arginine and cetrimide showed negative reaction in Gr.III as compared to control. Biochemical tests results revealed a change in biotype number in Gr.II (34101173, day 5), (77103177, a very rare biotype on day 10) and Gr.III (40000043) as compared to control (02041722). Organism was identified as Enterobacter cloacae (GrII, day 10) and Vibrio fluvialis (Gr.III, day 10) with respect to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment made significant alteration in sensitivity pattern, MIC values, and biotype number of P. fluorescens.
Category: Biochemistry

[109] viXra:1609.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:37:48

An Effect of Biofield Treatment on Multidrug-resistant Burkholderia Cepacia: A Multihost Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) is an opportunistic, Gram negative pathogen which causes infection mainly in immunocompromised population and associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant B. cepacia. Clinical sample of B. cepacia was divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. The analysis was done after 10 days of treatment and compared with control group. Control and treated group were analyzed for susceptibility pattern, MIC value, biochemical studies and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system.Sensitivity assay results showed a change in pattern from resistant to intermediate in aztreonam, intermediate to resistant in ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and levofloxacin while sensitive to resistant in meropenem and piperacillin/ tazobactam.The biofield treatment showed an alteration in MIC values of aztreonam, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and tetracycline. Biochemical reactions of treated group showed negative reaction in colistin, lysine, and ornithine while positive reactions to acetamide,arginine, and malonate as compared to control. Overall results showed an alteration of 38.9% in susceptibility pattern, 30% in MIC values of tested antimicrobials and 18.2% change in biochemical reaction after biofield treatment. A significant change in biotype number (02063736) was reported with green pigment as special characteristics after biofield treatment as compared to control (05041776) group with yellow pigment. In treated group, a new species was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as compared to control. Study findings suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect on the phenotypic character and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of B. cepacia.
Category: Biochemistry

[108] viXra:1609.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:39:13

Evaluation of Biofield Modality on Viral Load of Hepatitis B and C Viruses

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Study background: Nowadays, hepatitis is a major challenge for clinical research, regulatory bodies, and clinicians who are trying to assess the more effectiveness of antiviral therapy against patients. Viral load count is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of hepatitis. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield modality on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in terms of viral load as surrogate marker. Method: The viral load assay was performed on stock human plasma samples of HBV and HCV before and after 7 days of biofield treatment using Roche COBAS® AMPLICOR analyzer according to manufacturer’s instructions. Viremia (viral DNA for HBV, RNA for HCV) was considered as surrogate marker for assessment of the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Result: The viral load of HBV DNA in infected plasma samples showed a significant alteration in the biofield treated group as compared to control. Additionally, viral load count of HCV RNA in infected plasma samples was significantly reduced by 67% in the biofield treated group as compared to control. As the biofield treatment has significantly reduced HCV RNA, it could be beneficial for particularly HCV infected populations. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly alteration in HBV and reduced the viral load count in HCV infected plasma samples and could be a suitable alternative treatment strategy for hepatitis patients in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[107] viXra:1609.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:40:30

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Yield, Quality and Control of Nematode in Carrots

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of biofield treatment when used for control of nematode on carrot crops, Daucus carota , under typical growing conditions in year 2012 at Guadalupe, California, USA. Following biofield treatment, carrot seeds were planted in replicate plots with mechanical seeder and their development was recorded compared to control seed growth from untreated plots and plots treated with the commercial standard nematicide, further Vydate L was applied three times at rates of 1 and 0.5 gal/A, at 1, 18 and 35 days after seeding, respectively. At 70 and 109 days after the first application root galling severity in biofield treated crops was reduced by 54% and 22% respectively as compared to untreated while the Vydate response showed 0% and 25% control, respectively. Plots planted with biofield treated seeds resulted in the greatest number and weight of marketable carrot roots. Total yield and gross return were greatest in biofield treated group producing an approximately 33% increase over the untreated controls and 15% increase over those treated with the commercial standard, Vydate L. Vitamin A (beta carotene) was significantly greater (6512 IU/100 g) in biofield treated carrots compared with both the untreated controls (4941) and the commercial standard (5143). The results concluded that, Biofield treatment caused the numerical improvement in yield along with nematode control in carrots however, caused statistically significant increase in Vitamin A content.
Category: Biochemistry

[106] viXra:1609.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:09:49

Impact of an External Energy on Yersinia Enterocolitica [atcc "23715] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions: an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC -23715], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Yersinia enterocolitica strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi's energy has changed 20 of 33 biochemical characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 15 of 32 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through an automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi's energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Category: Biochemistry

[105] viXra:1609.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:26:28

Impact of an External Energy on Enterococcus Faecalis [atcc – 51299] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions – an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 14 Pages.

Background: While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC –51299], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Enterococcus faecalis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain, the process taking about 3 minutes and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. All tests were performed with the help of automation on the Microscan Walkaway System in Microbiology Laboratory – accredited by The College of American Pathologists. Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi’s energy has changed 9 of 27 biochemical characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 5 of 31 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through the automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi’s energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Category: Biochemistry

[104] viXra:1609.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:12:07

Effect of a Biofield Treatment on Plant Growth and Adaptation (Benth.)

Authors: Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Science
Comments: 9 Pages.

Quantum mechanics was developed when human energies of consciousness were found to influence observations at the scale of elementary particles, here referred as non-contact biofield treatment or biofield energies . Quantum mechanics has also proved efficacious in biological processes. The present experiments found an enhanced and significant impact of the biofield treatment on adaptive micropropagation response and callus induction of two plant species, Withania somnifera and Amaranthus dubius. The enhancement was perhaps due to greater focus on adaptation rather than specific mechanisms, showing high potential including at biochemical and genetic levels. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed and a possible model is presented, consistent with current scientific theory.
Category: Biochemistry

[103] viXra:1609.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:16:55

Impact of an External Energy on Staphylococcus Epidermis [atcc –13518] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions – an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 10 Pages.

While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiment on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC –13518], validate the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner.
Category: Biochemistry

[102] viXra:1609.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:52:25

Biofield and Fungicide Seed Treatment Influences on Soybean Productivity, Seed Quality and Weed Community

Authors: Trivedi Science
Comments: 6 Pages.

Soybean production in Iowa USA is among the most productive for raínfed regions in the world. Despite generally having excellent soils, growing season temperatures and rainfall, soybean yields are decreased by weed interference and inadequate available soil water at key stages of crop development. A field study was conducted at two locations in lowa in 2012 to determine if seed-applied fungicide or biofield treatments influenced weed community, soil volumetric water concentration and soybean yield and quality. Application of biofield treatment resulted in lower density of tall waterhemp density, greater soybean stand density at R8 stage and greater seed pod-1 compared to the absence of seed fungicide and biofield­ Soil volumetric water content varied by seed fungicide x biofield x date interaction but differences were not consistent among treatment combinations. Overall, seed fungicide and biofield treatments had similar effects on soybean productivity, however additional research is necessary to determine if biofield treatment is a suitable replacement for seed fungicide application.
Category: Biochemistry

[101] viXra:1609.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:56:55

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Ginseng and Organic Blueberry Yield

Authors: Frank Sances, Eric Flora, Shrikant Patil, Amy Spence, Vishal Shinde, Mahendra Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of BioField Energy applied to two separate crops under typical growing conditions, namely ginseng and organic blueberry in commercial plantings in Wisconsin and California, respectively. Following treatment to replicated plots in standard experimental design, data were collected at harvest for yield quantity and quality. Ginseng plants treated both pre-harvest and a combination of pre- and post-harvest showed market grade increases of 33.3% and 40.0%, respectively. Point of sale gross return for this crop is dependent upon tuber quality, and from these data the economics of these treatments were calculated. Based on stand adjusted yields and quality values, a combination of pre- and post-harvest treatment increased gross income by 57.4%. The second crop showed similar trends in positive responses. In the two blueberry varieties studied, Emerald treated plants showed 96% statistical increase in yield, while Jewel showed 31% increase. At the time of treatment, each variety was in a different stage of flowering. The Emerald variety was in the flowering stage, and Jewel was predominately in the fruiting stage. Both treated cultivars however demonstrated increased yield quantity and quality. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results need further investigation.
Category: Biochemistry

[100] viXra:1609.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 05:05:15

Effect of Biofield Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Aluminium Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Aluminium powders are used in a wide range from propelling rockets to improving personal hygiene. More popular industrial applications include manufacture of silver metallic pigments, paints, inks, plastics, packaging, textiles and aerospace industry. As thick film pastes used in the manufacture of silicon solar cells, and as reducing agent and sources of heat, used in alumina thermic and exothermic applications. In the present investigation, Aluminium powders were exposed to non-contact Biofield treatment. Both the exposed and unexposed powders were later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after a slight initial decrease was found to increase after 80 days of treatment substantially, which suggested the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering (micro welding). The BET surface area monotonically decreased which was consistent with increase in particle size. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to Biofield after 38 days showed growth in particle size and particles joined at inter and intra particle boundaries. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume, change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom and atomic weight of samples exposed to Biofield even after 106 days. These results indicated that properties of Aluminium powders could be changed even up to atomic level by exposure to Biofield.
Category: Biochemistry

[99] viXra:1609.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 05:22:30

Biofield Treatment: An Effective Strategy for Modulating the Physical and Thermal Properties of O-Nitrophenol, M-Nitrophenol and P-Tertiary Butyl Phenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Phenolic compounds are commonly used for diverse applications such as in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, rubber, dyes and pigments. The objective of present research was to study the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of phenol derivatives such as o-nitrophenol (ONP), m-nitrophenol (MNP) and p-tertiary butyl phenol (TBP). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control and treated compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface area analysis. XRD analysis showed increase in crystallite size by 16.05% in treated ONP as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed decrease in crystallite size by 16.17% as compared to control. The treated TBP showed increase in crystallite size by 5.20% as compared to control. DSC of treated MNP exhibited increase in melting temperature with respect to control, which may be correlated to higher thermal stability of treated sample. However, the treated TBP exhibited no significant change in melting temperature with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated ONP and TBP showed an increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed slight decrease in Tmax in comparison with control sample. Surface area analysis of treated ONP showed decrease in surface area by 65.5%. However, surface area was increased by 40.7% in treated MNP as compared to control. These results suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect on physical and thermal properties of ONP, MNP and TBP.
Category: Biochemistry

[98] viXra:1609.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 04:43:35

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Biochemical Characteristics of Staphylococcus Aureus: Impact of Bio Field Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells were analysed for its antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration value, biochemical reactions and biotype number with respect to control (Gr. I). Results: The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration of S. aureus showed significant (86.67%) alteration in lyophilized cells while no alteration was found in revived treated cells as compared to control. It was observed that overall 37.93% (eleven out of twenty nine) biochemical reactions were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were substantially changed in revived treated cells, Gr. II (303137, Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ureolyticus) on day 5 and in lyophilized treated cells, Gr. III (767177, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum) on day 10 as compared to control (307016, S. aureus). Conclusion: The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. aureus in lyophilized treated cells with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC values and biochemical reactions pattern. Apart from these, biotype numbers with new species were observed in revived treated group on day 5 as Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ureolyticus and in lyophilized cells as Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum with respect to control, i.e., S. aureus.
Category: Biochemistry

[97] viXra:1609.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 23:45:15

Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Silver is widely utilized as antimicrobial agent and wound dressing, where its shape, size, surface area, and surface charge play an important role. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physicochemical and atomic properties of silver powder. The silver powder was divided into two groups, coded as control and treatment. The treatment group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated samples were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface area analyser. Particle size data exhibited that particle sizes d10, d50, d90, and d99 (Size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particle are present, respectively) of treated silver powder were substantially reduced up to 95.8, 89.9, 83.2, and 79.0% on day 84 as compared to control. XRD results showed that lattice parameter, unit cell volume, and atomic weight were reduced, whereas density and nuclear charge per unit volume were found to be increased as compared to control. In addition, the crystallite size was significantly reduced up to 70% after biofield treatment on day 105 as compared to control. Furthermore, the surface area of treated silver powder was substantially enhanced by 49.41% on day 68 as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the atomic and physicochemical properties which could make silver more useful in antimicrobial applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[96] viXra:1609.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 02:53:24

Extraterrestrial Microfossils in Meteorites and the Panspermia Hypothesis

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 3 Pages. published in: Proceedings of the Conference "On the Origin of Life", London, United Kingdom, 7 August 2015

I review the experiments by Stanley Miller and Sidney Fox on the production of amino acids and unicellular forms under primitive terrestrial atmosphere conditions. I continue with a review of the evidence for and against unicellular organisms in the Orgueil meteorite and the ALH84001 martian meteorite. I conclude that the evidence argues against the panspermia hypothesis of Fred Hoyle and Nalin Chandra Wickramasinghe.
Category: Biochemistry

[95] viXra:1609.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 04:11:29

Molecular Analysis of Biofield Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Eggplant and watermelon, as one of the important vegetative crops have grown worldwide. The aim of the present study was to analyze the overall growth of the two inbreed crops varieties after the biofield energy treatment. The plots were selected for the study, and divided into two parts, control and treated. The control plots were left as untreated, while the treated plots were exposed with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Both the crops were cultivated in different fields and were analyzed for the growth contributing parameters as compared with their respective control. To study the genetic variability in both plants after biofield energy treatment, DNA fingerprinting was performed using RAPD method. The eggplants were reported to have uniform colored, glossy, and greener leaves, which are bigger in size. The canopy of the eggplant was larger with early fruiting, while the fruits have uniform shape and the texture as compared with the control. However, the watermelon plants after the biofield treatment showed higher survival rate, with larger canopy, bright and dark green leaves compared with the untreated plants. The percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and treated samples of eggplant and watermelon seed samples were an average value of 18% and 17%, respectively. Overall, the data suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the ability to alter the plant growth rate, and can be utilized in better way as compared with the existing agricultural crop improvement techniques to improve the overall crop yield.
Category: Biochemistry

[94] viXra:1609.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 23:37:05

Assessment of Antibiogram of Biofield Energy Treated Serratia Marcescens

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has become an important nosocomial pathogens and increased resistant isolates were reported. The current study evaluates the impact of an alternate energy medicine i.e. Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on S. marcescens for changes in sensitivity pattern of antimicrobial, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. S. marcescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 13880) number and divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two sub-groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 159 (Study I). After retreatment on day 159, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes as first, second and third tube, which were analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using the automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that 42.85% of tested antimicrobials results in altered sensitivity pattern, while decreased minimum inhibitory concentration values in 40.62% tested antimicrobials as compared to the control after biofield treatment on S. marcescens. The biochemical study showed that 12 out of 33 tested biochemicals (36.36%) were reported for alteration of biochemical reactions pattern as compared to the control. Biotype study showed an alteration in biotype number in all the experimental treated groups as compared to the control. These results suggested that biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on S. marcescens. Overall, it is expected that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment as an integrative medicine could be better therapy approach in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[93] viXra:1609.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 04:36:55

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Chlorophyll Content, Pathological Study, and Molecular Analysis of Cashew Plant (Anacardium Occidentale L.)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

In the world scenario, India occupies a premier position contributing to about 43 per cent production of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) along with export and processing. The aim is to study the impact of biofield energy treatment on selected farms for cashew farming. The control and biofield treated farms were divided as control and treated farms, and Mr. Trivedi provided the biofield energy treatment to the treated farms. Further, the plants and fruits were analyzed for overall growth of plants, chlorophyll content, productivity, pathological study, and shelf life using UN specifications for International Trade, biophoton emission study, and DNA fingerprinting using RAPD method. No chemicals, fertilizers, were used on the treated plot, although regular practices were followed on control farms such as fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides due to the high incidence of disease and the requirement of nutritional supplements in the region. The analysis showed that biofield treated farm plants have thicker and stronger branches with more secondary and tertiary branches, flowering pattern, and canopy of plants was improved than trees of the same variety along with height of the plants, as compared with the control. The results showed that chlorophyll a and b content in biofield treated lands plants were increased by approximately 30% and 93% respectively, while total chlorophyll content by 45% as compared with the control. The pathological examination showed the presence of fungi namely Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae in control, which were absent in treated plants. Biophoton study suggested that the cashew fruits were bigger in size with high density, strength, and vitality as compared with the control. The shelf life analysis reflected that the biofield treated cashews showed sweet taste, and can be stored for longer duration due to less moisture, and altered minerals content, such as high iodine, and low p-anisidine level. RAPD analysis showed a high level of polymorphism among control and treated samples, while level of true polymorphism among V4 variety of cashew was ranges from 0 to 100%, and in V7 variety, it ranged from 25 to 91% using different set of RAPD primers. Overall, study results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on land planted with cashew could be an alternative approach to improve the overall growth of plant, and fruit yield.
Category: Biochemistry

[92] viXra:1609.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:36:43

Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Delivery of Calendula Officinalis Extract

Authors: 6L. Arana, C. Salado, S. Vega, O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, I. de la Arada, T. Suarez, A. Usobiaga, J.R. Arrondo, A. Alonso, FM Goni, Et Al
Comments: 9 Pages.

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidicacid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxy-cholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems wereprepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy,differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal prop-erties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acidand taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, anatural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and woundrepairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loadingcapacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loadedSLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD.Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery sys-tem which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms andimproving epithelium repair in ocular surface.
Category: Biochemistry

[91] viXra:1609.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:38:35

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System: Future Therapeutic Strategies

Authors: O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, I. Elezgarai, I. Rico-Barrio, I. Zarandona, N. Etxebarria, A. Usobiaga
Comments: 6 Pages.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in many physiological regulation pathways in the human body, which makes this system the target of many drugs and therapies. In this review, we highlight the latest studies regarding the role of the ECS and the drugs that target it, with a particular focus on the basis for the discovery of new cannabinoid-based drugs. In addition, we propose some key steps, such as the creation of a cannabinoid–receptor interaction matrix (CRIM) and the use of metabolomics, toward the development of improved and more specific drugs for each relevant disease.
Category: Biochemistry

[90] viXra:1609.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 01:25:23

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Calcium Carbonate Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is widely used in pharmaceutical industries and as a supplement in probiotics. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the CaCO3. The CaCO3 powder was divided into two parts and referred as control and treated. The control part was remained untreated, whereas treated part was subjected to Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and biofield treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).
Category: Biochemistry

[89] viXra:1608.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 00:43:48

Morphological and Molecular Analysis Using RAPD in Biofield Treated Sponge and Bitter Gourd

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Plants are known to have sense and ca respond to touch, electric and magnetic field. The present study was designed on the sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds with respect to biofield energy treatment. The seeds of each crop were divided into two groups, one was kept control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’ biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. To study the genetic variability after biofield energy treatment, both the seeds were analyzed for DNA fingerprinting using RAPD method. After germination, the plants of sponge gourd were reported to have uniform colored leaves and strong stem. The leaves and fruits of sponge gourd showed no infection, with anti-gravity properties during early stage of fruiting as compared with the control group. Similarly, treated bitter gourd showed uniform color of leaves, strong stem, with disease free fruits in biofield treated seeds as compared with the control. The true polymorphism (%) observed between control and treated samples of sponge and bottle gourd seed sample was an average value of 7.8% and 66% respectively. In conclusion, Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the ability to alter the plant growth rate that may by interacting with plant genome, which resulted in high yield of crops.
Category: Biochemistry

[88] viXra:1608.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 02:02:10

Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) has numerous biological and pharmaceutical applications. Hank buffer salt (HBS) has been used as a medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was aimed to investigate the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of the PBS and HBS. The study was executed in two group’s i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as control and treated group had received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis indicated the increase in crystallite size by 5.20% in treated PBS as compared to the control. Similarly, the treated HBS also showed increase in crystallite size by 3.20% with respect to the control. Additionally, the treated PBS showed an increase in Bragg’s angle (2θ) as compared to the control sample. However, a decrease in Bragg’s angle of XRD peaks of the treated sample was noticed in the treated HBS. The DSC analysis of the control PBS showed melting temperature at 224.84°C; however melting temperature was not observed in the treated sample. However, DSC analysis of the treated HBS showed an increase in melting temperature (152.83°C) in comparison with the control (150.60°C). Additionally, the latent heat of fusion of the treated HBS was increased substantially by 108.83% as compared to the control. The TGA thermogram of the treated PBS showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (212°C) as compared to the control (199°C). Whereas, the treated HBS showed less weight loss comparing with the control sample. This indicated the increase in thermal stability of the both the treated PBS and HBS samples. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of treated PBS showed alterations in the frequency of the functional groups such as O-H, C-H, P=O, O=P-OH, and P-OH as compared to the control. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated HBS showed increase in frequency of calcium chloride phase (1444→1448 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. Altogether, it was observed that biofield energy treatment had caused physical, thermal and spectral changes in the treated samples as compared to the control. It is assumed that biofield energy treated PBS and HBS could be a good prospect for biological and tissue culture applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[87] viXra:1608.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 23:31:27

Morphological Characterization, Quality, Yield and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Alphonso Mango(mangifera Indica L.)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.
Category: Biochemistry

[86] viXra:1608.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:28:57

Evaluation of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Selenium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, and its deficiency in the humans leads to increase the risk of various diseases, such as cancer and heart diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of the selenium powder. The selenium powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treated. The Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Both control and treated selenium samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis – differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD data showed that biofield energy treatment has slightly altered the lattice parameter (0.07%), unit cell volume (0.15%), density (-0.14%), atomic weight (0.15%), and nuclear charge per unit volume (-0.21%) in the treated selenium powder as compared to the control. The crystallite size of the treated selenium powder was reduced considerably from 106.98 nm (control) to 47.55 nm. The thermal analysis study showed that the latent heat of fusion was 64.61 J/g in the control, which changed to 68.98, 52.70, 49.71 and 72.47 J/g in the treated T1, T2, T3, and T4 samples respectively. However, the melting temperature did not show any considerable change in the treated selenium samples as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectra showed the absorption peak at 526 and 461 cm-1, which corresponding to metal oxide bonding vibration in the control and treated selenium powder respectively. Hence, overall data suggest that, the biofield energy treatment considerably altered the physical and thermal properties of selenium powder. Therefore, biofield energy treatment could make selenium even more useful nutrient in human body.
Category: Biochemistry

[85] viXra:1608.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:30:26

Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatment, and were plotted in the separate fields. The plot with untreated seeds were provided with all the precautionary measures such as pesticides, fungicides and organic additives, while no such measures were taken in the plot with treated seeds. Both group of crops were further analyzed and compared for growth, yield, and yield attributes. Further, the effect of biofield treatment was also evaluated on horse gram using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics. The results suggest that the percentage increase in yield was maximum in mustard (500%), followed by horse gram (105%), cow pea (52%), and groundnut (44%) as compared with their control. However, improved plant height, overall growth, yield of seeds, plants were free from any diseases and pest were observed in treated group as compared with its respective control. RAPD analysis using eight primers results in polymorphism and the percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and treated samples of horse gram seed sample with an average value of 53%. The overall results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts, which might be used as a better alternative approach to increase the yield of crop as compared with the synthetic chemicals.
Category: Biochemistry

[84] viXra:1608.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:33:48

Physical, Atomic and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Lithium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Lithium has gained extensive attention in medical science due to mood stabilizing activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, atomic, and thermal properties of lithium powder. The lithium powder was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated lithium powder samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD data showed that lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, atomic weight, and nuclear charge per unit volume of lithium were altered after biofield treatment. The crystallite size of treated lithium was increased by 75% as compared to control. DSC analysis exhibited an increase in melting temperature of treated lithium powder upto 11.2% as compared to control. TGA-DTA analysis result showed that oxidation temperature, which found after melting point, was reduced upto 285.21°C in treated lithium as compared to control (358.96°C). Besides, SEM images of control and treated lithium samples showed the agglomerated micro particles. Moreover, FT-IR analysis data showed an alteration in absorption band (416→449 cm-1) in treated lithium sample after biofield treatment as compared to control. Overall, data suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, atomic, and thermal properties of lithium powder.
Category: Biochemistry

[83] viXra:1608.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:35:36

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Protose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Protose is the enzyme digest of mixed proteins that is recommended for culture media, bulk production of enzymes, antibiotics, toxins, veterinary preparations, etc. This study was proposed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of protose. The study was achieved in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the control and treated samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) of control and treated samples showed the halo patterns peak that suggested the amorphous nature of both the samples of protose. The particle size analysis showed about 12.68% and 90.94 increase in the average particle size (d50) and d99 (particle size below which 99% particles are present) of treated protose with respect to the control. The surface area analysis revealed the 4.96% decrease in the surface area of treated sample as compared to the control sample. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed the 22.49% increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated sample as compared to the control. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis showed increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) by 5.02% in treated sample as compared to the control. The increase in Tmax might be correlated with increased thermal stability of treated sample as compared to the control. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study showed the alteration in the vibrational frequency of functional groups like N-H, C-H, and S=O of treated protose as compared to the control sample. Based on the overall analytical results, it is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the physicochemical and spectral properties of protose. As a result, the treated protose might be more effective as a culture medium than the corresponding control.
Category: Biochemistry

[82] viXra:1608.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:15:20

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated P-Chlorobenzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

p-Chlorobenzophenone (p-CBP) is the important chemical intermediate used for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical drugs like fenofibrate, cetirizine, alprazolam, and benzodiazepine. The aim of this study was set to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBP. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples of p-CBP were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the increase in average crystallite size (25.93%) as well as the intensity of XRD peaks of treated p-CBP, as compared to the control. The particle size analysis showed the reduction in particle size of fine particles (≤51.49 μm) by 21.6% (d10), whereas, increase in particle size of large particles (≥433.59 μm) by 12.82% (d90) and 17.71% (d99), respectively after biofield treatment, as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the surface area as 0.7005 m2/g in control and 0.7020 m2/g in treated sample of p-CBP. The DSC thermogram of treated p-CBP exhibited the slight decrease in melting temperature. However, the latent heat of fusion was significantly altered (24.90%) after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. TGA analysis showed the weight loss by 57.36% in control and 58.51% in treated sample. In addition, the onset temperature of thermal degradation was also decreased by 6.32% after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control p- CBP. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic study did not show the alteration in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated p-CBP as compared to the control. Altogether, the XRD, particle size and thermal analysis suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant impact on physical and thermal properties of treated p-CBP.
Category: Biochemistry

[81] viXra:1608.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:19:59

Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Oxytoca

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Klebsiella are opportunistic pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of severe diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca with respect to antibiogram pattern along with biochemical study and biotype number. Clinical lab isolate of K. oxytoca was divided into two groups i.e. control and treated. Control group remain untreated and treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with control group. Control and treated groups were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® automated system. Experimental results showed the impact of biofield treatment on K. oxytoca and found alteration in both antimicrobial sensitivity and MIC values as compared with untreated group. Antimicrobial sensitivity of about 26.67% tested antimicrobials out of thirty was altered with respect to control. MIC results showed about 12.50% alterations in tested antimicrobials as compared to control. Biochemical study showed 24.24% alteration in tested biochemical reactions after biofield treatment. A significant change in biotype number (7713 5272) was identified after biofield treatment as compared to control (7775 4332). In treated group, a new species was identified as Kluyvera ascorbata, as compared to control, K. oxytoca. Study findings suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect in altering the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca. Biofield treatment could be applied to alter the antibiogram-resistogram pattern of antimicrobials.
Category: Biochemistry

[80] viXra:1608.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:21:11

Evaluation of Atomic, Physical and Thermal Properties of Tellurium Powder: Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tellurium has gained significant attention due to its photoconductivity, piezoelectricity, and thermo conductivity properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on thermal, physical and atomic properties of tellurium powder. The tellurium powder was equally divided in two parts: control and treated (T). The treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment, whereas the control part was remained untreated. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion was decreased by 14.13, 21.90, and 5.55% in treated samples T1, T2, and T3, respectively as compared to the control. However, the melting temperature did not show any change in treated samples as compared to the control. The TGA data showed that the peak width (difference in onset and endset) was increased from 213.67°C (control) to 234.82°C in treated tellurium sample. Besides, XRD results exhibited an alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, atomic weight and nuclear charge volume of the treated tellurium powder as compared to the control. In addition, the crystallite sizes were significantly changed on crystalline plane (102) and (110) as 146.05→48.67 nm and 63.01→88.21 nm, respectively in the treated tellurium. The FT-IR spectra did not show any significant change in absorption frequencies in treated sample as compared to the control. Therefore, DSC, TGA and XRD data suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the thermal and physical properties of tellurium powder. Thus, biofield energy treatment could be applied to modulate the thermal and physical properties in semiconductor and chalcogenide glass industries.
Category: Biochemistry

[79] viXra:1608.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:21:37

Thermal, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Benzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of benzophenone. The study was done using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The benzophenone sample was divided into two parts, one part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment, called as treated and the other part was remained as untreated, called as control. Mass spectra showed the molecular ion peak at m/z = 182 in control and all the treated benzophenone samples with different intensities (treated samples further divided in to three parts, T1, T2, and T3 for GC-MS study). The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C (PM+1)/PM and in treated sample was decreased by 44.87% in T2 and slightly increased upto 5.79% in case of T1 as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H]. Moreover, isotopic abundance ratio of 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM in the treated sample was increased up to 22.64% in T3. The retention time of treated benzophenone was slightly increased (0.88 min) as compared to the control in HPLC chromatogram. The DSC data exhibited that the heat of degradation of treated benzophenone was increased by 674.16% as compared to the control. While, C=O stretching frequency of treated sample was shifted by 6 cm-1 to low energy region in FT-IR spectroscopy. Further, the UV-Vis spectra of control sample showed characteristic absorption peaks at 210 nm and 257 nm that was blue shifted to 205 nm and 252 nm, respectively in the treated sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of benzophenone, which could make them more useful as reaction intermediate in industrial applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[78] viXra:1608.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:28:08

Antibiogram of Biofield-Treated Shigella Boydii: Global Burden of Infections

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Bacillary dysentery and acute gastroenteritis caused by infection of Shigella species are major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella boydii (S. boydii) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9207) strain of S. boydii was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. boydii. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. boydii were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to control (Gr. I). Sensitivity pattern of amoxicillin/k-clavulanate was improved from intermediate (I) to susceptible (S) with correspond to MIC value was also reduced by two folds (16/8 to ≤ 8/4 μg/mL) in both the treated groups as compared to control. The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. boydii showed 15% alteration in Gr. II on day 5, while significant (40%) alteration was found on day 10 as compared to control. The MIC values of antimicrobials for S. boydii also showed 12.50% alteration in Gr. II on day 5 while, significant alteration (59.38%) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was found in Gr. II on day 10 as compared to control. It was observed that overall 69.70% biochemical reactions were changed in which 66.67% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in all the treated groups without alteration of organism as compared to control. These results suggested that biofield treatment had significant impact on S. boydii in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC and biochemical reactions pattern.
Category: Biochemistry

[77] viXra:1608.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:30:37

Phenotyping and Genotyping Characterization of Proteus Vulgaris After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) is widespread in nature, mainly found in flora of human gastrointestinal tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effects of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on lyophilized as well as revived state of P. vulgaris for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype. P. vulgaris cells were procured from Micro BioLogics Inc., USA, in sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 33420) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol until needed for experiments. Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of P. vulgaris were divided in two parts, Gr. I: control and Gr. II: treatment. Group II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analysed on day 10. Gr. IIB was stored and analysed on day 143. After retreatment on day 143, the sample was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tubes were analysed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using automated Micro Scan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. vulgaris with other bacterial species after treatment. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 10.71% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of P. vulgaris as compared to control. It was observed that few biochemical reactions (6%) were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was substantially changed in treated cells, Gr. IIA (62060406, Proteus penneri) on day 10 as compared to control (62070406; Proteus vulgaris). 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified sample in this experiment was Proteus vulgaris after biofield treatment. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Proteus hauseri. The results suggested that biofield treatment has impact on P. vulgaris in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[76] viXra:1608.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:14:35

Improved Susceptibility Pattern of Antimicrobials Using Vital Energy Treatment on Shigella Sonnei

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular and reported for countless benefits in biomedical health care systems. The study assessed the potential impact of The Trivedi Effect® (biofield energy) on Shigella sonnei for changes in antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical study, and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The cells were obtained from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9290) number, and divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and further subdivided into two sub-groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 160 (Study I). The Gr. IIB sample was retreated on day 160 (Study II), and was divided into three separate tubes as first, second and third tube, which were analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15, respectively. Results showed that 35% (7 out of 20) antimicrobials were reported with improved sensitivity profile. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration study showed that 56.25% (18 out of 32) tested antimicrobials were reported with decreased concentration by two to four-fold as compared with the control after biofield treatment. The effect was further analyzed and sustained in the biochemical study, where 57.57% (19 out of 33) tested biochemicals showed altered reaction pattern as compared with the control. The biotype study showed an alteration in the biotype number in all the experimental treated groups as compared to the control. Encouraging results suggests that bioenergy healing treatment as an integrative medicine against S. sonnei would be a better and safe treatment approach in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[75] viXra:1608.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:22:10

Chromatographic, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated N,N-Dimethylformamide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 08 Pages.

N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) is a ‘universal’ solvent and has wide variety of applications in organic synthesis, purification, crystallization, and as cross-linking agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of DMF after the biofield energy treatment using various analytical techniques. DMF sample was divided into two parts, one part (control) remained as untreated, while the other (treated) part was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated sample was subdivided into three parts named as T1, T2, and T3 for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Five relatively intense peaks were observed in the mass spectrum of both control and treated samples of DMF. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in DMF was slightly decreased by 5.76% in T1, and increased by 48.73%, and 30.17% in T2, and T3 samples, respectively as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H or 15N]. Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM was decreased by 10.34% in T1 and then increased upto 43.67% (T2) as compared to the control [where, (PM+2)- isotopic molecule for 18O]. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the treated DMF showed similar retention time (TR) as compared to the control with an additional small peak at 2.26 min appeared in the treated sample. In DSC thermogram the heat change in a sharp endothermic transition at around 61°C of treated DMF was increased by 152.56% as compared to the control. Further, C=O and C-N stretching frequencies of treated sample were shifted by 7 cm-1 and 3 cm-1, respectively towards low energy region in Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. These results suggested that biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the physical and spectroscopic properties of DMF, which could make them more stable solvent in organic synthesis and as a suitable formulation agent in polymer/paint industry.
Category: Biochemistry

[74] viXra:1608.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 04:21:36

Biofield Energy Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modulating Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of 3-Chloro-4-fluoroaniline

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

3-Chloro-4-fluoroaniline (CFA) is used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of CFA. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated CFA samples were further characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis of treated CFA showed significant changes in the intensity of peaks as compared to the control. However, the average crystallite size (G) was significantly decreased by 22.08% in the treated CFA with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed slight decrease in the melting temperature of treated CFA (47.56°C) as compared to the control (48.05°C). However, the latent heat of fusion in the treated sample was considerably changed by 4.28% with respect to the control. TGA analysis showed increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated sample (163.34°C) as compared to the control sample (159.97°C). Moreover the onset temperature of treated CFA (148 °C) was also increased as compared to the control sample (140°C). Additionally, the weight loss of the treated sample was reduced (42.22%) with respect to the control (56.04%) that may be associated with increase in thermal stability. The FT-IR spectroscopic evaluation showed emergence of one new peak at 3639 cm-1 and alteration of the N-H (stretching and bending) peak in the treated sample as compared to the control. Overall, the result demonstrated that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has paramount influence on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of CFA.
Category: Biochemistry

[73] viXra:1608.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 15:04:08

The Complexity Principle of Microbiology in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of microbiology is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Biochemistry

[72] viXra:1608.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 05:06:20

Effect of Biofield Treated Energized Water on the Growth and Health Status in Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treated energized water on chicken. The total 4200 chicks were equally divided into two groups i.e. control and treated. The biofield treated energized water was provided to the treated chicks, while the control chicks were drunk with standard drinking water. During the experiment the parameters such as mortality, body weight, food intake etc. were assessed in both control and energized water treated birds. The mortality rate was reduced in the energized water treated chicks as 54.55% in week 1, 42.11% in week 6, and 39.13% in week 4, as compared to the control chicks. Moreover, the average body weight was increased by 12.50% in week 1 as compared to the control chicks. The feed conversion ratio was gradually decreased which indicated that the energized water treated chicks took less feeds while the body weight was increased in comparison to the control chicks. Besides, the energized water treated birds showed statistically significant (p<0.007) with 15.47% increase in the edible meat weight as compared to the control chicks. Moreover, the feather, skin and internal organ weight were significantly reduced by 21.22% (p<0.001) of energized water treated chicks as compared to the untreated chicks. The protein content was increased by 10.11% and cholesterol was decreased by 4.64% in birds of the treated group as compared to the control. The European efficiency factor was also increased by 10.67% in the energized water treated birds as compared to the control chicks. The European efficiency factor was also increased by 10.67% in the energized water treated birds as compared to the control chicks. Altogether, the results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treated energized water could be a cost-effective feeding approach in chicken production.
Category: Biochemistry

[71] viXra:1608.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 23:19:08

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Triphenyl Phosphate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is a triester of phosphoric acid and phenol. It is commonly used as a fire-retarding agent and plasticizer for nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate. The present study was an attempt to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of TPP. The study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of TPP were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size (6.13%) of treated TPP that might be due to presence of strains and increase in atomic displacement from their ideal lattice positions as compared to control sample. DSC thermogram of treated TPP showed the increase in melting temperature (1.5%) and latent heat of fusion (66.34%) with respect to control. TGA analysis showed the loss in weight by 66.79% in control and 47.96% in treated sample. This reduction in percent weight loss suggests the increase of thermal stability in treated sample as compared to control. FT-IR and UV spectroscopic results did not show the alteration in the wavenumber and wavelength of FT-IR and UV spectra, respectively in treated TPP with respect to control. Altogether, the XRD and DSC/TGA results suggest that biofield treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of treated TPP.
Category: Biochemistry

[70] viXra:1607.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:21:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Properties of P-Nitroaniline

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Para nitroaniline (p-Nitroaniline) is an organic compound, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals drugs, gasoline and dyes. The present study was attempted to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on p-nitroaniline. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of p-nitroaniline were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR spectral analysis result suggested the alteration in wavenumber of some groups with respect to control. For instance, the C=C and C-C stretching were observed at 1570 cm-1 and 1430 cm-1, respectively in control sample that were shifted to 1585 cm-1 and 1445 cm-1, respectively after biofield treatment. UV spectral analysis revealed the similar pattern of absorbance maxima (λmax) in both control and treated samples. HPLC data showed an alteration in the retention time of p-nitroaniline peak in treated sample (3.25 min) with respect to control (2.75 min). GC-MS results showed a significant change in the isotopic abundance (δ) of 13C and 18O in treated sample as compared to control. DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion (∆H) of treated p-nitroaniline was substantially decreased by 10.66% as compared to control. However, the melting point remained same in both control and treated sample of p-nitroaniline. Overall, results obtained from different analytical techniques such as FT-IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and DSC suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral, physical and thermal properties of p-nitroaniline with respect to control sample.
Category: Biochemistry

[69] viXra:1607.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:12:33

Phenotyping and 16S Rdna Analysis After Biofield Treatment on Citrobacter Braakii: a Urinary Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Citrobacter braakii (C. braakii) is widespread in nature, mainly found in human urinary tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of C. braakii was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analysed on day 10 while Gr. IIB was stored and analysed on day 159 (Study I). After retreatment on day 159, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was analysed on day 5, 10 and 15, respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of C. braakii with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 39.29% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of C. braakii as compared to control. Tetracycline showed improved sensitivity pattern, i.e., from resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with support of decreased MIC value (>8 to ≤ 4 µg/mL) by two-fold in all the treated samples as compared to the control. Biochemical reactions also showed significant (42.42%) alteration in the treated samples with respect to the control. Biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (53131052, Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and in Gr. IIB, Study I (53111052; Citrobacter amalonaticus) on day 159 as compared to the control (77365776; Citrobacter braakii). Moreover, biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIB, Study II after retreatment on day 5 (53111042, Citrobacter amalonaticus) and (53131052; Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and 15 as compared to the control. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified microbe as Citrobacter freundii (GenBank Accession Number: DQ517285) with 95% identity. The nearest homolog genus-species of C. braakii was found to be Citrobacter werkmanii (Accession No. AF025373). The results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[68] viXra:1607.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:00:55

Evaluation of Antibiogram, Genotype and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biofield Treated Nocardia Otitidis

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nocardiosis is a soil-borne aerobic infection caused by Nocardia species commonly affects the respiratory tract. Nocardia otitidis (N. otitidis) is the key organism for non-mycobacterial tuberculosis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on N. otitidis and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain of N. otitidis (ATCC 14630) was divided into two parts, control and treated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied using the broth microdilution technique. Overall, the MIC values of 16.67% antimicrobials were changed in the treated group of N. otitidis as compared to the control. Moreover, MIC value of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was reduced by two-fold (0.5/9.5 to 0.25/4.75 µg/mL) in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control without alteration in the sensitivity spectrum. The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the treated sample was detected as Enterobacter aerogenes strain NCTC10006T (GenBank Accession No: AJ251468) with 98% identity of gene sequencing data. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession No: AM184245). Using RAPD biomarkers, the sample showed an average range of 34 to 53% of polymorphism among treated samples as compared to the control. The 16S rDNA sequencing of treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of N. otitidis with other bacterial species. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on N. otitidis.
Category: Biochemistry

[67] viXra:1607.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:05:56

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions and Genotyping Characterization of Biofield Treated Staphylococcus Aureus

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on S. aureus. S. aureus (ATCC 25923) was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treatment. After biofield treatment, Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 159 after revival (Study I). The revived sample (Gr. IIB) were retreated on day 159 (Study II), and divided into three separate tubes. Tube 1 was analyzed on day 5, likewise, tube 2 and 3 were analyzed on day 10 and 15, respectively. All the experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out in Gr. IIA sample to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of S. aureus with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed significant alteration i.e. 92.86% and 90.00% respectively in treated cells of S. aureus as compared to control. The biochemical reactions also showed the significant (35.71%) alteration in treated sample with respect to control. The biotype number and microbial species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (767177; Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum) on day 10, while only the biotype numbers were changed in rest of the treated samples as compared to control (307016; S. aureus). The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified strain in this experiment was S. aureus (GenBank Accession No.: L37597) after biofield treatment. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Staphylococcus simiae (GenBank Accession No.: DQ127902). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on S. aureus in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[66] viXra:1607.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:18:06

Assessment of Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Enterobacter Aerogenes After Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been reported as the versatile opportunistic pathogen associated with the hospital infections worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. aerogenes. The MDR isolates of E. aerogenes (i.e., LS 45 and LS 54) were divided into two groups, i.e., control and treated. Samples were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study, and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system, on day 10 after the biofield treatment. The antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 14.28% alteration out of twenty eight tested antimicrobials with respect to the control. The cefotetan sensitivity changed from intermediate (I) to inducible β-lactamase (IB), while piperacillin/tazobactam changed from resistant to IB in the treated LS 45. Improved sensitivity was reported in tetracycline, i.e., from I to susceptible (S) in LS 45, while chloramphenicol and tetracycline sensitivity changed from R to I in treated LS 54. Four-fold decrease in MIC value was reported in piperacillin/tazobactam, and two-fold decrease in cefotetan and tetracycline in the biofield treated LS 45 as compared to the control. MIC results showed an overall decreased MIC values in 12.50% tested antimicrobials such as chloramphenicol (16 µg/mL) and tetracycline (8 µg/mL) in LS 54. The biochemical study showed an overall 45.45% negative reaction in the tested biochemical in both the treated isolates as compared to the control. A change in biotype number was reported in MDR isolates (LS 45 and LS 54), while in LS 54, altered biotype number, i.e., 0406 0374 as compared to the control (7770 4376), with identification of the new species as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with brown color as special characteristic. The study findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on clinical MDR isolates of E. aerogenes has the significant effect on altering the sensitivity of antimicrobials, decreasing the MIC values, changed biochemical reactions, and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[65] viXra:1607.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:20:53

Antibiogram Typing of Biofield Treated Multidrug Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue in the developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs) of Staphylococcus species viz. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (LS 18), Staphylococcus epidermidis (LS 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (LS 30). Each strain was divided into the two groups i.e. control and treated. The control and treated groups were analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical analysis and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with the control group. The sensitivity of erythromycin was improved from resistant to susceptible, while levofloxacin sensitivity was also improved from intermediate to susceptible in LS 21 isolate. The MIC results showed a decrease in the concentrations of ceftriaxone, erythromycin, imipenem, and levofloxacin antimicrobials in LS 21 as compared to the control. Linezolid and vancomycin also showed decrease in MIC as compared to the control in LS 30. Overall, 20.69% antimicrobials showed decrease in MIC value out of the tested twenty-nine after biofield treatment in Staphylococcus species. The biochemical study showed a 25% alteration in biochemical reactions as compared to the control. A significant change was reported in biotype numbers for all the three strains of MDR Staphylococcus species after biofield treatment as compared to the respective control group. On the basis of changed biotype number (306366) after biofield treatment in LS 18, the new organism was identified as Staphylococcus simulans with respect to the control species i.e. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (302302). The control group of S. epidermidis and S. aureus showed biotype number as 303064 and 757153 respectively. After biofield treatment, LS 21 and LS 30 isolates showed altered biotype number as 307064 and 317153 respectively. Overall, results conclude that biofield treatment could be used as complementary and alternative treatment strategy against multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus species with improved sensitivity and reduced MIC values of antimicrobial.
Category: Biochemistry

[64] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 07:14:25

Plant-Microbial Fuel cell

Authors: Taha Abdelsallm Ashraf, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Once an exporter of oil and gas, Egypt is now struggling to meet its own needs. The growth in energy consumption is a response to the country’s economic expansion, industrialization, and change in people’s lifestyle. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget. As a result, the government is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing Egypt in this field. “Plant microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[63] viXra:1607.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:13:56

Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella Flexneri: Effect of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. flexneri. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. flexneri were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. flexneri showed 35% alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of biofield treated S. flexneri also showed significant (46.88%) alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. It was observed that overall 24.24% biochemical reactions were altered in which 21.21% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II on day 10 with identification of new organism i.e. Edwardsiella tarda (40015042) as compared to untreated strain of Shigella species (40010000). The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping.
Category: Biochemistry

[62] viXra:1607.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:16:47

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Streptococcus group B: A Postpartum Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Streptococcus agalactiae group B (S. agalactiae gr. B) is widespread in nature mainly causes bacterial septicemia and neonatal meningitis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on S. agalactiae gr. B with respect of antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and bio typing. S. agalactiae gr. B strain was used in this experiment bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 12386) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol. The revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were selected for the study. Gr. I was considered as control. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10 while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to the control (Gr. I) using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Although biofield treatment did not show any change with respect to susceptibility pattern. However the minimum inhibitory concentration of S. agalactiae gr. B showed significant (70.37%) alteration, out of twenty-seven tested antimicrobials, among which in Gr. II i.e. 62.96% on day 5 and 66.67% on day 10 while no alteration was found in lyophilized group (Gr. III) as compared to the control. Moreover, the improvement of MIC value of norfloxacin was observed by two-fold (8 to ≤4 µg/mL) in Gr. II on day 10 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. It was observed that overall 48.28% biochemical reactions, out of twenty-nine were altered in Gr. II with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in Gr. II on day 5 (777777615) and on day 10 (757677405) as compared to the control (237147047). The results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. agalactiae gr. B in revived treated cells (Gr. II) with respect to MIC values, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[61] viXra:1607.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:09:35

In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Enterobacter Cloacae: Impact on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biotype

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This research work investigated the influence of biofield treatment on Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) against antimicrobial susceptibility. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr. I (control) and Gr. II (revived); likewise, ATCC B was labeled as Gr. III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. The control and treatment groups of E. cloacae cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number. The result showed significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of aztreonam and ceftazidime (≤ 8 µg/mL), as compared to control group (≥ 16 µg/mL). It was observed that 9% reaction was altered in the treated groups with respect to control out of the 33 biochemical reactions. Moreover, biotype number of this organism was substantially changed in group II (7731 7376) and group III (7710 3176) on day 10 as compared to control (7710 3376). The result suggested that biofield treatment had an impact on E. cloacae with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, alteration of biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
Category: Biochemistry

[60] viXra:1607.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:11:49

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. nonGBM control and non-GBM treatment. The GBM and non-GBM treatment groups were given Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment for the assessment of its potential. Two time-lapse (10 hours prior; 10 hours after) video microscopy experiment was performed on tumor and non-tumor brain cells in six replicate (n=6). For each microscopic field, the total cell number was counted and each cell was tracked over the 20 hours period. The potential impact of biofield treatment was assessed by comparing cell death rate in both GBM and non-GBM cells before and after biofield treatment. Results: GBM control cells showed a basal level of cell death 10 hours prior and 10 hours after the biofield treatment, and the rate remained unchanged over the 20 hours period, while in treatment group of GBM, cell death rate was exponentially increased (41%) after biofield treatment as compared to control. The treated non-GBM cultured cells showed a significant reduction (64%) of cell death rate i.e. protective effects as compared to non-GBM control. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggests that biofield treatment has significantly increased the cell death rate of treated GBM cells and simultaneously boost the viability of normal brain cells. Therefore, biofield treatment could be a suitable alternate treatment strategy for cancer patients in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[59] viXra:1607.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 08:38:47

Abiotic Polymerization of Nucleotides

Authors: Alexey I. Balabin
Comments: 407 Pages. Russian

The book concerns itself with a novel process of mononucleotide assembly into double-stranded polymers. This process, which I call stamping, can be organized either as synthesis of a random double-stranded polynucleotide from mononucleotides or as a reaction of copying a polynucleotide (replication of the DNA or RNA, transcription or reverse transcription). Stamping proceeds in five stages; its crucial step takes place on certain prism faces of apatite crystals. Nucleotides insert their phosphate groups into the positions of PO4 tetrahedra of the crystal lattice, and thereupon condensation of adjacent nucleotides takes place. Inherent in stamping is the constraint that certain bond lengths in the synthesized polymer be equal to certain interatomic distances P–P in the crystal, so that the width and length of each nucleotide pair are fixed. Geometric regularity of the synthesized polymer imparts a regularity to its bond structure—all nucleotides are joined with 3’,5’ phosphodiester linkages (and none with 2’,5’), and all base pairs are the same Watson-Crick type. Because of the geometric constraints, double-stranded RNA molecules could emerge via stamping from a primordial soup circumventing the combinatorial explosion issue (the multitude of nucleotide-type molecules present in the soup had different geometries hence could not join into the polymer). Furthermore, involvement of the crystal surface imparts stereoselectivity to stamping. Synthesis of a polynucleotide from a racemic mixture of the four possible types of nucleotides (L- and D- enantiomers, α- and β-anomers) will result in formation of four types of macromolecules, each consisting predominantly of similar nucleotides (α-L, α-D, β-L or β-D). Though stamping is a hypothetical process, its different stages have been carried out in practice separately. Outlining conditions, at which stamping can be implemented as a whole, constitutes the subject of the main part of the monograph. Remarkably, such conditions have been found, and ways to carry out polynucleotide copying (without enzymes) have been outlined, based upon the data available on apatite surface chemistry, apatite crystal chemistry, physical chemistry of nucleic acids along with certain results from enzymology. In a separate chapter a scenario is proposed for the early history of life, built on the assumption that life originated via stamping and that inheritance relied on stamping apatite crystals, first non-biogenic, supplied by hydrothermal vents, then biogenic ones, until the emergence of bona fide polymerases. This hypothesis clarifies the roles played by group I introns in the ancient world, explains how modern polymerases could emerge in the course of miniaturization of the apatite crystals, the ribozymes involved being replaced with enzymes one by one. (The catalytic center of the modern polymerase in its active state, the phosphate group positioned between two metal atoms, is nothing else then a fragment of the apatite structure.) Combining the idea of stamping with the available phylogenetic data, the Archaea come out as descendants of the organisms whose life cycle was based upon RNA replication, whereas the ancestors of Bacteria appear to be the “inventors” of DNA, whose life cycle was based on transcription alternated with reverse transcription. Drawing an analogy between introns and transposons, the latter appear to be likely descendents of single-stranded catalytically active forms of mobile DNA. The origin of translation can be explained next as a spin-off from stamping performed at elevated hydrostatic pressures. A model for the origin of Eukaryotes can also be proposed as further development of these ideas, accounting for their phylogenetic traits, meiosis, spliceosomal introns and inteins, mechanisms of intron mobility (the homing endonuclease, retrohoming), acidocalciosomes, links between transposons and regulatory sequences of genes, domesticated transposases (including convergent domestication), the nuclear membrane, emergence of the double-stranded DNA, mobilization of double-stranded transposons, gene migration from mitochondria, plastids and nucleomorphs into the nucleus, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, multicellularity. Also explained are nuclear dimorphism in the ciliates, genome rearrangements in their macronuclei and some other phenomena.
Category: Biochemistry

[58] viXra:1607.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:12:01

Characterization of Phenotype and Genotype of Biofield Treated Enterobacter Aerogenes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been commonly described as a versatile opportunistic pathogen in hospital infections. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on E. aerogenes for its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. E. aerogenes bearing ATCC 13048 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. In addition, treated group of E. aerogenes was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship of E. aerogenes with different closely related bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an alteration of 14.28% among twenty-eight tested antimicrobials. Similarly, 15.65% tested antimicrobials showed an alteration in MIC values. Chloramphenicol showed improved sensitivity i.e. resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with the support of decreased MIC by two folds (i.e. >16 to ≤8 µg/mL). Norfloxacin also showed decrease MIC by two folds (i.e. 8 to ≤4 µg/mL) as compared to control. Biofield treatment showed an impact on biochemical reactions (9.09%) followed by a change in biotype number (7770 5272) in treated group with respect to control (7770 5372). Using RAPD analysis, sample showed an average range of 4 to 42% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA study showed that treated sample was detected as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession Number: AM184245) with 97% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to Enterobacter aerogenes strain: C1111 (Accession No. AB244467). These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment can alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, thus it can be used as alternate energy medicine in future.
Category: Biochemistry

[57] viXra:1607.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 23:29:49

Antibiogram and Genotypic Analysis Using 16S Rdna After Biofield Treatment on Morganella Morganii

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Morganella morganii (M. morganii) is one of the important nosocomial pathogen associated with the urinary tract infections and bacteremia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on M. morganii in the lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, biotype number and genotype. M. morganii cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25829) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. M. morganii strain was divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment on day 142, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was further analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using the automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of M. morganii with other bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed 32.14% alterations, while minimum inhibitory concentration results showed 18.75% alterations of the tested antimicrobials. Biochemical study also showed altered positive reactions in nitrofurantoin and indole with respect to control. Biotype study showed alteration in Gr. IIB, study II, on day 15 (4005 1446) as compared to the control (4004 1446). 16S rDNA sequencing analysis showed similar results with the identified microbe as M. morganii (GenBank accession number: AB210972) having 80% identity of the gene sequencing data. Total 1507 base nucleotide of 16S rDNA gene sequences were analyzed by multiple alignments, while nearest homolog genus-species of M. morganii was found as Providencia rettgeri (accession number: AM040492). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on M. morganii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[56] viXra:1607.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:30:48

Evaluation of Phenotyping and Genotyping Characterization of Serratia Marcescens After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) is Gram-negative bacterium, associated with hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), especially urinary tract and wound infections. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on phenotyping and genotyping characteristics such as antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions, biotype, DNA polymorphism, and phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens (ATCC 13880). The lyophilized cells of S. marcescens were divided into three groups (G1, G2, and G3). Control group (G1) and treated groups (G2 and G3) of S. marcescens cells assessed with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, and biochemical reactions. In addition to that, samples from different groups of S. marcescens were evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and 16S rDNA sequencing in order to establish the phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens with different bacterial species. The treated cells of S. marcescens showed an alteration of 10.34% and 34.48% antimicrobials in G2 and G3 on 10th day, respectively as compared to control. The significant changes of biochemical reactions were also observed in treated groups of S. marcescens. The RAPD data showed an average range of 16-49.2% of polymorphism in treated samples as compared to control. Based on nucleotide homology sequences and phylogenetic analysis, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Pseudomonas fluorescence. These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance to the useful antimicrobials against S. marcescens.
Category: Biochemistry

[55] viXra:1607.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:32:40

Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,4-Triazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3 ) as compared to control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3 ). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol) with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a significant increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed a significant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed significant alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
Category: Biochemistry

[54] viXra:1607.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:34:34

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Myristic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Myristic acid has been extensively used for fabrication of phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of myristic acid. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated myristic acid were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Laser particle size analyzer. XRD results revealed alteration in intensity of peaks as well as significant increase in crystallite size (27.07%) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. DSC study showed increase in melting temperature of treated myristic acid as compared to control. Nevertheless, significant change (10.16%) in latent heat of fusion (∆H) was observed in treated myristic acid with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated myristic acid showed less weight loss (31.33%) as compared to control sample (60.49%). This may be due to increase in thermal stability of treated myristic acid in comparison with control. FT-IR results showed increase in frequency of –CH2 and C=O stretching vibrations, probably associated with enhanced bond strength and force constant of the respective bonds. The particle size analyzer showed significant decrease in average particle size (d50 and d99) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. Overall, the results showed significant alteration in physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of myristic acid. The enhanced crystallite size, and thermal stability of treated myristic acid showed that treated myristic acid could be used as phase change material for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[53] viXra:1606.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 23:26:41

An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Thermal, Physical and Structural Properties of Cadmium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Cadmium is widely utilized in nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers, and coating applications due to its versatile physico-chemical properties. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on atomic, thermal, and physical properties of cadmium powder. The cadmium powder was divided into two groups, one group as control and another group as treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed significant alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, densities, nuclear charge per unit volume, and atomic weight in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. Furthermore, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control. DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated cadmium powder was considerably reduced by 16.45% as compared to control. Particle size data revealed that average particle size (d50) of treated cadmium powder was significantly reduced by 47.79 % as compared to the control. In addition, the surface area of treated cadmium powder was substantially enhanced by 156.36% as compared to control. Surface morphology observed by SEM showed the more facets and fractured surface with satellite boundaries in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the atomic, thermal and physical properties of cadmium.
Category: Biochemistry

[52] viXra:1606.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 04:22:21

Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial P53 and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

Authors: Rohit seth
Comments: 5 Pages.

Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent increases in the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein BAX leading to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as demonstrated by a 25% decrease in JC-1 red:green fluorescence ratio. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity was accompanied by efflux of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 24 h of zinc deficiency. Measurement of caspase cleavage, mRNA, and treatment with caspase inhibitors revealed the involvement of caspases 2, 3, 6, and 7 in zinc deficiency-mediated apoptosis. Down-stream targets of caspase activation, including the nuclear structure protein lamin and polyADP ribose polymerase (PARP), which participates in DNA repair, were also cleaved. Transfection with a dominant-negative p53 construct and use of the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin- ␮, established that these alterations were largely dependent on p53. Together these data identify a cascade of events involving mitochondrial p53 as well as p53-dependent caspase-mediated mechanisms leading to apoptosis during zinc deficiency.
Category: Biochemistry

[51] viXra:1605.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 15:42:23

¿Por Qué se Produce la Bioluminiscencia Del Mar de Ardora?

Authors: José Fernández Caballero
Comments: 4 Pages.

For many centuries, a lot of sailors have insured sight luminous waters. In 1995, a boat registered on his logbook one of these sightings in the northwest Indian Ocean. After check it, some scientists have analyzed photographs taken by a satellite about the area where the luminescence was registered. Indeed, in the photographs they could see a large area of water with light. Applying appropriate filters, they managed to get a picture where the bright is more prominent. This was the first sighting of the so called milky sea from the space. The reason why this luminescence happens has been a mystery for sailors. To try to explain it, they related it to a phenomenon produced by influence of the Moon on the sea water. In this article I pretend to give the lie to this mistaken idea and expose the causes of this luminous water.
Category: Biochemistry

[50] viXra:1605.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-13 10:15:25

Cancer as Genetic Memory?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 1 Page.

Broad occurrence of hypoxia- inducable factor in human body may suggest genetic memory to life in oxygen- low atmosphere.
Category: Biochemistry

[49] viXra:1604.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 18:13:27

Giving Alexander Oparin’s Origin of Life Postulates a Future

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Alexander Oparin was a Soviet scientist working behind the Iron Curtain. Many of his ideas are true and can be further developed by utilizing the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Explanation is with author’s writing in dark green.
Category: Biochemistry

[48] viXra:1604.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-03 16:36:01

Triosephosphate Isomerase (Tpi) Combines the Effects of His95 and Lys13 for Glu165 Three Crucial Catalytic Residues Which Form the Enediol Intermediate Necessary for the Interconversion Reaction Catalyzed by Tpi.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 12 Pages.

The K13M mutations involvement in the human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene family...P60174
Category: Biochemistry

[47] viXra:1601.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-23 15:50:19

Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: Modification of a New Medicine and Detection Communicational Smart System

Authors: Ahmed E. Gado, Abdel-Rahman M. Mousa, Mohamed A. Hussein
Comments: 6 Pages.

The beat was stifled in a state of trauma; the flow was snarled in a narrow tube; and the heart was completely dysfunctional. Until that moment, 1.6 million people in Egypt were suffering from heart diseases. Trying to raise our level of consciousness and visualize that problem from various perspectives, we came up with the solution. Firstly, leave the room to explain the problem itself. Clearly, we tried to perceive communication by considering the molecular interactions in the vital biological activities. Indeed, heart disorders have become an exacerbating grand challenge for Egypt. According to the Fig.1, heart disorders represents 51.75% of the notable disorders in Egypt .One of the predominant heart diseases is heart attack. The danger of the disorder underlies in the ensuing strokes and the total dysfunction of lungs. As enacted by the GMC, the death toll emanated from heart attack has reached 25% and the odds are increasingly hiking. Furthermore, 40% of the total deaths by the disease took place due to the considerable delay time till an effective treatment. All these facts triggered our minds to establish their own solution that will destroy such tragedies. Goring through the project, you will find how we could implement our test plan to prove our scientific hypothesis, and test the design requirements associated with it in order to obtain a reasonable bunch of findings. By setting the tests, we proved the rightness of the hypothesis, measured the accuracy and the different factors affecting it. As a result, we managed to exploit ECG readings to detect heart attack before erupting by error percent of 7.1%, provide a reasonable heart status for the patient, and even maintain their heart function in 67 seconds using intravenous oxygen. In addition, we have utilized the drugs verapamil and nifedipine to vasodilate the coronary artery as a treatment. Simply, we have emancipated the previous chocked flow to fix its stifled state!
Category: Biochemistry

[46] viXra:1512.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-03 07:23:23

A Fully Automatic Breast Ultrasound Image Segmentation Approach Based On Neutro-Connectedness

Authors: Min Xian, H.D. Cheng, Yingtao Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Breast tumor segmentation is an important step of breast ultrasound computer aided diagnosis systems.
Category: Biochemistry

[45] viXra:1510.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-30 12:21:19

Gapdh Using a Structure-Based Design Modulates and Amplifies a Mechanistic Insight Into a Crystal Structures Photochemical Reaction.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages.

GAPDH-catalyzed glycolysis reaction involved in cellular and human intracellular nuclei events, in addition to the cytoplasm relating to the extraglycolytic functions of GAPDH “recruited” from the three molecular axes translocation roles insight into a crystal structures photochemical reaction.
Category: Biochemistry

[44] viXra:1510.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:11:17

Hysteresis and Negative Resistance Regimes in Membrane Perturbations by Chrysin

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The growing concerns about pro-oxidant nature and toxicity during interaction of flavonoids such as chrysin and associated metal complexes with the cell membrane has led to investigations on membrane perturbations by the same. However, the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results show signs indicative of a hysteesis behavior. Taking cue from this, the present work is directed at a nonlinear analysis and characterization of the CV results of membrane perturbations by Chrysin and its copper and iron complexes. Plots of the Voltage-Resistance (V-R) and Voltage-Capacitance (V-C) relations show that while the capacitance is constant independent of voltage, the V-R behavior shows an interesting Hysteresis pattern with negative resistance peaks being seen. Presence of dosage-independent chaos is ascertained using the Lyapunov Exponent. The present work offers an insight into the nonlinear behavior underlying the mechanics of flavonoid-cell membrane interaction and might be the first step in a series of studies focused on the role of nonlinearity and chaos on toxicity.
Category: Biochemistry

[43] viXra:1510.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:12:45

DNA Molar Masses - Unsung Heroes of the Code of Life?

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

While the revolutionary field of Genetics along with its immense applications needs no introduction, recent models of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) reading process have proposed a complex system of mechanical oscillators giving rise to a solitonic transmission wave, dependent largely on the ‘context’, which consists of the structures and masses of the DNA Nucleotides. This observation logically raises the question of whether the masses of nucleotides in particular, contribute to the well-known high informational efficiency and capacity of the DNA. In this context, the present work purports to a simple experiment, where the genome sequences of three virus species are used to derive a sequence of the corresponding nucleotide molar masses. Along with the original nucleotide-molar mass associations, three fictitious associations are proposed, and for each of the four associations, the histograms of molar mass occurrences are plotted. It is seen that the original association alone leads to a distribution resembling the normal probability distribution, leading to the hypothesis that this preference affects choice of molar mass by nature, which then results in the efficiency of the solitonic transmissions and thus ultimately, the observed informational efficiency of the genetic codes.
Category: Biochemistry

[42] viXra:1510.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-19 10:38:49

Study the Regulation of the “nos” Genes of Bradyrhizobium Japonicum

Authors: Alicia Abarca Cifuentes, Maria Jesus Delgado
Comments: Alicia Abarca Cifuentes as Final project student, 26 Pages.

The goal of this Project is to study the regulation of the “nos” genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which encodes the nitrous oxide reductase enzyme responsible for the reduction of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). To achieve this goal, I am using transcriptional fusions of the promoter regions of “nos” genes to lacZ reporter gene I have transferred by conjugation a nosRlacZ fusion into the parental strain USDA110 and a-mutant strain lacking the regulatory protein RegR. The transconjugants obtained were grown in minima media with different concentrations of oxygen. Cells have been obtained by centrifugation and I have measured the beta-Galactosidase activity of cells.
Category: Biochemistry

[41] viXra:1510.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 20:15:54

The Beginnings of Photosynthesis in Atmospheres of Late Evolution Stars According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram

A simple reasoning is presented why chlorophyll is synthesized in the high atmospheres of late evolution stars according to stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Biochemistry

[40] viXra:1509.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-16 16:10:53

Generating Cheap and Clean Energy by Making a Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Using Cheap Materials

Authors: Antony Halim, Abdelrahman Fawaz, Mohamed Elhabashy
Comments: 11 Pages.

Egypt faces a lot of grand challenges, nowadays, which led to a great corruption in the economical, educational and health issues in the community. The energy challenge has become the most effective one in this century that led to many global conflicts. So, our project has started a way of integration between generating green energy and improving environment in order to solve many challenges such as pollution and lack of energy. Our project has connected generating energy using green plants. The idea of our project is making a natural electro-biochemical fuel cell depending on a natural resource in the environment. Specifically, we will rely on the photosynthesis process of the green plants using the wet agricultural soil, the naturally existing living organisms and other simple materials that could be found anywhere easily. Electricity is generated 24 hours a day without harming the plants or the environment achieving high-efficiency and low-cost. These are the designing requirements for our prototype. Introduction: Many solutions for the lack of energy have emerged during the last decade. At first we worked on a
Category: Biochemistry

[39] viXra:1507.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-25 05:35:16

On the Newly Discovered Properties of Malus Domestica

Authors: S. Chandra, S. Chandra, G. Lat, P. Par
Comments: 5 Pages. Published in Annals of Food Research © 2015, Vol. 42, (12)

Malus domestica, commonly known as the apple, has recently been analyzed with the new stroboscopic techniques to reveal new and unknown properties of this species. We present the results here which may demonstrate novel health benefits from consuming and digesting produce from this fruit.
Category: Biochemistry

[38] viXra:1507.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-16 12:03:53

Spallation as the Catalyst for the Origin of Living Cells

Authors: Eddie Maalouf
Comments: 9 Pages.

This abstract introduces the by-products of cosmic "spallation" (high energy gamma rays and neutrinos) as the prime instigators of living cells in the cosmos. And, posits that asteroids do not necessarily transport the raw ingredients of life but instead serve specific purpose (provide high energy impacts that produce spallation) onto planets in favorable orbits.
Category: Biochemistry

[37] viXra:1506.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-13 12:50:51

Changes in Glutathione and Glutathione Reductase Positioning Glutathione-S-Transferase as a Function of Cell Concentration with Enzyme Activities Found to Influence Behavior.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages.

Glutathione reductase (GR) utilizes NADPH produced by G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme activities, and enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) represents the erythrocyte glutathione-reducing system (GRS), of the GSH pathway to oxidation and inactivation in the activity of GSH peroxidase and GSH reductase.
Category: Biochemistry

[36] viXra:1504.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-17 01:53:05

Have Scientists Already Been Able to Surpass the Capabilities of Evolution?

Authors: Branko Kozulic, Matti Leisola
Comments: 21 Pages.

Over two millennia ago Socrates was pondering whether our Universe and all things in it are governed by randomness or by a regulating intelligence. This philosophical question has been alive till the present day, since the proponents of neither side have been able to convince their opponents. Scientists seldom express or recognize clearly their philosophical presuppositions and many think that there is no room for philosophy in science. Our view is that although science cannot determine which philosophical view is correct, it can show which one is wrong. Here we critically review the experimental results obtained during the past twenty years by Jack W. Szostak and his co-workers relating to functional information among random RNA and protein sequences. We explain in detail why their experiments with random or partially randomized protein sequences do not mimic the processes that take place in natural populations. Simple calculations show that in the laboratory scientists have searched much larger sequence space than could have been searched by random natural processes. We further argue that the discovery of singletons and of protein-protein-interaction networks has removed the randomness concept from biochemistry, and that neo-Darwinian view of the living world is false. We see faulty Hegelian logic as a major reason for the survival of the illusion that evolution is true, and the same logic is misleading many scientists into accepting empty phrases like “intrinsically disordered proteins” as existentially meaningful.
Category: Biochemistry

[35] viXra:1411.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 13:36:22

Characterization of Human Thioredoxin System and the Potential Cellular Responses Encoded to Observe the Thioredoxin-Trx1 Reversibly Regulated Redox Sites.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Txn1 is a pleiotropic cellular causative gene factor which has numerous functions. Here the following reaction is the possible mechanisms of the thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction and re-oxidation of its characteristic cystine residues.
Category: Biochemistry

[34] viXra:1411.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 14:08:40

Catalase, the Antioxidant Heme Enzyme One of Three Subgroups Related to Catalase Deficiency in Humans Modulating the Normal Catalase Reaction Dependent on Nadph-Binding Catalases for Function.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Catalase protects the cell from oxidative damage by the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation systems, those peroxisomal enzymes that breaks down hydrogen peroxide after H(2)O(2) exposure, and thereby mitigates* (some contradictory* results) the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide.
Category: Biochemistry

[33] viXra:1411.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 05:18:31

Study of the Effects Due to Eutrophication and a Chemical Pesticides in Jamuaari River Samastipur North Bihar India

Authors: Ghooran Mahto
Comments: 10 Pages. Jamuaaririver is an old route of Budhi Gandak of samastipur,It made oldtributary at Indravara(named after Indradyumn Paal) where Ganga,Jamuaari, Balan(Kamla),Baya(with Noon),Bagmati were meeting eachtogether.Now day it is a big reservoir known as Gang Moh

Main objective of this research is to observe and discuss the change carried out by both speedy eutrophication and pesticidal phosphate on a part of JAMUAARI river bio system.This is an important aquatic biota which has great environmental and historical value .It is tributary where Bagmati,Kamla,Balan,Baya,Noon along with JAMUAARI river put water into Ganga. It is known as GANG MOHAN GHAT of INDRAWARA. The word INDRAWARA derived from INDRAPAAL a great king of Bengal in 11th century .This tributary makes a wide lea where so many kinds of birds are migrated from China,Nepal and Tibet during winter season
Category: Biochemistry

[32] viXra:1410.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-27 22:01:01

Contamination of Food Chain by Lead from Bone Processing Industry in India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 7 Pages.

Amaranth grown using the solid waste from a gelatine factory as manure in an experiment conducted by the Kerala Agricultural University had 1085 mg/kg of Pb, 200,000 times the benchmark dose level for developmental neuro-toxicity. The sludge has since been approved and is being marketed as organic manure. This has serious implications for the food safety and public health at a national level.
Category: Biochemistry

[31] viXra:1410.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-22 12:01:43

Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry of Codons

Authors: Vladimir Komarov
Comments: 7 Pages.

In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations. In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation. As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium. Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values. However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible. Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter. The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic. The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work. Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.
Category: Biochemistry

[30] viXra:1409.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-13 21:45:39

Epigenetic Effects of Cytosine Derivatives Are Caused by Their Tautomers in Hoogsteen Base Pairs

Authors: Denis A. Semyonov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Deoxycitidine in solution exists as two tautomers one of which is an “uncanonical” imino one. The latter can dominate with such derivatives as 5-methyl, 5-hydroxymethyl- and 5-formylcytosine. The imino tautomer potentially is able to form a hoosteen GC base pair. To detect such pair, it is suggested to use 1H15N NMR. Formation of GC-Hoogsteen base pair with imino tautomer of cytosine can be a reason for epigenetic effects of 5-methyl- and , 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.
Category: Biochemistry

[29] viXra:1407.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-07 11:13:40

The Whole Clear Picture of the Discovered Host Immunological Pathways

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.
Category: Biochemistry

[28] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-22 13:06:03

Bugs and Chills: Seasonality and the Effect of Temperature Fluctuations on the Replication and Transmission of Respiratory Viruses

Authors: Patrick D Shaw Stewart
Comments: 46 Pages.

Overdue weight may have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that may have used recycled viral strains that had accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that epidemics of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. Moreover, the seasonality of colds and influenza is unexplained. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs may frequently be underestimated, and that colds and influenza frequently infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Biochemical understanding may have been hindered by the use of laboratory respiratory viruses that were propagated in conditions that reduce temperature sensitivity. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Several mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered.
Category: Biochemistry

[27] viXra:1404.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-13 23:13:17

Gluathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a Extracellular Selenoenzyme Expression Modulates Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 3 Pages.

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.
Category: Biochemistry

[26] viXra:1402.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-14 19:42:43

Are Herbal Remedies Safe for Cancer Treatment?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

There are various herbal medicines for cancer treatment in the market nowadays, therefore it seems worth to discuss their safety and effectiveness.
Category: Biochemistry

[25] viXra:1312.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-30 19:08:02

G6PD, Exon 12 is an Exonic Splicing Silencer Containing/substituted Define Codon Regions Involved in the G6PD MRNA¹

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 5 Pages.

An exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 Using the G6PD model and exon 12, may define Exon 12 an exonic splicing silencer containing other-(exons II, III-IV, V, VI-VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI-XIII)-spliced exons regions and an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12. Using the G6PD model.
Category: Biochemistry

[24] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-17 12:38:06

Bugs and Chills; the Impact of Temperature Shifts on Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D Shaw Stewart
Comments: 45 Pages.

Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer experiments with viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that may have used recycled viral strains that had accidentally lost their temperature-sensitive character. Perhaps for this reason, science has closed its eyes to detailed and clear-cut evidence that epidemics of VRTIs are closely correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. Moreover, the seasonality of colds and influenza is unexplained. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs may frequently be underestimated, and that colds and influenza frequently infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Biochemical analysis may have been hindered by the use of laboratory respiratory viruses that were propagated in conditions that reduce temperature sensitivity. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. I propose here the hypothesis that viruses may locate the upper respiratory tract by its lower temperature, that temperature changes are often used by viruses to synchronize their development at one or more steps in their life cycles, that temperature changes can allow temporary increases in the level of virulence of viruses, and that temperature changes provide a mechanism whereby a subset of susceptible individuals can become infected.
Category: Biochemistry

[23] viXra:1310.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 19:41:09

Are there Alternatives to Dopamine Hypothesis in Order to Explain Schizophrenia?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This paper discusses a number of answers to the question posed in researchgate.net: http://www.researchgate.net/post/Are_there_alternatives_to_dopamine_hypothesis_in_order_to_explain_schizophrenia?. Hopefully the readers will find some clues for further investigation.
Category: Biochemistry

[22] viXra:1309.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 21:30:58

Intra and Interchromosomal Interactions of Point Mutations Occurring in the Vicinity of the Normal 5-and 3 Ends Via Low and High O(2)-Affinities on the Beta-Globin Complex.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages. Includes 4 Figures with description requires the introduction.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.
Category: Biochemistry

[21] viXra:1308.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 20:26:52

The Role of Bioinformatics as Auxilliary Tools for Molecular Biology

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 7 Pages. Proceeding of World-Wide Indonesian Student Association Scientific Writing Olympic. Pp:23-29. (The Ianguage of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is an emerging science, which has an active role in supplementing the field of medicine, agriculture, and environment. The data gathered from the wet experiment was already submitted to on line database. Bioinformatics is a new science, based upon the combination between biology and computer science. It has sucessfully managing those on line database as a source of genome and proteome data. The available genome and proteome database are GenBank from United States, DDBJ from Japan, and EBI from European Union. Molecular biology experiment needs biochemical regent, and they are very expensive. A certain breakthrogh is necessary, to reduce the cost of wet laboratory experiment. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the cost. The task of Bioinformatician is to convert those online data, into a useful biomedics information. It has been applied for drug, vaccine, and PCR primer synthesis. Pharmaceutical industry has utilized bioinformatics tools extensively. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the wet experiment cost. However, bioinformatics could not replace wet experiment totally.
Category: Biochemistry

[20] viXra:1308.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 20:31:16

The Role of Bioinformatics in Protein-Protein Interaction Study

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 9 Pages. 2010. Sigma Journal of Science and Technology Vol: 13. No: 1.p:1-7 . University of Sanata Dharma Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (The language of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is advancing through the protein-protein interaction studies. Its wet experiment has generated a massive amount of data. Bioinformatics was set up for converting those data into useful information. Protein-protein interaction wet experiment was a long and expensive labors. Bioinformatics are here to remedy those labors. Online experimentations at protein-protein interaction database are possible. The available databases are InterPare, ClusPro, and PROTORP. InterPare is an open and public database server for protein interaction interface information. ClusPro is an algorithm for filtering docked protein conformations, and rank them. While PROTORP is a database to calculates a series of physical and chemical parameters of the protein interaction sites that contribute to the binding energy of the association. The online databases are useful tools for aiding the wet laboratory protein-protein interaction experiment.
Category: Biochemistry

[19] viXra:1304.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-11 03:52:39

Analytical Results on Systems Arising in Enzymatic Reactions with Application to Phosphofructokinase Model

Authors: Jean-Paul MORILLON
Comments: 8 Pages.

A reaction-diffusion system based on some biological systems, arising in enzymatic reactions, has been considered. The iterative method by means of a fixed point theorem has been applied in order to solve this system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The existence, uniqueness and positiveness of the solution to system with Robin-type boundary condition have been obtained. A biochemical system has been extended and solved analytically. Quasi-steady states and linear stability analysis have been proved.
Category: Biochemistry

[18] viXra:1303.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 13:30:18

Spectrin Alpha, Erythrocytic 1 Isoform Gata1 Strand B Cdna Containing the ef Hand Domain of P17678 Gata3 and a Heterodimer Assembly Complexed with Transmembrane SCF Neural Cell (Slc4a1) Band 3 Aspect of the Alpha Complex Analogue Spna1.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 2 Pages.

Spectrin alpha, erythrocytic 1 [ Mus musculus ] suggested the following scheme, which supports up or downstream of this site the study of numerous molecular regulating mechanisms the characterize the alpha-chain that mediates the binding of the EF-hand complex SPNA1-protein/P17687.
Category: Biochemistry

[17] viXra:1303.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-05 11:46:11

A Brief History of the Ford Rouge

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages. Source: Green Rouge Factory Tour 2012

Well, you may be wondering what a green roof is? A green roof is a roof that is filled with plants that created vegetation, an inexpensive sewage system which can use heat from the sun to power up energy. A green roof is very urgent efficient. It can insulate the plants while helping vegetate crops. In some corners of green roofs there can be solar panels that also have water inside them for vegetation.
Category: Biochemistry

[16] viXra:1301.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-17 11:04:54

Methods in Treating Acid Reflux

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

A paper on the symptoms of acid reflux as well as a guide to comforting it. This will provide an informative biochemical and organic description on the chemicals that can be used to treat acid reflux disease.
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1301.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-15 12:59:57

A Guide of the Alternatives in Biomedical Research

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a guide to alternatives in biomedical technology as well as biochemistry. This includes using skin cells to replace nervous tissue, using artificial blood cells, and alternatives to stem cell research as well as possibly cures for aids or cancer.
Category: Biochemistry

[14] viXra:1301.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-08 10:46:36

Fluoridation of Water, Good or Bad?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

Water Fluoridation is the process of adding fluoride to public water supplies in order to reduce the possibility of tooth decay. Its use began in 1945, as a study of children and the effects of them drinking fluoride in their water. The experiment remained a success, however the use of fluoride in water didn't increase dramatically until 1994 when a world health committee brought the idea of adding .8ml of fluoride/liter of water. The idea then went to congress and passed. Today, over 400 million houses have fluoride in their water.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1209.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-21 12:08:34

Composition, Structure of Mangroves in Gamui Estuary, Chudamani, Orissa, India

Authors: G. M. Narasimha Rao, P. Prayaga Murty
Comments: 8 Pages.

Mangroves and halophytic vegetation of Chudamani region and Dhamara mouth region of Gamui estuary, Orissa was studied by using the transect with 4x4m quadrate. In each station, 5 transect samples were collected and total samples analyzed for getting relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency of individual species in the studied area. Maximum Important Value Index (IVI) was obtained for the species Suaeda maritima and minimum value for Sonneratia apetala. A total of 11 plant species were reported, out of them 3 were true mangroves species, remaining 8 were halophytes. Along with data on plant populations hydrographical and sediment analysis was gathered to correlate with distribution and abundance of mangrove species. Maximum density was reported Suaeda maritima and minimum density for Prosophis juliflora. Maximum height of forest is only 2 to M 2.5 meters with diameter of plant species is not more than 26cm. Sediment analysis and low input of fresh water may be responsible for degraded mangroves with stunted growth.
Category: Biochemistry

[12] viXra:1209.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-19 12:28:24

A Comparative Study of Physico-Chemical and Biological Analysis of Sewage Water

Authors: Mohit Kumar
Comments: 12 Pages.

When sewage is untreated and is discharged into any water course will be effected severely. Sewage which has many pathogens and is rich in organic matter and high BOD when released into water course the dissolved oxygen of the stream decreases drastically which effects flora and fauna of the stream and also makes the water unfit for any purpose. Visakhapatnam is a city where nearly 18 lakh (384 per km2) (Eenadu, dated on 1st April) people resides. The day – to – day sewage which generates in the city has been collected and treated in the municipal sewage treatment plants at Appugar, Port area, Old town and Mudarsalova. Where Appugar plant holds 25 MLD, Port area plant holds 10 MLD, Old town plant holds 38MLD and Mudarsalova plant holds 13MLD of sewage of Visakhapatnam. The sewage treatment plants are not enough to hold the existing huge volume of sewage that is generated in the city. People and tourists are attracted more towards locations like Lumbini Park, Tenneti Park, Tourists Resorts located along the Beach and make frequent visits to those places. Aim of this study is to estimate physico-chemical and biological parameters of the sewage samples from different sewage disposal points along the coast of Visakhapatnam and to identify that objectionable parameters of the sewage ,which should be minimized before it is being disposed off.
Category: Biochemistry

[11] viXra:1209.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-15 13:56:57

Parasite Stress Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio

Authors: Madhukar Shivajirao Dama
Comments: 18 Pages. This article is accepted for publication in PLOS ONE (August 30, 2012)

In this study, I predict that the global variation of offspring sex ratio might be influenced in part by the level of parasite stress. From an energetic standpoint, higher gestational costs of producing a male offspring could decrease male births in a population with limited resources. This implies that, any factor that limits the parental resources could be expected to favor female offspring production. Human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is believed to be influenced by numerous socioeconomic, biological, and environmental factors. Here, I test a prediction that parasite stress, by virtue of its effects on the general health condition, may limit the parental investment ability and therefore could influence the SRB at the population level. The statistical analysis supports this prediction, and show that the level of parasite stress has a significant inverse relation with population SRB across the world. Further, this relation is many-folds stronger than the association of SRB with other factors, like; polygyny, fertility, latitude, and son-preference. Hence, I propose that condition affecting ability of parasites (but not adaptive significance) could be a likely causal basis for the striking variation of SRB across populations.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1209.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-04 05:55:45

Towards Personalised Drug Ranking in Clinical Decision Support

Authors: David W. Wright, Shunzhou Wan, S. Kashif Sadiq, Stefan J. Zasada, Peter V. Coveney
Comments: 23 Pages.

Many infectious diseases as well as cancers are strongly influenced by molecular level processes. In several cases, the advent of rapid genetic sequencing, already available in the case of HIV, means that patient-specific treatment based on genetic data becomes conceivable. Targeted therapies use drugs to interfere with specific biomacromolecules involved in disease development. Given the complexity of emergent mutations in such biomacromolecules and in the disease itself, clinicians need to resort to decision support software for patient-specific treatment. Incorporating model based molecular level information into such decision support systems offers the potential to substantially enhance personalised drug treatment by providing first principles based ranking of drug efficacy on a specific patient. Patient specific molecular models of targeted macromolecules are constructed and molecular dynamics simulations are used to rank drug binding affinities. Here we present results from clinically relevant protein variants that arise from two distinct pathologies: HIV and lung carcinoma. Our findings demonstrate the potential for molecular simulations to achieve an accurate ranking of drug binding affinities on clinically relevant time scales and represent the first steps towards the eventual goal of providing data derived from patient specific simulation to enhance clinical decision support systems. The approach gives rapid, robust, and accurate computational results and is dependent on an automated workflow for building, simulating and analysing models distributed over petascale computing resources which are comprised of tens to hundreds of thousands of compute cores.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1204.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-03 09:09:40

Seed Treatment Effects on Emergence of Luffa Aegyptiaca

Authors: Glen Gilchrist
Comments: 5 Pages.

Luffa aegyptiaca (Luffa sponge gourd) is increasingly seen as both a source of vegetative nutrition and as a source of the “luffa” used as to exfoliate during bathing. As such, the commercial growing of Luffa aegyptiaca is increasingly being investigated using more intensive farming methods. Two factors traditionally used to promote / speed germination and emergence of vegetable seeds is investigated. It is concluded that temperature pre-treatment of the seeds (-12°C,24 hours) yields a p=0.004 significance in promoting emergence, whilst pre soaking (water, 18°C, 24hrs) yields p=0.821
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1110.0058 [pdf] submitted on 19 Oct 2011

What is Life?

Authors: Minas Sakellakis
Comments: 6 pages

This article deals with the phenomenon of life,and shows how can a different approach change all that we know about it.Making the simpliest and most objective assumption that the difference between earth and other planets is just that there is a huge number of chemical reactions near the surface of earth(even a stone travelling in the universe can admitt that, because life means nothing for the stone).These chemical reactions , although partially(organism per organism) they seem to have self sustaining and self organizing properties that violate the laws of thermodynamics,when they are seen as a whole, they seem to be more random ,and not violating the laws of thermodynamics.This is very difficult for a person to realize(especially if you are living in big cities), because we see things from inside the whole system, and so it is very difficult to judje objectively what is life.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1105.0025 [pdf] submitted on 16 May 2011

Proteins and Genes, Singletons and Species

Authors: Branko Kozulic
Comments: 41 pages

Recent experimental data from proteomics and genomics are interpreted here in ways that challenge the predominant viewpoint in biology according to which the four evolutionary processes, including mutation, recombination, natural selection and genetic drift, are sufficient to explain the origination of species. The predominant viewpoint appears incompatible with the finding that the sequenced genome of each species contains hundreds, or even thousands, of unique genes - the genes that are not shared with any other species. These unique genes and proteins, singletons, define the very character of every species. Moreover, the distribution of protein families from the sequenced genomes indicates that the complexity of genomes grows in a manner different from that of self-organizing networks: the dominance of singletons leads to the conclusion that in living organisms a most unlikely phenomenon can be the most common one. In order to provide proper rationale for these conclusions related to the singletons, the paper first treats the frequency of functional proteins among random sequences, followed by a discussion on the protein structure space, and it ends by questioning the idea that protein domains represent conserved units of evolution.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1011.0014 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2010

Identity Charge and the Origin of Life

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 pages

"Identity" charge (also known as "number" charge) is the fundamental charge of the weak force and the most important of the particle charges. Identity charge is the symmetry debt of light's anonymity, or complete lack of identity. One photon cannot be distinguished from another, but the elementary leptonic particles are distinct from photons and from each other, and hence carry identity charges. Neutrinos are the explicit or "bare" form of identity charge, which is also carried in a "hidden" or implicit form by the massive leptonic elementary particles - electrons and their heavier kin. Single elementary particles cannot enter or leave the 4-dimensional realm of manifest reality without a conserving identity charge - the functional equivalent of a human "soul" or a citizen's passport. The utility of identity charge (in terms of symmetry conservation) is to facilitate particle-antiparticle annihilations by helping particles identify their appropriate "anti-mates" in a timely fashion - ensuring a conserved pathway for elementary particles returning to their original state of symmetry (light). For more on the function of identity charge see: "Identity Charge and the Weak Force", and "The Origin of Matter and Information".
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Oct 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] submitted on 13 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:0911.0026 [pdf] submitted on 9 Nov 2009

Origin of Life: Newton, Darwin, and the Abundance of Life in the Universe

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 3 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Two giants of British science, Newton and Darwin, developed theories of negentropic force in physics and biology. The two scientists are adjacently interred in Westminster Abby, and their theories of gravity and evolution likewise share common ground and a fractal resonance with DNA. Because DNA/RNA is both a replicating molecule and part of the universal 4x3 fractal pattern, the implications for the abundance of life in the Cosmos are enormous.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:0910.0056 [pdf] submitted on 28 Oct 2009

Theory of Originating Protolife on the Earth

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 2 pages

This theory concerns to systems, which one yet not living, but already and not dead. The solution of a problem of an origin of life lies through a solution of a problem of a genesis protolife, being a link between the living and not living nature.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:0907.0028 [pdf] submitted on 22 Jul 2009

Evolution of a Replicating Protocell

Authors: Terrance Cameron Stewart
Comments: 18 pages. e-mail: TC_STEWART20 (at) YAHOO (dot) COM

This model proposes a minimally constructed replicating protocell that exploits only a positive, a negative and a neutral amino acid to build membranes, genes and ion channels. This transition from chemical to biological evolution would result from a charged peptide that can function as a template to fuse peptide fragments, and act as a membrane gate. The nucleic genetic code may have originated as a single base codon that recognized three types of amino acid residue. A two base codon with three base types could code for nine types of residue. An increase to four base types would produce 16 residue possibilities. The modern code now utilizes a three base codon and four base types to yield 20 types of amino acid. tRNA synthetases and the genetic code appear to be linked together by mutual evolution. The evolving transition to a nucleic code would support a greater variety of amino acids and proteins, and thus complete the creation of life.
Category: Biochemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[24] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-28 14:23:34

Plant-Microbial Fuel cell

Authors: Taha Abdelsalam Ashraf Taha, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Once an exporter of oil and gas, the whole world is now struggling to meet its own needs. The growth in energy consumption is a response to the the countries’ economic expansion, industrialization, and change in people’s life style. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget in each country especially those in Africa. As a result, the world is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing the world in this field. “Plant-microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[23] viXra:1604.0025 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-06 12:23:49

Triosephosphate Isomerase (Tpi) a Dimeric Glycolytic Enzyme as a Model of Tim-Barrel Active-Site Structural and Chemical Aspects in the Monomer Loop Region's Reversible Catalytic Reaction.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 12 Pages.

The K13M mutations involvement in the human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene family...P60174
Category: Biochemistry

[22] viXra:1505.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-12 20:35:57

The Laws of Thermobiochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article I give the Laws of Thermobiochemistry which unify the Theories of Biology, Chemistry and Physics
Category: Biochemistry

[21] viXra:1407.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-08 01:58:49

The Whole Clear Picture of the Discovered Host Immunological Pathways

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 7 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.
Category: Biochemistry

[20] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-13 15:56:03

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 33 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza A and B, and many unrelated viruses including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the abundant scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical, and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, as well as studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that ambient temperature dips and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible mechanisms, M1 – 4, that can explain this link; M1: increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; M2: lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; M3: chilling may increase host susceptibility; M4: lower temperatures or host chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for M1 or M2, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations. M3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the repeated simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with M4, but not M3 (at least not in its simple form). M4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory virus strains, and the frequent recovery of ts mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that M4 is the main driver of seasonality, but M3 may also play an important role.
Category: Biochemistry

[19] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-08 09:01:05

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 36 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the abundant scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, as well as studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that ambient temperature dips and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible mechanisms that can explain this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) chilling may increase host susceptibility; (4) lower temperatures or host chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two mechanisms, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Mechanism 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the repeated simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with mechanism 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Mechanism 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of ts mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that mechanism 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but mechansism 3 may also play an important role.
Category: Biochemistry

[18] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-23 15:39:48

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 34 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[17] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-07 13:35:29

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 34 Pages. Key index phrases: Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus etc. share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[16] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-26 15:18:09

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 33 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Abstract Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus etc. share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-04 04:35:25

A Survey of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 22 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs), which often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling have often been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have been underestimated, that influenza virus may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[14] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-25 13:46:51

A Survey of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 21 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested (refs?)/I suggest that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 21:10:35

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 47 Pages.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[12] viXra:1404.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-04 15:47:54

Gluathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a Extracellular Selenoenzyme Expression Modulates Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 3 Pages. Corrected syntax in several sentences to translate the subject adequately into English by the addition of several requisite words in relation to or dependent on the phrase, and changed an image (figure 4).

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.
Category: Biochemistry

[11] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-23 15:21:05

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. [These “pedigree” strains were established by collecting nasal secretions from volunteers with colds, and inoculating subsequent batches of volunteers with the secretions.] Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-07 13:39:17

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. [These “pedigree” strains were established by collecting nasal secretions from volunteers with colds, and inoculating subsequent batches of volunteers with the secretions.] Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-25 13:43:20

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested (refs?)/I suggest that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-28 15:48:51

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 40 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Abstract Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost rapidly in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost some of their natural temperature-sensitivity. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-28 13:30:52

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 38 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-10 14:02:39

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 38 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 21:33:04

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 47 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1309.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-13 00:31:00

Intra and Interchromosomal Interactions of Point Mutations Occurring in the Vicinity of the Normal 5-and 3 Ends Via Low and High O(2)-Affinities on the Beta-Globin Complex.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages. 5 cartoons with description required the article fis a retrospective report.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] replaced on 10 Nov 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] replaced on 28 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] replaced on 23 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry