Biochemistry

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Recent submissions

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[70] viXra:1607.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:21:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Properties of P-Nitroaniline

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Para nitroaniline (p-Nitroaniline) is an organic compound, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals drugs, gasoline and dyes. The present study was attempted to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on p-nitroaniline. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of p-nitroaniline were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR spectral analysis result suggested the alteration in wavenumber of some groups with respect to control. For instance, the C=C and C-C stretching were observed at 1570 cm-1 and 1430 cm-1, respectively in control sample that were shifted to 1585 cm-1 and 1445 cm-1, respectively after biofield treatment. UV spectral analysis revealed the similar pattern of absorbance maxima (λmax) in both control and treated samples. HPLC data showed an alteration in the retention time of p-nitroaniline peak in treated sample (3.25 min) with respect to control (2.75 min). GC-MS results showed a significant change in the isotopic abundance (δ) of 13C and 18O in treated sample as compared to control. DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion (∆H) of treated p-nitroaniline was substantially decreased by 10.66% as compared to control. However, the melting point remained same in both control and treated sample of p-nitroaniline. Overall, results obtained from different analytical techniques such as FT-IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and DSC suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral, physical and thermal properties of p-nitroaniline with respect to control sample.
Category: Biochemistry

[69] viXra:1607.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:12:33

Phenotyping and 16S Rdna Analysis After Biofield Treatment on Citrobacter Braakii: a Urinary Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Citrobacter braakii (C. braakii) is widespread in nature, mainly found in human urinary tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of C. braakii was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analysed on day 10 while Gr. IIB was stored and analysed on day 159 (Study I). After retreatment on day 159, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was analysed on day 5, 10 and 15, respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of C. braakii with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 39.29% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of C. braakii as compared to control. Tetracycline showed improved sensitivity pattern, i.e., from resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with support of decreased MIC value (>8 to ≤ 4 µg/mL) by two-fold in all the treated samples as compared to the control. Biochemical reactions also showed significant (42.42%) alteration in the treated samples with respect to the control. Biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (53131052, Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and in Gr. IIB, Study I (53111052; Citrobacter amalonaticus) on day 159 as compared to the control (77365776; Citrobacter braakii). Moreover, biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIB, Study II after retreatment on day 5 (53111042, Citrobacter amalonaticus) and (53131052; Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and 15 as compared to the control. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified microbe as Citrobacter freundii (GenBank Accession Number: DQ517285) with 95% identity. The nearest homolog genus-species of C. braakii was found to be Citrobacter werkmanii (Accession No. AF025373). The results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[68] viXra:1607.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:00:55

Evaluation of Antibiogram, Genotype and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biofield Treated Nocardia Otitidis

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nocardiosis is a soil-borne aerobic infection caused by Nocardia species commonly affects the respiratory tract. Nocardia otitidis (N. otitidis) is the key organism for non-mycobacterial tuberculosis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on N. otitidis and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain of N. otitidis (ATCC 14630) was divided into two parts, control and treated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied using the broth microdilution technique. Overall, the MIC values of 16.67% antimicrobials were changed in the treated group of N. otitidis as compared to the control. Moreover, MIC value of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was reduced by two-fold (0.5/9.5 to 0.25/4.75 µg/mL) in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control without alteration in the sensitivity spectrum. The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the treated sample was detected as Enterobacter aerogenes strain NCTC10006T (GenBank Accession No: AJ251468) with 98% identity of gene sequencing data. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession No: AM184245). Using RAPD biomarkers, the sample showed an average range of 34 to 53% of polymorphism among treated samples as compared to the control. The 16S rDNA sequencing of treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of N. otitidis with other bacterial species. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on N. otitidis.
Category: Biochemistry

[67] viXra:1607.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:05:56

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions and Genotyping Characterization of Biofield Treated Staphylococcus Aureus

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on S. aureus. S. aureus (ATCC 25923) was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treatment. After biofield treatment, Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 159 after revival (Study I). The revived sample (Gr. IIB) were retreated on day 159 (Study II), and divided into three separate tubes. Tube 1 was analyzed on day 5, likewise, tube 2 and 3 were analyzed on day 10 and 15, respectively. All the experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out in Gr. IIA sample to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of S. aureus with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed significant alteration i.e. 92.86% and 90.00% respectively in treated cells of S. aureus as compared to control. The biochemical reactions also showed the significant (35.71%) alteration in treated sample with respect to control. The biotype number and microbial species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (767177; Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum) on day 10, while only the biotype numbers were changed in rest of the treated samples as compared to control (307016; S. aureus). The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified strain in this experiment was S. aureus (GenBank Accession No.: L37597) after biofield treatment. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Staphylococcus simiae (GenBank Accession No.: DQ127902). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on S. aureus in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[66] viXra:1607.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:18:06

Assessment of Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Enterobacter Aerogenes After Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been reported as the versatile opportunistic pathogen associated with the hospital infections worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. aerogenes. The MDR isolates of E. aerogenes (i.e., LS 45 and LS 54) were divided into two groups, i.e., control and treated. Samples were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study, and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system, on day 10 after the biofield treatment. The antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 14.28% alteration out of twenty eight tested antimicrobials with respect to the control. The cefotetan sensitivity changed from intermediate (I) to inducible β-lactamase (IB), while piperacillin/tazobactam changed from resistant to IB in the treated LS 45. Improved sensitivity was reported in tetracycline, i.e., from I to susceptible (S) in LS 45, while chloramphenicol and tetracycline sensitivity changed from R to I in treated LS 54. Four-fold decrease in MIC value was reported in piperacillin/tazobactam, and two-fold decrease in cefotetan and tetracycline in the biofield treated LS 45 as compared to the control. MIC results showed an overall decreased MIC values in 12.50% tested antimicrobials such as chloramphenicol (16 µg/mL) and tetracycline (8 µg/mL) in LS 54. The biochemical study showed an overall 45.45% negative reaction in the tested biochemical in both the treated isolates as compared to the control. A change in biotype number was reported in MDR isolates (LS 45 and LS 54), while in LS 54, altered biotype number, i.e., 0406 0374 as compared to the control (7770 4376), with identification of the new species as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with brown color as special characteristic. The study findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on clinical MDR isolates of E. aerogenes has the significant effect on altering the sensitivity of antimicrobials, decreasing the MIC values, changed biochemical reactions, and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[65] viXra:1607.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:20:53

Antibiogram Typing of Biofield Treated Multidrug Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue in the developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs) of Staphylococcus species viz. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (LS 18), Staphylococcus epidermidis (LS 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (LS 30). Each strain was divided into the two groups i.e. control and treated. The control and treated groups were analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical analysis and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with the control group. The sensitivity of erythromycin was improved from resistant to susceptible, while levofloxacin sensitivity was also improved from intermediate to susceptible in LS 21 isolate. The MIC results showed a decrease in the concentrations of ceftriaxone, erythromycin, imipenem, and levofloxacin antimicrobials in LS 21 as compared to the control. Linezolid and vancomycin also showed decrease in MIC as compared to the control in LS 30. Overall, 20.69% antimicrobials showed decrease in MIC value out of the tested twenty-nine after biofield treatment in Staphylococcus species. The biochemical study showed a 25% alteration in biochemical reactions as compared to the control. A significant change was reported in biotype numbers for all the three strains of MDR Staphylococcus species after biofield treatment as compared to the respective control group. On the basis of changed biotype number (306366) after biofield treatment in LS 18, the new organism was identified as Staphylococcus simulans with respect to the control species i.e. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (302302). The control group of S. epidermidis and S. aureus showed biotype number as 303064 and 757153 respectively. After biofield treatment, LS 21 and LS 30 isolates showed altered biotype number as 307064 and 317153 respectively. Overall, results conclude that biofield treatment could be used as complementary and alternative treatment strategy against multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus species with improved sensitivity and reduced MIC values of antimicrobial.
Category: Biochemistry

[64] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 07:14:25

Plant-Microbial Fuel cell

Authors: Taha Abdelsallm Ashraf, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Once an exporter of oil and gas, Egypt is now struggling to meet its own needs. The growth in energy consumption is a response to the country’s economic expansion, industrialization, and change in people’s lifestyle. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget. As a result, the government is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing Egypt in this field. “Plant microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[63] viXra:1607.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:13:56

Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella Flexneri: Effect of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. flexneri. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. flexneri were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. flexneri showed 35% alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of biofield treated S. flexneri also showed significant (46.88%) alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. It was observed that overall 24.24% biochemical reactions were altered in which 21.21% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II on day 10 with identification of new organism i.e. Edwardsiella tarda (40015042) as compared to untreated strain of Shigella species (40010000). The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping.
Category: Biochemistry

[62] viXra:1607.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:16:47

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Streptococcus group B: A Postpartum Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Streptococcus agalactiae group B (S. agalactiae gr. B) is widespread in nature mainly causes bacterial septicemia and neonatal meningitis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on S. agalactiae gr. B with respect of antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and bio typing. S. agalactiae gr. B strain was used in this experiment bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 12386) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol. The revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were selected for the study. Gr. I was considered as control. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10 while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to the control (Gr. I) using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Although biofield treatment did not show any change with respect to susceptibility pattern. However the minimum inhibitory concentration of S. agalactiae gr. B showed significant (70.37%) alteration, out of twenty-seven tested antimicrobials, among which in Gr. II i.e. 62.96% on day 5 and 66.67% on day 10 while no alteration was found in lyophilized group (Gr. III) as compared to the control. Moreover, the improvement of MIC value of norfloxacin was observed by two-fold (8 to ≤4 µg/mL) in Gr. II on day 10 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. It was observed that overall 48.28% biochemical reactions, out of twenty-nine were altered in Gr. II with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in Gr. II on day 5 (777777615) and on day 10 (757677405) as compared to the control (237147047). The results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. agalactiae gr. B in revived treated cells (Gr. II) with respect to MIC values, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[61] viXra:1607.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:09:35

In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Enterobacter Cloacae: Impact on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biotype

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This research work investigated the influence of biofield treatment on Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) against antimicrobial susceptibility. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr. I (control) and Gr. II (revived); likewise, ATCC B was labeled as Gr. III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. The control and treatment groups of E. cloacae cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number. The result showed significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of aztreonam and ceftazidime (≤ 8 µg/mL), as compared to control group (≥ 16 µg/mL). It was observed that 9% reaction was altered in the treated groups with respect to control out of the 33 biochemical reactions. Moreover, biotype number of this organism was substantially changed in group II (7731 7376) and group III (7710 3176) on day 10 as compared to control (7710 3376). The result suggested that biofield treatment had an impact on E. cloacae with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, alteration of biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
Category: Biochemistry

[60] viXra:1607.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:11:49

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. nonGBM control and non-GBM treatment. The GBM and non-GBM treatment groups were given Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment for the assessment of its potential. Two time-lapse (10 hours prior; 10 hours after) video microscopy experiment was performed on tumor and non-tumor brain cells in six replicate (n=6). For each microscopic field, the total cell number was counted and each cell was tracked over the 20 hours period. The potential impact of biofield treatment was assessed by comparing cell death rate in both GBM and non-GBM cells before and after biofield treatment. Results: GBM control cells showed a basal level of cell death 10 hours prior and 10 hours after the biofield treatment, and the rate remained unchanged over the 20 hours period, while in treatment group of GBM, cell death rate was exponentially increased (41%) after biofield treatment as compared to control. The treated non-GBM cultured cells showed a significant reduction (64%) of cell death rate i.e. protective effects as compared to non-GBM control. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggests that biofield treatment has significantly increased the cell death rate of treated GBM cells and simultaneously boost the viability of normal brain cells. Therefore, biofield treatment could be a suitable alternate treatment strategy for cancer patients in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[59] viXra:1607.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 08:38:47

Abiotic Polymerization of Nucleotides

Authors: Alexey I. Balabin
Comments: 407 Pages. Russian

The book concerns itself with a novel process of mononucleotide assembly into double-stranded polymers. This process, which I call stamping, can be organized either as synthesis of a random double-stranded polynucleotide from mononucleotides or as a reaction of copying a polynucleotide (replication of the DNA or RNA, transcription or reverse transcription). Stamping proceeds in five stages; its crucial step takes place on certain prism faces of apatite crystals. Nucleotides insert their phosphate groups into the positions of PO4 tetrahedra of the crystal lattice, and thereupon condensation of adjacent nucleotides takes place. Inherent in stamping is the constraint that certain bond lengths in the synthesized polymer be equal to certain interatomic distances P–P in the crystal, so that the width and length of each nucleotide pair are fixed. Geometric regularity of the synthesized polymer imparts a regularity to its bond structure—all nucleotides are joined with 3’,5’ phosphodiester linkages (and none with 2’,5’), and all base pairs are the same Watson-Crick type. Because of the geometric constraints, double-stranded RNA molecules could emerge via stamping from a primordial soup circumventing the combinatorial explosion issue (the multitude of nucleotide-type molecules present in the soup had different geometries hence could not join into the polymer). Furthermore, involvement of the crystal surface imparts stereoselectivity to stamping. Synthesis of a polynucleotide from a racemic mixture of the four possible types of nucleotides (L- and D- enantiomers, α- and β-anomers) will result in formation of four types of macromolecules, each consisting predominantly of similar nucleotides (α-L, α-D, β-L or β-D). Though stamping is a hypothetical process, its different stages have been carried out in practice separately. Outlining conditions, at which stamping can be implemented as a whole, constitutes the subject of the main part of the monograph. Remarkably, such conditions have been found, and ways to carry out polynucleotide copying (without enzymes) have been outlined, based upon the data available on apatite surface chemistry, apatite crystal chemistry, physical chemistry of nucleic acids along with certain results from enzymology. In a separate chapter a scenario is proposed for the early history of life, built on the assumption that life originated via stamping and that inheritance relied on stamping apatite crystals, first non-biogenic, supplied by hydrothermal vents, then biogenic ones, until the emergence of bona fide polymerases. This hypothesis clarifies the roles played by group I introns in the ancient world, explains how modern polymerases could emerge in the course of miniaturization of the apatite crystals, the ribozymes involved being replaced with enzymes one by one. (The catalytic center of the modern polymerase in its active state, the phosphate group positioned between two metal atoms, is nothing else then a fragment of the apatite structure.) Combining the idea of stamping with the available phylogenetic data, the Archaea come out as descendants of the organisms whose life cycle was based upon RNA replication, whereas the ancestors of Bacteria appear to be the “inventors” of DNA, whose life cycle was based on transcription alternated with reverse transcription. Drawing an analogy between introns and transposons, the latter appear to be likely descendents of single-stranded catalytically active forms of mobile DNA. The origin of translation can be explained next as a spin-off from stamping performed at elevated hydrostatic pressures. A model for the origin of Eukaryotes can also be proposed as further development of these ideas, accounting for their phylogenetic traits, meiosis, spliceosomal introns and inteins, mechanisms of intron mobility (the homing endonuclease, retrohoming), acidocalciosomes, links between transposons and regulatory sequences of genes, domesticated transposases (including convergent domestication), the nuclear membrane, emergence of the double-stranded DNA, mobilization of double-stranded transposons, gene migration from mitochondria, plastids and nucleomorphs into the nucleus, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, multicellularity. Also explained are nuclear dimorphism in the ciliates, genome rearrangements in their macronuclei and some other phenomena.
Category: Biochemistry

[58] viXra:1607.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:12:01

Characterization of Phenotype and Genotype of Biofield Treated Enterobacter Aerogenes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been commonly described as a versatile opportunistic pathogen in hospital infections. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on E. aerogenes for its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. E. aerogenes bearing ATCC 13048 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. In addition, treated group of E. aerogenes was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship of E. aerogenes with different closely related bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an alteration of 14.28% among twenty-eight tested antimicrobials. Similarly, 15.65% tested antimicrobials showed an alteration in MIC values. Chloramphenicol showed improved sensitivity i.e. resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with the support of decreased MIC by two folds (i.e. >16 to ≤8 µg/mL). Norfloxacin also showed decrease MIC by two folds (i.e. 8 to ≤4 µg/mL) as compared to control. Biofield treatment showed an impact on biochemical reactions (9.09%) followed by a change in biotype number (7770 5272) in treated group with respect to control (7770 5372). Using RAPD analysis, sample showed an average range of 4 to 42% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA study showed that treated sample was detected as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession Number: AM184245) with 97% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to Enterobacter aerogenes strain: C1111 (Accession No. AB244467). These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment can alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, thus it can be used as alternate energy medicine in future.
Category: Biochemistry

[57] viXra:1607.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 23:29:49

Antibiogram and Genotypic Analysis Using 16S Rdna After Biofield Treatment on Morganella Morganii

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Morganella morganii (M. morganii) is one of the important nosocomial pathogen associated with the urinary tract infections and bacteremia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on M. morganii in the lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, biotype number and genotype. M. morganii cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25829) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. M. morganii strain was divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment on day 142, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was further analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using the automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of M. morganii with other bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed 32.14% alterations, while minimum inhibitory concentration results showed 18.75% alterations of the tested antimicrobials. Biochemical study also showed altered positive reactions in nitrofurantoin and indole with respect to control. Biotype study showed alteration in Gr. IIB, study II, on day 15 (4005 1446) as compared to the control (4004 1446). 16S rDNA sequencing analysis showed similar results with the identified microbe as M. morganii (GenBank accession number: AB210972) having 80% identity of the gene sequencing data. Total 1507 base nucleotide of 16S rDNA gene sequences were analyzed by multiple alignments, while nearest homolog genus-species of M. morganii was found as Providencia rettgeri (accession number: AM040492). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on M. morganii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[56] viXra:1607.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:30:48

Evaluation of Phenotyping and Genotyping Characterization of Serratia Marcescens After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) is Gram-negative bacterium, associated with hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), especially urinary tract and wound infections. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on phenotyping and genotyping characteristics such as antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions, biotype, DNA polymorphism, and phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens (ATCC 13880). The lyophilized cells of S. marcescens were divided into three groups (G1, G2, and G3). Control group (G1) and treated groups (G2 and G3) of S. marcescens cells assessed with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, and biochemical reactions. In addition to that, samples from different groups of S. marcescens were evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and 16S rDNA sequencing in order to establish the phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens with different bacterial species. The treated cells of S. marcescens showed an alteration of 10.34% and 34.48% antimicrobials in G2 and G3 on 10th day, respectively as compared to control. The significant changes of biochemical reactions were also observed in treated groups of S. marcescens. The RAPD data showed an average range of 16-49.2% of polymorphism in treated samples as compared to control. Based on nucleotide homology sequences and phylogenetic analysis, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Pseudomonas fluorescence. These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance to the useful antimicrobials against S. marcescens.
Category: Biochemistry

[55] viXra:1607.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:32:40

Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,4-Triazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3 ) as compared to control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3 ). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol) with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a significant increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed a significant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed significant alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
Category: Biochemistry

[54] viXra:1607.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:34:34

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Myristic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Myristic acid has been extensively used for fabrication of phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of myristic acid. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated myristic acid were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Laser particle size analyzer. XRD results revealed alteration in intensity of peaks as well as significant increase in crystallite size (27.07%) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. DSC study showed increase in melting temperature of treated myristic acid as compared to control. Nevertheless, significant change (10.16%) in latent heat of fusion (∆H) was observed in treated myristic acid with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated myristic acid showed less weight loss (31.33%) as compared to control sample (60.49%). This may be due to increase in thermal stability of treated myristic acid in comparison with control. FT-IR results showed increase in frequency of –CH2 and C=O stretching vibrations, probably associated with enhanced bond strength and force constant of the respective bonds. The particle size analyzer showed significant decrease in average particle size (d50 and d99) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. Overall, the results showed significant alteration in physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of myristic acid. The enhanced crystallite size, and thermal stability of treated myristic acid showed that treated myristic acid could be used as phase change material for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[53] viXra:1606.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 23:26:41

An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Thermal, Physical and Structural Properties of Cadmium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Cadmium is widely utilized in nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers, and coating applications due to its versatile physico-chemical properties. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on atomic, thermal, and physical properties of cadmium powder. The cadmium powder was divided into two groups, one group as control and another group as treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed significant alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, densities, nuclear charge per unit volume, and atomic weight in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. Furthermore, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control. DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated cadmium powder was considerably reduced by 16.45% as compared to control. Particle size data revealed that average particle size (d50) of treated cadmium powder was significantly reduced by 47.79 % as compared to the control. In addition, the surface area of treated cadmium powder was substantially enhanced by 156.36% as compared to control. Surface morphology observed by SEM showed the more facets and fractured surface with satellite boundaries in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the atomic, thermal and physical properties of cadmium.
Category: Biochemistry

[52] viXra:1606.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 04:22:21

Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial P53 and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

Authors: Rohit seth
Comments: 5 Pages.

Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent increases in the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein BAX leading to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as demonstrated by a 25% decrease in JC-1 red:green fluorescence ratio. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity was accompanied by efflux of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 24 h of zinc deficiency. Measurement of caspase cleavage, mRNA, and treatment with caspase inhibitors revealed the involvement of caspases 2, 3, 6, and 7 in zinc deficiency-mediated apoptosis. Down-stream targets of caspase activation, including the nuclear structure protein lamin and polyADP ribose polymerase (PARP), which participates in DNA repair, were also cleaved. Transfection with a dominant-negative p53 construct and use of the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin- ␮, established that these alterations were largely dependent on p53. Together these data identify a cascade of events involving mitochondrial p53 as well as p53-dependent caspase-mediated mechanisms leading to apoptosis during zinc deficiency.
Category: Biochemistry

[51] viXra:1605.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 15:42:23

¿Por Qué se Produce la Bioluminiscencia Del Mar de Ardora?

Authors: José Fernández Caballero
Comments: 4 Pages.

For many centuries, a lot of sailors have insured sight luminous waters. In 1995, a boat registered on his logbook one of these sightings in the northwest Indian Ocean. After check it, some scientists have analyzed photographs taken by a satellite about the area where the luminescence was registered. Indeed, in the photographs they could see a large area of water with light. Applying appropriate filters, they managed to get a picture where the bright is more prominent. This was the first sighting of the so called milky sea from the space. The reason why this luminescence happens has been a mystery for sailors. To try to explain it, they related it to a phenomenon produced by influence of the Moon on the sea water. In this article I pretend to give the lie to this mistaken idea and expose the causes of this luminous water.
Category: Biochemistry

[50] viXra:1605.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-13 10:15:25

Cancer as Genetic Memory?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 1 Page.

Broad occurrence of hypoxia- inducable factor in human body may suggest genetic memory to life in oxygen- low atmosphere.
Category: Biochemistry

[49] viXra:1604.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 18:13:27

Giving Alexander Oparin’s Origin of Life Postulates a Future

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Alexander Oparin was a Soviet scientist working behind the Iron Curtain. Many of his ideas are true and can be further developed by utilizing the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Explanation is with author’s writing in dark green.
Category: Biochemistry

[48] viXra:1604.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-03 16:36:01

Triosephosphate Isomerase (Tpi) Combines the Effects of His95 and Lys13 for Glu165 Three Crucial Catalytic Residues Which Form the Enediol Intermediate Necessary for the Interconversion Reaction Catalyzed by Tpi.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 12 Pages.

The K13M mutations involvement in the human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene family...P60174
Category: Biochemistry

[47] viXra:1601.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-23 15:50:19

Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: Modification of a New Medicine and Detection Communicational Smart System

Authors: Ahmed E. Gado, Abdel-Rahman M. Mousa, Mohamed A. Hussein
Comments: 6 Pages.

The beat was stifled in a state of trauma; the flow was snarled in a narrow tube; and the heart was completely dysfunctional. Until that moment, 1.6 million people in Egypt were suffering from heart diseases. Trying to raise our level of consciousness and visualize that problem from various perspectives, we came up with the solution. Firstly, leave the room to explain the problem itself. Clearly, we tried to perceive communication by considering the molecular interactions in the vital biological activities. Indeed, heart disorders have become an exacerbating grand challenge for Egypt. According to the Fig.1, heart disorders represents 51.75% of the notable disorders in Egypt .One of the predominant heart diseases is heart attack. The danger of the disorder underlies in the ensuing strokes and the total dysfunction of lungs. As enacted by the GMC, the death toll emanated from heart attack has reached 25% and the odds are increasingly hiking. Furthermore, 40% of the total deaths by the disease took place due to the considerable delay time till an effective treatment. All these facts triggered our minds to establish their own solution that will destroy such tragedies. Goring through the project, you will find how we could implement our test plan to prove our scientific hypothesis, and test the design requirements associated with it in order to obtain a reasonable bunch of findings. By setting the tests, we proved the rightness of the hypothesis, measured the accuracy and the different factors affecting it. As a result, we managed to exploit ECG readings to detect heart attack before erupting by error percent of 7.1%, provide a reasonable heart status for the patient, and even maintain their heart function in 67 seconds using intravenous oxygen. In addition, we have utilized the drugs verapamil and nifedipine to vasodilate the coronary artery as a treatment. Simply, we have emancipated the previous chocked flow to fix its stifled state!
Category: Biochemistry

[46] viXra:1512.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-03 07:23:23

A Fully Automatic Breast Ultrasound Image Segmentation Approach Based On Neutro-Connectedness

Authors: Min Xian, H.D. Cheng, Yingtao Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Breast tumor segmentation is an important step of breast ultrasound computer aided diagnosis systems.
Category: Biochemistry

[45] viXra:1510.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-30 12:21:19

Gapdh Using a Structure-Based Design Modulates and Amplifies a Mechanistic Insight Into a Crystal Structures Photochemical Reaction.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages.

GAPDH-catalyzed glycolysis reaction involved in cellular and human intracellular nuclei events, in addition to the cytoplasm relating to the extraglycolytic functions of GAPDH “recruited” from the three molecular axes translocation roles insight into a crystal structures photochemical reaction.
Category: Biochemistry

[44] viXra:1510.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:11:17

Hysteresis and Negative Resistance Regimes in Membrane Perturbations by Chrysin

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The growing concerns about pro-oxidant nature and toxicity during interaction of flavonoids such as chrysin and associated metal complexes with the cell membrane has led to investigations on membrane perturbations by the same. However, the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results show signs indicative of a hysteesis behavior. Taking cue from this, the present work is directed at a nonlinear analysis and characterization of the CV results of membrane perturbations by Chrysin and its copper and iron complexes. Plots of the Voltage-Resistance (V-R) and Voltage-Capacitance (V-C) relations show that while the capacitance is constant independent of voltage, the V-R behavior shows an interesting Hysteresis pattern with negative resistance peaks being seen. Presence of dosage-independent chaos is ascertained using the Lyapunov Exponent. The present work offers an insight into the nonlinear behavior underlying the mechanics of flavonoid-cell membrane interaction and might be the first step in a series of studies focused on the role of nonlinearity and chaos on toxicity.
Category: Biochemistry

[43] viXra:1510.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:12:45

DNA Molar Masses - Unsung Heroes of the Code of Life?

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

While the revolutionary field of Genetics along with its immense applications needs no introduction, recent models of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) reading process have proposed a complex system of mechanical oscillators giving rise to a solitonic transmission wave, dependent largely on the ‘context’, which consists of the structures and masses of the DNA Nucleotides. This observation logically raises the question of whether the masses of nucleotides in particular, contribute to the well-known high informational efficiency and capacity of the DNA. In this context, the present work purports to a simple experiment, where the genome sequences of three virus species are used to derive a sequence of the corresponding nucleotide molar masses. Along with the original nucleotide-molar mass associations, three fictitious associations are proposed, and for each of the four associations, the histograms of molar mass occurrences are plotted. It is seen that the original association alone leads to a distribution resembling the normal probability distribution, leading to the hypothesis that this preference affects choice of molar mass by nature, which then results in the efficiency of the solitonic transmissions and thus ultimately, the observed informational efficiency of the genetic codes.
Category: Biochemistry

[42] viXra:1510.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-19 10:38:49

Study the Regulation of the “nos” Genes of Bradyrhizobium Japonicum

Authors: Alicia Abarca Cifuentes, Maria Jesus Delgado
Comments: Alicia Abarca Cifuentes as Final project student, 26 Pages.

The goal of this Project is to study the regulation of the “nos” genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which encodes the nitrous oxide reductase enzyme responsible for the reduction of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). To achieve this goal, I am using transcriptional fusions of the promoter regions of “nos” genes to lacZ reporter gene I have transferred by conjugation a nosRlacZ fusion into the parental strain USDA110 and a-mutant strain lacking the regulatory protein RegR. The transconjugants obtained were grown in minima media with different concentrations of oxygen. Cells have been obtained by centrifugation and I have measured the beta-Galactosidase activity of cells.
Category: Biochemistry

[41] viXra:1510.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 20:15:54

The Beginnings of Photosynthesis in Atmospheres of Late Evolution Stars According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram

A simple reasoning is presented why chlorophyll is synthesized in the high atmospheres of late evolution stars according to stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Biochemistry

[40] viXra:1509.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-16 16:10:53

Generating Cheap and Clean Energy by Making a Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Using Cheap Materials

Authors: Antony Halim, Abdelrahman Fawaz, Mohamed Elhabashy
Comments: 11 Pages.

Egypt faces a lot of grand challenges, nowadays, which led to a great corruption in the economical, educational and health issues in the community. The energy challenge has become the most effective one in this century that led to many global conflicts. So, our project has started a way of integration between generating green energy and improving environment in order to solve many challenges such as pollution and lack of energy. Our project has connected generating energy using green plants. The idea of our project is making a natural electro-biochemical fuel cell depending on a natural resource in the environment. Specifically, we will rely on the photosynthesis process of the green plants using the wet agricultural soil, the naturally existing living organisms and other simple materials that could be found anywhere easily. Electricity is generated 24 hours a day without harming the plants or the environment achieving high-efficiency and low-cost. These are the designing requirements for our prototype. Introduction: Many solutions for the lack of energy have emerged during the last decade. At first we worked on a
Category: Biochemistry

[39] viXra:1507.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-25 05:35:16

On the Newly Discovered Properties of Malus Domestica

Authors: S. Chandra, S. Chandra, G. Lat, P. Par
Comments: 5 Pages. Published in Annals of Food Research © 2015, Vol. 42, (12)

Malus domestica, commonly known as the apple, has recently been analyzed with the new stroboscopic techniques to reveal new and unknown properties of this species. We present the results here which may demonstrate novel health benefits from consuming and digesting produce from this fruit.
Category: Biochemistry

[38] viXra:1507.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-16 12:03:53

Spallation as the Catalyst for the Origin of Living Cells

Authors: Eddie Maalouf
Comments: 9 Pages.

This abstract introduces the by-products of cosmic "spallation" (high energy gamma rays and neutrinos) as the prime instigators of living cells in the cosmos. And, posits that asteroids do not necessarily transport the raw ingredients of life but instead serve specific purpose (provide high energy impacts that produce spallation) onto planets in favorable orbits.
Category: Biochemistry

[37] viXra:1506.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-13 12:50:51

Changes in Glutathione and Glutathione Reductase Positioning Glutathione-S-Transferase as a Function of Cell Concentration with Enzyme Activities Found to Influence Behavior.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages.

Glutathione reductase (GR) utilizes NADPH produced by G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme activities, and enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) represents the erythrocyte glutathione-reducing system (GRS), of the GSH pathway to oxidation and inactivation in the activity of GSH peroxidase and GSH reductase.
Category: Biochemistry

[36] viXra:1504.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-17 01:53:05

Have Scientists Already Been Able to Surpass the Capabilities of Evolution?

Authors: Branko Kozulic, Matti Leisola
Comments: 21 Pages.

Over two millennia ago Socrates was pondering whether our Universe and all things in it are governed by randomness or by a regulating intelligence. This philosophical question has been alive till the present day, since the proponents of neither side have been able to convince their opponents. Scientists seldom express or recognize clearly their philosophical presuppositions and many think that there is no room for philosophy in science. Our view is that although science cannot determine which philosophical view is correct, it can show which one is wrong. Here we critically review the experimental results obtained during the past twenty years by Jack W. Szostak and his co-workers relating to functional information among random RNA and protein sequences. We explain in detail why their experiments with random or partially randomized protein sequences do not mimic the processes that take place in natural populations. Simple calculations show that in the laboratory scientists have searched much larger sequence space than could have been searched by random natural processes. We further argue that the discovery of singletons and of protein-protein-interaction networks has removed the randomness concept from biochemistry, and that neo-Darwinian view of the living world is false. We see faulty Hegelian logic as a major reason for the survival of the illusion that evolution is true, and the same logic is misleading many scientists into accepting empty phrases like “intrinsically disordered proteins” as existentially meaningful.
Category: Biochemistry

[35] viXra:1411.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 13:36:22

Characterization of Human Thioredoxin System and the Potential Cellular Responses Encoded to Observe the Thioredoxin-Trx1 Reversibly Regulated Redox Sites.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Txn1 is a pleiotropic cellular causative gene factor which has numerous functions. Here the following reaction is the possible mechanisms of the thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction and re-oxidation of its characteristic cystine residues.
Category: Biochemistry

[34] viXra:1411.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 14:08:40

Catalase, the Antioxidant Heme Enzyme One of Three Subgroups Related to Catalase Deficiency in Humans Modulating the Normal Catalase Reaction Dependent on Nadph-Binding Catalases for Function.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Catalase protects the cell from oxidative damage by the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation systems, those peroxisomal enzymes that breaks down hydrogen peroxide after H(2)O(2) exposure, and thereby mitigates* (some contradictory* results) the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide.
Category: Biochemistry

[33] viXra:1411.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 05:18:31

Study of the Effects Due to Eutrophication and a Chemical Pesticides in Jamuaari River Samastipur North Bihar India

Authors: Ghooran Mahto
Comments: 10 Pages. Jamuaaririver is an old route of Budhi Gandak of samastipur,It made oldtributary at Indravara(named after Indradyumn Paal) where Ganga,Jamuaari, Balan(Kamla),Baya(with Noon),Bagmati were meeting eachtogether.Now day it is a big reservoir known as Gang Moh

Main objective of this research is to observe and discuss the change carried out by both speedy eutrophication and pesticidal phosphate on a part of JAMUAARI river bio system.This is an important aquatic biota which has great environmental and historical value .It is tributary where Bagmati,Kamla,Balan,Baya,Noon along with JAMUAARI river put water into Ganga. It is known as GANG MOHAN GHAT of INDRAWARA. The word INDRAWARA derived from INDRAPAAL a great king of Bengal in 11th century .This tributary makes a wide lea where so many kinds of birds are migrated from China,Nepal and Tibet during winter season
Category: Biochemistry

[32] viXra:1410.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-27 22:01:01

Contamination of Food Chain by Lead from Bone Processing Industry in India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 7 Pages.

Amaranth grown using the solid waste from a gelatine factory as manure in an experiment conducted by the Kerala Agricultural University had 1085 mg/kg of Pb, 200,000 times the benchmark dose level for developmental neuro-toxicity. The sludge has since been approved and is being marketed as organic manure. This has serious implications for the food safety and public health at a national level.
Category: Biochemistry

[31] viXra:1410.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-22 12:01:43

Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry of Codons

Authors: Vladimir Komarov
Comments: 7 Pages.

In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations. In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation. As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium. Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values. However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible. Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter. The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic. The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work. Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.
Category: Biochemistry

[30] viXra:1409.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-13 21:45:39

Epigenetic Effects of Cytosine Derivatives Are Caused by Their Tautomers in Hoogsteen Base Pairs

Authors: Denis A. Semyonov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Deoxycitidine in solution exists as two tautomers one of which is an “uncanonical” imino one. The latter can dominate with such derivatives as 5-methyl, 5-hydroxymethyl- and 5-formylcytosine. The imino tautomer potentially is able to form a hoosteen GC base pair. To detect such pair, it is suggested to use 1H15N NMR. Formation of GC-Hoogsteen base pair with imino tautomer of cytosine can be a reason for epigenetic effects of 5-methyl- and , 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.
Category: Biochemistry

[29] viXra:1407.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-07 11:13:40

The Whole Clear Picture of the Discovered Host Immunological Pathways

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.
Category: Biochemistry

[28] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-22 13:06:03

Bugs and Chills: Seasonality and the Effect of Temperature Fluctuations on the Replication and Transmission of Respiratory Viruses

Authors: Patrick D Shaw Stewart
Comments: 46 Pages.

Overdue weight may have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that may have used recycled viral strains that had accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that epidemics of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. Moreover, the seasonality of colds and influenza is unexplained. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs may frequently be underestimated, and that colds and influenza frequently infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Biochemical understanding may have been hindered by the use of laboratory respiratory viruses that were propagated in conditions that reduce temperature sensitivity. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Several mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered.
Category: Biochemistry

[27] viXra:1404.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-13 23:13:17

Gluathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a Extracellular Selenoenzyme Expression Modulates Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 3 Pages.

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.
Category: Biochemistry

[26] viXra:1402.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-14 19:42:43

Are Herbal Remedies Safe for Cancer Treatment?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

There are various herbal medicines for cancer treatment in the market nowadays, therefore it seems worth to discuss their safety and effectiveness.
Category: Biochemistry

[25] viXra:1312.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-30 19:08:02

G6PD, Exon 12 is an Exonic Splicing Silencer Containing/substituted Define Codon Regions Involved in the G6PD MRNA¹

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 5 Pages.

An exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 Using the G6PD model and exon 12, may define Exon 12 an exonic splicing silencer containing other-(exons II, III-IV, V, VI-VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI-XIII)-spliced exons regions and an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12. Using the G6PD model.
Category: Biochemistry

[24] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-17 12:38:06

Bugs and Chills; the Impact of Temperature Shifts on Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D Shaw Stewart
Comments: 45 Pages.

Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer experiments with viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that may have used recycled viral strains that had accidentally lost their temperature-sensitive character. Perhaps for this reason, science has closed its eyes to detailed and clear-cut evidence that epidemics of VRTIs are closely correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. Moreover, the seasonality of colds and influenza is unexplained. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs may frequently be underestimated, and that colds and influenza frequently infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Biochemical analysis may have been hindered by the use of laboratory respiratory viruses that were propagated in conditions that reduce temperature sensitivity. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. I propose here the hypothesis that viruses may locate the upper respiratory tract by its lower temperature, that temperature changes are often used by viruses to synchronize their development at one or more steps in their life cycles, that temperature changes can allow temporary increases in the level of virulence of viruses, and that temperature changes provide a mechanism whereby a subset of susceptible individuals can become infected.
Category: Biochemistry

[23] viXra:1310.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 19:41:09

Are there Alternatives to Dopamine Hypothesis in Order to Explain Schizophrenia?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This paper discusses a number of answers to the question posed in researchgate.net: http://www.researchgate.net/post/Are_there_alternatives_to_dopamine_hypothesis_in_order_to_explain_schizophrenia?. Hopefully the readers will find some clues for further investigation.
Category: Biochemistry

[22] viXra:1309.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 21:30:58

Intra and Interchromosomal Interactions of Point Mutations Occurring in the Vicinity of the Normal 5-and 3 Ends Via Low and High O(2)-Affinities on the Beta-Globin Complex.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages. Includes 4 Figures with description requires the introduction.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.
Category: Biochemistry

[21] viXra:1308.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 20:26:52

The Role of Bioinformatics as Auxilliary Tools for Molecular Biology

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 7 Pages. Proceeding of World-Wide Indonesian Student Association Scientific Writing Olympic. Pp:23-29. (The Ianguage of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is an emerging science, which has an active role in supplementing the field of medicine, agriculture, and environment. The data gathered from the wet experiment was already submitted to on line database. Bioinformatics is a new science, based upon the combination between biology and computer science. It has sucessfully managing those on line database as a source of genome and proteome data. The available genome and proteome database are GenBank from United States, DDBJ from Japan, and EBI from European Union. Molecular biology experiment needs biochemical regent, and they are very expensive. A certain breakthrogh is necessary, to reduce the cost of wet laboratory experiment. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the cost. The task of Bioinformatician is to convert those online data, into a useful biomedics information. It has been applied for drug, vaccine, and PCR primer synthesis. Pharmaceutical industry has utilized bioinformatics tools extensively. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the wet experiment cost. However, bioinformatics could not replace wet experiment totally.
Category: Biochemistry

[20] viXra:1308.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 20:31:16

The Role of Bioinformatics in Protein-Protein Interaction Study

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 9 Pages. 2010. Sigma Journal of Science and Technology Vol: 13. No: 1.p:1-7 . University of Sanata Dharma Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (The language of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is advancing through the protein-protein interaction studies. Its wet experiment has generated a massive amount of data. Bioinformatics was set up for converting those data into useful information. Protein-protein interaction wet experiment was a long and expensive labors. Bioinformatics are here to remedy those labors. Online experimentations at protein-protein interaction database are possible. The available databases are InterPare, ClusPro, and PROTORP. InterPare is an open and public database server for protein interaction interface information. ClusPro is an algorithm for filtering docked protein conformations, and rank them. While PROTORP is a database to calculates a series of physical and chemical parameters of the protein interaction sites that contribute to the binding energy of the association. The online databases are useful tools for aiding the wet laboratory protein-protein interaction experiment.
Category: Biochemistry

[19] viXra:1304.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-11 03:52:39

Analytical Results on Systems Arising in Enzymatic Reactions with Application to Phosphofructokinase Model

Authors: Jean-Paul MORILLON
Comments: 8 Pages.

A reaction-diffusion system based on some biological systems, arising in enzymatic reactions, has been considered. The iterative method by means of a fixed point theorem has been applied in order to solve this system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The existence, uniqueness and positiveness of the solution to system with Robin-type boundary condition have been obtained. A biochemical system has been extended and solved analytically. Quasi-steady states and linear stability analysis have been proved.
Category: Biochemistry

[18] viXra:1303.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 13:30:18

Spectrin Alpha, Erythrocytic 1 Isoform Gata1 Strand B Cdna Containing the ef Hand Domain of P17678 Gata3 and a Heterodimer Assembly Complexed with Transmembrane SCF Neural Cell (Slc4a1) Band 3 Aspect of the Alpha Complex Analogue Spna1.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 2 Pages.

Spectrin alpha, erythrocytic 1 [ Mus musculus ] suggested the following scheme, which supports up or downstream of this site the study of numerous molecular regulating mechanisms the characterize the alpha-chain that mediates the binding of the EF-hand complex SPNA1-protein/P17687.
Category: Biochemistry

[17] viXra:1303.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-05 11:46:11

A Brief History of the Ford Rouge

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages. Source: Green Rouge Factory Tour 2012

Well, you may be wondering what a green roof is? A green roof is a roof that is filled with plants that created vegetation, an inexpensive sewage system which can use heat from the sun to power up energy. A green roof is very urgent efficient. It can insulate the plants while helping vegetate crops. In some corners of green roofs there can be solar panels that also have water inside them for vegetation.
Category: Biochemistry

[16] viXra:1301.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-17 11:04:54

Methods in Treating Acid Reflux

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

A paper on the symptoms of acid reflux as well as a guide to comforting it. This will provide an informative biochemical and organic description on the chemicals that can be used to treat acid reflux disease.
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1301.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-15 12:59:57

A Guide of the Alternatives in Biomedical Research

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a guide to alternatives in biomedical technology as well as biochemistry. This includes using skin cells to replace nervous tissue, using artificial blood cells, and alternatives to stem cell research as well as possibly cures for aids or cancer.
Category: Biochemistry

[14] viXra:1301.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-08 10:46:36

Fluoridation of Water, Good or Bad?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

Water Fluoridation is the process of adding fluoride to public water supplies in order to reduce the possibility of tooth decay. Its use began in 1945, as a study of children and the effects of them drinking fluoride in their water. The experiment remained a success, however the use of fluoride in water didn't increase dramatically until 1994 when a world health committee brought the idea of adding .8ml of fluoride/liter of water. The idea then went to congress and passed. Today, over 400 million houses have fluoride in their water.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1209.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-21 12:08:34

Composition, Structure of Mangroves in Gamui Estuary, Chudamani, Orissa, India

Authors: G. M. Narasimha Rao, P. Prayaga Murty
Comments: 8 Pages.

Mangroves and halophytic vegetation of Chudamani region and Dhamara mouth region of Gamui estuary, Orissa was studied by using the transect with 4x4m quadrate. In each station, 5 transect samples were collected and total samples analyzed for getting relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency of individual species in the studied area. Maximum Important Value Index (IVI) was obtained for the species Suaeda maritima and minimum value for Sonneratia apetala. A total of 11 plant species were reported, out of them 3 were true mangroves species, remaining 8 were halophytes. Along with data on plant populations hydrographical and sediment analysis was gathered to correlate with distribution and abundance of mangrove species. Maximum density was reported Suaeda maritima and minimum density for Prosophis juliflora. Maximum height of forest is only 2 to M 2.5 meters with diameter of plant species is not more than 26cm. Sediment analysis and low input of fresh water may be responsible for degraded mangroves with stunted growth.
Category: Biochemistry

[12] viXra:1209.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-19 12:28:24

A Comparative Study of Physico-Chemical and Biological Analysis of Sewage Water

Authors: Mohit Kumar
Comments: 12 Pages.

When sewage is untreated and is discharged into any water course will be effected severely. Sewage which has many pathogens and is rich in organic matter and high BOD when released into water course the dissolved oxygen of the stream decreases drastically which effects flora and fauna of the stream and also makes the water unfit for any purpose. Visakhapatnam is a city where nearly 18 lakh (384 per km2) (Eenadu, dated on 1st April) people resides. The day – to – day sewage which generates in the city has been collected and treated in the municipal sewage treatment plants at Appugar, Port area, Old town and Mudarsalova. Where Appugar plant holds 25 MLD, Port area plant holds 10 MLD, Old town plant holds 38MLD and Mudarsalova plant holds 13MLD of sewage of Visakhapatnam. The sewage treatment plants are not enough to hold the existing huge volume of sewage that is generated in the city. People and tourists are attracted more towards locations like Lumbini Park, Tenneti Park, Tourists Resorts located along the Beach and make frequent visits to those places. Aim of this study is to estimate physico-chemical and biological parameters of the sewage samples from different sewage disposal points along the coast of Visakhapatnam and to identify that objectionable parameters of the sewage ,which should be minimized before it is being disposed off.
Category: Biochemistry

[11] viXra:1209.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-15 13:56:57

Parasite Stress Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio

Authors: Madhukar Shivajirao Dama
Comments: 18 Pages. This article is accepted for publication in PLOS ONE (August 30, 2012)

In this study, I predict that the global variation of offspring sex ratio might be influenced in part by the level of parasite stress. From an energetic standpoint, higher gestational costs of producing a male offspring could decrease male births in a population with limited resources. This implies that, any factor that limits the parental resources could be expected to favor female offspring production. Human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is believed to be influenced by numerous socioeconomic, biological, and environmental factors. Here, I test a prediction that parasite stress, by virtue of its effects on the general health condition, may limit the parental investment ability and therefore could influence the SRB at the population level. The statistical analysis supports this prediction, and show that the level of parasite stress has a significant inverse relation with population SRB across the world. Further, this relation is many-folds stronger than the association of SRB with other factors, like; polygyny, fertility, latitude, and son-preference. Hence, I propose that condition affecting ability of parasites (but not adaptive significance) could be a likely causal basis for the striking variation of SRB across populations.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1209.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-04 05:55:45

Towards Personalised Drug Ranking in Clinical Decision Support

Authors: David W. Wright, Shunzhou Wan, S. Kashif Sadiq, Stefan J. Zasada, Peter V. Coveney
Comments: 23 Pages.

Many infectious diseases as well as cancers are strongly influenced by molecular level processes. In several cases, the advent of rapid genetic sequencing, already available in the case of HIV, means that patient-specific treatment based on genetic data becomes conceivable. Targeted therapies use drugs to interfere with specific biomacromolecules involved in disease development. Given the complexity of emergent mutations in such biomacromolecules and in the disease itself, clinicians need to resort to decision support software for patient-specific treatment. Incorporating model based molecular level information into such decision support systems offers the potential to substantially enhance personalised drug treatment by providing first principles based ranking of drug efficacy on a specific patient. Patient specific molecular models of targeted macromolecules are constructed and molecular dynamics simulations are used to rank drug binding affinities. Here we present results from clinically relevant protein variants that arise from two distinct pathologies: HIV and lung carcinoma. Our findings demonstrate the potential for molecular simulations to achieve an accurate ranking of drug binding affinities on clinically relevant time scales and represent the first steps towards the eventual goal of providing data derived from patient specific simulation to enhance clinical decision support systems. The approach gives rapid, robust, and accurate computational results and is dependent on an automated workflow for building, simulating and analysing models distributed over petascale computing resources which are comprised of tens to hundreds of thousands of compute cores.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1204.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-03 09:09:40

Seed Treatment Effects on Emergence of Luffa Aegyptiaca

Authors: Glen Gilchrist
Comments: 5 Pages.

Luffa aegyptiaca (Luffa sponge gourd) is increasingly seen as both a source of vegetative nutrition and as a source of the “luffa” used as to exfoliate during bathing. As such, the commercial growing of Luffa aegyptiaca is increasingly being investigated using more intensive farming methods. Two factors traditionally used to promote / speed germination and emergence of vegetable seeds is investigated. It is concluded that temperature pre-treatment of the seeds (-12°C,24 hours) yields a p=0.004 significance in promoting emergence, whilst pre soaking (water, 18°C, 24hrs) yields p=0.821
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1110.0058 [pdf] submitted on 19 Oct 2011

What is Life?

Authors: Minas Sakellakis
Comments: 6 pages

This article deals with the phenomenon of life,and shows how can a different approach change all that we know about it.Making the simpliest and most objective assumption that the difference between earth and other planets is just that there is a huge number of chemical reactions near the surface of earth(even a stone travelling in the universe can admitt that, because life means nothing for the stone).These chemical reactions , although partially(organism per organism) they seem to have self sustaining and self organizing properties that violate the laws of thermodynamics,when they are seen as a whole, they seem to be more random ,and not violating the laws of thermodynamics.This is very difficult for a person to realize(especially if you are living in big cities), because we see things from inside the whole system, and so it is very difficult to judje objectively what is life.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1105.0025 [pdf] submitted on 16 May 2011

Proteins and Genes, Singletons and Species

Authors: Branko Kozulic
Comments: 41 pages

Recent experimental data from proteomics and genomics are interpreted here in ways that challenge the predominant viewpoint in biology according to which the four evolutionary processes, including mutation, recombination, natural selection and genetic drift, are sufficient to explain the origination of species. The predominant viewpoint appears incompatible with the finding that the sequenced genome of each species contains hundreds, or even thousands, of unique genes - the genes that are not shared with any other species. These unique genes and proteins, singletons, define the very character of every species. Moreover, the distribution of protein families from the sequenced genomes indicates that the complexity of genomes grows in a manner different from that of self-organizing networks: the dominance of singletons leads to the conclusion that in living organisms a most unlikely phenomenon can be the most common one. In order to provide proper rationale for these conclusions related to the singletons, the paper first treats the frequency of functional proteins among random sequences, followed by a discussion on the protein structure space, and it ends by questioning the idea that protein domains represent conserved units of evolution.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1011.0014 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2010

Identity Charge and the Origin of Life

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 pages

"Identity" charge (also known as "number" charge) is the fundamental charge of the weak force and the most important of the particle charges. Identity charge is the symmetry debt of light's anonymity, or complete lack of identity. One photon cannot be distinguished from another, but the elementary leptonic particles are distinct from photons and from each other, and hence carry identity charges. Neutrinos are the explicit or "bare" form of identity charge, which is also carried in a "hidden" or implicit form by the massive leptonic elementary particles - electrons and their heavier kin. Single elementary particles cannot enter or leave the 4-dimensional realm of manifest reality without a conserving identity charge - the functional equivalent of a human "soul" or a citizen's passport. The utility of identity charge (in terms of symmetry conservation) is to facilitate particle-antiparticle annihilations by helping particles identify their appropriate "anti-mates" in a timely fashion - ensuring a conserved pathway for elementary particles returning to their original state of symmetry (light). For more on the function of identity charge see: "Identity Charge and the Weak Force", and "The Origin of Matter and Information".
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Oct 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] submitted on 13 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:0911.0026 [pdf] submitted on 9 Nov 2009

Origin of Life: Newton, Darwin, and the Abundance of Life in the Universe

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 3 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Two giants of British science, Newton and Darwin, developed theories of negentropic force in physics and biology. The two scientists are adjacently interred in Westminster Abby, and their theories of gravity and evolution likewise share common ground and a fractal resonance with DNA. Because DNA/RNA is both a replicating molecule and part of the universal 4x3 fractal pattern, the implications for the abundance of life in the Cosmos are enormous.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:0910.0056 [pdf] submitted on 28 Oct 2009

Theory of Originating Protolife on the Earth

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 2 pages

This theory concerns to systems, which one yet not living, but already and not dead. The solution of a problem of an origin of life lies through a solution of a problem of a genesis protolife, being a link between the living and not living nature.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:0907.0028 [pdf] submitted on 22 Jul 2009

Evolution of a Replicating Protocell

Authors: Terrance Cameron Stewart
Comments: 18 pages. e-mail: TC_STEWART20 (at) YAHOO (dot) COM

This model proposes a minimally constructed replicating protocell that exploits only a positive, a negative and a neutral amino acid to build membranes, genes and ion channels. This transition from chemical to biological evolution would result from a charged peptide that can function as a template to fuse peptide fragments, and act as a membrane gate. The nucleic genetic code may have originated as a single base codon that recognized three types of amino acid residue. A two base codon with three base types could code for nine types of residue. An increase to four base types would produce 16 residue possibilities. The modern code now utilizes a three base codon and four base types to yield 20 types of amino acid. tRNA synthetases and the genetic code appear to be linked together by mutual evolution. The evolving transition to a nucleic code would support a greater variety of amino acids and proteins, and thus complete the creation of life.
Category: Biochemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[23] viXra:1604.0025 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-06 12:23:49

Triosephosphate Isomerase (Tpi) a Dimeric Glycolytic Enzyme as a Model of Tim-Barrel Active-Site Structural and Chemical Aspects in the Monomer Loop Region's Reversible Catalytic Reaction.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 12 Pages.

The K13M mutations involvement in the human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene family...P60174
Category: Biochemistry

[22] viXra:1505.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-12 20:35:57

The Laws of Thermobiochemistry

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article I give the Laws of Thermobiochemistry which unify the Theories of Biology, Chemistry and Physics
Category: Biochemistry

[21] viXra:1407.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-08 01:58:49

The Whole Clear Picture of the Discovered Host Immunological Pathways

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 7 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.
Category: Biochemistry

[20] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-13 15:56:03

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 33 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza A and B, and many unrelated viruses including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the abundant scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical, and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, as well as studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that ambient temperature dips and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible mechanisms, M1 – 4, that can explain this link; M1: increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; M2: lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; M3: chilling may increase host susceptibility; M4: lower temperatures or host chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for M1 or M2, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations. M3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the repeated simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with M4, but not M3 (at least not in its simple form). M4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory virus strains, and the frequent recovery of ts mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that M4 is the main driver of seasonality, but M3 may also play an important role.
Category: Biochemistry

[19] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-08 09:01:05

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 36 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the abundant scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, as well as studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that ambient temperature dips and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible mechanisms that can explain this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) chilling may increase host susceptibility; (4) lower temperatures or host chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two mechanisms, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Mechanism 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the repeated simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with mechanism 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Mechanism 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of ts mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that mechanism 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but mechansism 3 may also play an important role.
Category: Biochemistry

[18] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-23 15:39:48

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 34 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[17] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-07 13:35:29

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 34 Pages. Key index phrases: Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus etc. share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[16] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-26 15:18:09

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 33 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Abstract Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus etc. share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-04 04:35:25

A Survey of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 22 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs), which often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling have often been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have been underestimated, that influenza virus may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[14] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-25 13:46:51

A Survey of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 21 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested (refs?)/I suggest that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 21:10:35

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 47 Pages.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[12] viXra:1404.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-04 15:47:54

Gluathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a Extracellular Selenoenzyme Expression Modulates Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 3 Pages. Corrected syntax in several sentences to translate the subject adequately into English by the addition of several requisite words in relation to or dependent on the phrase, and changed an image (figure 4).

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.
Category: Biochemistry

[11] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-23 15:21:05

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. [These “pedigree” strains were established by collecting nasal secretions from volunteers with colds, and inoculating subsequent batches of volunteers with the secretions.] Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-07 13:39:17

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. [These “pedigree” strains were established by collecting nasal secretions from volunteers with colds, and inoculating subsequent batches of volunteers with the secretions.] Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-25 13:43:20

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested (refs?)/I suggest that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-28 15:48:51

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 40 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Abstract Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost rapidly in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost some of their natural temperature-sensitivity. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-28 13:30:52

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 38 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-10 14:02:39

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 38 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 21:33:04

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 47 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1309.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-13 00:31:00

Intra and Interchromosomal Interactions of Point Mutations Occurring in the Vicinity of the Normal 5-and 3 Ends Via Low and High O(2)-Affinities on the Beta-Globin Complex.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages. 5 cartoons with description required the article fis a retrospective report.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] replaced on 10 Nov 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] replaced on 28 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] replaced on 23 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry