The process of the origin of life is analyzed on the basis of "self-assembly" of DNA and RNA molecules. The minimum amounts of various DNA/RNA molecules that are necessary for the nucleation and evolution of the biosphere as a whole are calculated, since life is an integral property. A cybernetic theory of evolution is presented, which considers DNA as a genetic program of an organism written in a binary system. The stages of evolution of the biosphere are given, with the calculation of the number of all species at each stage. It is shown that oxygen catastrophe is the main cause of the evolution of the biosphere and global glaciation. Moreover, the evolution of the biosphere inevitably leads to mass extinctions, which are a simple restructuring of the biosphere according to new conditions on the planet.
Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 1 Page. http://dragoii.com/ALDragoi_SCHEMA_SUPLIMENTE_PT_FUMATORI_latest.pdf
Dedicatie. Cu multumiri pentru provocarea si motivarea de a scrie acest articol doamnei asistente Monica Tichie din Sectia de recuperare neuromotorie copii din Gura Ocnitei (Adanca) a Spitalului Judetean de Urgenta Targoviste (SJUT). Motto: "NU-ti poti iubi aproapele ca pe tine insuti daca NU stii sa te iubesti in primul rand pe sine: ca sa demonstrezi iubirea de sine, trebuie sa stii sa iti pretuiesti sufletul, mintea si trupul, hranind si protejand corespunzator celulele trupului care este palatul sufletului si al mintii!" (dr. Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi, 5.12.2019)
We all hear about kidney stones but, actually what are kidney stones? Kidney stones are
hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. On 11 September, the
Chinese central government and Ministry of Health informed that several thousands of Chinese
had been diagnosed with kidney stones. About 54 000 citizens have been examined, 13 000 of
them are in hospitals and four deaths have been reported so far. kidney stones are formed due to
dehydration, changes in the diet, hormonal changes, and infections in kidney. They present with
renal pain, blood in urine, pus in urine, and fever. If the concentration of the kidney stones
increased, it leads to affecting the function of the kidney and other parts of the human body. If
the concentration of the kidney stones increased, it leads to affecting the function of the kidney
and other parts of the human body and sometimes leads to death. As the kidney stones are a real
and series problem, several treatments were developed and found. As examples for these
treatments: medication, lithotripsy, tunnel surgery, ureteroscopy and more. They all have
common disadvantages as high cost, unsafety and feeling lot of pain. We made a solution that is
an depends on an extraction from natural plant which is thymus vulgaris that is used to fragment
the kidney stones. That is an efficient, safe and economical solution.
This paper aims at a systematic approach to morphologically characterize of five types of white blood cells (WBC), and its nuclei from light microscopic image of blood samples. Hence, cellular and nuclei based geometric features are computed and analyzed statistically with t-test to show their discriminating potentiality among the species. In morphometry study, the length and breadth along with nucleus of leukocytes are compared between and within the species using oneway Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s pairwise comparison tests. In this study, the estimated values of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus with respect to sex were compared. A total of 20 black and white rats (05 each from males and females) were collected. Blood samples were then collected from the caudal vein of anaesthetized rats. In differential leucocyte count, the parameters namely, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil (p < 0.001) and eosinophil and basophil (p < 0.05) reveal significant difference. In morphometrical study, the cell length, breadth along with nucleus of lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophil (p < 0.01) and eosinophil, basophil (p < 0.05) deviates significantly between and within the species.
This study aims to compare the size of the red blood cells of different freshwater fishes to gain knowledge of their activity. In this study, 11 different freshwater fishes of four different order like Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes, and Osteoglossiformes were selected. For analyses of cytomorphometry of blood cells, blood was collected from caudal vein, and blood smear was prepared at the site of collection. In order to obtain size of different blood cell types, 30 cells of each cell type for each fish were photographed and dimensions of cell-like length and breadth were measured using Microscope Eyepiece Digital Camera (CatCam130 – 1.3 Mega Pixel (MP), Code No. CC130, Catalyst Biotech, Maharashtra, India, attached to Hund Wetzlar Microscope GmbH, Wetzlar-Nauborn, Germany) and computer. This study confirms the cytomorphometry of red blood cells differ significantly at p< 0.001 concerning sex and species. The study will help in diagnosis which in turn will accelerate production of fishes.
Genotoxicity of Eleusine indica (Nkim enang: Efik) was investigated in the Wister strain albino rat (Rattus novergicus). Nine (9) male and nine (9) female rats were randomly assigned to three (3) groups, of which two were exposed to the aqueous extract of E.indica – Group A (control-no extract)), Group B (50 mg/kg BW of E. indica) and Group C (100 mg/kg BW of E. indica). This was administered to the rats by oral gavage for 14 days after which the peripheral blood from the tail tips were collected and assayed for the presence of micronuclei, following standard procedures. Proximate analysis and phytochemical screening of the herb extract was carried out. Results obtained showed that E. indica did not cause any significant (P > 0.05) increase in the incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in rat peripheral blood at any of the doses administered. The polychromatic: normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE: NCE) ratio was found to be in the range of 0.50 ± 0.11 to 0.55 ± 0.02. Also, the aqueous herb extract is rich in Carbohydrates (76.17%) and Tannins (21.76%). Mean body weights (MBW) of rats showed normal distribution throughout the duration of the investigation. The results of this study demonstrate that E. indica does not confer any genotoxicity in mammals. Further in-depth study on its efficacy is recommended.
This study investigated the effect of protein isolate from leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina in diabetic rats. Thirty (30) adults male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six (6) groups of five (5) each based on their body weight. Diabetes was induced with administration of alloxan, 150 mg/kg body weight (i.p). Group A served as the control and received 1 mL/kg body weight of 5% ethanol being solvent used, Group B received 1 mL alloxan containing 150 mg/kg only. Group C, D, E and F were respectively alloxanized but treated with 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% of protein isolate obtained from V. amygdalina leaves for 14 days. On the 15th day, the animals were humanely sacrificed and their liver homogenates were prepared. Standard biochemical procedures were adopted for determination of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glucose levels. Data were subjected to one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post-hoc test using Graph Pad, version 6 software. Results showed that CAT activity in alloxan-induced untreated rats (1.17 μmole H2O2) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than observed in control rats (2.10 mole H2O2). Treatment with the respective doses recorded comparable values to those observed in control rats. Similar observation was seen with SOD data. Rats treated with 7% protein isolate recorded the most significant (p < 0.05) decrease in serum glucose level. The study suggests that the protein isolate possesses anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Autophagy is a cellular process that maintains the homeostasis of the normal cell, but autophagic dysfunction is associated with human diseases, such as cancer. In normal cells, the initial signal to form auto-phagosomes is by the class III phosphatidyl-inositol (PI) 3 kinase complex consisting of sequence genes, Beclin1/Atg6 and class III PI3K (Vps34). This process is negatively regulated by binding of Bcl-2 family members such as Bcl-xL to Beclin1 preventing Beclin1 binding to the PI3K-III complex and thereby reducing autophagy. In cancer, the autophagy can be neutral, tumor-suppressive, or tumor-promoting in different contexts. Genomic analysis of human cancers indicates that the loss or mutation of core autophagy Atg genes, whereas oncogenic events that activate autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis have been identified in malignant diseases. Optimal combination of inductors or inhibitors of autophagy with chemo or radiotherapy in a variety of tumor type, in different phases, can be successful approaches for improve the effect of anticancer therapies.
Diarrhea remains a major health burden in developing society till date. Efforts aimed at ameliorating this condition is very imminent. In this study, the antidiarrheal effect of aqueous extracts (dried and fresh forms) of M. lucida leaves was evaluated in Wistar rats. 25% lactose enriched diet was used to induce diarrhea. 25 Wistar rats of an average weight of 150g were divided equally into five groups labeled A-E. The diet was admonished for 72 h to rats in groups B-E. Fresh aqueous extract of M. lucida, dried aqueous extract of M. lucida and loperamide were then administered to groups C-E respectively for the next seven days. The animals were then sacrificed and blood collected for lactase, intestinal ATPases, and some haematological parameters were assayed using standard laboratory procedures. Histopathological examination of the small intestine was also examined. Our results showed a significant increase in the intestinal lactase activity of diarrheic rats. However, the dried extract was able to restore parity with the control. We observed a significant increase in the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase while a decrease in the activity of Ca2+ATPase in lactose induced diarrheic rats when compared with the control. The extracts of M. lucida further increased significantly the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase when compared with the control and the untreated group. However, no significant effect of the extracts on Ca2+ATPase was observed. On haematological parameters, we observed increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin. Treatment with fresh extract and loperamide was able to reverse this increase. Furthermore results of the differential white blood cell count revealed higher lymphocyte count in the group given dried extract of M. lucida. The extracts were able to ameliorate the aberrations observed in the architecture of the intestinal lumen.
Treatment of etiolated maize leaf segments with 0-300 mM NaCl during greening decreased the osmotic potential of leaf sap significantly. Na+ content of the leaf tissue increased significantly on supplying different concentrations of salt. Relative water content of the leaf tissue was marginally affected by the supply of NaCl. Total protein and RNA content of the maize leaf segments gradually increased when treated with lower concentrations of NaCl and subsequently decreased at higher concentrations. Decrease in DNA content was noted with increasing salt treatment in a concentration dependent manner. SDS-PAGE analysis of salt treated maize leaf tissue revealed appearance of one protein band (approx. 73 kD) in samples incubated with ≥50 mM NaCl compared to control. Protein identification performed with the Mascot search engine in NCBI database indicated extensive homology of this protein with chloroplast heat shock protein 70 of Cenchrus americanus (Protein score: 295), hypothetical proteins SELMODRAFT_267815 of Selaginella moellendorffii (Protein score: 125), VITISV_000728 of Vitis vinifera (Protein score: 118) and SELMODRAFT_230659 of Selaginella moellendorffii (Protein score: 51). The results revealed that the dark grown maize leaf segments exhibit high degree of stress due to NaCl treatment, which affects the biochemical parameters governing the metabolic activities of the leaf tissue. Further, the stress induced proteins are being synthesized in leaf tissue in response to salt stress.