Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 7 Pages.
The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.