Mangroves and halophytic vegetation of Chudamani region and Dhamara mouth region of Gamui estuary, Orissa was studied by using the transect with 4x4m quadrate. In each station, 5 transect samples were collected and total samples analyzed for getting relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency of individual species in the studied area. Maximum Important Value Index (IVI) was obtained for the species Suaeda maritima and minimum value for Sonneratia apetala. A total of 11 plant species were reported, out of them 3 were true mangroves species, remaining 8 were halophytes. Along with data on plant populations hydrographical and sediment analysis was gathered to correlate with distribution and abundance of mangrove species. Maximum density was reported Suaeda maritima and minimum density for Prosophis juliflora. Maximum height of forest is only 2 to
2.5 meters with diameter of plant species is not more than 26cm. Sediment analysis and low input of fresh water may be responsible for degraded mangroves with stunted growth.
Authors: Mohit Kumar
Comments: 12 Pages.
When sewage is untreated and is discharged into any water course will be effected severely. Sewage which has many pathogens and is rich in organic matter and high BOD when released into water course the dissolved oxygen of the stream decreases drastically which effects flora and fauna of the stream and also makes the water unfit for any purpose. Visakhapatnam is a city where nearly 18 lakh (384 per km2) (Eenadu, dated on 1st April) people resides. The day – to – day sewage which generates in the city has been collected and treated in the municipal sewage treatment plants at Appugar, Port area, Old town and Mudarsalova. Where Appugar plant holds 25 MLD, Port area plant holds 10 MLD, Old town plant holds 38MLD and Mudarsalova plant holds 13MLD of sewage of Visakhapatnam. The sewage treatment plants are not enough to hold the existing huge volume of sewage that is generated in the city. People and tourists are attracted more towards locations like Lumbini Park, Tenneti Park, Tourists Resorts located along the Beach and make frequent visits to those places. Aim of this study is to estimate physico-chemical and biological parameters of the sewage samples from different sewage disposal points along the coast of Visakhapatnam and to identify that objectionable parameters of the sewage ,which should be minimized before it is being disposed off.
Authors: Madhukar Shivajirao Dama
Comments: 18 Pages. This article is accepted for publication in PLOS ONE (August 30, 2012)
In this study, I predict that the global variation of offspring sex ratio might be influenced in part by the level of parasite stress. From an energetic standpoint, higher gestational costs of producing a male offspring could decrease male births in a population with limited resources. This implies that, any factor that limits the parental resources could be expected to favor female offspring production. Human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is believed to be influenced by numerous socioeconomic, biological, and environmental factors. Here, I test a prediction that parasite stress, by virtue of its effects on the general health condition, may limit the parental investment ability and therefore could influence the SRB at the population level. The statistical analysis supports this prediction, and show that the level of parasite stress has a significant inverse relation with population SRB across the world. Further, this relation is many-folds stronger than the association of SRB with other factors, like; polygyny, fertility, latitude, and son-preference. Hence, I propose that condition affecting ability of parasites (but not adaptive significance) could be a likely causal basis for the striking variation of SRB across populations.
Many infectious diseases as well as cancers are strongly influenced by molecular level processes. In several cases, the advent of rapid genetic sequencing, already available in the case of HIV, means that patient-specific treatment based on genetic data becomes conceivable. Targeted therapies use drugs to interfere with specific
biomacromolecules involved in disease development. Given the complexity of emergent mutations in such biomacromolecules and in the disease itself, clinicians need to resort to decision support software for patient-specific treatment. Incorporating model based molecular level information into such decision support systems offers the potential to substantially enhance personalised drug treatment by providing first principles based ranking of drug efficacy on a specific patient. Patient specific molecular models of targeted macromolecules are constructed and molecular dynamics simulations are used to rank drug binding affinities. Here we present results from clinically relevant protein variants that arise from two distinct pathologies: HIV and lung carcinoma. Our findings demonstrate the potential for molecular simulations to achieve an accurate ranking of drug binding affinities on clinically relevant time scales and represent the first steps towards the eventual goal of providing
data derived from patient specific simulation to enhance clinical decision support systems. The approach gives rapid, robust, and accurate computational results and is dependent on an automated workflow for building, simulating and
analysing models distributed over petascale computing resources which are comprised of tens to hundreds of thousands of compute cores.