1410 Submissions

[2] viXra:1410.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-27 22:01:01

Contamination of Food Chain by Lead from Bone Processing Industry in India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 7 Pages.

Amaranth grown using the solid waste from a gelatine factory as manure in an experiment conducted by the Kerala Agricultural University had 1085 mg/kg of Pb, 200,000 times the benchmark dose level for developmental neuro-toxicity. The sludge has since been approved and is being marketed as organic manure. This has serious implications for the food safety and public health at a national level.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:1410.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-22 12:01:43

Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry of Codons

Authors: Vladimir Komarov
Comments: 7 Pages.

In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations. In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation. As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium. Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values. However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible. Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter. The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic. The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work. Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.
Category: Biochemistry