The Theory of Evolution is not only the unifying force in Biology, but also one of the most important scientific concepts ever developed. However, the topic has always been neglected or misrepresented, resulting in a population that do not understand (or outright do not believe in) Evolution. The present work consists in a content analysis of Evolution in Brazilian Middle School textbooks. Its aims included the search for obstacles to the understanding of Evolution, such as: conceptual errors, language problems, “Lamarckism” and Creationism. We conclude that many of these obstacles are indeed present in textbooks, hampering the students’ grasp on Evolution; among these, the gravest is not representing Evolution as Biology’s central theory. Nevertheless, we also observed that it is indeed possible to develop the theme in a coherent manner, without recourse to over-simplifications (“dumbing down”) which may result in conceptual mistakes
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