Needless to say, Egypt is one of the developing countries that faces multiple challenges: Pollution and weak health care system which affect mainly two aspects of life: public health and communication. The grand challenge which our project focused on is pollution; waste and industrial smoke pollute the air with high amounts of toxic gases such as CO₂ and SO₄. So, a solution has been adopted to produce a highly-strengthened brick with a lower price. The solution is about extracting and precipitating silica fume (which is a highly toxic material in the gaseous state) from the industrial smoke, and mixing it with BacillusPasteurii bacteria, urine and calcium chloride to make a brand-new strengthened brick almost as hard as a marble. Based on the obtained results, our project could slightly solve Egypt's major problems, mainly the Pollution Problem.
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.
Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein.  Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains.  Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications.  UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves.  Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth.  Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes.  A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis.  This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems.  The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 5 Pages.
Witebsky’s criteria for autoimmune diseases were used for decades since 1957. His postulates are: 1. Direct demonstration of free circulating antibodies active at body temperature 2. Recognition of the specific antigen 3. Production of antibodies against same antigen in experimental animals 4. Experimental animal demonstrates same tissue changes in human. More updated and applicable criteria for autoimmune disorders are required due to recent advance in molecular immunology. Here, I propose new criteria. Possible criteria is HLA association. Probable criteria is HLA association plus TH subtype restriction without pathogen. Definite criteria is experimentally reproducible by autoantibody or self reactive T cell transfer. Optional criteria is Clinical or pathology clues. This new criteria is more practical. It should help to explore the actual disease pathophysiology and lead to better diagnosis and treatment strategies.
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.
Tailor-made protein drugs in the fight against cancer and other diseases are a step close, with the Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology at Flinders playing a part in one of the latest chemistry discoveries in effectively modifying therapeutic proteins.  New research published in Nature Methods will dramatically improve how scientists "see inside" molecular structures in solution, allowing for much more precise ways to image data in various fields, from astronomy to drug discovery.  Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics.  Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome.  Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick.  This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations.  The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing.  In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source.  For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature.  A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark.