Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 5 Pages.
Witebsky’s criteria for autoimmune diseases were used for decades since 1957. His postulates are: 1. Direct demonstration of free circulating antibodies active at body temperature 2. Recognition of the specific antigen 3. Production of antibodies against same antigen in experimental animals 4. Experimental animal demonstrates same tissue changes in human. More updated and applicable criteria for autoimmune disorders are required due to recent advance in molecular immunology. Here, I propose new criteria. Possible criteria is HLA association. Probable criteria is HLA association plus TH subtype restriction without pathogen. Definite criteria is experimentally reproducible by autoantibody or self reactive T cell transfer. Optional criteria is Clinical or pathology clues. This new criteria is more practical. It should help to explore the actual disease pathophysiology and lead to better diagnosis and treatment strategies.
Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.
Tailor-made protein drugs in the fight against cancer and other diseases are a step close, with the Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology at Flinders playing a part in one of the latest chemistry discoveries in effectively modifying therapeutic proteins.  New research published in Nature Methods will dramatically improve how scientists "see inside" molecular structures in solution, allowing for much more precise ways to image data in various fields, from astronomy to drug discovery.  Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics.  Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome.  Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick.  This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations.  The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing.  In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source.  For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature.  A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark.