Condensed Matter

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[245] viXra:1607.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 08:47:27

Spin-Thermoelectric Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Thermally excited spin waves carry a spin current from the ferromagnet (YIG in this case) into the metal layer. Depending on the YIG thickness and the interface condition the amplitude of the spin current as well as transmission properties change. [13] Publishing in Nature Physics April 25, the scientists, led by Professor of Physics Mingzhong Wu in CSU's College of Natural Sciences, are the first to demonstrate using non-polarized light to produce in a metal what's called a spin voltage-a unit of power produced from the quantum spinning of an individual electron. Controlling electron spins for use in memory and logic applications is a relatively new field called spin electronics, or spintronics, and the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[244] viXra:1607.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 10:04:59

Whispering Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of engineering researchers from the University of Victoria (UVic) and the University of Rochester (UR) has developed a way to detect single molecules using a light-based technology inspired by the "whispering gallery" effect, first discovered in London's iconic St. Paul's Cathedral. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[243] viXra:1607.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 10:23:52

Beyond Dirac and Weyl Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of several previously unknown types of quantum particles in materials. The particles— which belong to the class of particles known as fermions—can be distinguished by several intrinsic properties, such as their responses to applied magnetic and electric fields. In several cases, fermions in the interior of the material show their presence on the surface via the appearance of electron states called Fermi arcs, which link the different types of fermion states in the material's bulk. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[242] viXra:1607.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 06:15:20

Nonlinear Scaling Corrections of the BaTiO3-Ceramics Microstructures

Authors: Z. B. Vosika
Comments: 9 Pages.

A new approach, based on nonlinear scaling corrections fractal geometry and dimension for doped BaTiO3-ceramics, is applied. The main conclusion was that intergranular capacities have various positive values then expected which is induced by contact surfaces sizes augmentation as a consequence of their new nonlinear fractal based nature, which includes the box size dependence of scaling. Also, introduced new model for intergaranular non-ideal capacitor, generalized Cole impedance element in conection with the parallel parasite capacity, resistivity and inductivity
Category: Condensed Matter

[241] viXra:1607.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 08:52:52

Charge Density Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Newly discovered material property may lead to high temp superconductivity. [32] Superconductivity (SC) and ferromagnetism (FM) are mutually antagonistic collective phenomena in solids. Macroscopically, a superconductor expels magnetic fluxes from its interior below the superconducting critical temperature TSC. By contrast, a ferromagnet magnetizes itself (for a single magnetic domain) spontaneously below the ferromagnetic transition temperature TFM. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[240] viXra:1607.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 09:32:40

Topology and Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[239] viXra:1607.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 09:17:51

Extreme Light-Matter Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A new MIT study could open up new areas of technology based on types of light emission that had been thought to be "forbidden," or at least so unlikely as to be practically unattainable. The new approach, the researchers say, could cause certain kinds of interactions between light and matter, which would normally take billions of years to happen, to take place instead within billionths of a second, under certain special conditions. [18] Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[238] viXra:1607.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 11:47:17

Complex-Dynamical Nanobiotechnology Paradigm and Intrinsically Creative Evolution

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 26 pages, 19 refs, 40 eqs; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 14 (1) (2016) 1-26

Complex nanosystem dynamics is analysed by the unreduced solution of arbitrary many-body interaction problem, leading to the fundamental dynamic multivaluedness and universal definition of dynamic complexity in terms of the number of system realisations. We show that genuine quantum and classical chaos can only be strong for a free-interaction nanoscale system providing exponentially huge, “magic” efficiency of such unreduced interaction dynamics, which underlies the properties of life, intelligence and consciousness. Various more or less chaotic regimes of irreducibly complex nanosystem dynamics are reviewed, as well as the rigorously specified transitions between them. The obtained unified formalism for description of the unreduced complex nanosystem dynamics is based on the universal symmetry (conservation and transformation) of complexity unifying the extended versions of all usual laws and principles. We summarise the main principles of thus obtained new, complex-dynamical nanobiotechnology paradigm and show that it is the only viable way of further sustainable nanotechnology and society development in the spirit of coevolution of natural and artificial system complexity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[237] viXra:1607.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 08:44:11

Topological Plexcitons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

New types of particles called 'topological plexcitons' have been engineered by researchers in the US, and they could help pave the way for more efficient energy transfers in solar cells and other forms of photonic circuits. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[236] viXra:1607.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 05:22:19

New Ferromagnetic Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Superconductivity (SC) and ferromagnetism (FM) are mutually antagonistic collective phenomena in solids. Macroscopically, a superconductor expels magnetic fluxes from its interior below the superconducting critical temperature TSC. By contrast, a ferromagnet magnetizes itself (for a single magnetic domain) spontaneously below the ferromagnetic transition temperature TFM. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[235] viXra:1607.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 16:06:01

Unstable Ice Lens Growth in Freezing Saline Porous Media

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin, R. W. Style, A. Anderson, J. S. Wettlaufer, M. G. Worster
Comments: 11 Pages.

We report on experimental and theoretical studies of ice lenses in saline porous media. We find that at slow freezing rates a single ice lens can grow stably. At faster rates the ice lens becomes unstable, and complex structures such as multiple lenses and cellular or dentritic ice appear within the porous medium. A linear stability analysis is employed to predict conditions for the onset of the instability. Solute diffusion is found to substantially enhance the instability, consistent with the experimental observations.
Category: Condensed Matter

[234] viXra:1606.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 10:15:19

Colloidal Mushy Layers

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin, S. Deville, R. W. Style, J. S. Wettlaufer, M. G. Worster
Comments: 12 Pages.

We describe and examine theoretically a model of a mushy layer that forms during the solidification of an aqueous colloidal suspension from a cooled boundary. The model accounts for the formation of three regions: a frozen layer containing both pore ice and segregated ice, a mushy layer containing segregated ice but no pore ice, and a boundary layer of particles ahead of the mushy layer. Diffusion of the colloidal particles in the mushy layer is shown to be equivalent to thermal regelation of the particles through ice. The behaviour of the system is sensitive to the size and initial concentration of the colloidal particles. The model is in good qualitative agreement with experimental results on aqueous alumina suspensions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[233] viXra:1606.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 10:37:41

Soliton in Ultracold Gases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[232] viXra:1606.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 04:51:39

Molecular Photoswitch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from institutions in China and the U.S. has successfully created a photoswitch from a single photosensitive molecule. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the changes they made to earlier versions of the switch that allowed it to operate successfully for an entire year. [13] University of Milan have experimentally confirmed a model to detect electron delocalization in molecules and crystals. [12] A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[231] viXra:1606.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 05:24:11

The Cause and Mechanism of Superconductivity

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Re-explanation the causes and mechanism of Superconductivity in a new perspective and according to a new atomic theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[230] viXra:1606.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 02:35:12

Superconductive Charge Density Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Physicists at BESSY II of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin studied an artificial structure composed of alternating layers of ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. Charge density waves induced by the interfaces were found to extend deeply into the superconducting regions, indicating new ways to manipulate superconductivity. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[229] viXra:1606.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 06:32:06

Room Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A research group in Japan found a new compound H5S2 that shows a new superconductivity phase on computer simulation. Further theoretical and experimental research based on H5S2 predicted by this group will lead to the clarification of the mechanism behind high-temperature superconductivity, which takes place in hydrogen sulfide. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[228] viXra:1606.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 06:03:53

Formation of Cooper Pairs as a Consequence of Exchange Interaction

Authors: Stanislav Dolgopolov
Comments: 10 Pages.

The singlet state of two conduction electrons and the full overlap of their wave functions in the real space may minimize the energy of the electrons. This can be shown analyzing the energy of each conduction electron in the field of every particle of a crystal by use of exchange terms. It is possible that the exchange energy of two conduction electrons in the crystal is negative and, thus, the singlet state is favorable. Thus the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the exchange interaction cause a bond between two conduction electrons. The superconductivity in a metallic crystal occurs only if conduction electrons before the pairing are put closely on the Fermi surface in the momentum space. The motion of conduction electrons in the crystal may prevent the formation of Cooper pairs, because the kinetic energy of the motion is usually much larger than the binding energy in the pair. The conduction electrons as standing waves have a zero momentum, hence their momenta are synchronous; therefore the formation of Cooper pairs is more probable than in case of nonzero momenta. The approach of standing waves explains the inverse isotope effect, behavior at high pressures and many other facts about superconductors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[227] viXra:1606.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 09:36:13

Electron Model in Complex Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

University of Milan have experimentally confirmed a model to detect electron delocalization in molecules and crystals. [12] A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[226] viXra:1606.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 05:04:39

Surface Plasmons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Leiden physicists describe a new method to measure so-called surface plasmons, which could lead to new light-based technologies, including faster internet. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[225] viXra:1606.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 03:19:34

Skyrmions for IT

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Magnetic vortices-so-called skyrmions-were predicted theoretically more than 25 years ago, but it has only been possible to observe them experimentally in magnetic materials in recent years. Skyrmions are stable, can have a diameter of just a few nanometers, and can be moved efficiently by electrical currents. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[224] viXra:1606.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 04:03:44

Spinon Control Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[223] viXra:1605.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 20:38:21

How to Treat Directly Magnetic Fields in First-Principle Calculations and the Possible Shape of the Lagrangian

Authors: Yoshiro Nohara
Comments: 3 Pages.

This work checks the Pauli equation with the description of the magnetic field and found a possible missing term in it. We propose a fixed Pauli equation, where the application in density functional theory explains the observed magnetic susceptibilities for Al, Si, and Au with applying directly magnetic fields. The possible shape of the Lagrangian describing the charged particle with an external magnetic field is also discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[222] viXra:1605.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:33:21

Next-Generation Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[221] viXra:1605.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 06:21:47

Attosecond Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Light waves could in principle be used to drive future transistors. Since the electromagnetic waves of light oscillate approximately one million times in a billionth of a second, i.e. at petahertz (PHz) frequencies, optoelectronic computers could attain switching rates 100,000 times higher than current digital electronic systems. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[220] viXra:1605.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-17 06:52:04

Quantum Spin Chains Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[219] viXra:1605.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 23:11:51

Minor Alloying During Surface Oxidation of Stainless Steel

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya
Comments: 02 Pages. Working Paper

A passive oxide layer forms on the surface of the stainless steel which protects it from corrosion.Alloying elements influence this passive layer. The rate of recovery and thickness of the film are significant factors.These films also posses semiconducting properties.
Category: Condensed Matter

[218] viXra:1605.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 02:26:21

Neutrons Magnetic Diffraction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the
Category: Condensed Matter

[217] viXra:1605.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-07 04:11:44

Quantum Filter Josephson Junctions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of researchers at CSIRO Manufacturing, in Australia has created several test quantum filters with arrays having as many as 20,000 Josephson junctions. In their paper published in Superconductor Science and Technology, the team describes their filters, how they were constructed, tuned and tested and several applications that they believe may benefit from their use. [27] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[216] viXra:1605.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-07 02:24:05

X-ray Polaritons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[215] viXra:1605.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-05 10:21:54

Life Evolves in Half-Chaos ( Draft of Deductive Theory of Life Part IV )

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 27 Pages. in Polish

Kauffman hypothesis ‘Life on the edge of chaos’ is here deeply reinterpreted and takes a new form ‘Life evolves in half-chaos’. Criticism of interpretative assumptions of Kauffman model is expressed. Also basis of expectation that living objects should be modeled as chaotic systems with strongly increased stability, mainly by negative feed backs, are shown. Using simulation is proved, that such systems exist and may be constructed. They simultaneously express with similar degree ordered and chaotic reaction on small perturbation. Using acceptation only small effected changes, evolution do not take out of this state.
Category: Condensed Matter

[214] viXra:1604.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 01:57:36

Optical Nonlinearity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[213] viXra:1604.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-23 16:45:15

Significance of Fitting Parameters in Indentation

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Mandal
Comments: 05 Pages. Addition to a previous communication

The fitting relations for Vickers’s indentation for SiCN films as obtained previously. The parameter P’s are the ones which quantify the thin film hardness and substrate effect. The Variation of Hardness with thickness for different P1 values was given in our previous publication. Here we provide the variation of hardness with other parameters.
Category: Condensed Matter

[212] viXra:1604.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-21 07:41:20

Exotic 'Spin Nematic' Phase

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Neutron scattering at ANSTO has contributed to building evidence for the existence of a highly exotic and elusive state of matter, known as a magnetic 'spin nematic' phase in a natural mineral called linarite. [13] Post-doctoral researchers, Karim Essafi, Owen Benton and Ludovic Jaubert in the Theory of Quantum Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[211] viXra:1604.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 12:18:14

Optical and Material Science Properties of Aranmula Metal Mirror from Kerala

Authors: E.A Nazimudeen, T.E.Girish
Comments: 12 Pages. Presented in International Conference on Quantum Optics and Photonic during Feb 2016 at Ernakulam,Kerala India

Aranmula mirror is a typical speculum metal mirror, cast and polished according to traditional techniques from Kerala in Southern India. We report our experimental investigations on detailed elemental chemical compositions, chemical surface structure, surface morphology, thermal stability, and optical reflectance of Aranmula metal mirror. The results of EDS based elemental chemical composition studies at the reflecting surface of cast, thin film coated and powder form of mirror samples have revealed the use of Arsenic (As), Silver (Ag), Gold (Au), Iron (Fe), Phosphorous (P), Sulphur (S) and Zinc (Zn) as minor constituents in Aranmula mirror making. The detailed surface structure and morphology of the mirror sample is studied for the first time using XRD and AFM. The Combined use of EDS, AFM and XRD analysis of the mirror samples reveal the presence of a transparent, non-metallic, corrosion resistant, smooth, nano structured thin film layer mainly consisting of a tin enriched delta phase (Cu_31 Sn_8) on the mirror surface, which is amorphous in nature. It also suggests that Aranmula metal mirror contains nano-particles that are considered to be quasi-crystalline in nature. We could prepare thin films of cast Aranmula mirror material with significantly higher optical reflectance for the first time. The average optical reflectance of the cast Aranmula mirror sample in the visible region is found to increase by 10 % when it is prepared in the form of thin film.
Category: Condensed Matter

[210] viXra:1604.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 02:18:31

Epitaxial Growth of Solid State Ionics Materials

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, P.Prabhakar, R. Praveen Kumar
Comments: 05 Pages. Working Paper

Epitaxial thin films of materials used in solid state ionics like Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), Rare Earth Oxides (REO) are suitable systems to study the interfacial ion transport. YSZ is an efficient oxygen ion conductor, vacancy present are responsible for ionic transport. By altering the structure we can increase the ionic conductivity. An attempt was made to computationally mock the sputtering process and deposit these films and study the diffusion of the adatom on the surface. There exists a strong interaction of the ions formed in the plasma during the sputtering process
Category: Condensed Matter

[209] viXra:1604.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-18 12:04:38

Electricity from Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[208] viXra:1604.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 13:26:33

Cooper-Pair Density Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[207] viXra:1604.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 10:37:01

Two Kinds of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Iron selenide films peppered with potassium atoms exhibit a high-temperature superconducting phase that emerges separately from a low-temperature superconducting phase. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[206] viXra:1604.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-12 03:06:33

Magnetoresistance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Magnetoresistance Insights from pure mathematics are lending new insights to material physics, which could aid in development of new devices and sensors. Now an international team of physicists has discovered that applying a magnetic field to a non-magnetic metal made it conduct 70% more electricity, even though basic physics principles would have predicted the opposite. [9] Scientists at the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, which relies on the separation of right-and left-"handed" particles, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[205] viXra:1604.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-11 01:50:32

Water Ionization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[204] viXra:1604.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-09 10:33:58

Light-to-Current Conversion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[203] viXra:1604.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-08 14:19:22

Magnetism and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[202] viXra:1604.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-03 05:21:46

Hydroxyapatite for Water Treatment

Authors: Shruti Sharma, A.S.Bhattacharyya
Comments: 04 Pages. Working Paper

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was prepared from egg shells by various routes using hexane and acetic acid followed by heat treatment. Hap has a wide application in water treatment by removal of metal ions. XRD of the samples showed use of acetic acid followed by high temperature sintering leads to formation crystalline phases of HAp. Strong evidence of CaCO3 in calcite phase was obtained in other samples.
Category: Condensed Matter

[201] viXra:1603.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 07:47:59

Bismuth Thin Films: Polar Angle and Ion Fluence

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Praveen Kumar, Rishideo Kumar, Vikrant Raj
Comments: 06 Pages. Unpublished

Computational epitaxial thin film deposition of Bi thin films with variation of polar angle and ion fluence was presented.Specific polar angles giving higher deposition rate were observed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[200] viXra:1603.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 08:15:02

Superconductivity in a New Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[199] viXra:1603.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-20 12:16:48

Unexpected Twist on Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[198] viXra:1603.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-19 01:01:07

On the Possible new High Temperature Superconductors

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 6 Pages.

It shows that the hybrid graphene may be the high temperature superconductor based on a simple superconductivity theory. However the pure graphene cannot be the high temperature superconductor. The efforts to make the graphene to be superconductors are to use the Graphene-Boron Nitride or other graphene-ceramics sandwich structure. Calculations show that this sandwich structure can satisfy the demanding of high temperature superconductivity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[197] viXra:1603.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-17 03:18:14

Rapid Superconducting Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[196] viXra:1603.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-15 09:47:30

Report of Simulation Investigations, a Base of Statement that Life Evolves in the Half-Chaos

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: Version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, over 400 graphs and tables. English version will be also in viXra.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic, described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties. Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity, however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations.
Category: Condensed Matter

[195] viXra:1603.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 07:30:38

Electronic Weyl Momentum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Researchers at Princeton University have observed a bizarre behavior in a strange new crystal that could hold the key for future electronic technologies. Unlike most materials in which electrons travel on the surface, in these new materials the electrons sink into the depths of the crystal through special conductive channels. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[194] viXra:1603.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 03:56:06

Topological Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Finland's Aalto University researchers have theorized that superconducting surfaces can become topological superconductors when magnetic iron atoms are deposited on the surface in a regular pattern. They used the latest mathematical and physical models to predict the existence of a topological superconducting state on metallic superconducting surfaces and thin films. [28] Since the 1930s scientists have been searching for particles that are simultaneously matter and antimatter. Now physicists have found strong evidence for one such entity inside a superconducting material. The discovery could represent the first so-called Majorana particle, and may help researchers encode information for quantum computers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[193] viXra:1603.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-06 22:20:18

Cold Fusion Deuterium in 147-Atom Pd Nanoclusters Embedded in Zeolite Cages

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 46 Pages.

147-atom Palladium clusters embedded in Zeolite cavities enable Cold Fusion when exposed to Deuterium gas by Klein Paradox Tunnelling of D+D+D+D producing He + He + 47.6 MeV. Cold Fusion Energy goes to Optical Mode Phonons in the Pd clusters and then to the Zeolite where it is stored as Heat that is released by D2O Heavy Water to produce useful energy. Ejection of He + He and reloading of D+D+D+D is done by Jitterbug transformation between Icosahedral Ground State and Cuboctahedral Metastable State of 147-atom Pd clusters. Synthesis of 147-atom Pd clusters has been done by Burton, Boyle, and Datye at Sandia / U. New Mexico, USA. Zeolite synthesis has been discussed by Sharma, Jeong, Han and Cho at Chungnam Nat. Un., Korea. Based on prior experimental results of Arata and Zhang (replicated by McKubre at SRI) and of Parchamazad the expected energy production is on the order of kilowatts per milligram of Palladium.
Category: Condensed Matter

[192] viXra:1603.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 11:05:33

Thermoelectric Current

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers have observed spin-dependent thermoelectric currents in superconductors—a finding that could lead to precise cryogenic thermometers. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[191] viXra:1603.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 07:16:15

Pseudogap in High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[190] viXra:1603.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 01:04:44

Ising Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Strong enough magnetic field can break electron pairs and destroy superconductivity. Surprisingly, experimental groups led by Prof. Ye and Prof. Zeitler in Groningen and Nijmegen found that superconductivity in thin films of MoS2 could withstand an applied magnetic field as strong as 37 Tesla. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[189] viXra:1602.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-21 03:55:08

On the Electrodynamics of Charge Density Waves: Classical vs. Quantum Formulations

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 34 Pages.

We show that the classical random pinning model, if simulated numerically using a phase evolution scheme pioneered by Littlewood, gives dispersion relationships that are inconsistent with experimental values near threshold. These results suggest the need for a revision of contemporary classical models of charge density wave transport phenomena. Classical phase evolution equations have the same form as driven harmonic oscillators. We provide a different formulation of charge density transport using a tunneling Hamiltonian, motivated by Sidney Colemans’s false vacuum hypothesis, to model solition anti-soliton pair transport through a pinning gap. We thereby derive an analytical expression for charge density wave transport that agrees with experimental data both above and below the threshold field.
Category: Condensed Matter

[188] viXra:1602.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-17 14:52:20

Superconductive Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[187] viXra:1601.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-29 09:18:19

Heavy Fermions Nuclear Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

In a surprising find, physicists from the United States, Germany and China have discovered that nuclear effects help bring about superconductivity in ytterbium dirhodium disilicide (YRS), one of the most-studied materials in a class of quantum critical compounds known as "heavy fermions." [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[186] viXra:1601.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 03:04:40

Sedeonic Equations of Ideal Fluid

Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.
Category: Condensed Matter

[185] viXra:1601.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:13:59

Liquid Metal Jetting Stream Triggered Arc Discharge Plasma in Liquid

Authors: Yang Yu, Qian Wang, Xuelin Wang, Yuhang Wu, Jing Liu
Comments: 11 pages, 4 figures, 1 table.

We discovered for the first time a fundamental phenomenon that arc discharge plasma can be easily triggered in liquid through jetting liquid metal stream to the electrode under only very small voltage. Along with the liquid metal stream, repetitive plasmas with light emission were generated which could last for several milliseconds each time, yet with a consistent current. The principal peaks of such optical emission spectrum lie in the ultraviolet and visible blue and violet sections, which are mainly caused by the plasma of gallium and indium. Some micro/sub-micro metal droplets and other arbitrary-shaped products such as “liquid metal pea” were also fabricated via the process. A series of critical factors to affect such fundamental events were experimentally clarified and interpreted. This finding opens an extremely easy and unconventional way to generate plasma at room temperature which would offer diverse applications such as serving as a light emitter for either optical or ultraviolet illuminations, as an electroacoustic source, or fabricating micro or particles of the liquid metal and other compounds.
Category: Condensed Matter

[184] viXra:1512.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-24 17:22:53

Chaotic End-State Oscillation of 4H/TSC and WS Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 23 Pages. Preprint of submittal to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).
Category: Condensed Matter

[183] viXra:1512.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-05 00:56:39

Thermal Conductivity of Zincblende Crystals

Authors: Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
Comments: 8 Pages. Published in Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, October 2015 – ISSN 2412-5954

Among materials having zincblende lattices, we find some that are characterized by a high thermal conductivity. This is a quite important feature for their application in semiconductor technologies and related devices. In this paper, we will discuss the thermal conductivity of two zincblende crystals (SiC and GaAs), stressing the role of lattice vibrations in producing high values of conductivity and of lattice defects in reducing it. In the framework of a model dealing with phonon dispersions and reliable scattering mechanisms, we will show how lattice thermal conductivity can be estimated from the Boltzmann Transport Equation in the case of any zincblende crystal.
Category: Condensed Matter

[182] viXra:1511.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-06 12:27:42

Entropy Constant and Superfluidity of Time

Authors: Arghyadeep Chatterjee
Comments: 1 Page. Read it and give your opinion

Based on my latest calculations and concepts . It is just a initial paper. I will post an updated paper soon
Category: Condensed Matter

[181] viXra:1511.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-06 12:45:35

Solution to Poisson Boltzmann Equation in Semi-Infinite and Cylindrical Geometries

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 5 Pages.

Linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) gives us simple expressions for charge density distribution (ρe) within fluids or plasma. A recent work of this author shows that the old boundary conditions (BC), which are usually used to solve PBE, have serious defects. The old solutions turned out to be non-unique, and violates charge conservation principle in some cases. There we also derived the correct formula of ρe for a finite, rectangular geometry, using appropriate BCs. Here we consider some other types of geometries and obtain formula of ρe, which may be useful to analyse different experimental conditions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[180] viXra:1511.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-06 06:10:59

Phonons are 'Bosonic' Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team of researchers working at Osaka University in Japan has devised an experiment that gave results showing that phonons mix in such a way that they can be now be classified as 'bosonic' particles. Dave Kielpinski with Hewlett Packard Laboratories, offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team and explains how it relates to work done with photons and other quantum particles. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[179] viXra:1511.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-04 10:34:53

The Structure of Graphene

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the arrangement structure of the atoms in Graphene.
Category: Condensed Matter

[178] viXra:1511.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-03 23:43:54

Origin of Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in Heavy Fermion Systems: a Conceptual View

Authors: Swapnil Patil
Comments: Total 15 pages including the supplementary information. The supplementary information is at the end of the manuscript. This is an update of arXiv:1409.7156v3

We critically examine the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in heavy fermion systems located close to a magnetic instability and suggest a conceptual advance in physics in order to explain its origin. We argue that the treatment of electronic states responsible for magnetism near the Quantum Critical Point (QCP), should not be accomplished within the quantum mechanical formalism; instead they should be treated semi-classically. The observed NFL behavior can be explained within such a scenario. As a sequel we attempt to discuss its consequences for the explanation of high-TC superconductivity observed in Cuprates.
Category: Condensed Matter

[177] viXra:1511.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-03 01:48:56

Can CDW Physics Explain Ultra Fast Transitions, and Current Vs. Applied Electric Field Values Seen in the Laboratory?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages.

The tunneling Hamiltonian is a proven method to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wavefunctions in many-body physics. Our problem is how to apply a wave functional formulation of tunneling Hamiltonians to a driven sine-Gordon system. We apply a generalization of the tunneling Hamiltonian to charge density wave (CDW) transport problems in which we consider tunneling between states that are wavefunctionals of a scalar quantum field. We present derived I-E curves that match Zenier curves used to fit data experimentally with wave-functionals congruent with the false vacuum hypothesis. The open question is whether the coefficients picked in both the wave-functionals and the magnitude of the coefficients of the driven sine Gordon physical system should be picked by topological charge arguments that in principle appear to assign values that have a tie in with the false vacuum hypothesis first presented by Sidney Coleman. Our supposition is that indeed this is useful and that the topological arguments give evidence as to a first order phase transition which gives credence to the observed and calculated I-E curve as evidence
Category: Condensed Matter

[176] viXra:1510.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 06:22:46

A Brief Discussion on the Physical Properties of One Dimensional Periodic Structures

Authors: Francesco Scotognella
Comments: 7 Pages. 8 figures

In this paper we present a brief discussion on the properties of one-dimensional (1D) photonic structures. We will show the light transmission through periodic structures, i.e. photonic crystals, random structures, and quasicrystals. We will discuss the possibility to describe other types of 1D structures.
Category: Condensed Matter

[175] viXra:1510.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-19 14:00:53

Titanium Nitride: Sputter Modeling

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Praveen Kumar
Comments: 02 Pages. Working Paper

A model for sputter based deposition of TiN films was developed by simulations. The rate of change of partial sputtering yield with coverage was considered. The deposition pressure and time were varied to get films of different thickness.
Category: Condensed Matter

[174] viXra:1510.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-09 03:26:20

Quantum Phase Transition and Quantum Critical Point

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point
Category: Condensed Matter

[173] viXra:1510.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-07 17:59:25

Dendritic Growth in Si-(CN) Thin Films

Authors: Dendritic growth in Si- thin films
Comments: 02 Pages. Short Communication (unpublished)

A rare dendritic growth in sputter deposited SiCN and CVD deposited CN were observed. The rapid rate of nucleation and growth process led to instabilities in the growth pattern and the surface energy release rate was more through convection than diffusion It opens up new field of fractal study in the case of CN and SiCN based materials and thin films.
Category: Condensed Matter

[172] viXra:1510.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-03 09:54:34

Levitation of an Object with Static Electric Charge by use of the Earth’s Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I present the theoretical calculation of net electrical charge required in order to levitate a material object with the Earth’s electric field. I also discuss the practical uses of this effect in producing an elevation device.
Category: Condensed Matter

[171] viXra:1509.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-21 23:44:01

Klein Paradox Tunnelling and TSC Fusion of D in Pd Nano-Clusters

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 23 Pages.

Klein Paradox Tunnelling is a key element in TSC Fusion of Deuterium in Palladium Nano-Clusters. The electron shell structure of Palladium allows formation of a Dirac Fermion Band that is analogous to the Dirac Fermion Band in Carbon Graphene.
Category: Condensed Matter

[170] viXra:1509.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-21 12:19:50

Bulk Semiconductor Levitation by use of Electrical Current and the Earth’s Magnetic Field

Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I present a method for the levitation of a bulk semiconductor by use of the Earth’s magnetic field acting on an electrical current through the semiconductor. The theory is simplified to the case of a large semiconducting sample with a strong electrical current and specific examples are discussed for different elemental semiconductors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[169] viXra:1509.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-20 11:12:10

The Structure, State and Properties of Matter in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according to a new theory of atomic structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[168] viXra:1508.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-26 00:59:39

Analogous Viscosity Equations of Granular Powders Based on Eyring’s Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: Pages. published RSC Advances , 2015, 5, 95318-95333

Granular powders can be successfully treated with kinetic theory and statistical mechanics that are typically applicable to thermal systems, though the granular powders are athermal systems and the conventional environmental temperature is too weak to drive particles to move. Once the granular temperature is analogously defined in line with that in thermodynamics, viscosity concept of thermal systems is naturally borrowed to describe the flowability of granular powders in this article. Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume concept, which have been proved to be very powerful in dealing with many thermally activated phenomena in a wide variety of fields, are utilized to derive viscosity equations of granular powders under a simple shear. The obtained viscosity equations are examined only with empirical experimental observations in describing powder flowability, due to the lack of instruments and methodology for directly determining the viscosity of granular materials. The continuous shear thickening rather than the discontinuous shear thickening are predicted and found to be dependent on shear rate, the cohesive energy between particles, and the particle volume fraction, though the discontinuous shear thickening may still occur if certain conditions are met during shear, such as local particle volume fractions approach to the jamming point created by the shear induced inhomogeneity. A fundamental mechanism on how dry granular powders flow is proposed on the basis of what are demonstrated from the viscosity equations.The work presented in this article may lay a foundation to scale powder flowability in a more fundamental and consistent manner, at least providing an approach to consistently define the viscosity of granular powders. Since the same approaches are employed to derive the viscosity equations of granular powders as used to derive viscosity equations of liquids, colloidal suspensions, and polymeric materials, both athermal and thermal systems are thus unified with a single methodology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[167] viXra:1508.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-17 13:26:06

Simulation of Angular Dependence of Exchange Bias in Nife-Femn Bilayers Based on Mauri Model

Authors: Bojian Xu, Ya Zhai
Comments: 14 Pages.

We have investigated the bias field(He) and the coercivity(Hc) of the exchange bias effect in the Ni80Fe20/Fe50Mn50 bilayers and the simulated experimental data based on Mauri model. It is found that the simulation is to some extent consistent with the experiment on the whole variation trend of the coercivity, whereas the calculated result is smaller than the experimental data. On the other hand, the simulation indicates that the coercivity drops down sharply with the deflection of the applied magnetic field from the unidirectional axis to its perpendicular orientation, while it decreases slower in the experiments.
Category: Condensed Matter

[166] viXra:1508.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-17 06:01:13

London-Proca-Hirsch Equations for Electrodynamics of Superconductors on Cantor Sets

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper published at Advances in High Energy Physics (AHEP) journal, Yang Zhao et al. derived Maxwell equations on Cantor sets from the local fractional vector calculus. It can be shown that Maxwell equations on Cantor sets in a fractal bounded domain give efficiency and accuracy for describing the fractal electric and magnetic fields. However, so far there is no derivation of equations for electrodynamics of superconductor on Cantor sets. Therefore, in this paper I present for the first time a derivation of London-Proca-Hirsch equations on Cantor sets. The name of London-Proca-Hirsch is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Proca and London-Hirsch’s theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. Considering that Proca equations may be used to explain electromagnetic effects in superconductor, I suggest that the proposed London-Proca-Hirsch equations on Cantor sets can describe electromagnetic of fractal superconductors. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for fractal superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to fractal cosmology modeling too.
Category: Condensed Matter

[165] viXra:1508.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-16 12:33:45

Point Mass Model for Predicting 2-D Particles Motion Modes in Vertical Rotation Drum

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Siti Nurul Khotimah, Yulia Yopy Mardiansyah
Comments: 4 pages, 5 figures, conference paper

Motion modes of pseudo 2-d granular particles in vertical rotation drum is modeled using point mass motion considering only friction, normal, and gravitation forces. Two schemes in evaluating the forces are used, i.e. dynamics in 2-d linear and 1-d angular motions. Finite difference method implementing Euler scheme is used to solve the equation of motion.
Category: Condensed Matter

[164] viXra:1508.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-04 10:14:29

Thermalization Hypothesis Classical and Quantum

Authors: Aritra Sinha, Shinjan Mandal
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we make an introduction to the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis.We have first reviewed thermalization mechanism in classical systems, then introduce eigen-state thermalization as a possible explanation for thermal behavior in quantum systems.
Category: Condensed Matter

Replacements of recent Submissions

[84] viXra:1606.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 23:47:42

The Cause and Mechanism of Superconductivity

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Re-explanation the causes and mechanism of Superconductivity in a new perspective and according to a new atomic theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[83] viXra:1604.0268 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-18 14:10:27

Electricity from Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[82] viXra:1603.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-16 03:17:58

Report of Simulation Investigations, a Base of Statement that Life Evolves in the Half-Chaos

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: v1 - version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, v2 - version in English, 170 pages, over 400 graphs and tables.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic, described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties. Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity, however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations. Keywords: chaos; complex networks; dynamic networks; deterministic networks; Kauffman networks; computer simulation.
Category: Condensed Matter

[81] viXra:1603.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-09 13:42:40

Cold Fusion Deuterium in 147-Atom Pd Nanoclusters Embedded in Zeolite Cages

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 49 Pages.

147-atom Palladium clusters embedded in Zeolite cavities enable Cold Fusion when exposed to Deuterium gas by Klein Paradox Tunnelling of D+D+D+D producing He + He + 47.6 MeV. Cold Fusion Energy goes to Optical Mode Phonons in the Pd clusters and then to the Zeolite where it is stored as Heat that is released by D2O Heavy Water to produce useful energy. Ejection of He + He and reloading of D+D+D+D is done by Jitterbug transformation between Icosahedral Ground State and Cuboctahedral Metastable State of 147-atom Pd clusters. Synthesis of 147-atom Pd clusters has been done by Burton, Boyle, and Datye at Sandia / U. New Mexico, USA. Zeolite synthesis has been discussed by Sharma, Jeong, Han and Cho at Chungnam Nat. Un., Korea. Based on prior experimental results of Arata and Zhang (replicated by McKubre at SRI) and of Parchamazad the expected energy production is on the order of kilowatts per milligram of Palladium. Version 2 (v2) adds some details of fusion energy transfer to Pd cluster.
Category: Condensed Matter

[80] viXra:1601.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-18 06:37:11

Sedeonic Equations of Ideal Fluid

Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov
Comments: 8 Pages. revised version

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.
Category: Condensed Matter

[79] viXra:1601.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-12 05:19:30

Sedeonic Equations of Ideal Fluid

Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.
Category: Condensed Matter

[78] viXra:1512.0418 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-27 18:05:22

Chaotic End-State Oscillation of 4H/TSC and WS Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 25 Pages. Preprint of draft paper to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).
Category: Condensed Matter

[77] viXra:1512.0418 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-25 23:51:50

Chaotic End-State Oscillation of 4H/TSC and WS Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 24 Pages. Preprint of draft paper to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).
Category: Condensed Matter

[76] viXra:1511.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-05 05:02:53

The Structure of Graphene

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the arrangement structure of the atoms in Graphene.
Category: Condensed Matter

[75] viXra:1511.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-11 19:37:33

Origin of Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in Heavy Fermion Systems: a Conceptual View

Authors: Swapnil Patil
Comments: Total 16 pages. The replacement elaborates the supplementary information of our previous version and refines the language of presentation. Many of our ideas should become very clear after reading this version (also published as arXiv:1409.7156v5).

We critically examine the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in heavy fermion systems located close to a magnetic instability and suggest a conceptual advance in physics in order to explain its origin. We argue that the treatment of electronic states responsible for magnetism near the Quantum Critical Point (QCP), should not be accomplished within the quantum mechanical formalism; instead they should be treated semi-classically. The observed NFL behavior can be explained within such a scenario. As a sequel we attempt to discuss its consequences for the explanation of high-TC superconductivity observed in Cuprates.
Category: Condensed Matter

[74] viXra:1510.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-10 04:19:34

Quantum Phase Transition and Quantum Critical Point

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point
Category: Condensed Matter

[73] viXra:1510.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-09 07:52:01

Quantum Phase Transition and Quantum Critical Point

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point
Category: Condensed Matter

[72] viXra:1510.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-05 11:00:15

Dendritic Growth in Si-(CN) Thin Films

Authors: A.S. Bhattacharyya, S.K.Raj, R.Ratn, Parameshwar Kommu
Comments: 03 Pages. Communicated

A rare dendritic growth in sputter deposited SiCN and CVD deposited CN were observed. The rapid rate of nucleation and growth process led to instabilities in the growth pattern and the surface energy release rate was more through convection than diffusion It opens up new field of fractal study in the case of CN and SiCN based materials and thin films.
Category: Condensed Matter

[71] viXra:1510.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-12 18:00:50

The Gravitational Invisibility

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

The possible obtention of invisibility by means of a gravitational method is shown in this work. This method is based on a gravity control process patented on 2008 (BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5). It goes far beyond the known methods of invisibility and camouflage, which use the principles of light refraction to allow light to pass right through an object (metamaterials).
Category: Condensed Matter

[70] viXra:1509.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-22 00:47:45

The Structure, State and Properties of Matter in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according to a new theory of atomic structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[69] viXra:1509.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-20 22:49:04

The Structure, State and Properties of Matter in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according to a new theory of atomic structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[68] viXra:1508.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-22 09:25:23

Defining Temperatures of Granular Powders Analogously with Thermodynamics to Understand the Jamming Phenomena

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: 24 Pages.

For the purpose of applying laws or principles extracted from thermal systems to granular powders, we may need to define temperature properly in granular powders. The conventional environmental temperature in thermal systems is too weak to drive particles in granular powders move around and cannot function as a thermal energy indicator. Several common scenarios in granular powder systems are discussed in this article and the corresponding analogous temperatures are defined in a similar way that the temperature of granular powders can have a same functionality as in thermal systems. For differentiating those two temperatures, the temperature in granular powders is named granulotemperature and expressed as T gp rather than T g in order to avoid confusion with the glass transition temperature expression. The jamming transition temperature is defined analogously in a uniformed manner, too. The particle volume fractions at jamming points are thus obtained by assuming that the ratio of the granulotemperature to the jamming temperature equals to one. The predictions from the equations of the jamming volume fractions at several cases like granular powders under a shear or a vibration are in line with experimental observations and empirical solutions in powder handlings. The goal of this article is to lay a foundation for establishing similar concepts in granular powders and then the granular powders can be described with common laws or principles we are familiar with in thermal systems. Our intention is to build up a bridge between thermal systems and granular powders for accommodating many similarities already found between those two systems.
Category: Condensed Matter