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2016 - 1601(4) - 1602(2) - 1603(12) - 1604(13) - 1605(9) - 1606(11)

Any replacements are listed further down

[235] **viXra:1606.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-30 10:15:19*

**Authors:** S. S. L. Peppin, S. Deville, R. W. Style, J. S. Wettlaufer, M. G. Worster

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We describe and examine theoretically a model of a mushy layer that forms during the solidification of an aqueous colloidal suspension from a cooled boundary. The model
accounts for the formation of three regions:
a frozen layer containing both pore ice and segregated ice, a mushy layer containing
segregated ice but no pore ice, and a boundary layer of particles ahead of the mushy layer. Diffusion of the colloidal particles in the mushy layer is shown to be equivalent to thermal regelation of the particles through ice. The behaviour of the system is
sensitive to the size and initial concentration of the colloidal particles. The model is in
good qualitative agreement with experimental results on aqueous alumina
suspensions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[234] **viXra:1606.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 10:37:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[233] **viXra:1606.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 04:51:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from institutions in China and the U.S. has successfully created a photoswitch from a single photosensitive molecule. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the changes they made to earlier versions of the switch that allowed it to operate successfully for an entire year. [13] University of Milan have experimentally confirmed a model to detect electron delocalization in molecules and crystals. [12] A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[232] **viXra:1606.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-26 05:24:11*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Re-explanation the causes and mechanism of Superconductivity
in a new perspective and according to a new atomic theory.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[231] **viXra:1606.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-22 02:35:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Physicists at BESSY II of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin studied an artificial structure composed of alternating layers of ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. Charge density waves induced by the interfaces were found to extend deeply into the superconducting regions, indicating new ways to manipulate superconductivity. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[230] **viXra:1606.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-21 06:32:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A research group in Japan found a new compound H5S2 that shows a new superconductivity phase on computer simulation. Further theoretical and experimental research based on H5S2 predicted by this group will lead to the clarification of the mechanism behind high-temperature superconductivity, which takes place in hydrogen sulfide. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[229] **viXra:1606.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 06:03:53*

**Authors:** Stanislav Dolgopolov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The singlet state of two conduction electrons and the full overlap of their wave functions in the real space may minimize the energy of the electrons. This can be shown analyzing the energy of each conduction electron in the field of every particle of a crystal by use of exchange terms. It is possible that the exchange energy of two conduction electrons in the crystal is negative and, thus, the singlet state is favorable. Thus the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the exchange interaction cause a bond between two conduction electrons. The superconductivity in a metallic crystal occurs only if conduction electrons before the pairing are put closely on the Fermi surface in the momentum space. The motion of conduction electrons in the crystal may prevent the formation of Cooper pairs, because the kinetic energy of the motion is usually much larger than the binding energy in the pair. The conduction electrons as standing waves have a zero momentum, hence their momenta are synchronous; therefore the formation of Cooper pairs is more probable than in case of nonzero momenta. The approach of standing waves explains the inverse isotope effect, behavior at high pressures and many other facts about superconductors.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[228] **viXra:1606.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-04 09:36:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

University of Milan have experimentally confirmed a model to detect electron delocalization in molecules and crystals. [12] A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[227] **viXra:1606.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-04 05:04:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Leiden physicists describe a new method to measure so-called surface plasmons, which could lead to new light-based technologies, including faster internet. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[226] **viXra:1606.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-04 03:19:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Magnetic vortices-so-called skyrmions-were predicted theoretically more than 25 years ago, but it has only been possible to observe them experimentally in magnetic materials in recent years. Skyrmions are stable, can have a diameter of just a few nanometers, and can be moved efficiently by electrical currents. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[225] **viXra:1606.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-03 04:03:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[224] **viXra:1605.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-26 20:38:21*

**Authors:** Yoshiro Nohara

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This work checks the Pauli equation with the description of the magnetic field
and found a possible missing term in it. We propose a fixed Pauli equation, where
the application in density functional theory explains the observed magnetic susceptibilities
for Al, Si, and Au with applying directly magnetic fields. The possible shape of the Lagrangian
describing the charged particle with an external magnetic field is also discussed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[223] **viXra:1605.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-25 06:33:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[222] **viXra:1605.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 06:21:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Light waves could in principle be used to drive future transistors. Since the electromagnetic waves of light oscillate approximately one million times in a billionth of a second, i.e. at petahertz (PHz) frequencies, optoelectronic computers could attain switching rates 100,000 times higher than current digital electronic systems. [18]
Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17]
Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[221] **viXra:1605.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-17 06:52:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[220] **viXra:1605.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 23:11:51*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya

**Comments:** 02 Pages. Working Paper

A passive oxide layer forms on the surface of the stainless steel which protects it from corrosion.Alloying elements influence this passive layer. The rate of recovery and thickness of the film are significant factors.These films also posses semiconducting properties.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[219] **viXra:1605.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 02:26:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[218] **viXra:1605.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 04:11:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team of researchers at CSIRO Manufacturing, in Australia has created several test quantum filters with arrays having as many as 20,000 Josephson junctions. In their paper published in Superconductor Science and Technology, the team describes their filters, how they were constructed, tuned and tested and several applications that they believe may benefit from their use. [27]
Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[217] **viXra:1605.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 02:24:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[216] **viXra:1605.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-05 10:21:54*

**Authors:** Andrzej Gecow

**Comments:** 27 Pages. in Polish

Kauffman hypothesis ‘Life on the edge of chaos’ is here deeply reinterpreted and takes a new form ‘Life evolves in half-chaos’. Criticism of interpretative assumptions of Kauffman model is expressed. Also basis of expectation that living objects should be modeled as chaotic systems with strongly increased stability, mainly by negative feed backs, are shown. Using simulation is proved, that such systems exist and may be constructed. They simultaneously express with similar degree ordered and chaotic reaction on small perturbation. Using acceptation only small effected changes, evolution do not take out of this state.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[215] **viXra:1604.0375 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-29 01:57:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[214] **viXra:1604.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 16:45:15*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Mandal

**Comments:** 05 Pages. Addition to a previous communication

The fitting relations for Vickers’s indentation for SiCN films as obtained previously. The parameter P’s are the ones which quantify the thin film hardness and substrate effect. The Variation of Hardness with thickness for different P1 values was given in our previous publication. Here we provide the variation of hardness with other parameters.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[213] **viXra:1604.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-21 07:41:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Neutron scattering at ANSTO has contributed to building evidence for the existence of a highly exotic and elusive state of matter, known as a magnetic 'spin nematic' phase in a natural mineral called linarite. [13] Post-doctoral researchers, Karim Essafi, Owen Benton and Ludovic Jaubert in the Theory of Quantum Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[212] **viXra:1604.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 12:18:14*

**Authors:** E.A Nazimudeen, T.E.Girish

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Presented in International Conference on Quantum Optics and Photonic during Feb 2016 at Ernakulam,Kerala India

Aranmula mirror is a typical speculum metal mirror, cast and polished according to traditional techniques from Kerala in Southern India. We report our experimental investigations on detailed elemental chemical compositions, chemical surface structure, surface morphology, thermal stability, and optical reflectance of Aranmula metal mirror. The results of EDS based elemental chemical composition studies at the reflecting surface of cast, thin film coated and powder form of mirror samples have revealed the use of Arsenic (As), Silver (Ag), Gold (Au), Iron (Fe), Phosphorous (P), Sulphur (S) and Zinc (Zn) as minor constituents in Aranmula mirror making. The detailed surface structure and morphology of the mirror sample is studied for the first time using XRD and AFM. The Combined use of EDS, AFM and XRD analysis of the mirror samples reveal the presence of a transparent, non-metallic, corrosion resistant, smooth, nano structured thin film layer mainly consisting of a tin enriched delta phase (Cu_31 Sn_8) on the mirror surface, which is amorphous in nature. It also suggests that Aranmula metal mirror contains nano-particles that are considered to be quasi-crystalline in nature. We could prepare thin films of cast Aranmula mirror material with significantly higher optical reflectance for the first time. The average optical reflectance of the cast Aranmula mirror sample in the visible region is found to increase by 10 % when it is prepared in the form of thin film.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[211] **viXra:1604.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-20 02:18:31*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya, P.Prabhakar, R. Praveen Kumar

**Comments:** 05 Pages. Working Paper

Epitaxial thin films of materials used in solid state ionics like Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), Rare Earth Oxides (REO) are suitable systems to study the interfacial ion transport. YSZ is an efficient oxygen ion conductor, vacancy present are responsible for ionic transport. By altering the structure we can increase the ionic conductivity. An attempt was made to computationally mock the sputtering process and deposit these films and study the diffusion of the adatom on the surface. There exists a strong interaction of the ions formed in the plasma during the sputtering process

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[210] **viXra:1604.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 12:04:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[209] **viXra:1604.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 13:26:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[208] **viXra:1604.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-13 10:37:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Iron selenide films peppered with potassium atoms exhibit a high-temperature superconducting phase that emerges separately from a low-temperature superconducting phase. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[207] **viXra:1604.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-12 03:06:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Magnetoresistance Insights from pure mathematics are lending new insights to material physics, which could aid in development of new devices and sensors. Now an international team of physicists has discovered that applying a magnetic field to a non-magnetic metal made it conduct 70% more electricity, even though basic physics principles would have predicted the opposite. [9] Scientists at the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, which relies on the separation of right-and left-"handed" particles, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[206] **viXra:1604.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 01:50:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[205] **viXra:1604.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 10:33:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[204] **viXra:1604.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-08 14:19:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[203] **viXra:1604.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 05:21:46*

**Authors:** Shruti Sharma, A.S.Bhattacharyya

**Comments:** 04 Pages. Working Paper

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was prepared from egg shells by various routes using hexane and acetic acid followed by heat treatment. Hap has a wide application in water treatment by removal of metal ions. XRD of the samples showed use of acetic acid followed by high temperature sintering leads to formation crystalline phases of HAp. Strong evidence of CaCO3 in calcite phase was obtained in other samples.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[202] **viXra:1603.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 07:47:59*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Praveen Kumar, Rishideo Kumar, Vikrant Raj

**Comments:** 06 Pages. Unpublished

Computational epitaxial thin film deposition of Bi thin films with variation of polar angle and ion fluence was presented.Specific polar angles giving higher deposition rate were observed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[201] **viXra:1603.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-31 08:15:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29]
A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28]
Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[200] **viXra:1603.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-20 12:16:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[199] **viXra:1603.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-19 01:01:07*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It shows that the hybrid graphene may be the high temperature superconductor based on a simple superconductivity theory. However the pure graphene cannot be the high temperature superconductor. The efforts to make the graphene to be superconductors are to use the Graphene-Boron Nitride or other graphene-ceramics sandwich structure. Calculations show that this sandwich structure can satisfy the demanding of high temperature superconductivity.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[198] **viXra:1603.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-17 03:18:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[197] **viXra:1603.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-15 09:47:30*

**Authors:** Andrzej Gecow

**Comments:** Version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, over 400 graphs and tables. English version will be also in viXra.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic, described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties. Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity, however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[196] **viXra:1603.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-11 07:30:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers at Princeton University have observed a bizarre behavior in a strange new crystal that could hold the key for future electronic technologies. Unlike most materials in which electrons travel on the surface, in these new materials the electrons sink into the depths of the crystal through special conductive channels. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[195] **viXra:1603.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-10 03:56:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Finland's Aalto University researchers have theorized that superconducting surfaces can become topological superconductors when magnetic iron atoms are deposited on the surface in a regular pattern. They used the latest mathematical and physical models to predict the existence of a topological superconducting state on metallic superconducting surfaces and thin films. [28] Since the 1930s scientists have been searching for particles that are simultaneously matter and antimatter. Now physicists have found strong evidence for one such entity inside a superconducting material. The discovery could represent the first so-called Majorana particle, and may help researchers encode information for quantum computers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[194] **viXra:1603.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-06 22:20:18*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

147-atom Palladium clusters embedded in Zeolite cavities enable Cold Fusion when exposed to Deuterium gas by Klein Paradox Tunnelling of D+D+D+D producing He + He + 47.6 MeV. Cold Fusion Energy goes to Optical Mode Phonons in the Pd clusters and then to the Zeolite where it is stored as Heat that is released by D2O Heavy Water to produce useful energy. Ejection of He + He and reloading of D+D+D+D is done by Jitterbug transformation between Icosahedral Ground State and Cuboctahedral Metastable State of 147-atom Pd clusters. Synthesis of 147-atom Pd clusters has been done by Burton, Boyle, and Datye at Sandia / U. New Mexico, USA. Zeolite synthesis has been discussed by Sharma, Jeong, Han and Cho at Chungnam Nat. Un., Korea. Based on prior experimental results of Arata and Zhang (replicated by McKubre at SRI) and of Parchamazad the expected energy production is on the order of kilowatts per milligram of Palladium.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[193] **viXra:1603.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-04 11:05:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Researchers have observed spin-dependent thermoelectric currents in superconductors—a finding that could lead to precise cryogenic thermometers. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[192] **viXra:1603.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 07:16:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[191] **viXra:1603.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-03-03 01:04:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Strong enough magnetic field can break electron pairs and destroy superconductivity. Surprisingly, experimental groups led by Prof. Ye and Prof. Zeitler in Groningen and Nijmegen found that superconductivity in thin films of MoS2 could withstand an applied magnetic field as strong as 37 Tesla. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[190] **viXra:1602.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 03:55:08*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

We show that the classical random pinning model, if simulated numerically using a phase evolution scheme pioneered by Littlewood, gives dispersion relationships that are inconsistent with experimental values near threshold. These results suggest the need for a revision of contemporary classical models of charge density wave transport phenomena. Classical phase evolution equations have the same form as driven harmonic oscillators. We provide a different formulation of charge density transport using a tunneling Hamiltonian, motivated by Sidney Colemans’s false vacuum hypothesis, to model solition anti-soliton pair transport through a pinning gap. We thereby derive an analytical expression for charge density wave transport that agrees with experimental data both above and below the threshold field.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[189] **viXra:1602.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 14:52:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[188] **viXra:1601.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-29 09:18:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In a surprising find, physicists from the United States, Germany and China have discovered that nuclear effects help bring about superconductivity in ytterbium dirhodium disilicide (YRS), one of the most-studied materials in a class of quantum critical compounds known as "heavy fermions." [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[187] **viXra:1601.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-12 03:04:40*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[186] **viXra:1601.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-09 22:13:59*

**Authors:** Yang Yu, Qian Wang, Xuelin Wang, Yuhang Wu, Jing Liu

**Comments:** 11 pages, 4 figures, 1 table.

We discovered for the first time a fundamental phenomenon that arc discharge plasma can be easily triggered in liquid through jetting liquid metal stream to the electrode under only very small voltage. Along with the liquid metal stream, repetitive plasmas with light emission were generated which could last for several milliseconds each time, yet with a consistent current. The principal peaks of such optical emission spectrum lie in the ultraviolet and visible blue and violet sections, which are mainly caused by the plasma of gallium and indium. Some micro/sub-micro metal droplets and other arbitrary-shaped products such as “liquid metal pea” were also fabricated via the process. A series of critical factors to affect such fundamental events were experimentally clarified and interpreted. This finding opens an extremely easy and unconventional way to generate plasma at room temperature which would offer diverse applications such as serving as a light emitter for either optical or ultraviolet illuminations, as an electroacoustic source, or fabricating micro or particles of the liquid metal and other compounds.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[185] **viXra:1601.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-01-06 08:23:50*

**Authors:** Ivan Y. Tsukanov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The formulation and solution of the plane problem of the elastic contact of surface roughness having two-scale regular asperities with a flat surface is considered. Small-scale asperities are simulated by special periodic curve with arbitrary waveform shape and large-scale asperities are simulated by a sine wave. On the basis of obtained solutions, the possible physical effects associated with the presence of arbitrary shaped small-scale asperities and roughness of larger scale in relation to calculation of elastic contact parameters are revealed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[184] **viXra:1512.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 17:22:53*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Preprint of submittal to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[183] **viXra:1512.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 00:56:39*

**Authors:** Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Published in Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, October 2015 – ISSN 2412-5954

Among materials having zincblende lattices, we find some that are characterized by a high thermal conductivity. This is a quite important feature for their application in semiconductor technologies and related devices. In this paper, we will discuss the thermal conductivity of two zincblende crystals (SiC and GaAs), stressing the role of lattice vibrations in producing high values of conductivity and of lattice defects in reducing it. In the framework of a model dealing with phonon dispersions and reliable scattering mechanisms, we will show how lattice thermal conductivity can be estimated from the Boltzmann Transport Equation in the case of any zincblende crystal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[182] **viXra:1511.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 12:27:42*

**Authors:** Arghyadeep Chatterjee

**Comments:** 1 Page. Read it and give your opinion

Based on my latest calculations and concepts .
It is just a initial paper. I will post an updated paper soon

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[181] **viXra:1511.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 12:45:35*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) gives us simple expressions for charge density distribution (ρ_{e}) within fluids or plasma. A recent work of this author shows that the old boundary conditions (BC), which are usually used to solve PBE, have serious defects. The old solutions turned out to be non-unique, and violates charge conservation principle in some cases. There we also derived the correct formula of ρ_{e} for a finite, rectangular geometry, using appropriate BCs.
Here we consider some other types of geometries and obtain formula of ρ_{e}, which may be useful to analyse different experimental conditions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[180] **viXra:1511.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-06 06:10:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A team of researchers working at Osaka University in Japan has devised an experiment that gave results showing that phonons mix in such a way that they can be now be classified as 'bosonic' particles. Dave Kielpinski with Hewlett Packard Laboratories, offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team and explains how it relates to work done with photons and other quantum particles. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[179] **viXra:1511.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-04 10:34:53*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the arrangement structure of the atoms in Graphene.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[178] **viXra:1511.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 23:43:54*

**Authors:** Swapnil Patil

**Comments:** Total 15 pages including the supplementary information. The supplementary information is at the end of the manuscript. This is an update of arXiv:1409.7156v3

We critically examine the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in heavy fermion systems located close to a magnetic instability and suggest a conceptual advance in physics in order to explain its origin. We argue that the treatment of electronic states responsible for magnetism near the Quantum Critical Point (QCP), should not be accomplished within the quantum mechanical formalism; instead they should be treated semi-classically. The observed NFL behavior can be explained within such a scenario. As a sequel we attempt to discuss its consequences for the explanation of high-TC superconductivity observed in Cuprates.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[177] **viXra:1511.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-11-03 01:48:56*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The tunneling Hamiltonian is a proven method to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wavefunctions in many-body physics. Our problem is how to apply a wave functional formulation of tunneling Hamiltonians to a driven sine-Gordon system. We apply a generalization of the tunneling Hamiltonian to charge density wave (CDW) transport problems in which we consider tunneling between states that are wavefunctionals of a scalar quantum field. We present derived I-E curves that match Zenier curves used to fit data experimentally with wave-functionals congruent with the false vacuum hypothesis. The open question is whether the coefficients picked in both the wave-functionals and the magnitude of the coefficients of the driven sine Gordon physical system should be picked by topological charge arguments that in principle appear to assign values that have a tie in with the false vacuum hypothesis first presented by Sidney Coleman. Our supposition is that indeed this is useful and that the topological arguments give evidence as to a first order phase transition which gives credence to the observed and calculated I-E curve as evidence

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[176] **viXra:1510.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 06:22:46*

**Authors:** Francesco Scotognella

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 8 figures

In this paper we present a brief discussion on the properties of one-dimensional (1D) photonic structures. We will show the light transmission through periodic structures, i.e. photonic crystals, random structures, and quasicrystals. We will discuss the possibility to describe other types of 1D structures.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[175] **viXra:1510.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-19 14:00:53*

**Authors:** A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Praveen Kumar

**Comments:** 02 Pages. Working Paper

A model for sputter based deposition of TiN films was developed by simulations. The rate of change of partial sputtering yield with coverage was considered. The deposition pressure and time were varied to get films of different thickness.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[174] **viXra:1510.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-09 03:26:20*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[173] **viXra:1510.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-07 17:59:25*

**Authors:** Dendritic growth in Si- thin films

**Comments:** 02 Pages. Short Communication (unpublished)

A rare dendritic growth in sputter deposited SiCN and CVD deposited CN were observed. The rapid rate of nucleation and growth process led to instabilities in the growth pattern and the surface energy release rate was more through convection than diffusion It opens up new field of fractal study in the case of CN and SiCN based materials and thin films.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[172] **viXra:1510.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-03 09:54:34*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I present the theoretical calculation of net electrical charge required in order to levitate a material object with the Earth’s electric field. I also discuss the practical uses of this effect in producing an elevation device.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[171] **viXra:1509.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 23:44:01*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Klein Paradox Tunnelling is a key element in TSC Fusion of Deuterium in Palladium Nano-Clusters. The electron shell structure of Palladium allows formation of a Dirac Fermion Band that is analogous to the Dirac Fermion Band in Carbon Graphene.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[170] **viXra:1509.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-21 12:19:50*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper I present a method for the levitation of a bulk semiconductor by use of the Earth’s magnetic field acting on an electrical current through the semiconductor. The theory is simplified to the case of a large semiconducting sample with a strong electrical current and specific examples are discussed for different elemental semiconductors.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[169] **viXra:1509.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-09-20 11:12:10*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter
in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according
to a new theory of atomic structure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[168] **viXra:1508.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-26 00:59:39*

**Authors:** Tian Hao

**Comments:** Pages. published RSC Advances , 2015, 5, 95318-95333

Granular powders can be successfully treated with kinetic theory and statistical mechanics that are typically applicable to thermal systems, though the granular powders are athermal systems and the conventional environmental temperature is too weak to drive particles to move. Once the granular temperature is analogously defined in line with that in thermodynamics, viscosity concept of thermal systems is naturally borrowed to describe the flowability of granular powders in this article. Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume concept, which have been proved to be very powerful in dealing with many thermally activated phenomena in a wide variety of fields, are utilized to derive viscosity equations of granular powders under a simple shear. The obtained viscosity equations are examined only with empirical experimental observations in describing powder flowability, due to the lack of instruments and methodology for directly determining the viscosity of granular materials. The continuous shear thickening rather than the discontinuous shear thickening are predicted and found to be dependent on shear rate, the cohesive energy between particles, and the particle volume fraction, though the discontinuous shear thickening may still occur if certain conditions are met during shear, such as local particle volume fractions approach to the jamming point created by the shear induced inhomogeneity. A fundamental mechanism on how dry granular powders flow is proposed on the basis of what are demonstrated from the viscosity equations.The work presented in this article may lay a foundation to scale powder flowability in a more fundamental and consistent manner, at least providing an approach to consistently define the viscosity of granular powders. Since the same approaches are employed to derive the viscosity equations of granular powders as used to derive viscosity equations of liquids, colloidal suspensions, and polymeric materials, both athermal and thermal systems are thus unified with a single methodology.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[167] **viXra:1508.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 13:26:06*

**Authors:** Bojian Xu, Ya Zhai

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We have investigated the bias field(He) and the coercivity(Hc) of the exchange bias effect in the Ni80Fe20/Fe50Mn50 bilayers and the simulated experimental data based on Mauri model. It is found that the simulation is to some extent consistent with the experiment on the whole variation trend of the coercivity, whereas the calculated result is smaller than the experimental data. On the other hand, the simulation indicates that the coercivity drops down sharply with the deflection of the applied magnetic field from the unidirectional axis to its perpendicular orientation, while it decreases slower in the experiments.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[166] **viXra:1508.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-17 06:01:13*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper published at Advances in High Energy Physics (AHEP) journal, Yang Zhao et al. derived Maxwell equations on Cantor sets from the local fractional vector calculus. It can be shown that Maxwell equations on Cantor sets in a fractal bounded domain give efficiency and accuracy for describing the fractal electric and magnetic fields. However, so far there is no derivation of equations for electrodynamics of superconductor on Cantor sets. Therefore, in this paper I present for the first time a derivation of London-Proca-Hirsch equations on Cantor sets. The name of London-Proca-Hirsch is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Proca and London-Hirsch’s theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. Considering that Proca equations may be used to explain electromagnetic effects in superconductor, I suggest that the proposed London-Proca-Hirsch equations on Cantor sets can describe electromagnetic of fractal superconductors. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for fractal superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to fractal cosmology modeling too.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[165] **viXra:1508.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-16 12:33:45*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Siti Nurul Khotimah, Yulia Yopy Mardiansyah

**Comments:** 4 pages, 5 figures, conference paper

Motion modes of pseudo 2-d granular particles in vertical rotation drum is modeled using point mass motion considering only friction, normal, and gravitation forces. Two schemes in evaluating the forces are used, i.e. dynamics in 2-d linear and 1-d angular motions. Finite difference method implementing Euler scheme is used to solve the equation of motion.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[164] **viXra:1508.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-08-04 10:14:29*

**Authors:** Aritra Sinha, Shinjan Mandal

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article we make an introduction to the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis.We have first reviewed thermalization mechanism in classical systems, then introduce eigen-state thermalization as a possible explanation for thermal behavior in quantum systems.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[163] **viXra:1507.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-02 05:17:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[162] **viXra:1507.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-07-01 13:43:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Phonons—the elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound—have magnetic properties, according to a landmark study supported by Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) services and recently published by a researcher group from The Ohio State University. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[161] **viXra:1506.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-24 03:54:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[160] **viXra:1506.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-19 17:45:27*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This is a very specullative paper to be published in Proc. JCF15, JCFRS

Very speculative modeling and discussions are made for considering a nuclear physics possibility of Iwamura-type (A, Z)-selective transmutation without hard gamma-rays. The BOLEP (burst-of-low-energy-photons) energy damping mechanism from very highly excited intermediate nucleus by the 4D/TSC-min capture to host metal nucleus is basic idea, after the analogy of 8Be* nucleon halo model for the BOLEP energy damping to 8Be ground state. The very highly excited intermediate nucleus 141Pr*(Ex = 50.49 MeV) by 4D + 133Cs capture reaction may have a two-alpha-halo rotation-vibration deformed state, which would make avalanche energy damping via BOLEP.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[159] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-16 13:31:36*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[158] **viXra:1506.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-13 20:48:21*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 20 references

The holographic principle is extended to take in account a two-dimensional spherical universe. Applied to the frontier of the memory device, the working memory retention time is estimated. By considering the surface of the oxygen nucleus, the fusion temporal threshold is calculated. The long term memory duration is also evaluated, by combining the present results with previous ones worked out by this author. Water with its protons and oxygen constituents, plays a fundamental role in accomplishing these tasks.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[157] **viXra:1506.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-11 12:25:54*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 25 pages, 42 eqs, 37 refs; presented at the International Conference "Arithmetic Methods in Mathematical Physics and Biology" (3-8 August 2014, Bedlewo, Poland), http://ammpb.wmi.amu.edu.pl/

We show that the unreduced, mathematically rigorous solution of the many-body problem with arbitrary interaction, avoiding any perturbative approximations and "exact" models, reveals qualitatively new mathematical properties of thus emerging real-world structures (interaction products), including dynamic multivaluedness (universal non-uniqueness of ordinary solution) giving rise to intrinsic randomness and irreversible time flow, fractally structured dynamic entanglement of interaction components expressing physical quality, and dynamic discreteness providing the physically real space origin. This unreduced interaction problem solution leads to the universal definition of dynamic complexity describing structure and properties of all real objects. The united world structure of dynamically probabilistic fractal is governed by the universal law of the symmetry (conservation and transformation) of complexity giving rise to extended versions of all particular (correct) laws and principles. We describe then the unique efficiency of this universal concept and new mathematics of complexity in application to critical problems in life sciences and related development problems, showing the urgency of complexity revolution.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[156] **viXra:1506.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-06-10 06:28:56*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Wida yani, Siti Nurul Khotimah

**Comments:** 4 pages, 5 figures, 1 table, Indonesian language

Material komposit biner berbentuk batang, yang tersusun atas material A dan B, disederhanakan dengan serat-serat lurus sejajar, yang masing-masingnya dalam bentuk 1-d dan dimodelkan dengan menggunakan Ns titik massa. Dua titik massa berurutan dihubungkan dengan pegas berkonstanta tertentu kAA, kAB, atau kBB bergantung pada jenis titik massa yang mengapitnya. Tiga jenis ikatan komposit dibahas di sini, yaitu untuk ikatan komposit lebih lemah dari [kAB < min(kAA, kBB)], berada di antara [min(kAA, kBB) < kAB < max(kAA, kBB)], dan lebih kuat dari [kAB < max(kAA, kBB)] ikatan masing-masing material penyusunnya, yang masing-masing dinyatakan dengan jenis I, II, dan III, berturut-turut. Aturan elastisitas material komposit isostrain menyatakan EAB = (1 - c) EA + c EB, dengan c adalah konsentrasi material B. Jenis II memiliki kesesuaian dengan aturan tersebut, sedangkan kedua jenis lainnya menghasilkan sedikit deviasi darinya.
Kata kunci: material komposit, satu dimensi, pegas, kombinasi, urutan.
PACS: 46.25.-y, 62.20.D-. 81.40.Jj, 88.30.mj.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[155] **viXra:1505.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-28 04:33:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[154] **viXra:1505.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 14:22:13*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In medicine, scanning is to be examined by a scanner, to determine if a patient has a problem with your body. Here, we show a new type of scanner, which is absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature. It can be widely used in medicine in order to observe noninvasively the interior of a human body.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[153] **viXra:1505.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 10:38:32*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Siti Nurul Khotimah, Hari Anggit Cahyo Wibowo, Trise Nurul Ain, Dimas Praja Purwa Aji

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya 16 (1), 18-22 (2015)

Two-dimension Brazil-nut effect using acrylic plate as intruder and bed particles is observed under non-continuous sinusoidal vibration in order to obtain sufficient image quality for further process. Vibration parameters are f = 13 Hz and Γ = 2. In this work time series of intruder position is presented, which shows that it has rise time Trise = 67 steps, with initial position defined as lower side of intruder in touch with bottom of the container and final position is defined as upper side of intruder is on the bed particle surface. Initial height and width of bed particles are 21 and 92 particles, respectively. Ratio of intruder and bed particle diameter is about 2.545. Most curved of bed particle surface is observed while intruder position is about in the middle between its initial and final configurations.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[152] **viXra:1505.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 17:14:51*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 07 pages, 16 references

The Holographic Principle (HP) is used as a means to put the concept of Darwin’s Time (DT) in a sound basis. We find again that DT is proportional to certain volume of the memory device (MD). Interestingly enough, applying HP to the oxygen nucleus, we obtain a horizon-time which reproduces the DT related to a typical volume (1.8 cm3)of the memory device.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[151] **viXra:1505.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 10:05:20*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2015, 6, 26-36

This paper posits an extra force field, “super force field”, as the short-distance additional force field to ordinary force fields (gravitational, weak, electromagnetic, and strong) at absolute zero or extremely high density. The short distance super force field accounts for quantum phase transition at absolute zero, and provides the basic cause of superconductivity above absolute zero by quantum fluctuation. At absolute zero or extremely high density, to prevent inactivation and singularity, respectively, the short-distance super force field emerges in between the core particle and the ordinary force field, resulting in the super ordinary force field. In the super ordinary force field, the short-distance super force field excludes the long-distance ordinary force field. At absolute zero, the super ordinary force field emerges to account for quantum phase transition at absolute zero. Through quantum fluctuation, the super ordinary force appears above absolute zero as in superconductivity. Through quantum fluctuation, superconducting electric current is “super current” as one giant quantum state with the super force field that does not interact with ordinary forces, resulting in zero resistance.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[150] **viXra:1505.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 06:52:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Icosahedral Island Pd nanoclusters in Palladium Film are described and an experiment is proposed to measure heat produced by TSC Jitterbug Fusion upon exposure to Deuterium gas.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[149] **viXra:1504.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-26 19:26:07*

**Authors:** Dashan Shang, Yisheng Chai, Zexian Zao, Jun Lu, Young Sun

**Comments:** 16 pages, 3 figures, accepted by Chin. Phys. B

In addition to resistor, capacitor and inductor which are defined in terms of a linear relationship between the charge q, the current i, the voltage v, and the magnetic flux , Chua proposed in 1971 the fourth linear circuit element to directly relate and q. A non-linear resistive device defined in memory i-v relation and dubbed memristor, was later attributed to such an element and has been realized in various material structures. Here we clarify that the memristor is not the true fourth fundamental element but the memory extension to the concept of resistor, in analogy to the extension of memcapacitor to capacitor and meminductor to inductor. Instead, a two-terminal device employing the linear magnetoelectric effects, termed transtor, possesses the function of relating directly and q and should take the position of the fourth linear element. Moreover, its memory extension, termed memtranstor, is proposed and analyzed. Based on these newly defined elements, a complete and harmonized fundamental circuit relational graph with four linear and four memory elements is constructed, which provides a guide to developing novel circuit functionalities in the future.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[148] **viXra:1504.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-23 23:26:34*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Preprint of ICCF19 Proceedings paper, to be published by J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci.

The condensed matter nuclear reactions (CMNR) are thought to happen for trapped H(D) particles within some chemical (electro-magnetic) potential well with finite life time. As the life time is much longer than the collision time of two-body interaction of free particles, CMNR reaction rates are significantly (on the order of 19-20 in magnitude) enhanced if we compare with estimated reactions rates by the two-body collision formula. The basis of CMNR rate theory is reviewed in this paper by extracting essence of the TSC theory tools developed until now. Derivation of Fermi’s golden rule with nuclear optical potential, rate formulas by Born-Oppenheimer wave function separation, estimation of bracket integral of inter-nuclear strong interaction rate, estimation of time dependent barrier penetration probability by the HMEQPET method for dynamic D(H)-cluster condensation/collapse process, and DD fusion power levels as functions of inter-nuclear d-d distance and effective existing (life) time are given. A DD fusion power level of 10 kW/mol-dd-pairs is possible for a 1 pm inter-nuclear d-d distance with 10 ato-seconds life time. The level of 2.8 nano-mol 4D/TSC formations/sec may release 10 kW neutron-free heat-power with 4He ash.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[147] **viXra:1504.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-06 08:07:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

147-atom clusters of Palladium colloidal in methanol are suggested as a possible physical realization of the one-component computer simulation icosahedral colloidal quasicrystals described by Engel, Damasceno, Phillips, and Glotzer in Nature Materials 14 (2015) 109-116.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[146] **viXra:1503.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-28 14:41:27*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Magnetic materials are composed of microscopic regions called magnetic domains that act like tiny permanent magnets. Before an external magnetic field to be applied on the material, the domains' magnetic fields are oriented randomly. Most of the domains’ magnetic fields cancel each other out, and so the resultant magnetic field is very small. Here we derive the expression of this intrinsic magnetic filed, which can be used to calculate the magnitude of the Earth’s magnetic field at the center of the Earth’s inner core. In addition, it is also described a magnetization process using gravity. This is gravitational magnetization process (or gravitomagnetization process) since the magnetization is produced starting from gravity. It is absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[145] **viXra:1503.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-26 02:19:25*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Supri jadi, Reza Rendian Septiawan

**Comments:** 4 pages, 4 figures, technical report

A derivation of formulation for calculating porosity of three-dimension granular materials is presented in this work, where granular particles are assumed spherical. Overlapping area problem is solved in two-dimension using geometry in two overlapping circles. The three-dimension overlap is formulated through numeric integration from the two dimension overlap.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[144] **viXra:1503.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 14:07:53*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** short note, 02 pages, 05 references

It is proposed that the Darwin's time, the time elapsed since the birth of the first living being until now, is proportional to the volume of the memory device of the mammals. The proportionality constant depends only on the proton mass, of the speed of light in vacuum and of the Planck constant.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[143] **viXra:1503.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-03-12 12:08:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK’s national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9]
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[142] **viXra:1502.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-28 11:32:17*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[141] **viXra:1502.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-22 21:01:58*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Submittal to energy journals 2010, but never published

Clean distributable energy source is expected to develop for the sustainable societies in the 21st century. Recent research development of condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS), which is the descendant new research filed of past controversial “cold fusion” saga, is now revealing the new possibility of potential clean nuclear energy in portable size devices, although the stage of research is still basic and fundamental. This review paper describes; 1) Brief experimental results of anomalous excess heat generation with 4He ash without visible neutron and gamma-ray emission by the two methods of deuterium loading into Pd-nano-metal reactor samples based on D2O electrolysis and the one method of gas-phase deuterium loading. Key issues for further engineering-phase development are discussed. 2) For the physical understanding of this “new phenomena”, as new-type of deuteron-related fusion reactions in the ordering and constraint dynamics of deuterium clustering in condensed matter as PdDx lattice or surface, brief review on the theoretical progress of condensed cluster fusion, typically 4D multi-body fusion by the tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC), is given with easier physical explanations. Key issues as reproducibility and increment of power density are summarized.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[140] **viXra:1502.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 14:52:49*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 13 references

Hydrogen-bond kinetics plays an important role in the establishment of the transport properties of water. In this paper we propose to consider protons in water as a Fermi gas. We use the Fermi statistics to determine the Fermi energy, the averaged time between collisions of the protons, and the speed of sound in liquid water. This time is also used to interpret the response in frequency of the cytoplasm to an applied external electric field.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[139] **viXra:1502.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-19 04:31:14*

**Authors:** A. Messad

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Doping an insulator to make it a BCS-type superconductor, is equivalent to creating states in the Debye shell on both sides of the Fermi level. This doping is, therefore, equal to twice the product between the density of states at the Fermi level and the Debye energy. This formula works well for optimally doped cuprates suggesting a major role for phonons behind the superconductivity of these materials.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[138] **viXra:1502.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-12 18:34:17*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion with 147-atom Palladium clusters containing Deuterium in Sodium Zeolite Y cages produces energy that can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D20 to form steam. If the Water that is initially in the Zeolite and released as the Zeolite is heated by fusion is Hydrogen water, then the Hydrogen could contaminate the Pd cluster Deuterium and impair the TSC fusion process so all Zeolite used for TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion should be of the form AmXpO2p · nD2O that is, all the water in the Zeolite used for Pd-D fusion should be Heavy Water D2O which can be accomplished by taking ordinary Zeollte, then heating it to flush out all the Ordinary Water H2O and then cooling it with Heavy Water D2O to give
AmXpO2p · nD2O

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[137] **viXra:1502.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-11 11:00:43*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 05 pages, 07 references

Two different ways of computing the time between collisions related to the electrical conductivity of metals are presented. The combination of them leads to the formula for the Fermi energy of metals.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[136] **viXra:1502.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-09 22:48:11*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Muon fusion is a known process based on the high muon / electron mass ratio enabling a muon of a Deuterium atom to screen the positive charge of its Deuterium nucleus and allow two Deuterium nuclei to approach one another close enough
for fusion D + D -> 4He + 23.8 MeV to take place. Julian Schwinger, who said “... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”, encouraged Simons and Walling to propose that Deuterium nuclei and electrons in Palladium could get increased effective mass through Palladium structure quantum processes to screen Deuterium nuclei enough
for fusion D + D -> 4He + 23.8 MeV to take place and for the “heavy electrons” to carry away most of the 23.8 MeV fusion energy into Palladium structure electron system and for the entire process to be “... enhanced ... by high electron density contributed by ... Pd centers” located near the point of fusion.
Akito Takahashi proposed that the structure of Palladium would encourage a tetrahedral configuration of 4 Deuterium nuclei and 4 Deuterium electrons as a coherent quantum Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) that would collapse ( with the 4 electrons screening the 4 D nuclei ) and fuse D + D + D + D -> 8Be + 47.6 MeV -> 4He + 4He + 47.6 MeV. Palladium clusters of 147 atoms ( about 1.5 nanometers ) have a ground state icosahedral configuration that encourages TSC fusion and a metastable cuboctahedral configuration that allows reloading
of ambient Deuterium into the Palladium cluster by a Jitterbug transformation with, for each TSC configuration, a central Palladium atom to enhance the process. If each 147-atom Palladium cluster is embedded into a Zeolite cage then the fusion energy can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D2O to form steam.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[135] **viXra:1502.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-06 07:22:35*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show the existing solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) to violate charge conservation principle, and then derive the correct formula for charge density distribution $(\rho_e)$ in a fluid. We replaced unphysical old boundary conditions with some conditions that have never been used. Our result demonstrates that PBE cannot explain the formation of `Electric Double Layer' (EDL); it follows that the present physical interpretation of `Debye length' $(\lambda_D)$ is wrong, too.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[134] **viXra:1501.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 14:49:07*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 1 figure, 5 references

In this paper, the symmetric character of the thermal conductivity tensor for linear anisotropic material is established as the result of arguments from tensor analysis for Duhamel’s generalization of Fourier’s heat conduction. The non-singular nature of the conductivity tensor plays the fundamental role in establishing this symmetry, as well as its positive (or negative) definiteness. Significantly, the second law of thermodynamics does not contribute here in establishing these characteristics, but does ultimately decide that the conductivity tensor is indeed positive definite.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[133] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-26 17:04:47*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[132] **viXra:1412.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-29 21:38:56*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 64 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to explain the pattern of fill factors observed in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE) to be restricted to odd-integer denominators as well as the sole even-integer denominator of 2. The method is to use the mathematics of gauge theory to fully develop Dirac monopoles without strings as originally taught by Wu and Yang, while accounting for topological orientation-entanglement and related “twistor” relationships between spinors and their environment in the physical space of spacetime. We find that the odd-integer denominators are permitted and the even-integer denominators excluded if FQHE only displays electrons of identical orientation-entanglement “version,” i.e., only electrons separated by 4π not 2π. We also find that the even-integer denominator of 2 is permitted if entangled electrons can pair into boson states, and that all other even-integer denominators are excluded because bosons are not subject to the same Exclusion statistics as are fermions. Because this proposed relation between the Dirac monopoles and the FQHE presupposes an electric / magnetic duality near 0K, and because magnetic monopoles are certainly not observed at higher temperatures, we also find how to break this duality symmetry with the consequence that the low-temperature Dirac monopoles are replaced by a “thermal residue” at higher temperatures. We conclude that the observed FQHE fill factor pattern can be fundamentally explained using nothing other than the mathematics of gauge theory in view of orientation, entanglement and twist, with proper breaking of the low-temperature electric / magnetic duality. An unanticipated bonus is that the quantum topology emerging from this analysis appears to map precisely to the electronic orbital structure of atoms. This provides the basis for proposed experiments to closely observe the FQHE quasiparticles to seek correlations to the angular momentum observed in atomic electron shells, and to boson spin states.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[131] **viXra:1412.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-02 20:53:48*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Preprint of Proceedings paper to JCF15

For explaining the experimentally claimed anomalous excess heat phenomena in metal-D(H) systems, the condensed cluster fusion (CCF) theory has been proposed and elaborated since 1989. This paper reviews the latest status of CCF theory development. The paper explains the following key aspects: classical mechanics and free particle fusion, fusion rate theory for trapped D(H) particles, strong interaction rate, condensation dynamics of D(H)-clusters, final state interaction and nuclear products, and sites for Platonic D(H) cluster formation on/in condensed matter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[130] **viXra:1411.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-07 11:47:06*

**Authors:** Zareh Topalian, Shu-Yi Li, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist, Laszlo B. Kish

**Comments:** 21 Pages. submitted for publication

Thermochromic VO2 films were prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering onto heated sapphire substrates and were used to make 100-nm-thick samples that were 10 μm wide and 100 micron long. The resistance of these samples changed by a factor of about 2000 in the 50 < Ts < 70 C range of temperature Ts around the "critical" temperature Tc between a low-temperature semiconducting phase and a high-temperature metallic-like phase of VO2. Power density spectra S(f) were extracted for resistance noise around Tc and demonstrated unambiguous 1/f behavior. Data on S(10Hz)/Rs^2 scaled as Rs^x, where Rs is sample resistance; the noise exponent x was -2.6 for Ts < Tc and +2.6 for Ts > Tc. These exponents can be reconciled with the Pennetta-Trefán-Reggiani theory [C. Pennetta, G. Trefán, and L. Reggiani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5238 (2000)] for lattice percolation with switching disorder ensuing from random defect generation and healing in steady state. Our work hence highlights the dynamic features of the percolating semiconducting and metallic-like regions around Tc in thermochromic VO2 films.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[129] **viXra:1411.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-03 09:11:58*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[128] **viXra:1411.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-11-01 11:14:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[127] **viXra:1410.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-10-10 17:20:16*

**Authors:** Tian Hao

**Comments:** Pages. Published at: RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 48133-48146

New conduction equations are derived on the basis of Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume
concept. The basic assumptions are that electrons traveling from one equilibrium position to the
other may obey Eyring’s rate process theory; the traveling distance is governed by the free volume
available to each electron by assuming that electrons may have a spherical physical shape with an
imaginative eﬀective radius. The obtained equations predict that the superconductivity happens
only when electrons form certain structures of a relative small coordinate number like Cooper pair at
low temperatures; If each electron has a large coordinate number such as 8 when electrons form the
body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice structure like Wigner crystal, the predicted conductivity decreases
instead increases when temperatures approach to zero. The electron condensation structures have
a big impact on the conductivity. A sharp conductivity decrease at low temperatures, probably
due to an Anderson transition, is predicted even when the Cooper pair is formed and the electrons
can only travel short distances; While the Mott transition appears when crystalline structures like
Wigner crystal form. On the other hand, the electron pairing or called the strong spin-spin coupling
is predicted to induce Kondo eﬀect when electrons are assumed to travel a very short distance. The
Anderson localization seems to have a lot of similarities as Kondo eﬀect such as electron pairing
and low traveling distances of electrons at low temperatures. The Cooper pair that is the essence
of BCS theory for superconductivity and the spin-spin coupling that is the cause for Kondo eﬀect
seem to contradict each other, but are seamlessly united in our current conductivity equations. The
topological insulators become the natural occurrences of our equations, as both Kondo insulator
and superconductivity share a same physical origin–the electron pairs, but the electrons just travel
diﬀerent distances at these two cases. A material containing an element of a high electro-negativity
(or high ionization energy) and an element of a low electro-negativity(or low ionization energy) may
form a good topological insulator and superconductor. Any magnetic element, like Iron, Nickel, and
Cobalt, that has unpaired electrons and can induce Kondo eﬀect as a dopant, could be a very good
superconductor candidate once it is synthesized together with other proper elements of low electro-
negativity (for example forming pnictide superconductors). The numbers of both conduction and
valence electrons and the volume of a material under investigation have positive impacts on the
conductivity. Any method that may increase the numbers of both conduction and valence electrons
may move the superconductivity transition temperatures to higher regions. Any method that may
reduce the volume of the material like external pressure seems to lower transition temperatures,
unless that the applied pressure is so high that the electron density between the chemical bonds
increases. The derived equations are in good agreement with the currently observed experimental
phenomena. The current work may shed light on the mechanisms of superconductivity, presenting
clues on how to move the superconductivity transition temperatures to higher regions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[126] **viXra:1409.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-16 04:17:45*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This preprint was accepted for publication by Physicsal Review B. The author was forced by Prof. Klaus Fabricius to withdraw the paper from both Physical Review B and the arXiv preprint server. The author is still thinking that the paper is correct.

We present a quantum Monte Carlo study for the isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain coupled to Einstein phonons. By investigating the behavior of the correlation length we find the critical exponent to depend on both the phonon frequency and the spin-phonon coupling constant. Hence, these systems change the universality class continuously with the spin-phonon coupling.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[125] **viXra:1409.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 14:37:20*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We derive the electro-osmotic velocity profile in a micro-channel using a recently corrected charge density distribution within an electrolytic solution. Previous distribution did not take care of charge conservation principle while solving Poisson-Boltzmann equation and needed modification, hence the velocity profile also needs modification that we do here. Helmholtz-Smoluchowskii velocity scale is redefined, which accommodates Debye length parameter in it, unlike old definition.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[124] **viXra:1408.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-30 14:34:24*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** short note, 01page, 04 references

I was surprised by the fact that, Drude’s formula for the electrical conductivity of metals, does not appear in the famous textbook: “The Feynman Lectures on Physics”.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[123] **viXra:1408.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-27 10:48:21*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Presence of a charged wall distributes like charges (co-ions) and unlike charges (counter-ions) differently within an electrolytic solution. It is reasonable to expect that counter-ions have more population near the wall, while co-ions are abundant away from it; experiments and simulations support this. An analytical formula for the net charge-density distribution has been used widely since almost hundred years, was obtained by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. However, the old formula shows excess counter-ions everywhere, cannot account for the missing co-ions satisfactorily, and clearly violates charge conservation principle. Here, I correct the distribution formula from fundamental considerations. The old derivation expresses charge-density distribution as a function of electrostatic potential through Boltzmann
distribution, but missed a crucial point that the indefinite nature of electrostatic potential makes charge-density indefinite as well. We must tune electrostatic potential by adding suitable constant until the integral of
charge-density becomes consistent with the net charge present in solution; old theory did not do it, that I do here. This result demonstrates how to reconcile a definite quantity to an indefinite one, when they are related. I anticipate, this result is going to have far reaching impacts on many fields like colloid science, electro-kinetics, bio-technology etc. that use the old theory

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[122] **viXra:1408.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 03:02:40*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper, we establish a simple superconductivity model based on virtual photons exchange mechnisim. It shows that this simple model can be used to explain the supercondutivity mechanism for some superconductive materials by comparing the theoretical prediction with the experimental data. On this basis, we propose new possible structures that can produce high temperature superconductors.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[121] **viXra:1408.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-19 22:00:09*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This paper has been accepted as an invited talk by The 3rd Global conference on material science and engineering. Oct. 20th-23th 2014 Shanghai. The PPT might be obtained from this conference.

This paper proposes a new Hamiltonian for manganites, and demonstrates
quantitatively that the pseudogap and colossal magnetoresistance of manganites come from Cooper pairs, consisting of two oxygen 2p holes in MnO2

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[120] **viXra:1408.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 13:09:48*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We correct the solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation regarding charge distribution in an electrolytic solution bounded by walls. Considering charge conservation principle properly, we show that the gradient of electrostatic potential at different walls are strictly related, and cannot be assigned independent values, unlike old theory. It clarifies some cause and effect ideas: distribution turns out to be independent of the initial polarity of walls; the accumulated charges in liquid usually induce opposite polarity on the wall surface, forms `Electric Double Layer' (EDL), contrary to the common belief that a charged wall attracts counter-ions to form EDL. Distribution depends only on the potential difference between walls and the net charge present in the solution, apart from Debye length.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[119] **viXra:1407.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-24 05:23:44*

**Authors:** Salih Saygi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this letter we propose analytical evaluation method for the electron density and the energy density in multi-layered high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The algorithm is used to simulate the variation of the electron density and the energy density against temperature of heterojunction AlGaN/GaN. The proposed procedure guaranties the reliable application of the contribution of multi-layered HEMTs structure. In conclusion, the obtained results are estimated and discussed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[118] **viXra:1407.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-07-08 12:03:20*

**Authors:** Hans Christian Haunschild

**Comments:** 47 Pages. 47

The theory presented here is able to explain all attributes of cuprate-based High-temperature- superconductors in the normal- and in the SC-state as well. More than 300 experimentally measured values will be compared with the predictions of theory. In more than 90% quantitative, otherwise qualitative accordance between experiment and theory appears. For the theoretical calculations parameters gained only by experiments are used.
Reluctance is senseless: This theory will succeed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[117] **viXra:1406.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-10 11:20:18*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A new form of matter-antimatter transformation is described in this work. The transformation of matter into cold neutral antimatter (low-energy antimatter atoms) is achieved simply by means of the application of an ultra strong magnetic field upon the matter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[116] **viXra:1406.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-05 13:50:53*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I eliminate hundred years old notion of `plug-flow' in electro-osmosis, which was predicted by incomplete `electric double layer' (EDL) theory. A recently developed `electric triple layer' (ETL) theory removes some serious shortcomings of EDL theory regarding conservation of electric charge, and when applied to electro-osmosis, shows that the velocity profile is not `plug-like' at all, but more like a parabola; it agrees with experiments and molecular dynamical simulation (MDS) results. Also, I redefine ‘Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity-scale’, which clears certain misunderstandings regarding representation of flow direction, and accommodates solution and geometrical properties within it. I describe some novel electro-osmotic flow controlling mechanisms. The entire electrokinetic theory must be modified using these concepts.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[115] **viXra:1405.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-29 13:41:18*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I correct hundred years old theory of charge distribution within an electrolytic solution surrounded by charged walls. Existing theory always implies excess amount of counter-ions (having polarity unlike walls) everywhere in the solution domain; so it cannot handle a solution that possesses excess ions of other type (co-ions) or is electrically neutral as a whole. Here, in the corrected distribution, counter-ions dominate near the walls, while the rest of the domain is allowed to be dominated by co-ions; the algebraic sum gives the net charge present, which can be of any sign and magnitude that makes theory quite general. This clarifies and raises many important concepts: a novel concept of `Electric Triple Layer' (ETL) replaces `Electric Double Layer' (EDL) theory; widths of electric layers can be calculated accurately instead of estimating by Debye length scale etc.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[114] **viXra:1405.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 09:55:18*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 24 pages, 28 eqs, 15 refs; published Russian translation of arXiv:0706.3219; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 11(4) (2013) 679-700

A major challenge of interdisciplinary description of complex system behaviour is whether real systems of higher complexity levels can be understood with at least the same degree of objective, "scientific" rigour and universality as "simple" systems of classical, Newtonian science paradigm. The problem is reduced to that of arbitrary, many-body interaction (unsolved in standard theory). Here we review its causally complete solution, the ensuing concept of complexity and applications. The discovered key properties of dynamic multivaluedness and entanglement give rise to a qualitatively new kind of mathematical structure providing the exact version of real system behaviour. The extended mathematics of complexity contains the truly universal definition of dynamic complexity, randomness (chaoticity), classification of all possible dynamic regimes, and the unifying principle of any system dynamics and evolution, the universal symmetry of complexity. Every real system has a non-zero (and actually high) value of unreduced dynamic complexity determining, in particular, "mysterious" behaviour of quantum systems and relativistic effects causally explained now as unified manifestations of complex interaction dynamics. The observed differences between various systems are due to different regimes and levels of their unreduced dynamic complexity. We outline applications of universal concept of dynamic complexity emphasizing cases of "truly complex" systems from higher complexity levels (ecological and living systems, brain operation, intelligence and consciousness, autonomic information and communication systems) and show that the urgently needed progress in social and intellectual structure of civilisation inevitably involves qualitative transition to unreduced complexity understanding (we call it "revolution of complexity").

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[113] **viXra:1405.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 10:17:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 166-168.

In this work, the claim that optically thick gases can emit as blackbodies is refuted. The belief that such behavior exists results from an improper consideration of heat transfer and reflection. When heat is injected into a gas, the energy is primarily redistributed into translational degrees of freedom and is not used to drive emission. The average kinetic energy of the particles in the system simply increases and the temperature rises. In this respect, it is well-know that the emissivity of a gas can drop with increasing temperature. Once reflection and translation are properly considered, it is simple to understand why gases can never emit as blackbodies.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[112] **viXra:1405.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 09:31:18*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 157-162.

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is addressed once again, while presenting a generalized form. A contrast is made between the approach recently taken (P. M. Robitaille. On the equation which governs cavity radiation. Progr. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 126–127) and a course of action adopted earlier by Max Planck. The two approaches give dramatically differing conclusions, highlighting that the derivation of a relationship can have far reaching consequences. In Planck's case, all cavities contain black radiation. In Robitaille's case, only cavities permitted to temporarily fall out of thermal equilibrium, or which have been subjected to the action of a perfect absorber, contain black radiation. Arbitrary cavities do not emit as blackbodies. A proper evaluation of this equation reveals that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the enclosure and its contents. Recent results demonstrating super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials in the near field and emission enhancements in the far field are briefly examined. Such findings highlight that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the cavity and its walls. As previously stated, the constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[111] **viXra:1404.0468 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-27 13:48:20*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 03 pages, 06 references

New formulas are proposed as a means to express the conservation of information principle. The first of them modifies the expression we presented in a previous work (viXra:1312.0060). The second one deals with the entropy of a particle in a circle. It is used to treats in a novel way the thermodynamics of a quantum gas. The wave function of this particle, when inserted in the conservation principle, leads to its entropy and the structure of energy levels to its internal energy.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[110] **viXra:1403.0936 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-25 21:57:34*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(1), 116-120.

Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission states that cavity radiation must always be black,
or normal, irrespective of the nature of the walls. Arbitrary cavity radiation must be
solely dependent upon the equilibrium temperature and the frequency of observation.
Despite such theoretical claims, it is well established that laboratory blackbodies are
not constructed from arbitrary materials, but rather from nearly perfect absorbers of
radiation over the frequency of interest. In the laboratory, arbitrary cavities do not
contain black radiation. This experimental fact stands in direct conflict with Kirchhoff’s
formulation. Nonetheless, Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission endures, in part, due to
Gedanken experiments whose errors in logic are difficult to ascertain. In this work,
thought experiments are discussed in order to expose some logical shortcomings. It will
be demonstrated that Kirchhoff’s law cannot be supported in this context.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[109] **viXra:1403.0935 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-25 22:00:16*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v.2(10), 126-127.

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is presented. Given
thermal equilibrium, the radiation contained within an arbitrary cavity depends upon the
nature of its walls, in addition to its temperature and its frequency of observation. With
this realization, the universality of cavity radiation collapses. The constants of Planck
and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[108] **viXra:1402.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-07 10:38:18*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages, 12 references

In this study we first evaluate the time between collisions related to the transport properties in liquid water, provided by the protons motion tied to the hydrogen bonds. As water is an essential substance for the establishment of life in the living beings, we take this time as the basic unit to measure some kinds of retention time related to their memory. Besides this, integration is an important feature associated to the operation of the memory. Then we consider two possible ways of doing integration and an average between them. One of these characteristic times, the Darwin time, is given by adding over the N basic units which forms the memory. The other possibility, the recent time, is obtained by considering a kind of time-like random walk running over the N basic units. Finally we perform a geometric average between these two times and call it generations’ time. As a means to estimate these characteristic times, we take the number of protons contained in a volume of water compatible with the dimensions of the portion of the brain responsible by its memory.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[107] **viXra:1402.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-02-02 23:38:06*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Why? electrical resistance is zero in superconductor under critical temperature Tc. I think that can be explained by the raman scattering data,conduction band, electronic band full filled by electrons, bandgab(△ε), fermi's golden rule and statistical mechanics. this works takes the electrical resistance is proportional to exp(-△ε/kT), approximately.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[106] **viXra:1401.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-27 18:59:05*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi, Daniel Rocha

**Comments:** Pages.

A PC code based on the quantum mechanical Langevin equation to simulate dynamic motion of deuterium (or hydrogen) cluster with three dimensional symmetry has been developed for studying very fast condensation or oscillation behavior in time-step of 0.001 as (1.0E-21 second) for overall time interval of several fs to 500 fs. Some numerical results are typically shown for two cases of condensation behavior; 1) reaching to ground state oscillations as for D(H)2+ ion molecule, dμd muonic molecule, 3D+ ionic molecule, 6D/OSC and others, and 2) making fast collapse to get in the strong/weak nuclear interaction range of d-d (or p-p) inter-nuclear distance as for 4D(H)/TSC, 6D(H)/Rhombic-dodecahedron, 8D(H)/Rhombic-dodecahedron and 20D(H)/Rhombic-triacontahedron.
Keywords: PC code, D(H)-cluster dynamics, ground state oscillation, fast collapse, 4D(H)/TSC, 6D(H)-Rhombic-dodecahedron, larger clusters, nuclear interaction, simulation of cold fusion

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[105] **viXra:1401.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-12 22:32:13*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission demands that all cavities contain blackbody, or normal, radiation which is dependent solely on the temperature and the frequency of observation, while remaining independent of the nature of the enclosure. For over 150 years, this law has stood as a great pillar for those who believe that gaseous stars could emit a blackbody spectrum. However, it is well-known that, under laboratory conditions, gases emit in bands and cannot produce a thermal spectrum. Furthermore, all laboratory blackbodies are constructed from nearly ideal absorbers. This fact strongly opposes the validity of Kirchhoff's formulation. Clearly, if Kirchhoff had been correct, then laboratory blackbodies could be constructed of any arbitrary material. Through the use of two cavities in temperature equilibrium with one another, a thought experiment is presented herein which soundly refutes Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[104] **viXra:1401.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-09 06:45:54*

**Authors:** Jesus Prado-Gonjal, Rainer Schmidt, Emilio Morán

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The use of microwave irradiation is a promising alternative heat source for the synthesis of inorganic materials such as perovskite oxides. The method offers massive energy and time savings as compared to the traditional ceramic method. In this work we review the basic principles of the microwave heating mechanism based on interactions between dipoles in the material and the electromagnetic microwave.
Furthermore, we comment on and classify all different sub-types of microwave synthesis such as solid-state microwave and microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In the experimental part of this work we present a large range of materials that were synthesized in our laboratories by one of the microwave techniques, where such materials include superconducting, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, dielectric and multiferroic perovskite systems.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[103] **viXra:1401.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-01-07 07:22:52*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this work we show that when possible transform some types of substance into a Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature, which exists long enough to be used in practice then will be possible to use these substances in order to create efficient Gravitational Shieldings.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[102] **viXra:1312.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-26 08:49:47*

**Authors:** Asaf Farhi, Bipin Singh

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the following manuscript we describe the implementation of a method for calculating relative free energies for a general force field (A simple, robust and efficient
method for calculating relative free energies).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[101] **viXra:1312.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-12-22 01:53:43*

**Authors:** Akihiko Shigemoto

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Vanadium doped diamond-like carbon films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering have been investigated by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements for the purpose of revealing electronic structures including values of work function on the surfaces. In addition to these photoelectron measurements, X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to characterize the crystal structures.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[100] **viXra:1311.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-11 11:03:19*

**Authors:** Asaf Farhi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Calculating free energy differences is a topic of substantial interest and has many applications including chemical
reactions which are used in organic chemistry, biochemistry and medicines. In equilibrium free energy methods that
are used in molecular simulations, one molecule is transformed into another to calculate the energy difference. However,
when the compared molecules have different number of atoms, these methods cannot be directly applied since the
corresponding transformation involves breaking covalent bonds which will cause a phase transition and impractical
sampling. Thus, Quantum Mechanical Simulations, which are significantly more demanding computationally, are usually
combined to calculate free energies of chemical reactions. Here we show that the free energies can be calculated
by simple classical molecular simulations followed by analytic or numerical calculations. In this method each molecule
is transformed into its replica with the VDW and Coulomb terms of the different atoms relaxed in order to eliminate
the partition function difference arising from these terms. Then, since each transformed system can be treated as
non interacting systems, the remaining difference in the (originally highly complex) partition function can be directly
calculated. Since molecular force fields can often be automatically generated and the calculations suggested here are
rather simple the method can form a basis for automated free energy computation of chemical reactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[99] **viXra:1310.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:18:02*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 11 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 3-13.

In this work, Kirchhoff’s law (Kirchhoff G. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, sessions of Dec. 1859, 1860, 783–787) is being revisited not only to mark its 150th anniversary but, most importantly, to highlight serious overreaching in its formulation. At the onset, Kirchhoff’s law correctly outlines the equivalence between emission and absorption for an opaque object under thermal equilibrium. This same conclusion had been established earlier by Balfour Stewart (Stewart B. Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, 1858, v. 22(1), 1–20). However, Kirchhoff extends the treatment beyond his counterpart, stating that cavity radiation must always be black, or normal: depending only on the temperature and the frequency of observation. This universal aspect of Kirchhoff’s law is without proper basis and constitutes a grave distortion of experimental reality. It is readily apparent that cavities made from arbitrary materials (epsilon < 1) are never black. Their approach to such behavior is being driven either by the blackness of the detector, or by black materials placed near the cavity. Ample evidence exists that radiation in arbitrary cavities is sensitive to the relative position of the detectors. In order to fully address these issues, cavity radiation and the generalization of Kirchhoff’s law are discussed. An example is then taken from electromagnetics, at microwave frequencies, to link results in the resonant cavity with those inferred from the consequences of generalization.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[98] **viXra:1310.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:22:46*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 14-16.

Through the reevaluation of Kirchhoff’s law (Robitaille P. M. L. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267), Planck’s blackbody equation (Planck M. Ann. der Physik, 1901, v. 4, 553–356) loses its universal significance and becomes restricted to perfect absorbers. Consequently, the proper application of Planck’s radiation law involves the study of solid opaque objects, typically made from graphite, soot, and carbon black. The extension of this equation to other materials may yield apparent temperatures, which do not have any physical meaning relative to the usual temperature scales. Real temperatures are exclusively obtained from objects which are known solids, or which are enclosed within, or in equilibrium with, a perfect absorber. For this reason, the currently accepted temperature of the microwave background must be viewed as an apparent temperature. Rectifying this situation, while respecting real temperatures, involves a reexamination of Boltzmann’s constant. In so doing, the latter is deprived of its universal nature and, in fact, acts as a temperature dependent variable. In its revised form, Planck’s equation becomes temperature insensitive near 300 K, when applied to the microwave background.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[97] **viXra:1310.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:27:52*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 3, 30-35; also in arXiv:0805.1625 [physics.gen-ph]

It has been advanced, on experimental (P.-M. Robitaille, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267) and theoretical (P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. Phys., 2006, v. 2, 22–23) grounds, that blackbody radiation is not universal and remains closely linked to the emission of graphite and soot. In order to strengthen such claims, a conceptual analysis of the proofs for universality is presented. This treatment reveals that Gustav Robert Kirchhoff has not properly considered the combined effects of absorption, reflection, and the directional nature of emission in real materials. In one instance, this leads to an unintended movement away from thermal equilibrium within cavities. Using equilibrium arguments, it is demonstrated that the radiation within perfectly reflecting or arbitrary cavities does not necessarily correspond to that emitted by a blackbody.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[96] **viXra:1310.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:34:11*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 20 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 3, 36-55.

Since the days of Kirchhoff, blackbody radiation has been considered to be a universal process, independent of the nature and shape of the emitter. Nonetheless, in promoting this concept, Kirchhoff did require, at the minimum, thermal equilibrium with an enclosure. Recently, the author stated (P.-M. Robitaille, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267; P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. in Phys., 2006, v. 2, 22–23), that blackbody radiation is not universal and has called for a return to Stewart’s law (P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. in Phys., 2008, v. 3, 30–35). In this work, a historical analysis of thermal radiation is presented. It is demonstrated that soot, or lampblack, was the standard for blackbody experiments throughout the 1800s. Furthermore, graphite and carbon black continue to play a central role in the construction of blackbody cavities. The advent of universality is reviewed through the writings of Pierre Prévost, Pierre Louis Dulong, Alexis Thérèse Petit, Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, Siméon Denis Poisson, Frédérick Hervé de la Provostaye, Paul Quentin Desain, Balfour Stewart, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, and Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. These writings illustrate that blackbody radiation, as experimentally produced in cavities and as discussed theoretically, has remained dependent on thermal equilibrium with at least the smallest carbon particle. Finally, Planck’s treatment of Kirchhoff’s law is examined in detail and the shortcomings of his derivation are outlined. It is shown once again, that universality does not exist. Only Stewart’s law of thermal emission, not Kirchhoff’s, is fully valid.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[95] **viXra:1310.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 05:59:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First Published in Progress in Physics, 2006, v. 2, 22-23.

Through the formulation of his law of thermal emission, Kirchhoff conferred upon blackbody radiation the quality of universality [G. Kirchhoff, Annalen der Physik, 1860, v. 109, 275]. Consequently, modern physics holds that such radiation is independent of the nature and shape of the emitting object. Recently, Kirchhoff’s experimental work and theoretical conclusions have been reconsidered [P. M. L. Robitaille. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2003, v. 31(6), 1263]. In this work, Einstein’s derivation of the Planckian relation is reexamined. It is demonstrated that claims of universality in blackbody radiation are invalid.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[94] **viXra:1309.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-22 02:11:49*

**Authors:** Parvaneh Ravadgar

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This study compares some fundamental concepts in the fields of crystallography and
quantum mechanics. Edge dislocations in a single crystal behave as fermions if they repel each
other and behave as bosons if they attract each other. The bosonic and fermionic characteristics
of edge dislocations enable it to study some fundamental properties of soliton supersymmetry.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[93] **viXra:1309.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-19 16:43:55*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, the symmetric character of the conductivity tensor for linear heterogeneous
anisotropic material is established as the result of arguments from tensor analysis and linear
algebra for Fourier’s heat conduction. The non-singular nature of the conductivity tensor plays
the fundamental role in establishing this statement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[92] **viXra:1309.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-20 03:04:59*

**Authors:** Edmundas Jauniskis

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An analysis of available literature (1), related to non-affluent hydroelectric power plant, has revealed that the main difficulty of installation of this technique is a low flow speed of the majority of plain rivers.
So, I offer my own invention that will allow changing the current situation and to increase a flow speed of every river that could be exploited for the aim to generate electric power more efficiently.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[91] **viXra:1309.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-13 21:55:05*

**Authors:** Donald Reed

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In the last three decades, the confluence of two streams of research have resulted in some of the most heretofore unknown, innovative, energy-transformative and possible paradigm-shifting developments in the history of science and technology. These are due to both the fruits of the nano-science revolution and those stemming from ultra-cold matter applications as exemplified by the Bose-Einstein condensate. Through examining a wealth of research from each of these areas, some of surprisingly serendipitous nature, this paper will attempt to show that many of the discoveries that have been made in these arenas, point to possible new understanding of the quantum engine that underpins physical reality, and its relationship to electromagnetism and gravitation at both microscopic and large-scale regimes of nature. It is hoped that ultimately this new knowledge will subsequently also guide us in achieving the coveted goal in our quest to harvest energy from the quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[90] **viXra:1309.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-10 20:41:51*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Preprint for submittal to JCMNS for ICCF18 Proceedings

Prediction of nuclear products by cold fusion events either for metal-deuterium system (Pd-D) and metal-protium system (Ni-H)is made by the TSC theory. The nucleon halo model of intermediate excited states is applied for final state inetractions. For metal-D system cold fusion, 23.8 MeV per He-4 generation with BOLEP and minor alpha peaks is predicted. For metal-H system, He-3 and D products with 7-2 MeV per event with very weak secondary gamma and neutron emission is predicted. Comparisons with experimental claims are discussed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[89] **viXra:1309.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-10 21:01:13*

**Authors:** A. Takahashi, A. Kitamura, R. Seto, Y. Fujita, H. Sakoh, Y. Miyoshi, A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama, T. Murota, T. Tahara

**Comments:** 5 Pages. preprint of submittal to JCMNS for ICCF18 Proceedings

Cu-Ni nano-composite samples showed no excess heat nor meaningfully visible D(H)-loading at room temprature. At elevated temperatures more than 250 deg C, anomalous excess heat lasted for weeks was observed with very large integrated heat as 800 eV per Ni-atom and 600 eV per H-sorption/desorption. Cu0.08Ni0.36/ZrO2 samples gave 10 fold larger excess heat than pure-Ni/ZrO2 samples and 4 fold larger than Cu0.21Ni0.21/ZrO2 samples. Anomalous endothermic effect with abrupt D(H)-desorption was repeatedly observed for pretreatment runs.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[88] **viXra:1309.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-09-09 03:35:09*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon KANG

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In Hall Effect first found by Edwin Hall in 1897, Plus Hall Effect has been measured that is not explained with electron movement only. As a method to explain this effect, a concept of positive holel has been introduced but it has an obvious physical error. Thus, this researcher proposes a new theory from a viewpoint that distribution of conductive electrons is varied by Lorentz Force with isotope centrifugal separation equation used in nuclear physics and in atom unit volume within solid and results in difference of level to generate Hall voltage.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[87] **viXra:1308.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-08-26 00:31:44*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Y. B. Chen, Jian Zhou, Shan-Tao Zhang, Zheng-bin Gu, Shu-Hua Yao, Yan-Feng Chen

**Comments:** 16 Pages. 5 figures

The spin orbit coupling in orthorhombic SrIrO3 film was studied at different temperatures via weak anti-localization effect. The spin orbit coupling increased with the increasing temperature in the regime of two dimensional variable range hopping conduction. Near linearly temperature dependent Rashba coefficient was manifested and interpreted through the electron correlation assisted evolution of Landé g factor, which was assumed to be linearly decrease with temperature rising. Moreover, the t2g band of orthorhombic SrIrO3 is not fully separated into Jeff=1/2 and Jeff=3/2 bands, as proved by the Landé g factor at zero temperature with a value of 1.0568 which is between that corresponding to non-splitted t2g band and that to fully splitted t2g band

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[86] **viXra:1307.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-06 15:38:24*

**Authors:** A. Boudiar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We derived the energy gap of superconductor close to Tc, without using the usual methods of creation-annulation operators CC+.
our approximations ar in good agreement with the numerical estimates and theoretical results.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[85] **viXra:1306.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-22 23:49:35*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. additional re do of part of my PhD dissertation

The tunneling Hamiltonian is a proven method to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wavefunctions in many-body physics. Our problem is how to apply a wave functional formulation of tunneling Hamiltonians to a driven sine-Gordon system. We apply a generalization of the tunneling Hamiltonian to charge density wave (CDW) transport problems in which we consider tunneling between states that are wavefunctionals of a scalar quantum field. We present derived I-E curves that match Zenier curves used to fit data experimentally with wavefunctionals congruent with the false vacuum hypothesis. The open question is whether the coefficients picked in both the wavefunctionals and the magnitude of the coefficients of the driven sine Gordon physical system should be picked by topological charge arguments that in principle appear to assign values that have a tie in with the false vacuum hypothesis first presented by Sidney Coleman. Our supposition is that indeed this is useful and that the topological arguments give evidence as to a first order phase transition which gives credence to the observed and calculated I-E curve as evidence

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[84] **viXra:1306.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-20 05:27:01*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 2 figures, 2 tables. Iin TE. Simos, G. Sihoyios, C. Tsitouras (eds.), International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005, pp. 937-941 (2005).

The structure of crystal cells in two and three dimensions is fundamental for many material properties.
In two dimensions atoms (or molecules) often group together in triangles, squares and hexagons (regular
polygons). Crystal cells in three dimensions have triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, hexagonal, rhombohedral,
tetragonal and cubic shapes.
The geometric symmetry of a crystal manifests itself in its physical properties, reducing the number of independent
components of a physical property tensor, or forcing some components to zero values. There is therefore
an important need to efficiently analyze the crystal cell symmetries.
Mathematics based on geometry itself offers the best descriptions. Especially if elementary concepts like the
relative directions of vectors are fully encoded in the geometric multiplication of vectors.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[83] **viXra:1306.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-18 22:51:41*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 27 Pages. 21 figures, 14 tables. Adv. Appl. Clifford Alg., Vol. 20(3-4), pp. 631–658, (2010), DOI 10.1007/s00006-010-0214-z

A new interactive software tool is described, that visualizes 3D space group
symmetries. The software computes with Clifford (geometric) algebra. The space group
visualizer (SGV) originated as a script for the open source visual CLUCalc, which fully
supports geometric algebra computation.
Selected generators (Hestenes and Holt, JMP, 2007) form a multivector generator
basis of each space group. The approach corresponds to an algebraic implementation
of groups generated by reflections (Coxeter and Moser, 4th ed., 1980). The basic
operation is the reflection. Two reflections at non-parallel planes yield a rotation, two
reflections at parallel planes a translation, etc. Combination of reflections corresponds
to the geometric product of vectors describing the individual reflection planes.
We first give some insights into the Clifford geometric algebra description of
space groups. We relate the choice of symmetry vectors and the origin of cells in the
geometric algebra description and its implementation in the SGV to the conventional
crystal cell choices in the International Tables of Crystallography (T. Hahn, Springer,
2005). Finally we briefly explain how to use the SGV beginning with space group
selection. The interactive computer graphics can be used to fully understand how reflections
combine to generate all 230 three-dimensional space groups.
**Mathematics Subject Classification (2000).** Primary 20H15; Secondary 15A66, 74N05,
76M27, 20F55 .
**Keywords.** Clifford geometric algebra, interactive software, space groups, crystallography,
visualization.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[82] **viXra:1306.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 01:42:14*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass, Daisuke Ichikawa

**Comments:** 21 Pages. 11 figures, 7 tables. In G. Scheuermann, E. Bayro-Corrochano (eds.), Geometric Algebra Computing, Springer, New York, 2010, pp. 385-400. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84996-108-0_18

The Space Group Visualizer (SGV) for all 230 3D space groups is a standalone
PC application based on the visualization software CLUCalc. We first explain
the unique geometric algebra structure behind the SGV. In the second part
we review the main features of the SGV: The GUI, group and symmetry selection,
mouse pointer interactivity, and visualization options.We further introduce the joint
use with the International Tables of Crystallography, Vol. A [7]. In the third part
we explain how to represent the 162 socalled subperiodic groups of crystallography
in geometric algebra. We construct a new compact geometric algebra group representation
symbol, which allows to read off the complete set of geometric algebra
generators. For clarity we moreover state explicitly what generators are chosen. The
group symbols are based on the representation of point groups in geometric algebra
by versors.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[81] **viXra:1306.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 02:06:08*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 2 figures, 3 tables. submitted to: Proceedings of the 26th Int. Conference on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, New York, USA, 2006.

We treat the symmetries of crystal space lattices in geometric algebra
(GA)~\cite{DH:PGSG}.
All crystal cell
point groups are
generated by geometric multiplication of two or three physical cell vectors.
Only one or two relative angles
subtended by these vectors need to be known.
This treatment extends to space groups by
including translations.
GA helps to identify optimal multivector generators.
As example we take the monoclinic case.
New free interactive
OpenGL and GA based software
visualizes these symmetries.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[80] **viXra:1306.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 02:44:44*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 24 figures. Proc. of Int. Symp. on Adv. Mech. & Power Engin. 2007 (ISAMPE 2007) between Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Kor.), Univ. of Fukui (Jap.) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. & Tech. (PRC), Nov. 22-25, 2007, at Univ. of Fukui, pp. 157-167. Figs. 15,16,17,23 rv.

This paper first reviews the history, the economy, the material properties, and the applications of gold.
Then the geometry of the face centered cubic (fcc) gold lattice is introduced. Based on the symmetric arrangement of atoms
the gold lattice has a rich variety of symmetry transformations, that interchange the positions of atoms,
but leave the lattice as a whole invariant. This begins with the point group symmetry of a single fcc
lattice cell and is extended by combination with lattice translations to the full space group symmetry of
the whole (practically infinite) lattice. We use the newly created interactive Space Group Visualizer
(based on geometric algebra) in order to systematically picture all these symmetries. We can thus
understand their origin and their relationships. In particular we give a full geometric explanation of the
192 screw symmetries passing through a single fcc cell of the gold lattice.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[79] **viXra:1306.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 02:52:40*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 9 Pages. 18 figures, 1 table. Proc. of In. Symp. on Adv. Mech. Eng. 2006 between Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Kor.), Univ. of Fukui (Jap.) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. (PRC), Oct. 26-29, 2006, at Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. pp. 172-181 (2006).

A new free interactive OpenGL software tool is demonstrated, that visualizes all monoclinic, and so
far part of the orthorhombic, triclinic and hexagonal space group symmetries. The software computes
with Clifford (geometric) algebra.
The space group visualizer originated as a script for the open source visual CLUCalc, which fully
supports geometric algebra computation.
This paper briefly describes the historical and scientific developments leading to the space group
visualizer project. Then we step by step demonstrate space group selection and the powerful set of
interactive tools, including continuous free interactive 3D rotations, repositioning and resizing of the
crystal domain in view. The most prominent feature of the space group visualizer is the full
visualization of all spatial symmetries of a crystal domain. Beyond this the user can reduce the view to
single symmetry operations or to certain classes of symmetries.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[78] **viXra:1306.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 02:58:51*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 4 figures. Bulletin of the Society for Science on Form, 21(1), pp. 38,39 (2006).

A new free interactive OpenGL software tool is demonstrated, that visualizes all
monoclinic space group symmetries described by geometric algebra.[1]
**Keywords:** Crystal lattice, space group symmetry, geometric algebra, OpenGL, spacegroup
visualizer.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[77] **viXra:1306.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 03:38:52*

**Authors:** Christian Perwass, Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 9 figures. Proc. of the In. Symp. on Adv. Mech. Eng., between Univ. of Fukui (Japan), Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Korea) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. (China), 23-26 Nov. 2005, pp. 276-282 (2005).

In this text we present a software tool that visualises the symmetry properties of the space groups of
3D Euclidean space, which play an important role in the investigation of crystalline materials. The
main source that lists the properties of all space groups are the "International Tables For
Crystallography, Volume A" [1], where the symmetries are shown in three orthographic projections. It
is clearly much more intuitive to look at these symmetry properties in a 3D visualisation. The
visualisation software presented here (for monoclinic crystals) allows the user to look at the space
group symmetries from any view point and to modify lattice parameters in real time. The visualisation
software is freely available from www.spacegroup.info.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[76] **viXra:1306.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 03:45:12*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 7 figures, 2 tables. Proc. of the Int. Sym. on Adv. Mech. Eng., between Univ. of Fukui (Japan), Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Korea) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. (China), 23-26 Nov. 2005, pp. 19-25 (2005).

This paper focuses on the symmetries of crystal cells and crystal space lattices. All two dimensional
(2D) and three dimensional (3D) point groups of 2D and 3D crystal cells are exclusively described by
vectors (two in 2D, three in 3D for one particular cell) taken from the physical cells. Geometric
multiplication of these vectors completely generates all symmetries, including reflections, rotations,
inversions, rotary-reflections and rotary-inversions. The sets of vectors necessary are illustrated in
drawings. We then extend this treatment to 2D and 3D space groups by including translations, glide
reflections and screw rotations. For 3D space groups we focus on the monoclinic case as an example.
A companion paper [15] describes corresponding interactive visualization software.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[75] **viXra:1306.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 03:49:27*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 6 Pages. 5 figures. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced Mechanical Engineering, between University of Fukui (Japan) - Pukyong National University (Korea), 27 Nov. 2004, pp. 290-295 (2004).

This paper focuses on the symmetries of space lattice crystal cells. All 32 point groups of three dimensional crystal cells are exclusively described by vectors (three for one particular cell) taken from the physical cell. Geometric multiplication of these vectors completely generates all symmetries, including reflections, rotations, inversions, rotary-reflections and rotary-inversions. The sets of vectors necessary are illustrated in drawings and all symmetry group elements are listed explicitly as geometric vector products. Finally a new free interactive software tool is introduced, that visualizes all symmetry transformations in the way described in the main geometrical part of this paper.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[74] **viXra:1306.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-19 03:58:59*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 6 tables. Preprint (2009).

This paper establishes an algorithm for the conversion of conformal geometric algebra
(GA) [3, 4] versor symbols of space group symmetry-operations [6–8, 10] to standard
symmetry-operation symbols of crystallography [5]. The algorithm is written in the
mathematical language of geometric algebra [2–4], but it takes up basic algorithmic
ideas from [1]. The geometric algebra treatment simplifies the algorithm, due to the
seamless use of the geometric product for operations like intersection, projection, rejection;
and the compact conformal versor notation for all symmetry operations and for
geometric elements like lines and planes.
The transformations between the set of three geometric symmetry vectors *a,b,c*,
used for generating multivector versors, and the set of three conventional crystal cell
vectors **a,b,c** of [5] have already been fully specified in [8] complete with origin shift
vectors. In order to apply the algorithm described in the present work, all locations,
axis vectors and trace vectors must be computed and oriented with respect to the conventional
crystall cell, i.e. its origin and its three cell vectors.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[73] **viXra:1306.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-17 05:02:34*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 36 Pages. 32 figures, 1 table.

This set of instructions shows how to successfully display the 17 two-dimensional
(2D) space groups in the interactive crystal symmetry software Space Group Visualizer
(SGV) [6]. The SGV is described in [4]. It is based on a new type of powerful
geometric algebra visualization platform [5].
The principle is to select in the SGV a three-dimensional super space group and by
orthogonal projection produce a view of the desired plane 2D space group. The choice
of 3D super space group is summarized in the lookup table Table 1. The direction of
view for the orthographic projection needs to be adapted only for displaying the plane
2D space groups Nos. 3, 4 and 5. In all other cases space group selection followed by
orthographic projection immediately displays one cell of the desired plane 2D space
group.
The full symmetry selection, interactivity and animation features for 3D space
groups offered by the SGV software become thus also available for plane 2D space
groups. A special advantage of this visualization method is, that by canceling the orthographic
projection (remove the tick mark of Orthographic View in drop down menu
Visualization), every plane 2D space group is seen to be a subgroup of a corresponding
3D super space group.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[72] **viXra:1306.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-17 01:41:53*

**Authors:** Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 3 figs, 1 tab. Symm.: Art + Sci., Spec. Iss. of The Jour. of the Int. Soc. For the Interdisc. Study of Symmetry (ISIS): G. Lugosi, D. Nagy (eds.), Proc. of Symm.: Art + Sci., 8th Congr. ISIS, Days of Harmonics, Austr., Aug. 2010, v 2010 (1-4), pp. 80-83.

This contribution shows how to successfully display the 17 two-dimensional
space groups (wallpaper groups) in the interactive crystal symmetry software Space
Group Visualizer (SGV) (Perwass & Hitzer, 2005). We show examples of four
wallpaper groups that contain (as sub patterns, i.e as subgroups) all other 13
wallpaper groups. The SGV is described in (Hitzer & Perwass, 2010). It is based on a
new type of powerful geometric algebra visualization platform (Perwass, 2000).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[71] **viXra:1306.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-06-17 03:00:32*

**Authors:** Daisuke Ichikawa, Eckhard Hitzer

**Comments:** 11 Pages. 12 figures, 4 tables. Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Adv. Mechanical and Power Engineering 2007, between Univ. of Fukui (Japan), Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Korea) and Univ. of Shanghai for Science and Technology (China), 22--25 Nov. 2007, 302-312 (2007).

The Space Group Visualizer is the main software that we use in this work to show the symmetry of orthorhombic space groups as interactive computer graphics in three dimensions. For that it is necessary to know the features and the classification of orthorhombic point groups and space groups. For representing the symmetry transformations of point groups and space groups, we employ (Clifford) geometric algebra. This algebra results from applying the associative geometric product to the vectors of a vector space. Some major features of the software implementation are discussed. Finally a brief overview of interactive functions of the Space Group Visualizer is given.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[70] **viXra:1305.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 22:07:11*

**Authors:** Fabing Duan, Francois Chapeau-Blondeau, Derek Abbott

**Comments:** 7 Pages. submitted to HotPI 2013

We study the aperiodic signal transmission in a static nonlinearity in the context of aperiodic stochastic resonance. The performance of a nonlinearity over that of the linear system is defined as the transmission efficacy. The theoretical and numerical results demonstrate that the noise-enhanced transmission efficacy effects occur for different signal strengths in various noise scenarios.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[69] **viXra:1305.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-29 02:54:43*

**Authors:** DaeHyeon Kang

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We refined the concepts of electric current and fluxoid, and London’s equation that specify quantum phenomena of moving electrons and magnetic flux in a closed circuit similar
to a superconducting ring, so as not to violate the uncertainty principle.
On this basic the relation between the electron motion and magnetic flux in a superconductor
has been theoretically investigated by means of Faraday’s law and/or canonical momentum relation.
The fact that minimum unit of the quantized magnetic flux is hc/2e does not mean the
concurrent motion of the two electrons in a Cooper pair as is known so far. However, it is
shown to be related with independent motion of the each electron in a superconducting state.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[68] **viXra:1305.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-16 11:01:07*

**Authors:** John Girault

**Comments:** 1 Page. We show Einsten wrong.

We EXPOSE the AGENDA of the sientist who tells us thet EINSTEN was wright.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[67] **viXra:1305.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-01 12:15:26*

**Authors:** Renato Vieira dos Santos

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The puzzle associated with the cost of sex, an old problem of evolutionary biology, is discussed
here from the point of view of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The results suggest, in a simplified model, that the prevalence of sexual species in nature can be a natural and necessary consequence of the discrete character of the nonlinear interactions between couples and their pathogens/parasites. Mapped into a field theory, the stochastic processes performed by the species are described by continuous fields in space and time. The way that the model's parameters scale with subsequent iterations of the renormalization group gives us information about the stationary emergent properties of the complex interacting systems modeled. We see that the combination of one aspect of the Red Queen theory with the stochastic processes theory, including spatiotemporal interactions, provides interesting insights into this old Darwinian dilemma.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[66] **viXra:1304.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-16 20:03:09*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The dispersion relation between the conjugate Fourier variables of position and momentum, ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship between the ground-state kinetic energy of a confined quantum, and its degree of containment. This containment can occur in two ways: the first is by an attractive potential, and the second by a repulsive potential. These two cases behave very differently. If the quantum is bound by an attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy remains within the bound system. In the second type of containment, which is only possible by compression, this is not so. In this case, the quantum is contained by collisions with the bounding potential, which must result in a transfer of kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state kinetic energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. An electron contained within the approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 nm, for example, if contained by the attractive potential of the atomic nucleus, would transmit no energy from the atom. The same electron, however, contained in the same volume by a repulsive potential, would transmit energy to the boundary at each collision. Because the minimum velocity of the electron determined by the dispersion relation is very great compared to the dimension of containment, the number of collisions per second with the boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. For even a small energy exchange per collision, this would result in a very large rate of energy transfer. An exchange of only 10^-6 ev per collision, for example, would produce 10^9 ev per second of energy transmitted to the boundary.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[65] **viXra:1304.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-12 18:20:38*

**Authors:** Renato Vieira dos Santos, Ronald Dickman

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Journal reference: Journal of Statistical Mechanics

Recently a model of intra- and interspecific competition between two species was proposed [Phys. Rev. E 87 (2013) 010101], in which the scarcer species (i.e., with smaller stationary population size) can be more resistant to extinction when it holds a competitive advantage. Here we verify this survival of the scarcer in
space (SSS) phenomenon in models with spatial structure, both analytically and numerically. We find that the conditions for SSS, as obtained applying renormalization group analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to a discrete-space model, differ significantly from those found in the spatially homogeneous case.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[64] **viXra:1304.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-09 21:19:41*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 09 pages; no figures

Starting from a string with a length equal to the electron mean free path in metals and having a unit cell equal to the Compton length of the electron, we construct a Schwarzschild-like metric. We found that this metric has a surface horizon with radius equal to that of the electron mean free path and its Bekenstein-like entropy is proportional to the number of squared unit cells contained in this spherical surface. The Hawking temperature goes with the inverse of the perimeter of the maximum circle of this sphere. Besides this, interesting analogies are traced out with some features of the particle physics.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[63] **viXra:1304.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-04-04 18:31:34*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages, no figure

A minimization of a free energy inspired in the Landauer’s erasure principle combined with alternatives treatments of the Brownian motion of the free electrons, is used as a means to derive the Fermi energy of metals. The obtained result differs from the usual one by a small discrepancy between the coefficients of the two versions of it, when expressed as a function of the density of free electrons, its mass and the Planck’s constant.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[62] **viXra:1303.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-03-28 10:02:50*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 4 Pages. his report is part of a series I am doing on science which will later be published into a book. This is part 2.

This guide is provided by Andrew Nassif, and is part of a series explanatory on science. This guide will include real life examples of Colligative properties in Chemistry as well as define them.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[61] **viXra:1302.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-28 07:26:46*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 13

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[60] **viXra:1302.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-02-25 17:54:48*

**Authors:** Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Nasir Germain summarizes fluid mechanics in a quick paper

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[59] **viXra:1301.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-17 12:26:27*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A research paper on some of the biggest controversies in the field of science and theoretical physics. This includes attempts on finding new scientific discoveries and research on the field itself as well as what is Quantum Field Theory.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[58] **viXra:1301.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-14 10:26:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A guide on what are colligative properties and how they help us in the understanding of chemistry as well as semi-conductor physics. This will also give us the ability to look at modern research and understanding in the field of chemistry through a conceptual thinking to the dimensional analysis behind it.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[57] **viXra:1212.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-22 08:31:48*

**Authors:** Zafar Turakulov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Rejected from the Journal of Mathematical Physics.

Maxwell equations for electromagnetic waves propagating in dispersive media are studied as they are, without commonplace substituting a scalar function for electromagnetic field. A method of variables separation for the original system of equation is proposed. It is shown that in case of planar symmetry variables separate in systems of Cartesian and cylindric coordinates and Maxwell equations reduce to one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation. Complete solutions are obtained for waves in medium with electric permittivity and magnetic permeability given as ϵ = e^−κz, µ = c^−2e^−λz.
keywords: Maxwell equations, dispersive media, complete solutions
PACS numbers: 41.20.Jb, 42.25 .Bs
Keywords: Maxwell equations, dispersive media, complete solutions

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[56] **viXra:1212.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-12-14 10:15:55*

**Authors:** L. F. Zagonel, J. Bettini, R. L. O. Basso, P. Paredez, H. Pinto, C. M. Lepienski, F. Alvarez

**Comments:** Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 207, 25 August 2012, Pages 72–78 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.05.081

A comprehensive study of pulsed nitriding in AISI H13 tool steel at low temperature (400°C) is reported for several durations. X-ray diffraction results reveal that a nitrogen enriched compound (Epsilon-Fe2-3N, iron nitride) builds up on the surface within the first process hour despite the low process temperature. Beneath the surface, X-ray Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) indicates relatively higher nitrogen concentrations (up to 12 at.%) within the diffusion layer while microscopic nitrides are not formed and existing carbides are not dissolved. Moreover, in the diffusion layer, nitrogen is found to be dispersed in the matrix and forming nanosized precipitates. The small coherent precipitates are observed by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) while the presence of nitrogen is confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Hardness tests show that the material hardness increases linearly with the nitrogen concentration, reaching up to 14.5 GPa in the surface while the Young Modulus remains essentially unaffected. Indeed, the original steel microstructure is well preserved even in the nitrogen diffusion layer. Nitrogen profiles show a case depth of about ~43 microns after nine hours of nitriding process. These results indicate that pulsed plasma nitriding is highly efficient even at such low temperatures and that at this process temperature it is possible to form thick and hard nitrided layers with satisfactory mechanical properties. This process can be particularly interesting to enhance the surface hardness of tool steels without exposing the workpiece to high temperatures and altering its bulk microstructure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[55] **viXra:1209.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-25 18:28:54*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submittal to Proceedings of ICCF17

This paper gives explanation on the basic physics of cold fusion by the TSC (tetrahedral symmetric condensate) theory. Models of TSC formation conditions in condensed matter are first proposed. Secondly formulas for cold fusion rates per D(H)-cluster are explained with typical quantitative results. The 4D/TSC fusion and the 4H/TSC WS fusion are answers, respectively for the D (deuterium)-system and the H (protium)-system.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[54] **viXra:1209.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-20 14:27:56*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 1 table, no figures

Various parameters tied to the electrical conductivity of typical metals are estimated and are expressed in terms of universal constants. It happens that they are close to those found in metallic copper at room temperature. The fact that the realization of the model occurs at room temperature is explained by using the Landauer’s erasure principle. The averaged collision time of the electron of conduction is also thought as a particle lifetime. Finally an analogy is established between the motion of the electron of conduction and the cosmological constant problem, where a spherical surface of radius equal to the electron mean free path has been thought as a surface horizon for the charge carriers.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[53] **viXra:1209.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-18 20:58:03*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi, Daniel Rocha

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A model of final state interaction for 8Be* of 4D/TSC fusion is proposed. The 8Be*(Ex=47.6MeV) may damp its excited energy by major BOLEP (burst of low energy photons) process from

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[52] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-09-02 21:56:50*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith Jr.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures:
Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral
1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation.
2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states:
Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites
Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites.
3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion.
4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra.
5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites.
6 - Repeat the Cycle.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[51] **viXra:1207.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-07-03 14:15:38*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We show that by intensifying the gravitational interaction between electron pairs it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10−1eV, enough to keep electron’s pairs (Cooper Pairs) at ambient temperatures. By means of this method, metals can be transformed into superconductors at ambient temperature.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[50] **viXra:1206.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-06-29 09:00:58*

**Authors:** X. Q. Huang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We investigate the nature of the superconducting current from the Maxwell's displacement current.
We argue that the conduction current density term of the Maxwell's equations is physically untrue, and it should be eliminated from the equations. Essentially, both the superconducting current and conduction current are originated from the Maxwell's displacement current characterizing
the changes of electric field with time or space.
Therefore, there are no electrons tunnel through the insulating layer of the Josephson junction.
It is shown that the conventional static magnetic field is, in fact, the static electric field of the intrinsic electron-ion electric dipoles in the materials. The new paradigm naturally leads to unification of magnetic and electrical
phenomena, while at the same time realizing the perfect symmetry of the Maxwell's equations. Moreover, it is well confirmed that the Dirac's
magnetic monopole is indeed the well-known electron. This research is expected to shed light on the high-temperature superconductivity.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[49] **viXra:1205.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-06 18:08:51*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 59 Pages.

Presentation from the 1st Memristor and Memristive Systems Symposium held at UC Berkeley in December 2008.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[48] **viXra:1205.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 08:45:16*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Memristive system models have previously been proposed to describe ionic memory resistors. However, these models neglect the mass of ions and repulsive forces between ions and are not well formulated in terms of semiconductor and ionic physics. This article proposes an alternative dynamic systems model in which the system state is derived from a second order differential equation in the form of a driven damped harmonic oscillator. Application is made to Schottky and tunneling barriers.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[47] **viXra:1205.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 08:51:54*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A dynamic systems model is proposed describing memory resistors which include a filament conductive bridge. In this model the system state is defined by both a dynamic tunneling barrier (associated with the filament-electrode gap) and a dynamic Schottky barrier (associated with the electron depletion width surrounding the filament-electrode gap). A general model is formulated which may be applicable to many different forms of memory resistor materials. The frequency response of the model is briefly discussed.
Keywords- mem-resistor, non-linear dynamic systems, RRAM, ReRAM, Schottky junction, tunneling junction

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[46] **viXra:1205.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-03 08:57:16*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A dynamic systems model has previously been proposed for mem-resistors based on a driven damped harmonic oscillator differential equation describing electron and ionic depletion widths in a thin semiconductor film. This paper derives equations for set, reset, and retention times based on the previously proposed model.
Keywords- mem-resistor, RRAM, ReRAM

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[45] **viXra:1201.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-30 15:34:13*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 86 pages. Portuguese.

This note collection is related to an analysis throughout the paper viXra:1112.0066.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[44] **viXra:1201.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-01-31 00:20:44*

**Authors:** Theodore Charles III

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

VASP can be used to run various material simulations and molecular dynamics. VASP uses DFT with both LGA and GGA approximation-based pseudopotentials to calculate various material properties.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[43] **viXra:1112.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-26 01:57:02*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The electron is interpreted as a small electric current carrying the elementary charge and the elementary mass. The equivalent circuit is a quarter-wave short circuited transmission line, the line having characteristic impedance 25812.807449 Ohm, the von Klitzing constant.
A similar line, closed on itself after a twist (as in a Moebius strip), not only justifies the charge and mass, but also the angular momentum of the electron.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[42] **viXra:1112.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-20 17:51:50*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 13 pages. English.

This brief paper is part of my research on the origins of turbulence. Since the derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are frequently cumbersome, I would like to provide this pedagogical derivation (I hope), discussing the properties of the continuum fluids under a heuristical approach.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[41] **viXra:1112.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-20 08:13:04*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 3 pages. English.

Through a convenient mathematical approach for the Navier-Stokes equation, we obtain the quadratic dependence $v^{2}$ of the drag force $F_{D}$ on a falling sphere, and the drag coefficient, $C_{D}$, as a function of the Reynolds number. Viscosity effects related to the turbulent boundary layer under transition, from laminar to turbulent, lead to the tensorial integration related to the flux of linear momentum through a conveniently choosen control surface in the falling reference frame. This approach turns out to provide an efficient route for the drag force calculation, since the drag force turns out to be a field of a non-inertial reference frame, allowing an arbitrary and convenient control surface, finally leading to the quadratic term for the drag force.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[40] **viXra:1112.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-12-07 19:38:19*

**Authors:** Mohit Shridhar

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Particles on a plate form Chladni patterns when the plate is acoustically excited. To better understand these patterns and their possible real-world applications, I present a new analytical and numerical study of the transition between standard and inverse Chladni patterns on an adhesive surface at any magnitude of acceleration. By spatial autocorrelation analysis, I examine the effects of surface adhesion and friction on the rate of pattern formation. Next, I explore displacement models of particles translating on a frictional surface with both adhesive and internal particle-plate frictions. In addition, I find that both adhesion and damping forces serve as exquisite particle sorting mechanisms. Finally, I discuss the possible real-world applications of these sorting mechanisms, such as separating nanoparticles, organelles, or cells.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[39] **viXra:1111.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2011-11-29 10:25:38*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 49 Pages. Number of figures:7

In order to explain why (i.e. cause) and how (i.e. way) superconductivity is generated and related properties and its effects take place, presently a new theory has been propounded determining such a cause over which unfortunately, despite having its knowledge, nobody ever tried to think, while it acts as the true cause. Consequently, the present theory gives a very clear and complete explanation (picture) why and how superconductivity is generated and related properties and its effects take place. So far unexplained some properties have also been explained, e.g.: 1. Why and how transition temperature ( ) varies from substance to substance; 2. Why and how very good conductors of current, e.g. gold, silver, copper do not superconduct even down to very low temperatures; 3. Why and how ferromagnetic substances do not superconduct; etc. Most important- it has also been tried to explain how currently known some non-superconducting (e.g. ferromagnetic) substances can be made superconducting. In order to verify/justify the truth of the determined cause, plausible arguments and evidences have been given from the well-established knowledge. The existing theories fail to give a clear and complete explanation as to how superconductivity is generated and related properties and effects take place, which is their great drawback. Because, whenever any phenomenon takes place, there occurs always a way (procedure), how that phenomenon and related properties take place, and hence if any theory is developed in order to explain that phenomenon, the theory must give a clear and complete explanation how that phenomenon and related properties take place. The existing theories, in addition, give rise to several such questions of which no any explanation can be given. The BCS theory for which it is claimed that it provides better explanation and accounts very well for all the properties exhibited by the superconductor. But if we examine this theory closely, we find that it is based on such concepts which: 1. Are practically not possible; 2. Contradict two well-observed facts; 3. Give rise to numerous such questions of which no explanation can be given. These drawbacks raise serious question mark over the truth of the BCS theory. Finally, some possible new effects have been predicted and it has been tried to explain why and how they shall take place.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[38] **viXra:1111.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2012-05-15 01:01:30*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 58 pages, 13 figures

When an electric current flows through any conducting rod: 1- Why and how is a magnetic field
generated around the rod? 2- Why and how does this field occur in a plane perpendicular to the
direction of flow of current and possesses direction? 3- How and which type of magnetism
(electromagnetism) is generated? How do electrons move together in electron beams despite
having repulsive Coulomb force between them? Why and how does the Lorentz force come into
play? No explanation is found how these phenomena take place. Electromagnetic theory has
wide success to its credit but it and other theories fail to do so. These theories fail
because there are some causes behind the occurrence of these phenomena but no account of
those causes have been taken into consideration. The causes are, e.g.: 1- The electron
possesses magnetism by virtue of nature similarly as it possesses charge by virtue of nature,
and magnetism occurs in the form of a ring around the charge of electron, 2- The magnetism
of the electron spins similarly as it's charge spins but in opposite directions, 3- The
interaction between magnetic fields of interacting particles (e.g. between magnetic fields
of electrons in electron beams) or interacting systems give rise to a force between them.
Presently, taking into account the above causes, a new theory has been propounded which
gives a very clear and complete explanation of all the above phenomena. The force caused
due to interaction between magnetic fields of electrons has some very important and
striking properties: this force is strong, short range and charge independent. Since the
nature of this force is exactly similar to what we speculate for nuclear force between
nucleons, and nucleons possess a magnetic field too, the nuclear force should be due to
interaction between magnetic fields of nucleons in nuclei. Most importantly, this force
has a repulsive component too, which is very essential to cause, e.g. alpha and beta
decays etc. because the Coulomb repulsive force is too weak and hence cannot cause these
decays. How this force varies, that has been determined. To confirm the truth of the
determined force, so far unexplained an important mysterious nuclear phenomenon has been
explained. Finally: i- effects of the present theory on some important current concepts
and their consequences have been discussed; and ii- some possible new effects have been
predicted and explained why and how they shall take place.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[37] **viXra:1110.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Vasili Baranau

**Comments:** 37 pages.

We propose a universal approach in the framework of the lattice Boltzmann
method (LBM) to modeling constant velocity constraints and constant temperature
constraints on curved walls, which doesn't depend on dimensionality, LBM scheme,
boundary geometry; which is numerically stable, accurate and local and has a good
physical background. This technique, called a maximum entropy method, utilizes the idea
of recovering unknown populations on boundary nodes through minimizing node state
deviation from equilibrium while assuring velocity or temperature restrictions. Also,
theoretical justifications of a popular Zou-He boundaries technique and isothermal
boundaries algorithm are provided on the basis of the method derived. Finally, while
conducting numerical benchmarks, typical straight boundaries algorithm (Zou-He) was
compared to a typical curved boundaries algorithm (Guo-Zheng).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[36] **viXra:1110.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 17 Oct 2011*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Zhiyong Yuan, Ji Zhou, Jianfei Sun, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han

**Comments:** 17 pages

The tridimensional morphology and etching kinetics of the etch pit on the C-{0001}
plane of sapphire crystal (a-Al2O3) in KOH molten were studied experimentally. It was shown that
the etch pit takes on tridimensional morphologies with triangular symmetry same as the symmetric
property of the sapphire crystal. Pits like centric and eccentric triangular pyramid as well as
hexagonal pyramid could be observed, but the latter is much less in density. Analyses show the side
walls of the etch pits belong to the {1 0 } family, and the triangular pit contains edges full
composed by Al3+ ions on the etching surface so it is more stable than the hexagonal pit since
whose edges on the etch surface contains Al2+ ions. The etch pits developed in manner of kinematic
wave by the step moving with constant speed controlled by the chemical reaction with activation
energy of 96.6KJ/mol between Al2O3 and KOH.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[35] **viXra:1109.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 1 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Jianfei Sun, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han, Xiaohong Wang

**Comments:** 18 pages and 8 figures.

A model relating the diameter variation with the process parameters during a practical
crystal growth by pulling has been proposed. The crystal shape evolution under various growth
process was analysed. The results prove, in theory, that the most effective and convenient measure
to control the crystal diameter is adjusting the pulling rate, and the optimal process for growing a
equal diameter crystal is simultaneously decreasing the pulling rate and the heater temperature
with dropped decreasing rate. Moreover, the model could be used for designing the process for
growing a crystal with a desired shape.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[34] **viXra:1104.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Apr 2011*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Jianfei Sun, Xiaohong Wang, Jiecai Han, Dawei Xing

**Comments:** 9 pages and 5 figures, will be submited to the journal Crystal Research and Technology.

This paper constructed a geometric model of crystal growth with pulling. On the basis of the model, effects of
processes on crystal shape evolution were clarified. The results shown some effects always used to control the
crystal diameter in practice. Some unusual effects also be shown. Crystal could have a self-stable diameter
and decreasing the convex extent of solid liquid interface could enhance the increase rate of crystal diameter
or reduce the decrease rate of crystal diameter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[33] **viXra:1103.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 3 pages.

What would most of us do with only three hours of
electricity per day? Yet that is what Dr. Sabiha Al-Jabbar
did when she was working on her PhD in Baghdad. She
had to design her experiments so that she could have
the results she needed before the lights went out.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[32] **viXra:1103.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 107 pages, dissertation, Dr. rer. nat. obtained from the University
of Dortmund on 19 July 2001

This PhD thesis examines the thermodynamical properties of spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains which are
coupled to Einstein phonons. One result of this study is that these spin-phonon systems undergo a
phase transition similar to a spin-Peierls transition (cf. Physical Review B 60 (1999) 12125-12133
and Physical Review B 65 (2002) 144438). Another result is that in the undimerized phase the critical
exponent nu depends on both the phonon frequency and the spin-phonon coupling constant. This means
that these spin-phonon systems change the universality class continuously with the spin-phonon
coupling (cf. arXiv: cond-mat/9912150v1).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[31] **viXra:1103.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Mar 2011*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 5 pages.

We accept the statement that "carriers in graphene
are described not by the Schrödinger equation" as a
challenge to show that electrons in graphene can be
described by the Schrödinger equation.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[30] **viXra:1102.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Feb 2011*

**Authors:** Shpend Mushkolaj

**Comments:**
21 pages.

The most astonishing properties of condensed matter are the formation of collective quantum
states of superconductivity, magnetic order, electric order and crystalline order. In this paper,
new universal formulas for transition temperatures are derived, that depend simply on atomatom
distances, atomic masses and electron masses. The universality of these formulas is
tested by comparing the calculated values and experimental data for critical temperatures of
different systems and phases.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[29] **viXra:1101.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 31 Jan 2011*

**Authors:** S.V.Akimenko, V.V.Demjanov

**Comments:** 3 pages.

The article shows that in case if the photon is viewed as a particle moving in empty space
the zero value of chemical potential of equilibrium electromagnetic radiation cannot be explained
basing only on first principles of statistical physics. On the contrary, to explain the chemical
potential of equilibrium electromagnetic radiation being equal to zero is rather simple if the photon
is considered as a quasi-particle that is the way to describe collective motion of a system consisting of
particles whose number is a fixed value. Collective motions of the particles of mentioned system are
interpreted in the article as oscillations of an electromagnetic field that corresponds to observation
data of modern astronomy, according to which the space, that fills the gaps, both between massive
objects and between massive particles forming them, should be attributed to characteristics of a
continuous medium.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[28] **viXra:1012.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** A.Takahashi, A. Kitamura, Y. Sasaki, Y. Miyoshi, A. Taniike, R. Seto, Y. Fujita

**Comments:** 18 pages, This is a preprint of our paper to J. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science,
Vol.4, to be published in 2011.

The PdO-coated layer of Pd-nano-particle may arrange fractal nano-dips on its surface when D(H)-gas
is charged and de-oxidation molecules (D2O or H2O) are released.
Fractal nano-dips may make local deep adsorption potentials, through which rapid penetration of D-atoms
(ions) into deeper Pd-local lattice (Bloch potential) O-sites of nano-particle may be induced, to realize
full or over-full D(H) loaded state (x>1.0) of PdDx in a short time of the Phase-I process. Formation of
D-clusters, such as 4D/TSC on surface may be enhanced at nano-dips. A phenomenological model of quasi-free
D-motion under constraint of the Bloch potential within a global mesoscopic potential well is proposed
for the Phase-II phenomena, where nuclear heating by 4D fusion reactions may rather steadily take place.
Generation of collective mesoscopic potential well (CMPW) will make a Pd nano-particle with PdO working
as "mesoscopic catalyst" which realizes very large D(H)-loading ratios and anomalously large chemical heat
releases both for H-gas and D-gas loading.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[27] **viXra:1012.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** A.Takahashi, A. Kitamura, Y. Miyoshi, H. Sakoh, A. Taniike, R. Seto, Y. Fujita

**Comments:** 11 pages, This is a preprint of our paper to Proceedings of JCF11 Meeting,
Japan CF-Research Society, to be published in 2011.

Discussions with brief summary of the Kobe group's experiments are given. Phenomenological
modeling on mechanisms are made for explaining observed anomalies in D(H)-overloading and high
heat-power release rates from nano-palladium-particles and binary metal PdNi nano-particles
dispersed in/on ZrO2 ceramics supporter flakes under D(H)-gas loading at room temperature. Roles
of PdO layer and Pd-ad-atoms (incomplete outer shell) of nano-Ni-core are modeled as mesoscopic
catalysts which have sub-nano-holes (SNH) on nano-particle-surfaces. SNH may realize strong
sticking force for D(H)-gas to dissociate and diffuse rapidly into inner local lattice sites.
During the beginning process, 4D/TSC cluster fusions with 1watt/g-Pd(or PdNi) may happen on
surface. By the very over-loading (x>>1) states in the later region of Phase-I and in the
Phase-II after saturation, TSC formation inside nano-particles may be strongly enhanced by the
non-linearly coupled QM oscillation (high free energy states of deuterons in local Bloch
potentials) under the deep mesoscopic global collective potential well.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[26] **viXra:1010.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Ron Bourgoin

**Comments:** 2 pages

Arxiv:1010.0259, now withdrawn, presents analysis to show
that on approach to the absolute zero of temperature, the specific
heat of matter in the aggregate, such as ultrathin wires that do not
enter the state of superconductivity, increases. There is good reason
to expect that this is true, which we will show in the present paper,
which moves us to urge that Arxiv:1010.0259 be restored.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[25] **viXra:1010.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Oct 2010*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Jianfei Sun, Hongbo Zuo, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han

**Comments:** 17 pages

The interface shape function for the pure material directional solidification system with
temperature disturbances on the heater and cooler is derived. It is approximately a fraction function
including cosine terms in the denominator and the numerator. Calculation of the function shows the interface
shape can respond to the temperature disturbance. When both the solidification rate V and the interface
cooler distance α determined by the boundary temperatures are lower than critical value deteimined by a
formula, the interface shape changes from sinusoidal wave to figures pattern with the increase of the rate or
the distance. Once the rate or the distance reaches the critical value, the interface branches at the bottom of
the grooves between figures and then the branches expand along the sidewall of the figures with further
increase of the rate or the distance. According to that, we conclude that the sinusoidal interface shape
assumption always used by the interface instability analyses is not always valid and the interface shape in
Hele-Shaw solidification experiments in fact maybe is not planar but a cellular interface with quite small
amplitude, and the role of temperature disturbance should be considered in experiments studying
solidification interface stability.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[24] **viXra:1007.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Jul 2010*

**Authors:** Andrea Gregori

**Comments:** 30 pages.

We consider superconductivity in the light of the quantum gravity theoretical framework
introduced in [1]. In this framework, the degree of quantum delocalization depends on the
geometry of the energy distribution along space. This results in a dependence of the critical
temperature characterizing the transition to the superconducting phase on the complexity of
the structure of a superconductor. We consider concrete examples, ranging from low to high
temperature superconductors, and discuss how the critical temperature can be predicted
once the quantum gravity effects are taken into account.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[23] **viXra:1004.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 16 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** V. Torres-Zúñiga, O.G. Morales-Saavedra, G. Hennrich, J.O. Flores-Flores, R. Ortega-Martínez

**Comments:**
15 pages. Manuscript submitted and accepted for publication as an article in Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

In this work, a liquid crystalline octopolar molecule 1,3,5-tris(ethynylphenyl)benzene-(1)
was successfully embedded as dopant chromophore within a SiO_{3}-symmetry structure, which is
constituted by an electron-rich core and electron-poor periphery groups. The sonogel method, induced
by energetic ultrasonic (US) waves applied at the TEOS/H_{2}O reactant mixture interface has proven to
be a suitable route in the manufacture of monolithic hybrid systems suitable for optical
characterizations. The octopolar-based hybrid samples were comprehensively studied in their
morphology, spectroscopic, linear and second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, according to
several characterization techniques: epimicroscopy, AFM, UV-Vis- and fluorescence (PL)
spectroscopies, and the NLO-SHG-technique. Epimicroscopy, photoluminiscent and absorption
spectra evidence an optimal and homogeneous inclusion of the octopolar compounds within the glassy
sonogel network. Without necessity of molecular poling processes, the effective quadratic-NLO
susceptibility χ_{effS}^{(2)} of the hybrid was estimated to 13.6x10^{-3} pm/V at 1064 nm by SHG-transmission
experiments recorded far-off of the resonance regime.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22] **viXra:1004.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 13 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Xiangjun Feng

**Comments:**
3 pages and 3 figures. This paper has been published in the on-line journal of World Chinese Forum On
Science of General Systems (WCFSGS), ISSN 1936-7260. Report Number: 300-P-10-04-01.
Journal Reference: WCFSGS VOL 6, NO. S1 ( A SPECIAL EDITION ON NONEXTENSIVE MECHANICS ), APRIL 2010, ISSN 1936 - 7260.

It is demonstrated clearly that for the same
classic generalized system the Tsallis power-laws with both
the q > 1 and the q < 1 can be induced by the constraint
of the constant harmonic mean for the so-called reciprocal
energies r E and at the same time the Boltzmann
distribution or the negative exponential probability
distribution can be generated with the constraint of the
constant arithmetic mean for the generalized energies E .
The author thus argues that there might be no definite
"extensive system" or "classic system" and there are only
"classic physical parameters" and "classic constraints".
For any physical system or generalized system, it is the
non-natural constraints which determine both the forms of
the entropies and the non-uniform equilibrium
distributions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[21] **viXra:1003.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Frank Lichtenberg

**Comments:** 4 pages

It has been known for quite long time that the electrodynamics of Maxwell equations
can be extended and generalized further into Proca equations. The implications of introducing
Proca equations include an alternative description of superconductivity, via
extending London equations. In the light of another paper suggesting that Maxwell
equations can be written using quaternion numbers, then we discuss a plausible extension
of Proca equation using biquaternion number. Further implications and experiments
are recommended.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[20] **viXra:1003.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 pages

Emergent physics refers to the formation and evolution of collective patterns in systems
that are nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium. This type of large-scale behavior often develops
as a result of simple interactions at the component level and involves a dynamic
interplay between order and randomness. On account of its universality, there are credible
hints that emergence may play a leading role in the Tera-ElectronVolt (TeV) sector of
particle physics. Following this path, we examine the possibility of hypothetical highenergy
states that have fractional number of quanta per state and consist of arbitrary
mixtures of particles and antiparticles. These states are similar to "un-particles", massless
fields of non-integral scaling dimensions that were recently conjectured to emerge
in the TeV sector of particle physics. They are also linked to "unmatter", exotic clusters
of matter and antimatter introduced few years ago in the context of Neutrosophy.
The connection between 'unmatter' and 'unparticle' is explained in details in this paper.
Unparticles have very odd properties which result from the fact that they represent fractional
field quanta. Unparticles are manifested as mixed states that contain arbitrary mixtures of
particles and antiparticles (therefore they simultaneously evolve "forward" and "backward" in time).
From this, the connection with unmatter. Using the fractal operators of differentiation and
integration we get the connection between unparticle and unmatter. 'Unmatter' was coined by
F. Smarandache in 2004 who published three papers on the subject.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[19] **viXra:1003.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 3 pages

Besides matter and antimatter there must exist unmatter (as a new form of matter) in
accordance with the neutrosophy theory that between an entity <A> and its opposite
<AntiA> there exist intermediate entities <NeutA>. Unmatter is neither matter nor
antimatter, but something in between. An atom of unmatter is formed either by (1):
electrons, protons, and antineutrons, or by (2): antielectrons, antiprotons, and neutrons.
At CERN it will be possible to test the production of unmatter. The existence of
unmatter in the universe has a similar chance to that of the antimatter, and its production
also difficult for present technologies.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[18] **viXra:1003.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto

**Comments:** 476 pages

The present book covers a wide-range of issues from alternative hadron models to their
likely implications in New Energy research, including alternative interpretation of lowenergy
reaction (coldfusion) phenomena.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17] **viXra:1003.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 pages

One of the most reported problem related to the CMNS (condensed matter nuclear science, or
LENR), is the low probability of Coulomb barrier tunneling. It is supposed by standard physics
that tunneling is only possible at high enough energy (by solving Gamow function).
However, a recent study by A. Takahashi (2008, 2009) and experiment by Arata etc. (2008)
seem to suggest that it is not impossible to achieve a working experiment to create the CMNS
process.
In accordance with Takahashi's EQPET/TSC model [1][2][3], the proposed study will find out
some analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of barrier tunneling for cluster
deuterium, in particular using Langevin method to solve the time-independent Schrödinger
equation. It is hoped that the result can answer some of these mysteries.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[16] **viXra:1001.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** V. Torres-Zúñiga, O. G. Morales-Saavedra, E. Rivera, J. O. Flores-Flores, J. G. Bañuelos, R. Ortega-Martínez

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Manuscript submitted and accepted for publication as an article in Journal of Modern Optics

The catalyst-free sonogel route was implemented to fabricate highly pure,
optically active, hybrid azo-dye/SiO_{2}-based spin-coated thin films deposited onto ITO-covered glass
substrates. The implemented azo-dyes exhibit a push-pull structure; thus chromophore electrical
poling was performed in order to explore their quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) performance and
the role of the SiO_{2} matrix for allowing molecular alignment within the sonogel host network.
Morphological and optical characterizations were performed to the film samples according to
atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and the Maker finger
technique. Regardless of absence of a high glass transition temperature (T_{g}) in the studied
monomeric liquid crystalline azo-dyes, some hybrid films displayed stable NLO activity such as
second harmonic generation (SHG). Results show that the chromophores were homogeneously
embedded within the SiO_{2} sonogel network, where the guest-host molecular and mechanical
interactions permitted a stable monomeric electrical alignment in this kind of environment.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[15] **viXra:0912.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The author shows that the Maxwell's equations in vacuum have solutions
which have helical structure in space while being circularly polarized at the
same time. This goes against the universally accepted solutions which treat the
electromagnetic wave as sinusoidal wave propagating along a linear path. He
shows that the helical wave structure assumes that the fundamental state of the
electromagnetic wave is the circularly polarized state and not the linearly
polarized state. Since the photon is theorized to exist in a circularly polarized
state, the proposed new solution is consistent with that picture. The author
proposes a simple experiment using a maser to confirm the veracity of the
proposed helical structure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[14] **viXra:0911.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Robert A.J. Matthews

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We describe an empirical study of the formation of knots in open and closed self-avoiding walks
(SAWs), based on a simple model involving randomly agitated cords. The results suggest that
the probability of a closed SAW remaining knot-free follows a similar scaling law to that for
open-ended SAWs. In particular, the process of closing a given SAW prior to random agitation
substantially increases the probability that it will be knot-free following agitation. The results
point to a remedy for the well-known problem of tangling of cord, rope, headphone cables etc.
The simple act of connecting the two free ends to each other, thus creating a loop, greatly
reduces the risk of such tangling. Other implications, in particular for DNA storage in cells, are
briefly discussed.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[13] **viXra:0909.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 23 pages, extension of "NEW S-S' PAIR CREATION RATE EXPRESSION IMPROVING UPON ZENER
CURVES FOR I-E PLOTS; Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 20, No. 14 (2006) 849-861", as written by
the authors, with a so called 'minimum criterion' for formation of instanton structure in
condensed matter systems. which the author eventually will send to a condensed matter journal.
Has eight figures. Key part of text on pages 21-23, as discussion built about 7th and final
question as to applications of false vacuum hypothesis, and instanton physics for condensed
matter systems.

We present near the end of this document a promising research direction as to how to generalize
a technique initially applied to density wave current calculations to questions of instanton
formation in multi dimensional condensed matter systems. Initially we review prior calculations
done through a numerical simulation that the massive Schwinger model used to formulate solutions
to CDW transport in itself is insufficient for transport of soliton-antisoliton (S S') pairs
through a pinning gap model of CDW transport. Using the Peierls condensation energy permits
formation of CDW S S' pairs in wave functionals. This leads us to conclude that if there is a
small spacing between soliton-antisoliton (S S') charge centers, and an approximate fit between
a tilted washboard potential and the system we are modeling, that instantons are pertinent to
current/transport problems. This requires a very large 'self energy' final value of interaction
energy as calculated between positive and negative charged components of soliton-antisoliton
(S S') pairs with Gaussian wave functionals as modeled for multi dimensional systems along the
lines of Lu's generalization given below. The links to a saddle point treatment of this
instanton formation are make explicit by a comment as to a cosmology variant of instanton
formation in multi dimensions we think is, with slight modifications appropriate for
condensed matter systems

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[12] **viXra:0909.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 pages. Mathematical / condensed matter joint piece designed to explain
the congruence of the Bogomol’nyi inequality with the fate of the false vacuum hypothesis as given by Sidney Coleman.
Foundational issue involved which was key to up dates as to my PhD dissertation, and subsequent work in terms of the
tunneling Hamiltonian, and I-E curves in laboratory data taking. Note , the Bogomol’nyi inequality is a key work horse
as to PARTICLE/ Astro physics, as is the false vacuum hypothesis

We examine quantum decay of the false vacuum in the driven sine-Gordon
system and show how both together permit construction of a Gaussian wave
functional. This is due to changing a least action integral to be similar with
respect to the WKB approximation. In addition we find that the soliton-antisoliton
(S-S') separation distance obtained from the Bogomol'nyi inequality permits after
rescaling a dominant &phi^{2} contribution to the least action integrand. This is from an
initial scalar potential characterized by a tilted double well potential construction.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[11] **viXra:0909.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 28 Sep 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 18 pages, Constitutes one fifth of the author's PhD dissertation
at the U. of Houston, in late 2001. Remainder of dissertation used Sidney Coleman's
"fate of the false vacuum" article, plus the Schwinger equation, with chain
couplings to fix short comings evident in the simulations presented in this
document. 6 figures.

We have evidence that the classical random pinning model, if simulated numerically using
a phase evolution scheme pioneered by Littlewood, gives dispersion relationships that are
inconsistent with experimental values near threshold. These results argue for a revision
of contemporary classical models of charge density wave transport phenomena. Classically,
phase evolution equations are in essence driven harmonic oscillator models, with perturbing
terms plus damping. These break down when we are adding more 'energy' into a measured sample
via an applied electric field than is dissipated via a damping coefficient behavior in a
phase evolution equation. We see the consequences of the breakdown of these phase evolution
models in Charge Density Wave conductivity and dielectric functional graphs.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[10] **viXra:0908.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 3 pages

In the article the capture bar of an electron into atomic orbit and mechanism for analysis
of screw motion of an electron is described.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[9] **viXra:0908.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 19 pages

In the article the equations of a kinetics of coagulation of disperse systems and
theory of a solvate layer of colloidal particles are given.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[8] **viXra:0908.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 7 pages

By exerting a magnetic field normal to a current-carrying strip we
cause a deviation in the path of moving electrons as if our conducting path
is a wire along an edge of the strip which at a point is deflected normal
to the edge and reaches the other edge and afterwards is continued along
this other edge in the same direction as before. It is clear that connecting
the two end points of the transverse part of such a wire by a minor wire
we expect a part of the main current to pass through this minor wire. The
direction of such a current flowing in the minor wire is such that as if the
current-carrying charges in the main current-carrying strip are positive
charges. This is the basis of this article. A quite practical experiment is
proposed for testing the presented theory.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[7] **viXra:0908.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 7 pages

In a gradient of magnetic field, magnetic dipoles of the air are attracted
toward the region of intense field such that the air pressure is more in the
regions of more intense field. The formed pressure gradient exerts a net
force on a body placed in the air in this gradient of magnetic field toward
the region of low pressure or the region having weaker field. This is like
what takes place in sink-float separation.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[6] **viXra:0908.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 30 pages

It is shown that there exists a uniqueness theorem, stating that the
charges given to a constant configuration of conductors take a unique distribution,
which contrary to what is believed does not have any relation to
the uniqueness theorem of electrostatic potential. Using this theorem we
obtain coefficients of potential analytically. We show that a simple carelessness
has caused the famous formula for the electrostatic potential to be
written as U = 1/2 ∫D.Edv while its correct form is U = 1/2 ∫D.E_{ρ}dv
in which E_{ρ} is the electrostatic field arising only from the external charges
not also from the polarization charges.

Considering the above-mentioned material it is shown that, contrary
to the current belief, capacitance of a capacitor does not at all depend
on the dielectric used in it and depends only on the configuration of its
conductors. We proceed to correct some current mistakes resulted from
the above-mentioned mistakes, eg electrostatic potential energy of and the
inward force exerted on a dielectric block entering into a parallel-plate
capacitor are obtained and compared with the wrong current ones.

It is shown that existence of dielectric in the capacitor of a circuit
causes attraction of more charges onto the capacitor because of the polarization
of the dielectric. Then, in electric circuits we should consider the
capacitor's dielectric as a source of potential not think wrongly that existence
of dielectric changes the capacitor's capacitance. Difference between
these two understandings are verified completely during some examples,
and some experiments are proposed for testing the theory. For example
it is shown that contrary to what the current theory predicts, resonance
frequency of a circuit of RLC will increase by inserting dielectric into the
capacitor (without any change of the geometry of its conductors). It is
also shown that what is calculated as K (dielectric constant) is in fact
2 - (1/K).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[5] **viXra:0908.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Aug 2009*

**Authors:** Vladislav Konovalov

**Comments:** 5 pages

Many characteristics of fluids and solids it is possible to calculate, using notion
about existence of "surface gas".

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[4] **viXra:0902.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2009*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

This paper gives the follow-up study on the basics for our previous papers, Study on
4D/Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate Condensation Motion by Non-Linear Langevin Equation,
Symposium 998-Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Source Book, ACS, published on August 2008
from Oxford University Press.
Pertaining to the quantum mechanics, the basics of new approach using the stochastic
differential equation (Langevin equation) is written for quantifying dynamic motion of
known molecules as D_{2}^{+}, D_{2} and D_{3}^{+}
as well as D-atom state. The role of the Platonic
symmetry in these known molecules are discussed for deducing simple one-dimensional
(R_{dd} dependent; here R_{dd} is distance between nearest d-d pair) Langevin equation and
making quantum-mechanical ensemble averaging to obtain equation for expectation value.
The methodology is applied for more complicated D-clusters as 4D/TSC and 6D/OSC which
would keep the Platonic symmetry, by introducing the force fluctuation deviating from
the ideal Platonic symmetry. Time-dependent TSC and OSC trapping potentials which take
balance to getting back to the Platonic symmetry from the distorted states were defined
and used for numerical solution of Langevin equation. Finally, time-dependent fusion
rate formula for simultaneous 4D interaction was obtained based on the Fermi's golden
rule and one-pion exchange potential of strong interaction. The 4D fusion is regarded to
cause radiation-less excess heat and ^{4}He ash in metal-deuterium systems under dynamic conditions

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[3] **viXra:0902.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2009*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi, Norio Yabuuchi

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

Tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC) with 4 deuterons and 4 electrons has been proposed as
a seed of clean 4D fusion with 4He product in condensed matter. To solve molecular dynamics
motion of 4D/TSC condensation, a nonlinear Langevin equation was formulated with a Coulombic
main condensation force term under Platonic symmetry, 6 balancing forces by quantum mechanical
electron clouds of dde*(2,2) EQPET molecules on 6 faces of TSC cube and a random quantum
mechanical fluctuation term f(t) for d-d distance. Gaussian wave functions for d-d pairs and
their ground state energies were first obtained by variational method, for D2 and EQPET molecules.
Then same sigma-value was used for time-dependent Gaussian wave functions of d-d pairs of TSC
system to calculate the ensemble-averaged <f(t)> for changes of Coulomb energy and force of
distorted TSC system deviated from the ideal double Platonic symmetry. Molecular dynamics
calculation with TSC Langevin equation by the Verlet time-step method was then done. We
obtained mean relative final-stage d-d kinetic energy 13.68 keV with -130.4 keV deep trapping
TSC potential at Rdd-minimum = 25 fm and time-to-TSC-minimum =1.4007 fs. Mean kinetic energy
of electron of a "d-e-d-e" EQPET molecule of TSC system was estimated as 57.6 keV at Rdd =25
fm. These time-dependent trapping potential for d-d pair of TSC can be approximated by HMEQPET
potentials with the empirical relation of m=4.36x10^{4}/R_{dd}, (Rdd in fm unit), continuously as a
change of condensation time or Rdd(t). Barrier factors for fusion reactions as a function of
Rdd(t) and 4D fusion rate per TSC generation were calculated using these HMEQPET potentials
and Fermi's golden rule. We found that 4D/TSC got to the TSC-minimum state with 10 fm-20 fm
radius in 1.4007 fs and 4D fusion rate was 100 % per 4D/TSC generation-condensation. Thus we
concluded that 4He production rate by 4D/TSC was equal to two times of 4D/TSC generation rate
in condensed matter (e.g., PdDx).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[2] **viXra:0902.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 14 Feb 2009*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** recovered from sciprint.org

This paper gives further discussions and explanations on the timedependent
quantum-mechanical behaviors of electron-clouds in 4D/TSC
condensation motion by Langevin equation, in comparison with steady
ground state electron orbits and their de Broglie wave lengths for D-atom
and D_{2} molecule.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[1] **viXra:0808.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Aug 2008*

**Authors:** S. A. Al-Jabbar

**Comments:** 42 pages

The present work aims at the preparation of filaments of bismuth powder/ epoxy resin and examined
them to be high conductor with locally available material and tools following our technology
comparing with Bourgoin method.
Three sets of bismuth filaments were prepared at different conditions and the current - voltage
(I-V) characteristics measured by 2- probe system to examine the electrical resistance.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[83] **viXra:1606.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-26 23:47:42*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Re-explanation the causes and mechanism of Superconductivity
in a new perspective and according to a new atomic theory.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[82] **viXra:1604.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-18 14:10:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[81] **viXra:1603.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 03:17:58*

**Authors:** Andrzej Gecow

**Comments:** v1 - version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, v2 - version in English, 170 pages, over 400 graphs and tables.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random
network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered
reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic,
described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties.
Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially
interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity,
however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node
states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when
one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects
description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen
and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations.
Keywords: chaos; complex networks; dynamic networks; deterministic networks; Kauffman
networks; computer simulation.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[80] **viXra:1603.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-09 13:42:40*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

147-atom Palladium clusters embedded in Zeolite cavities enable Cold Fusion when exposed to Deuterium gas by Klein Paradox Tunnelling of D+D+D+D producing He + He + 47.6 MeV. Cold Fusion Energy goes to Optical Mode Phonons in the Pd clusters and then to the Zeolite where it is stored as Heat that is released by D2O Heavy Water to produce useful energy. Ejection of He + He and reloading of D+D+D+D is done by Jitterbug transformation between Icosahedral Ground State and Cuboctahedral Metastable State of 147-atom Pd clusters. Synthesis of 147-atom Pd clusters has been done by Burton, Boyle, and Datye at Sandia / U. New Mexico, USA. Zeolite synthesis has been discussed by Sharma, Jeong, Han and Cho at Chungnam Nat. Un., Korea. Based on prior experimental results of Arata and Zhang (replicated by McKubre at SRI) and of Parchamazad the expected energy production is on the order of kilowatts per milligram of Palladium. Version 2 (v2) adds some details of fusion energy transfer to Pd cluster.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[79] **viXra:1601.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-18 06:37:11*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. revised version

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[78] **viXra:1601.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-12 05:19:30*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[77] **viXra:1512.0418 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-27 18:05:22*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Preprint of draft paper to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[76] **viXra:1512.0418 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-25 23:51:50*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Preprint of draft paper to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[75] **viXra:1511.0045 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-05 05:02:53*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the arrangement structure of the atoms in Graphene.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[74] **viXra:1511.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-11 19:37:33*

**Authors:** Swapnil Patil

**Comments:** Total 16 pages. The replacement elaborates the supplementary information of our previous version and refines the language of presentation. Many of our ideas should become very clear after reading this version (also published as arXiv:1409.7156v5).

We critically examine the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in heavy fermion systems located close to a magnetic instability and suggest a conceptual advance in physics in order to explain its origin. We argue that the treatment of electronic states responsible for magnetism near the Quantum Critical Point (QCP), should not be accomplished within the quantum mechanical formalism; instead they should be treated semi-classically. The observed NFL behavior can be explained within such a scenario. As a sequel we attempt to discuss its consequences for the explanation of high-TC superconductivity observed in Cuprates.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[73] **viXra:1510.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-10 04:19:34*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[72] **viXra:1510.0077 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-09 07:52:01*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[71] **viXra:1510.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-05 11:00:15*

**Authors:** A.S. Bhattacharyya, S.K.Raj, R.Ratn, Parameshwar Kommu

**Comments:** 03 Pages. Communicated

A rare dendritic growth in sputter deposited SiCN and CVD deposited CN were observed. The rapid rate of nucleation and growth process led to instabilities in the growth pattern and the surface energy release rate was more through convection than diffusion It opens up new field of fractal study in the case of CN and SiCN based materials and thin films.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[70] **viXra:1510.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-12 18:00:50*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The possible obtention of invisibility by means of a gravitational method is shown in this work. This method is based on a gravity control process patented on 2008 (BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5). It goes far beyond the known methods of invisibility and camouflage, which use the principles of light refraction to allow light to pass right through an object (metamaterials).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[69] **viXra:1509.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-22 00:47:45*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter
in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according
to a new theory of atomic structure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[68] **viXra:1509.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-20 22:49:04*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter
in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according
to a new theory of atomic structure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[67] **viXra:1508.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-22 09:25:23*

**Authors:** Tian Hao

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

For the purpose of applying laws or principles extracted from thermal systems to granular
powders, we may need to define temperature properly in granular powders. The conventional
environmental temperature in thermal systems is too weak to drive particles in granular powders
move around and cannot function as a thermal energy indicator. Several common scenarios in
granular powder systems are discussed in this article and the corresponding analogous
temperatures are defined in a similar way that the temperature of granular powders can have a
same functionality as in thermal systems. For differentiating those two temperatures, the
temperature in granular powders is named granulotemperature and expressed as T gp rather than
T g in order to avoid confusion with the glass transition temperature expression. The jamming
transition temperature is defined analogously in a uniformed manner, too. The particle volume
fractions at jamming points are thus obtained by assuming that the ratio of the
granulotemperature to the jamming temperature equals to one. The predictions from the
equations of the jamming volume fractions at several cases like granular powders under a shear
or a vibration are in line with experimental observations and empirical solutions in powder
handlings. The goal of this article is to lay a foundation for establishing similar concepts in
granular powders and then the granular powders can be described with common laws or
principles we are familiar with in thermal systems. Our intention is to build up a bridge between
thermal systems and granular powders for accommodating many similarities already found
between those two systems.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[66] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-25 05:57:47*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[65] **viXra:1506.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-17 11:24:28*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[64] **viXra:1506.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-06 18:27:04*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 7 Pages. text slightly refined

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that Callen-Welton disregarded the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and, in this way, they produced the zero-point noise artifact. Following Kleen's proposal, the possible origin of the heterodyne (Koch - van Harlingen - Clark) experimental results are also discussed in terms of Heffner theory of quantum noise of frequency/phase-sensitive linear amplifiers.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[63] **viXra:1506.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-02 12:03:23*

**Authors:** Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist

**Comments:** 7 Pages. references expanded, additional authors joined

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that Callen-Welton disregarded the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and, in this way, they produced the zero-point noise artifact.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[62] **viXra:1504.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-05 20:19:36*

**Authors:** Dashan Shang, Yisheng Chai, Zexian Cao, Jun Lu, Young Sun

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Chin. Phys. B vol 24, No. 6 (2015) 068402

A complete and harmonized fundamental circuit relational graph with four linear and four memory elements is constructed based on newly defined elements, which provides a guide to developing novel circuit functionalities in the future. In addition to resistor, capacitor and inductor which are defined in terms of a linear relationship between the charge q, the current i, the voltage v, and the magnetic flux , Chua proposed in 1971 the fourth linear circuit element to directly relate flux and q. A non-linear resistive device defined in memory i-v relation and dubbed memristor, was later attributed to such an element and has been realized in various material structures. Here we clarify that the memristor is not the true fourth fundamental circuit element but the memory extension to the concept of resistor, in analogy to the extension of memcapacitor to capacitor and meminductor to inductor. Instead, a two-terminal device employing the linear magnetoelectric effects, termed transtor, possesses the function of relating directly flux and q and should take the position of the fourth linear element. Moreover, its memory extension, termed memtranstor, is proposed and analyzed here.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[61] **viXra:1502.0248 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-06 08:00:34*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number. Version 3 (v3) updates graphics to make clear that Zeolite water must be Deuterated Heavy Water. Version 4 (v4) further corrects viXra number.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[60] **viXra:1502.0248 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-05 04:44:23*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number. Version 3 (v3) updates graphics to make clear that Zeolite water must be Deuterated Heavy Water.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[59] **viXra:1502.0248 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-01 09:07:30*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[58] **viXra:1502.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-02 10:12:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion with 147-atom Palladium clusters containing Deuterium in Sodium Zeolite Y cages produces energy that can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D20 to form steam. If the Water that is initially in the Zeolite and released as the Zeolite is heated by fusion is Hydrogen water, then the Hydrogen could contaminate the Pd cluster Deuterium and impair the TSC fusion process so all Zeolite used for TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion should be of the form AmXpO2p · nD2O that is, all the water in the Zeolite used for Pd-D fusion should be Heavy Water D2O which can be accomplished by taking ordinary Zeollte, then heating it to flush out all the Ordinary Water H2O and then cooling it with Heavy Water D2O to give AmXpO2p · nD2O. Version 2 (v2) adds viXra number and Zeolite heat capacity.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[57] **viXra:1502.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-14 22:48:18*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Muon fusion is a known process based on the high muon / electron mass ratio enabling a muon of a Deuterium atom to screen the positive charge of its Deuterium nucleus and allow two Deuterium nuclei to approach one another close enough for fusion D + D -> 4He + 23.8 MeV to take place. Julian Schwinger, who said “... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”, encouraged Simons and Walling to propose that Deuterium nuclei and electrons in Palladium could get increased effective mass through Palladium structure quantum processes to screen Deuterium nuclei enough for fusion D + D -> 4He + 23.8 MeV to take place and for the “heavy electrons” to carry away most of the 23.8 MeV fusion energy into Palladium structure electron system and for the entire process to be “... enhanced ... by high electron density contributed by ... Pd centers” located near the point of fusion. Akito Takahashi proposed that the structure of Palladium would encourage a tetrahedral configuration of 4 Deuterium nuclei and 4 Deuterium electrons as a coherent quantum Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) that would collapse ( with the 4 electrons screening the 4 D nuclei ) and fuse D + D + D + D -> 8Be + 47.6 MeV -> 4He + 4He + 47.6 MeV. Palladium clusters of 147 atoms ( about 1.5 nanometers ) have a ground state icosahedral configuration that encourages TSC fusion and a metastable cuboctahedral configuration that allows reloading of ambient Deuterium into the Palladium cluster by a Jitterbug transformation with, for each TSC configuration, a central Palladium atom to enhance the process. If each 147-atom Palladium cluster is embedded into a Zeolite cage then the fusion energy can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D2O to form steam. Version 2 (v2) corrects typo, adds reference, and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[56] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-19 11:27:53*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 (v2) updates some material and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment. Version 3 (v3) adds XRD and SEM data for Sandia Pd clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 4 (v4) adds TEM data for Sandia Pd Clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 5 (v5) reorganizes the material with some revisions, and adds Palladium electron shell structure considerations and comparison with Carbon electron shell structure and graphene. Version 6 (v6) corrects references to those getting positive experimental results. Version 7 (v7) revises discussion of Zeolite Y crystal structure and corrects author name. Version 8 (v8) adds details about Pd cluster structure and relation to Zeolite Y cavity geometry.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[55] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-09 12:11:03*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

raphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 (v2) updates some material and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment. Version 3 (v3) adds XRD and SEM data for Sandia Pd clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 4 (v4) adds TEM data for Sandia Pd Clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 5 (v5) reorganizes the material with some revisions, and adds Palladium electron shell structure considerations and comparison with Carbon electron shell structure and graphene. Version 6 (v6) corrects references to those getting positive experimental results. Version 7 (v7) revises discussion of Zeolite Y crystal structure and corrects author name.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[54] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-05 14:40:04*

**Authors:** Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 (v2) updates some material and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment. Version 3 (v3) adds XRD and SEM data for Sandia Pd clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 4 (v4) adds TEM data for Sandia Pd Clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 5 (v5) reorganizes the material with some revisions, and adds Palladium electron shell structure considerations and comparison with Carbon electron shell structure and graphene. Version 6 (v6) corrects references to those getting positive experimental results.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[53] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-03 20:19:16*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 (v2) updates some material and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment. Version 3 (v3) adds XRD and SEM data for Sandia Pd clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 4 (v4) adds TEM data for Sandia Pd Clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 5 (v5) reorganizes the material with some revisions, and adds Palladium electron shell structure considerations and comparison with Carbon electron shell structure and graphene.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[52] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-06 09:59:15*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 (v2) updates some material and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment. Version 3 (v3) adds XRD and SEM data for Sandia Pd clusters on SBA-15 substrate. Version 4 (v4) adds TEM data for Sandia Pd Clusters on SBA-15 substrate.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[51] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-30 11:50:57*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 (v2) updates some material and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment. Version 3 (v3) adds XRD and SEM data for Sandia Pd clusters on SBA-15 substrate.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[50] **viXra:1501.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-16 15:52:25*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

Graphic Cover summarizes TSC Fusion of D in 147-atom Palladium Clusters; Jitterbug Icosa - Cubocta - Icosa Transformation reloading D into Pd Clusters; and Zeolite Steam Engine utilizing Fusion Energy. The body of the paper gives details of the Pd - D TSC Jitterbug Fusion Process: Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral: 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation; 2 - Pd clusters with absorbed Deuterium have two states: Icosahedral ground state Cuboctahedral metastable state; 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in Icosahedral Pd-D produces Fusion; 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra; 5 - Cuboctahedra reload TSC sites and Jitterbug back to Icosahedra; 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 (v2) updates some material and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[49] **viXra:1409.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 03:51:03*

**Authors:** Rainer W. Kühne

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This preprint was accepted for publication by Physicsal Review B. The author was forced by Prof. Klaus Fabricius to withdraw the paper from both Physical Review B and the arXiv preprint server. The author is still thinking that the paper is correct.

We present a quantum Monte Carlo study for the isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain coupled to Einstein phonons. By investigating the behavior of the correlation length we find the critical exponent to depend on both the phonon frequency and the spin-phonon coupling constant. Hence, these systems change the universality class continuously with the spin-phonon coupling.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[48] **viXra:1408.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-23 20:56:58*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Based on the thirteen similarities of structures of lattice, electron, and strong
correlation Hamiltonian between CMR (colossal magnetoresistance) manganites
and the high-Tc cuprates, this paper concludes that the Hamiltonian of
the high-Tc cuprates and CMR manganites are the same. Based on uniform
and quantitative explanations for fifteen experimental facts, this paper concludes
that the pseudogap and CMR of manganites are caused completely
by formation of Cooper pairs, consisting of two oxygen 2pσ holes in MnO2
plane

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[47] **viXra:1408.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-22 04:56:34*

**Authors:** Fu-sui Liu

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Based on the thirteen similarities of structures of lattice, electron, and strong
correlation Hamiltonian between CMR (colossal magnetoresistance) manganites
and the high-Tc cuprates, this paper concludes that the Hamiltonian of
the high-Tc cuprates and CMR manganites are the same. Based on uniform
and quantitative explanations for fifteen experimental facts, this paper concludes
that the pseudogap and CMR of manganites are caused completely
by formation of Cooper pairs, consisting of two oxygen 2pσ holes in MnO2
plane

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[46] **viXra:1405.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-31 12:03:07*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 157-162. (revised December 26, 2014 and December 29, 2014)

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is addressed once again, while presenting a generalized form. A contrast is made between the approach recently taken (P. M. Robitaille. On the equation which governs cavity radiation. Progr. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 126–127) and a course of action adopted earlier by Max Planck. The two approaches give dramatically differing conclusions, highlighting that the derivation of a relationship can have far reaching consequences. In Planck's case, all cavities contain black radiation. In Robitaille's case, only cavities permitted to temporarily fall out of thermal equilibrium, or which have been subjected to the action of a perfect absorber, contain black radiation. Arbitrary cavities do not emit as blackbodies. A proper evaluation of this equation reveals that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the enclosure and its contents. Recent results demonstrating super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials in the near field and emission enhancements in the far field are briefly examined. Such findings highlight that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the cavity and its walls. As previously stated, the constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[45] **viXra:1405.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-26 16:29:33*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 157-162. (revised December 26, 2014)

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is addressed once again, while presenting a generalized form. A contrast is made between the approach recently taken (P. M. Robitaille. On the equation which governs cavity radiation. Progr. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 126–127) and a course of action adopted earlier by Max Planck. The two approaches give dramatically differing conclusions, highlighting that the derivation of a relationship can have far reaching consequences. In Planck's case, all cavities contain black radiation. In Robitaille's case, only cavities permitted to temporarily fall out of thermal equilibrium, or which have been subjected to the action of a perfect absorber, contain black radiation. Arbitrary cavities do not emit as blackbodies. A proper evaluation of this equation reveals that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the enclosure and its contents. Recent results demonstrating super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials in the near field and emission enhancements in the far field are briefly examined. Such findings highlight that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the cavity and its walls. As previously stated, the constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[44] **viXra:1403.0935 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-26 16:34:37*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v.2(10), 126-127 (revised December 26, 2014).

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is presented. Given thermal equilibrium, the radiation contained within an arbitrary cavity depends upon the nature of its walls, in addition to its temperature and its frequency of observation. With this realization, the universality of cavity radiation collapses. The constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[43] **viXra:1401.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-18 05:25:23*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. As published on January 18th, 2014 - Progress in Physics, 2014, 10(1), 38-40.

Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission demands that all cavities contain blackbody, or normal, radiation which is dependent solely on the temperature and the frequency of observation, while remaining independent of the nature of the enclosure. For over 150 years, this law has stood as a great pillar for those who believe that gaseous stars could emit a blackbody spectrum. However, it is well-known that, under laboratory conditions, gases emit in bands and cannot produce a thermal spectrum. Furthermore, all laboratory blackbodies are constructed from nearly ideal absorbers. This fact strongly opposes the validity of Kirchhoff's formulation. Clearly, if Kirchhoff had been correct, then laboratory blackbodies could be constructed of any arbitrary material. Through the use of two cavities in temperature equilibrium with one another, a thought experiment is presented herein which soundly refutes Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[42] **viXra:1401.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-14 12:08:59*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this work we show that when possible transform some types of substance into a Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature, which exists long enough to be used in practice then will be possible to use these substances in order to create efficient Gravitational Shieldings.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[41] **viXra:1312.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-22 02:32:11*

**Authors:** Akihiko Shigemoto, Tomoko Amano, Ryozo Yamamoto

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Vanadium doped diamond-like carbon films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering have been investigated by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements for the purpose of revealing electronic structures including values of work function on the surfaces. In addition to these photoelectron measurements, X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to characterize the crystal structures.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[40] **viXra:1311.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-01 10:26:19*

**Authors:** Algirdas Antano Maknickas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The fluid equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of fluid substances. These equations arise from applying Newton's second law to fluid motion, together with the assumption that the stress in the fluid is the sum of a diffusing viscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity) and a pressure term - hence describing viscous flow. Due to specific of NS equations they could be transformed to full/partial inhomogeneous parabolic differential equations: differential equations in respect of space variables and the full differential equation in respect of time variable and time dependent inhomogeneous part. Finally, orthogonal polynomials as the partial solutions of obtained Helmholtz equations were used for derivation of analytical solution of incompressible fluid equations in 1D, 2D and 3D space for rectangular boundary. Solution in 3D space for any shaped boundary is expressed in term of 3D global solution of 3D Helmholtz equation accordantly.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[39] **viXra:1309.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-21 00:14:40*

**Authors:** Ali R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, the symmetric character of the conductivity tensor for linear heterogeneous anisotropic material is established as the result of arguments from tensor analysis and linear algebra for Fourier’s heat conduction. The non-singular nature of the conductivity tensor plays the fundamental role in establishing this statement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[38] **viXra:1308.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-09-28 07:43:22*

**Authors:** Lunyong Zhang, Y. B. Chen, Jian Zhou, Shan-Tao Zhang, Zheng-bin Gu, Shu-Hua Yao, Yan-Feng Chen

**Comments:** 8 Pages. 5 figures

Spin orbit coupling plays a non-perturbation effect in many recently developed novel
fields including topological insulators and spin-orbit assistant Mott insulators. In this
paper, strongly temperature-dependent spin orbit coupling, revealed by weak
anti-localization, is observed at low temperature in 5d strongly correlated compound,
SrIrO3. As the temperature rising, increase rate of Rashba coefficient is nearly
30%-45%/K. The increase is nearly 100 times over that observed in semiconductor
heterostructures. Microscopically, the large increase of Rashba coefficient is
attributed to the significant evolution of effective Landé g factor on temperature,
whose mechanism is discussed. Sensitively temperature-dependent spin orbit
coupling in SrIrO3 might be applied in spintronic devices

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[37] **viXra:1304.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-01 17:45:16*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper notes that the dispersion relation ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when
expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship
between the ground-state mean kinetic energy of a confined
quantum, and its dimensions of containment. The containment can
occur in two ways: the first by an attractive potential, and the
second by a repulsive potential. If the quantum is bound by an
attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by
the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy
remains within the bound system. In the second type, which is only
possible by compression, the quantum is contained by collisions
with the bounding potential, which may result in a transfer of
kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently
massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the
dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state kinetic
energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. This
energy transfer could be large. An electron contained within the
approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 pm, for example, would
have a minimum velocity very great compared to the dimension of
containment, so that the number of collisions per second with the
boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. An exchange of
only 10^-6 ev per collision would produce 10^9 ev per second of
energy transmitted to the boundary.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[36] **viXra:1304.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-31 20:20:04*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper notes that the dispersion relation ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when
expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship
between the ground-state mean kinetic energy of a confined
quantum, and its dimensions of containment. The containment can
occur in two ways: the first by an attractive potential, and the
second by a repulsive potential. If the quantum is bound by an
attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by
the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy
remains within the bound system. In the second type, which is only
possible by compression, the quantum is contained by collisions
with the bounding potential, which may result in a transfer of
kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently
massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the
dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state kinetic
energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. This
energy transfer could be large. An electron contained within the
approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 pm, for example, would
have a minimum velocity very great compared to the dimension of
containment, so that the number of collisions per second with the
boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. An exchange of
only 10^-6 ev per collision would produce 10^9 ev per second of
energy transmitted to the boundary.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[35] **viXra:1304.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-12 19:22:42*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 5 Pages. v2 corrects some typos and a comment in the second to last paragraph

The dispersion relation between the conjugate Fourier variables of position and momentum, ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship between the ground-state mean kinetic energy of a confined quantum, and its degree of containment. This containment can occur in two ways: the first is by an attractive potential, and the second by a repulsive potential. These two cases behave very differently. If the quantum is bound by an attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy remains within the bound system. In the second type of containment, which is only possible by compression, this is not so. In this case, the quantum is contained by collisions with the bounding potential, which must result in a transfer of kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state mean kinetic energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. An electron contained within the approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 nm, for example, if contained by the attractive potential of the atomic nucleus, would transmit no energy from the atom. The same electron, however, contained in the same volume by a repulsive potential, would transmit energy to the boundary at each collision. Because the minimum velocity of the electron determined by the dispersion relation is very great compared to the dimension of containment, the number of collisions per second with the boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. For even a small energy exchange per collision, this would result in a very large rate of energy transfer. An exchange of only 10^-6 ev per collision, for example, would produce 10^9 ev per second of energy transmitted to the boundary.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[34] **viXra:1302.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-30 14:14:58*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 14

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of Quantum Knots in the form of micro-black holes or Ball Lightning.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, Black holes are the origin of so called universal dark matter phenomena.
As a consequence the tunnelling energy bullets are also a first sign of microscopic Dark Matter in the Lab.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[33] **viXra:1302.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-29 11:50:19*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 13

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures.
These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of Quantum Knots or micro-black holes. As a consequence this is also a first sign of microscopic Dark Matter in the Lab.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[32] **viXra:1209.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-19 22:40:06*

**Authors:** Akito Takahashi, Daniel Rocha

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A model of final state interaction for 8Be* of 4D/TSC fusion is proposed. The 8Be*(Ex=47.6MeV) may damp its excited energy by major BOLEP (burst of low energy photons) process from

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[31] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-24 06:35:37*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine. Version 9 discusses using D2O Heavy Water for heat extraction from Zeolite and using D2O steam to get useful energy. Version 10 (vA) adds material including conversion of fusion energy to zeolite capacitor electrical energy. Version 11 (vB) adds experimental details for fusion energy utilization by Zeolite-D20 steam and by Zeolite-Templated Carbon capacitor. Version 12 (vC) adds overview of energy sources and Schwinger Coherent Electron process for transferring fusion energy to Zeolite heat. Version 13 (vD) adds a 5-page introductory preface / preamble to the paper. Version 14 (vE) describes an alternative TSC geometry.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[30] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-06 20:15:33*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine. Version 9 discusses using D2O Heavy Water for heat extraction from Zeolite and using D2O steam to get useful energy. Version 10 (vA) adds material including conversion of fusion energy to zeolite capacitor electrical energy. Version 11 (vB) adds experimental details for fusion energy utilization by Zeolite-D20 steam and by Zeolite-Templated Carbon capacitor. Version 12 (vC) adds overview of energy sources and Schwinger Coherent Electron process for transferring fusion energy to Zeolite heat. Version 13 (vD) adds a 5-page introductory preface / preamble to the paper.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[29] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-25 18:10:13*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine. Version 9 discusses using D2O Heavy Water for heat extraction from Zeolite and using D2O steam to get useful energy. Version 10 (vA) adds material including conversion of fusion energy to zeolite capacitor electrical energy. Version 11 (vB) adds experimental details for fusion energy utilization by Zeolite-D20 steam and by Zeolite-Templated Carbon capacitor. Version 12 (vC) adds overview of energy sources and Schwinger Coherent Electron process for transferring fusion energy to Zeolite heat.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[28] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-05 04:14:33*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine. Version 9 discusses using D2O Heavy Water for heat extraction from Zeolite and using D2O steam to get useful energy. Version 10 (vA) adds material including conversion of fusion energy to zeolite capacitor electrical energy. Version 11 (vB) adds experimental details for fusion energy utilization by Zeolite-D20 steam and by Zeolite-Templated Carbon capacitor.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[27] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-25 23:26:55*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine. Version 9 discusses using D2O Heavy Water for heat extraction from Zeolite and using D2O steam to get useful energy. Version 10 (vA) adds material including conversion of fusion energy to zeolite capacitor electrical energy.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[26] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-17 22:10:46*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine. Version 9 discusses using D2O Heavy Water for heat extraction from Zeolite and using D2O steam to get useful energy.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[25] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-11 03:03:41*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[24] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-24 08:08:29*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[23] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 23:34:10*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[22] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-10-01 17:04:03*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[21] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-30 08:41:33*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith Jr.

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[20] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-14 01:11:02*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith Jr.

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[19] **viXra:1209.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-09-04 09:54:23*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith Jr.

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[18] **viXra:1207.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-19 11:40:40*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We show that by intensifying the gravitational interaction between electron pairs it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10−1eV, enough to keep electron’s pairs (Cooper Pairs) at ambient temperatures. By means of this method, metals can be transformed into superconductors at ambient temperature.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[17] **viXra:1205.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-15 21:32:04*

**Authors:** Blaise Mouttet

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It has been claimed that pinched hysteresis curves are the fingerprint of memristors. This paper demonstrates that a linear resistor in parallel with a nonlinear, square law capacitor also produces pinched hysteresis curves. Spice simulations are performed examining the current vs. voltage behavior of this circuitry under different amplitudes and frequencies of an input signal. Based on this finding a more generalized dynamic systems model is suggested for ReRAM and neuromorphic modeling to cover a broader range of pinched hysteresis curves.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[16] **viXra:1112.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-29 15:09:21*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 13 pages. English.

This brief paper is part of my research on the origins of turbulence. Since the derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are frequently cumbersome, I would like to provide this pedagogical derivation (I hope), discussing the properties of the continuum fluids under a heuristical approach, viz., we provide a heuristical derivation of the so-called Navier-Stokes equation. We turn out to be concerned with the physical insight regarding the system under consideration, a system of continuum. Derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are, frequently, pedagogically cumbersome, loosing the main heuristics one should grasp under the transition to the continuum. This transition turns out to naturally encapsulate neglected degrees of freedom due to the intrinsically thermodynamic domain. This pedagogical derivation discusses the properties of the continuum fluids and the relation to the taken limit encapsulating the continuum hypothesis, which turns out to raise the question of lack of validity over extremely distorted subdomains, once a grown rarefied subdomain may not provide sufficient large statistics to a smooth description via its center of mass, which is the main hypothesis of the infinitesimal limit process for the local description under the continuum hypothesis. Such transient, albeit not presented here, once it would change the characteristic of this paper to the research one connected to the important question of unicity of the (3+1)-dimensional Navier-Stokes differential equation, is to be pointed out, once it provides ansatz for research on the unicity of description of fluids by the Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[15] **viXra:1112.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-23 22:23:59*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 13 pages. English.

This brief paper is part of my research on the origins of turbulence. Since the derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are frequently cumbersome, I would like to provide this pedagogical derivation (I hope), discussing the properties of the continuum fluids under a heuristical approach, viz., we provide a heuristical derivation of the so-called Navier-Stokes equation. We turn out to be concerned with the physical insight regarding the system under consideration, a system of continuum. Derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are, frequently, pedagogically cumbersome, loosing the main heuristics one should grasp under the transition to the continuum. This transition turns out to naturally encapsulate neglected degrees of freedom due to the intrinsically thermodynamic domain. This pedagogical derivation discusses the properties of the continuum fluids and the relation to the taken limit encapsulating the continuum hypothesis, which turns out to raise the question of lack of validity over extremely distorted subdomains, once a grown rarefied subdomain may not provide sufficient large statistics to a smooth description via its center of mass, which is the main hypothesis of the infinitesimal limit process for the local description under the continuum hypothesis. Such transient, albeit not presented here, once it would change the characteristic of this paper to the research one connected to the important question of unicity of the (3+1)-dimensional Navier-Stokes differential equation, is to be pointed out, once it provides ansatz for research on the unicity of description of fluids by the Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[14] **viXra:1112.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-30 11:37:16*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 5 pages. English.

Through a convenient mathematical approach for the Navier-Stokes equation, we obtain the quadratic dependence $v^{2}$ of the drag force $F_{D}$ on a falling sphere, and the drag coefficient, $C_{D}$, as a function of the Reynolds number. Viscosity effects related to the turbulent boundary layer under transition, from laminar to turbulent, lead to the tensorial integration related to the flux of linear momentum through a conveniently choosen control surface in the falling reference frame. This approach turns out to provide an efficient route for the drag force calculation, since the drag force turns out to be a field of a non-inertial reference frame, allowing an arbitrary and convenient control surface, finally leading to the quadratic term for the drag force.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[13] **viXra:1112.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-01-29 22:54:30*

**Authors:** Armando V.D.B. Assis

**Comments:** 5 pages. English.

Through a convenient mathematical approach for the Navier-Stokes equation, we obtain the quadratic dependence $v^{2}$ of the drag force $F_{D}$ on a falling sphere, and the drag coefficient, $C_{D}$, as a function of the Reynolds number. Viscosity effects related to the turbulent boundary layer under transition, from laminar to turbulent, lead to the tensorial integration related to the flux of linear momentum through a conveniently choosen control surface in the falling reference frame. This approach turns out to provide an efficient route for the drag force calculation, since the drag force turns out to be a field of a non-inertial reference frame, allowing an arbitrary and convenient control surface, finally leading to the quadratic term for the drag force.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[12] **viXra:1111.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-16 01:21:31*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 37 Pages. 4 Figures

Presently, determining the true cause as to why superconductivity is generated, a new theory has been propounded. Consequently, the present theory gives very clear and complete understanding as to how superconductivity and properties, effects etc. exhibited by superconductors are generated. Presently, it has also been tried to explain as to how currently known some non-superconducting (e.g. ferromagnetic) substances can be made superconducting. Currently, to explain as to how superconductivity and properties, effects etc. exhibited by superconductors are generated, several theories have so far been proposed. For BCS (Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer) theory it is claimed that it provides better quantum explanation of superconductivity and accounts very well for all the properties exhibited by the superconductors. This claim is true but if we examine the BCS theory and its rigorous mathematical proofs closely and intently, we find that it is based on such concepts which are practically not possible and contradict two well-observed facts. Further, it gives rise to several very basic and fundamental questions too.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[11] **viXra:1111.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-30 09:25:54*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 43 Pages. 5 Figures

Presently, determining the true cause (because it cannot be contradicted or overruled) as to why superconductivity is generated, a new theory has been propounded. In order to confirm the truth of the presently determined cause, plausible arguments and evidences from the well established existing knowledge too have been given. Currently, according to BCS theory, it is assumed that at transition temperature (Tc), due to flow of Cooper pairs, the persistent current flows and hence superconductivity is generated. But the BCS theory and the concept of formation of Cooper pairs give rise to numerous such questions of which no explanation can be given. The present theory gives very clear and complete, i.e., true understanding of as to how superconductivity is generated and related phenomena/events, properties and effects etc. take place. Presently, it has also been tried to explain how currently known some non-superconducting (e.g. ferromagnetic) substances can be made superconducting. Finally, some possible new effects have been predicted and it has been tried to explain why and how they shall take place.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[10] **viXra:1111.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-05 13:13:22*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 27 Pages. 5 Figures

Presently, determining the true cause as to why the phenomenon of electromagnetism takes place, a new theory has been proposed. Consequently, the present theory gives very clear and complete explanation of how electromagnetism is generated in an electric current carrying rod, which type of magnetism is generated, how a magnetic field is generated around the rod in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flow of current through the rod, and how that field possesses direction. Currently, no explanation is found anywhere as to how the above phenomena/events take place. Applying the present theory, some more phenomena too have been tried to explain, which currently though have been explained but are not clear and complete and give rise to numerous fundamental questions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[9] **viXra:1111.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-16 01:29:10*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 25 Pages. 5 Figures

Presently, determining the true cause as to why the phenomenon of electromagnetism takes place, a new theory has been proposed. Consequently, the present theory gives very clear and complete explanation of as to how electromagnetism is generated in electric current carrying rods, which type of magnetism is generated, how a magnetic field is generated around the rods, which occurs in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flow of current through the rods, and how that field possesses direction. Currently, no explanation is found anywhere as to how the above phenomena/events take place. Applying the present theory, some more phenomena too have been tried to explain, which currently though have been explained but are not clear and complete and give rise to numerous fundamental questions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[8] **viXra:1111.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-07-30 09:11:03*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 39 Pages. 8 Figures

Presently, determining the true cause, i.e. magnetism of electrons, and taking its account, a new theory has been propounded to explain electromagnetism. The current cause that electromagnetism is generated due to charge of the electrons, is not true. Consequently, electromagnetic theory and all the existing theories fail to explain as to how (i.e. procedure) electromagnetism is generated, which type of magnetism is generated, how a magnetic field is generated around the current carrying rod, how that field occurs in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flow of current through the rod, and how that field possesses direction. The present theory gives very clear and complete understanding of as to how electromagnetism is generated, which type of magnetism is generated, and all the phenomena/events mentioned above. Applying the present theory, some other important phenomena too have been tried to explain, which currently though have been explained but they are not clear and complete and give rise to several questions. Finally, some possible new effects have been predicted and it has been tried to explain why and how they shall take place.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[7] **viXra:1004.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Xiangjun Feng

**Comments:**
3 pages and 3 figures. This paper has been published in the on-line journal of World Chinese Forum On Science of General Systems (WCFSGS), ISSN 1936-7260.
The paper has also been included in the NONEXTENSIVE STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: BIBLIOGRAPHY edited by Prof. Constantino Tsallis . Â
Report Number: 300-P-10-04-01
Journal Reference: WCFSGS VOL 6, NO. S1 ( A SPECIAL EDITION ON NONEXTENSIVE MECHANICS ), APRIL 2010, ISSN 1936 - 7260.

It is demonstrated clearly that for the same
classical generalized system the Tsallis power-laws with
both the q > 1 and the q < 1 can be induced by the
constraint of the constant harmonic mean for the so-called
reciprocal energies E_{r} and at the same time the
Boltzmann distribution or the negative exponential
probability distribution can be generated with the
constraint of the constant arithmetic mean for the
generalized energies E . The author thus argues that there
might be no definite "extensive system" or "classical
system" and there are only "classical physical parameters"
and "classical constraints". For any physical system or
generalized system, it is the non-natural constraints which
determine both the forms of the entropies and the nonuniform
equilibrium distributions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[6] **viXra:1004.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 15 Apr 2010*

**Authors:** Xiangjun Feng

**Comments:**
3 pages and 3 figures. This paper has been published in the on-line journal of World Chinese Forum On
Science of General Systems (WCFSGS), ISSN 1936-7260. Report Number: 300-P-10-04-01.
Journal Reference: WCFSGS VOL 6, NO. S1 ( A SPECIAL EDITION ON NONEXTENSIVE MECHANICS ), APRIL 2010, ISSN 1936 - 7260.

It is demonstrated clearly that for the same
classic generalized system the Tsallis power-laws with both
the q > 1 and the q < 1 can be induced by the constraint
of the constant harmonic mean for the so-called reciprocal
energies r E and at the same time the Boltzmann
distribution or the negative exponential probability
distribution can be generated with the constraint of the
constant arithmetic mean for the generalized energies E .
The author thus argues that there might be no definite
"extensive system" or "classic system" and there are only
"classic physical parameters" and "classic constraints".
For any physical system or generalized system, it is the
non-natural constraints which determine both the forms of
the entropies and the non-uniform equilibrium
distributions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[5] **viXra:1001.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Frank Lichtenberg

**Comments:** 22 pages

Brief presentation about fundamentally new developments
in physics and technology, entirely novel energy
technologies, the potential of non-mainstream science and
its present achievements, and a positive evolution of
mankind - for laymen, experts, the general public,
decison makers, VIPs, and wealthy personalities

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[4] **viXra:1001.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 11 Sep 2011*

**Authors:** Frank Lichtenberg

**Comments:** 66 pages

The interesting and fascinating physical phenomenon of
superconductivity appears, until now, only at very low temperatures
and therefore its technical application is limited to relatively few
areas. If it is possible to create materials which are superconducting
at room temperature, then this could initiate a revolution in
technology. More than 10 years fundamental research, experience,
knowledge and ideas in the field of special materials (oxides) lead to
the conviction that superconductivity at room temperature is possible,
and together with Global Scaling - a new knowledge and holistic
approach in science - to an extended approach on the search for
room temperature superconductors.
This presentation is divided into a main part (28 pages) and an
appendix (38 pages). A content overview of this presentation is
shown on the following pages 3 and 4.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[3] **viXra:0912.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Jun 2011*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The author shows that the Maxwell's equations in vacuum have solutions
which have helical structure in space while being circularly polarized at the
same time. This goes against the universally accepted solutions which treat the
electromagnetic wave as sinusoidal wave propagating along a linear path. He
shows that the helical wave structure assumes that the fundamental state of the
electromagnetic wave is the circularly polarized state and not the linearly
polarized state. Since the photon is theorized to exist in a circularly polarized
state, the proposed new solution is consistent with that picture. The author
proposes a simple experiment using a maser to confirm the veracity of the
proposed helical structure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[2] **viXra:0912.0038 [pdf]**
*replaced on 30 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The author shows that the Maxwell's equations in vacuum have solutions
which have helical structure in space while being circularly polarized at the
same time. This goes against the universally accepted solutions which treat the
electromagnetic wave as sinusoidal wave propagating along a linear path. He
shows that the helical wave structure assumes that the fundamental state of the
electromagnetic wave is the circularly polarized state and not the linearly
polarized state. Since the photon is theorized to exist in a circularly polarized
state, the proposed new solution is consistent with that picture. The author
proposes a simple experiment using a maser to confirm the veracity of the
proposed helical structure.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[1] **viXra:0908.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-04 10:20:00*

**Authors:** Hamid V. Ansari

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In a gradient of magnetic field, magnetic dipoles of air are attracted
toward the region of intense field. So, the air pressure is more in the
regions of more intense field. The formed pressure gradient exerts a
net force on a body placed in the air in this gradient of magnetic field
toward the region of low pressure or the region having weaker field.
This is like what takes place in the process of sink-float separation.
To establish the presented theory we need only to perform diamagnetism experiment in vacuum (according to the presented guidelines)to see if it will cease.(I'm ready to prepare for such an experiment in any university as a guest researcher).

**Category:** Condensed Matter