Condensed Matter

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[127] viXra:1410.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-10 17:20:16

Conductivity Equations Based on Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept for Addressing Low Temperature Conductive Behaviors like Superconductivity

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: 24 pages, 10 figures, under peer review

New conduction equations are derived on the basis of Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that electrons traveling from one equilibrium position to the other may obey Eyring’s rate process theory; the traveling distance is governed by the free volume available to each electron by assuming that electrons may have a spherical physical shape with an imaginative effective radius. The obtained equations predict that the superconductivity happens only when electrons form certain structures of a relative small coordinate number like Cooper pair at low temperatures; If each electron has a large coordinate number such as 8 when electrons form the body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice structure like Wigner crystal, the predicted conductivity decreases instead increases when temperatures approach to zero. The electron condensation structures have a big impact on the conductivity. A sharp conductivity decrease at low temperatures, probably due to an Anderson transition, is predicted even when the Cooper pair is formed and the electrons can only travel short distances; While the Mott transition appears when crystalline structures like Wigner crystal form. On the other hand, the electron pairing or called the strong spin-spin coupling is predicted to induce Kondo effect when electrons are assumed to travel a very short distance. The Anderson localization seems to have a lot of similarities as Kondo effect such as electron pairing and low traveling distances of electrons at low temperatures. The Cooper pair that is the essence of BCS theory for superconductivity and the spin-spin coupling that is the cause for Kondo effect seem to contradict each other, but are seamlessly united in our current conductivity equations. The topological insulators become the natural occurrences of our equations, as both Kondo insulator and superconductivity share a same physical origin–the electron pairs, but the electrons just travel different distances at these two cases. A material containing an element of a high electro-negativity (or high ionization energy) and an element of a low electro-negativity(or low ionization energy) may form a good topological insulator and superconductor. Any magnetic element, like Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt, that has unpaired electrons and can induce Kondo effect as a dopant, could be a very good superconductor candidate once it is synthesized together with other proper elements of low electro- negativity (for example forming pnictide superconductors). The numbers of both conduction and valence electrons and the volume of a material under investigation have positive impacts on the conductivity. Any method that may increase the numbers of both conduction and valence electrons may move the superconductivity transition temperatures to higher regions. Any method that may reduce the volume of the material like external pressure seems to lower transition temperatures, unless that the applied pressure is so high that the electron density between the chemical bonds increases. The derived equations are in good agreement with the currently observed experimental phenomena. The current work may shed light on the mechanisms of superconductivity, presenting clues on how to move the superconductivity transition temperatures to higher regions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[126] viXra:1409.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-16 04:17:45

Critical Behavior of Heisenberg Chains Coupled to Phonons

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 4 Pages. This preprint was accepted for publication by Physicsal Review B. The author was forced by Prof. Klaus Fabricius to withdraw the paper from both Physical Review B and the arXiv preprint server. The author is still thinking that the paper is correct.

We present a quantum Monte Carlo study for the isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain coupled to Einstein phonons. By investigating the behavior of the correlation length we find the critical exponent to depend on both the phonon frequency and the spin-phonon coupling constant. Hence, these systems change the universality class continuously with the spin-phonon coupling.
Category: Condensed Matter

[125] viXra:1409.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-12 14:37:20

Electro-Osmosis With Corrected Solution of Poisson-Boltzmann Equation That Satisfies Charge Conservation Principle

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 4 Pages.

We derive the electro-osmotic velocity profile in a micro-channel using a recently corrected charge density distribution within an electrolytic solution. Previous distribution did not take care of charge conservation principle while solving Poisson-Boltzmann equation and needed modification, hence the velocity profile also needs modification that we do here. Helmholtz-Smoluchowskii velocity scale is redefined, which accommodates Debye length parameter in it, unlike old definition.
Category: Condensed Matter

[124] viXra:1408.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-30 14:34:24

Why Feynman Does not Discuss the Electrical Resistivity of Metals?

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: short note, 01page, 04 references

I was surprised by the fact that, Drude’s formula for the electrical conductivity of metals, does not appear in the famous textbook: “The Feynman Lectures on Physics”.
Category: Condensed Matter

[123] viXra:1408.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-27 10:48:21

Mystery of Missing Co-ions Solved

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 9 Pages.

Presence of a charged wall distributes like charges (co-ions) and unlike charges (counter-ions) differently within an electrolytic solution. It is reasonable to expect that counter-ions have more population near the wall, while co-ions are abundant away from it; experiments and simulations support this. An analytical formula for the net charge-density distribution has been used widely since almost hundred years, was obtained by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. However, the old formula shows excess counter-ions everywhere, cannot account for the missing co-ions satisfactorily, and clearly violates charge conservation principle. Here, I correct the distribution formula from fundamental considerations. The old derivation expresses charge-density distribution as a function of electrostatic potential through Boltzmann distribution, but missed a crucial point that the indefinite nature of electrostatic potential makes charge-density indefinite as well. We must tune electrostatic potential by adding suitable constant until the integral of charge-density becomes consistent with the net charge present in solution; old theory did not do it, that I do here. This result demonstrates how to reconcile a definite quantity to an indefinite one, when they are related. I anticipate, this result is going to have far reaching impacts on many fields like colloid science, electro-kinetics, bio-technology etc. that use the old theory
Category: Condensed Matter

[122] viXra:1408.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-23 03:02:40

On a Simple Superconductivity Model and New Superconducting Material

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we establish a simple superconductivity model based on virtual photons exchange mechnisim. It shows that this simple model can be used to explain the supercondutivity mechanism for some superconductive materials by comparing the theoretical prediction with the experimental data. On this basis, we propose new possible structures that can produce high temperature superconductors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[121] viXra:1408.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-19 22:00:09

New Hamiltonian and Cooper Pair's Origin of Pseudogap and Colossal Magnetoresistance in Manganites

Authors: Fu-sui Liu
Comments: 16 Pages. This paper has been accepted as an invited talk by The 3rd Global conference on material science and engineering. Oct. 20th-23th 2014 Shanghai. The PPT might be obtained from this conference.

This paper proposes a new Hamiltonian for manganites, and demonstrates quantitatively that the pseudogap and colossal magnetoresistance of manganites come from Cooper pairs, consisting of two oxygen 2p holes in MnO2
Category: Condensed Matter

[120] viXra:1408.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-15 13:09:48

Physical Solution of Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 5 Pages.

We correct the solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation regarding charge distribution in an electrolytic solution bounded by walls. Considering charge conservation principle properly, we show that the gradient of electrostatic potential at different walls are strictly related, and cannot be assigned independent values, unlike old theory. It clarifies some cause and effect ideas: distribution turns out to be independent of the initial polarity of walls; the accumulated charges in liquid usually induce opposite polarity on the wall surface, forms `Electric Double Layer' (EDL), contrary to the common belief that a charged wall attracts counter-ions to form EDL. Distribution depends only on the potential difference between walls and the net charge present in the solution, apart from Debye length.
Category: Condensed Matter

[119] viXra:1407.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-24 05:23:44

Analytical Evaluation of Energy and Electron Concentrations in Quantum Wells of the High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: Salih Saygi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this letter we propose analytical evaluation method for the electron density and the energy density in multi-layered high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The algorithm is used to simulate the variation of the electron density and the energy density against temperature of heterojunction AlGaN/GaN. The proposed procedure guaranties the reliable application of the contribution of multi-layered HEMTs structure. In conclusion, the obtained results are estimated and discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[118] viXra:1407.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-08 12:03:20

Theory of High-Temperature-Superconductivity

Authors: Hans Christian Haunschild
Comments: 47 Pages. 47

The theory presented here is able to explain all attributes of cuprate-based High-temperature- superconductors in the normal- and in the SC-state as well. More than 300 experimentally measured values will be compared with the predictions of theory. In more than 90% quantitative, otherwise qualitative accordance between experiment and theory appears. For the theoretical calculations parameters gained only by experiments are used. Reluctance is senseless: This theory will succeed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[117] viXra:1406.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-10 11:20:18

A New Form of Matter-Antimatter Transformation

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

A new form of matter-antimatter transformation is described in this work. The transformation of matter into cold neutral antimatter (low-energy antimatter atoms) is achieved simply by means of the application of an ultra strong magnetic field upon the matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[116] viXra:1406.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-05 13:50:53

Plug-Flow Does not Exist in Electro-Osmosis

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 11 Pages.

I eliminate hundred years old notion of `plug-flow' in electro-osmosis, which was predicted by incomplete `electric double layer' (EDL) theory. A recently developed `electric triple layer' (ETL) theory removes some serious shortcomings of EDL theory regarding conservation of electric charge, and when applied to electro-osmosis, shows that the velocity profile is not `plug-like' at all, but more like a parabola; it agrees with experiments and molecular dynamical simulation (MDS) results. Also, I redefine ‘Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity-scale’, which clears certain misunderstandings regarding representation of flow direction, and accommodates solution and geometrical properties within it. I describe some novel electro-osmotic flow controlling mechanisms. The entire electrokinetic theory must be modified using these concepts.
Category: Condensed Matter

[115] viXra:1405.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-29 13:41:18

Electric Triple Layer Theory

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 9 Pages.

I correct hundred years old theory of charge distribution within an electrolytic solution surrounded by charged walls. Existing theory always implies excess amount of counter-ions (having polarity unlike walls) everywhere in the solution domain; so it cannot handle a solution that possesses excess ions of other type (co-ions) or is electrically neutral as a whole. Here, in the corrected distribution, counter-ions dominate near the walls, while the rest of the domain is allowed to be dominated by co-ions; the algebraic sum gives the net charge present, which can be of any sign and magnitude that makes theory quite general. This clarifies and raises many important concepts: a novel concept of `Electric Triple Layer' (ETL) replaces `Electric Double Layer' (EDL) theory; widths of electric layers can be calculated accurately instead of estimating by Debye length scale etc.
Category: Condensed Matter

[114] viXra:1405.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-26 09:55:18

Universal Science of Complexity: Consistent Understanding of Ecological, Living and Intelligent System Dynamics

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 24 pages, 28 eqs, 15 refs; published Russian translation of arXiv:0706.3219; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 11(4) (2013) 679-700

A major challenge of interdisciplinary description of complex system behaviour is whether real systems of higher complexity levels can be understood with at least the same degree of objective, "scientific" rigour and universality as "simple" systems of classical, Newtonian science paradigm. The problem is reduced to that of arbitrary, many-body interaction (unsolved in standard theory). Here we review its causally complete solution, the ensuing concept of complexity and applications. The discovered key properties of dynamic multivaluedness and entanglement give rise to a qualitatively new kind of mathematical structure providing the exact version of real system behaviour. The extended mathematics of complexity contains the truly universal definition of dynamic complexity, randomness (chaoticity), classification of all possible dynamic regimes, and the unifying principle of any system dynamics and evolution, the universal symmetry of complexity. Every real system has a non-zero (and actually high) value of unreduced dynamic complexity determining, in particular, "mysterious" behaviour of quantum systems and relativistic effects causally explained now as unified manifestations of complex interaction dynamics. The observed differences between various systems are due to different regimes and levels of their unreduced dynamic complexity. We outline applications of universal concept of dynamic complexity emphasizing cases of "truly complex" systems from higher complexity levels (ecological and living systems, brain operation, intelligence and consciousness, autonomic information and communication systems) and show that the urgently needed progress in social and intellectual structure of civilisation inevitably involves qualitative transition to unreduced complexity understanding (we call it "revolution of complexity").
Category: Condensed Matter

[113] viXra:1405.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-07 10:17:59

Blackbody Radiation in Optically Thick Gases?

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 166-168.

In this work, the claim that optically thick gases can emit as blackbodies is refuted. The belief that such behavior exists results from an improper consideration of heat transfer and reflection. When heat is injected into a gas, the energy is primarily redistributed into translational degrees of freedom and is not used to drive emission. The average kinetic energy of the particles in the system simply increases and the temperature rises. In this respect, it is well-know that the emissivity of a gas can drop with increasing temperature. Once reflection and translation are properly considered, it is simple to understand why gases can never emit as blackbodies.
Category: Condensed Matter

[112] viXra:1405.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-01 09:31:18

On the Equation which Governs Cavity Radiation II

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 157-162.

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is addressed once again, while presenting a generalized form. A contrast is made between the approach recently taken (P. M. Robitaille. On the equation which governs cavity radiation. Progr. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 126–127) and a course of action adopted earlier by Max Planck. The two approaches give dramatically differing conclusions, highlighting that the derivation of a relationship can have far reaching consequences. In Planck's case, all cavities contain black radiation. In Robitaille's case, only cavities permitted to temporarily fall out of thermal equilibrium, or which have been subjected to the action of a perfect absorber, contain black radiation. Arbitrary cavities do not emit as blackbodies. A proper evaluation of this equation reveals that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the enclosure and its contents. Recent results demonstrating super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials in the near field and emission enhancements in the far field are briefly examined. Such findings highlight that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the cavity and its walls. As previously stated, the constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.
Category: Condensed Matter

[111] viXra:1404.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-27 13:48:20

The Conservation of Information Principle

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 03 pages, 06 references

New formulas are proposed as a means to express the conservation of information principle. The first of them modifies the expression we presented in a previous work (viXra:1312.0060). The second one deals with the entropy of a particle in a circle. It is used to treats in a novel way the thermodynamics of a quantum gas. The wave function of this particle, when inserted in the conservation principle, leads to its entropy and the structure of energy levels to its internal energy.
Category: Condensed Matter

[110] viXra:1403.0936 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-25 21:57:34

Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation II: Gedanken Experiments and Kirchhoff’s Law

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 5 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(1), 116-120.

Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission states that cavity radiation must always be black, or normal, irrespective of the nature of the walls. Arbitrary cavity radiation must be solely dependent upon the equilibrium temperature and the frequency of observation. Despite such theoretical claims, it is well established that laboratory blackbodies are not constructed from arbitrary materials, but rather from nearly perfect absorbers of radiation over the frequency of interest. In the laboratory, arbitrary cavities do not contain black radiation. This experimental fact stands in direct conflict with Kirchhoff’s formulation. Nonetheless, Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission endures, in part, due to Gedanken experiments whose errors in logic are difficult to ascertain. In this work, thought experiments are discussed in order to expose some logical shortcomings. It will be demonstrated that Kirchhoff’s law cannot be supported in this context.
Category: Condensed Matter

[109] viXra:1403.0935 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-25 22:00:16

On the Equation which Governs Cavity Radiation

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v.2(10), 126-127.

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is presented. Given thermal equilibrium, the radiation contained within an arbitrary cavity depends upon the nature of its walls, in addition to its temperature and its frequency of observation. With this realization, the universality of cavity radiation collapses. The constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.
Category: Condensed Matter

[108] viXra:1402.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-07 10:38:18

Memory of Living Beings and Its Three Characteristic Times

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 06 pages, 12 references

In this study we first evaluate the time between collisions related to the transport properties in liquid water, provided by the protons motion tied to the hydrogen bonds. As water is an essential substance for the establishment of life in the living beings, we take this time as the basic unit to measure some kinds of retention time related to their memory. Besides this, integration is an important feature associated to the operation of the memory. Then we consider two possible ways of doing integration and an average between them. One of these characteristic times, the Darwin time, is given by adding over the N basic units which forms the memory. The other possibility, the recent time, is obtained by considering a kind of time-like random walk running over the N basic units. Finally we perform a geometric average between these two times and call it generations’ time. As a means to estimate these characteristic times, we take the number of protons contained in a volume of water compatible with the dimensions of the portion of the brain responsible by its memory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[107] viXra:1402.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-02 23:38:06

Theoritical Study of Zero Electrical Resistance in Superconductor

Authors: DaeHyeon KANG
Comments: 4 Pages.

Why? electrical resistance is zero in superconductor under critical temperature Tc. I think that can be explained by the raman scattering data,conduction band, electronic band full filled by electrons, bandgab(△ε), fermi's golden rule and statistical mechanics. this works takes the electrical resistance is proportional to exp(-△ε/kT), approximately.
Category: Condensed Matter

[106] viXra:1401.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-27 18:59:05

D(H)-Cluster Langevin Code and Some Calculated Results

Authors: Akito Takahashi, Daniel Rocha
Comments: Pages.

A PC code based on the quantum mechanical Langevin equation to simulate dynamic motion of deuterium (or hydrogen) cluster with three dimensional symmetry has been developed for studying very fast condensation or oscillation behavior in time-step of 0.001 as (1.0E-21 second) for overall time interval of several fs to 500 fs. Some numerical results are typically shown for two cases of condensation behavior; 1) reaching to ground state oscillations as for D(H)2+ ion molecule, dμd muonic molecule, 3D+ ionic molecule, 6D/OSC and others, and 2) making fast collapse to get in the strong/weak nuclear interaction range of d-d (or p-p) inter-nuclear distance as for 4D(H)/TSC, 6D(H)/Rhombic-dodecahedron, 8D(H)/Rhombic-dodecahedron and 20D(H)/Rhombic-triacontahedron. Keywords: PC code, D(H)-cluster dynamics, ground state oscillation, fast collapse, 4D(H)/TSC, 6D(H)-Rhombic-dodecahedron, larger clusters, nuclear interaction, simulation of cold fusion
Category: Condensed Matter

[105] viXra:1401.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-12 22:32:13

Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation: A Thought Experiment Refuting Kirchhoff's Law

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages.

Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission demands that all cavities contain blackbody, or normal, radiation which is dependent solely on the temperature and the frequency of observation, while remaining independent of the nature of the enclosure. For over 150 years, this law has stood as a great pillar for those who believe that gaseous stars could emit a blackbody spectrum. However, it is well-known that, under laboratory conditions, gases emit in bands and cannot produce a thermal spectrum. Furthermore, all laboratory blackbodies are constructed from nearly ideal absorbers. This fact strongly opposes the validity of Kirchhoff's formulation. Clearly, if Kirchhoff had been correct, then laboratory blackbodies could be constructed of any arbitrary material. Through the use of two cavities in temperature equilibrium with one another, a thought experiment is presented herein which soundly refutes Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission.
Category: Condensed Matter

[104] viXra:1401.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-09 06:45:54

Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Perovskite Oxides

Authors: Jesus Prado-Gonjal, Rainer Schmidt, Emilio Morán
Comments: 27 Pages.

The use of microwave irradiation is a promising alternative heat source for the synthesis of inorganic materials such as perovskite oxides. The method offers massive energy and time savings as compared to the traditional ceramic method. In this work we review the basic principles of the microwave heating mechanism based on interactions between dipoles in the material and the electromagnetic microwave. Furthermore, we comment on and classify all different sub-types of microwave synthesis such as solid-state microwave and microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In the experimental part of this work we present a large range of materials that were synthesized in our laboratories by one of the microwave techniques, where such materials include superconducting, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, dielectric and multiferroic perovskite systems.
Category: Condensed Matter

[103] viXra:1401.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-07 07:22:52

Bose-Einstein Condensate and Gravitational Shielding

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this work we show that when possible transform some types of substance into a Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature, which exists long enough to be used in practice then will be possible to use these substances in order to create efficient Gravitational Shieldings.
Category: Condensed Matter

[102] viXra:1312.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-26 08:49:47

Implementation of a Method for Calculating Relative Free Energies for a General Force

Authors: Asaf Farhi, Bipin Singh
Comments: 6 Pages.

In the following manuscript we describe the implementation of a method for calculating relative free energies for a general force field (A simple, robust and efficient method for calculating relative free energies).
Category: Condensed Matter

[101] viXra:1312.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-22 01:53:43

Work Function Measurements of Vanadium Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films by Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Authors: Akihiko Shigemoto
Comments: 8 Pages.

Vanadium doped diamond-like carbon films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering have been investigated by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements for the purpose of revealing electronic structures including values of work function on the surfaces. In addition to these photoelectron measurements, X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to characterize the crystal structures.
Category: Condensed Matter

[100] viXra:1311.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-11 11:03:19

A Novel Method for Calculating Free Energy Difference Between Systems

Authors: Asaf Farhi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Calculating free energy differences is a topic of substantial interest and has many applications including chemical reactions which are used in organic chemistry, biochemistry and medicines. In equilibrium free energy methods that are used in molecular simulations, one molecule is transformed into another to calculate the energy difference. However, when the compared molecules have different number of atoms, these methods cannot be directly applied since the corresponding transformation involves breaking covalent bonds which will cause a phase transition and impractical sampling. Thus, Quantum Mechanical Simulations, which are significantly more demanding computationally, are usually combined to calculate free energies of chemical reactions. Here we show that the free energies can be calculated by simple classical molecular simulations followed by analytic or numerical calculations. In this method each molecule is transformed into its replica with the VDW and Coulomb terms of the different atoms relaxed in order to eliminate the partition function difference arising from these terms. Then, since each transformed system can be treated as non interacting systems, the remaining difference in the (originally highly complex) partition function can be directly calculated. Since molecular force fields can often be automatically generated and the calculations suggested here are rather simple the method can form a basis for automated free energy computation of chemical reactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[99] viXra:1310.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 14:18:02

Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission: 150 Years

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 11 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 3-13.

In this work, Kirchhoff’s law (Kirchhoff G. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, sessions of Dec. 1859, 1860, 783–787) is being revisited not only to mark its 150th anniversary but, most importantly, to highlight serious overreaching in its formulation. At the onset, Kirchhoff’s law correctly outlines the equivalence between emission and absorption for an opaque object under thermal equilibrium. This same conclusion had been established earlier by Balfour Stewart (Stewart B. Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, 1858, v. 22(1), 1–20). However, Kirchhoff extends the treatment beyond his counterpart, stating that cavity radiation must always be black, or normal: depending only on the temperature and the frequency of observation. This universal aspect of Kirchhoff’s law is without proper basis and constitutes a grave distortion of experimental reality. It is readily apparent that cavities made from arbitrary materials (epsilon < 1) are never black. Their approach to such behavior is being driven either by the blackness of the detector, or by black materials placed near the cavity. Ample evidence exists that radiation in arbitrary cavities is sensitive to the relative position of the detectors. In order to fully address these issues, cavity radiation and the generalization of Kirchhoff’s law are discussed. An example is then taken from electromagnetics, at microwave frequencies, to link results in the resonant cavity with those inferred from the consequences of generalization.
Category: Condensed Matter

[98] viXra:1310.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 14:22:46

Blackbody Radiation and the Loss of Universality: Implications for Planck’s Formulation and Boltzmann’s Constant

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 14-16.

Through the reevaluation of Kirchhoff’s law (Robitaille P. M. L. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267), Planck’s blackbody equation (Planck M. Ann. der Physik, 1901, v. 4, 553–356) loses its universal significance and becomes restricted to perfect absorbers. Consequently, the proper application of Planck’s radiation law involves the study of solid opaque objects, typically made from graphite, soot, and carbon black. The extension of this equation to other materials may yield apparent temperatures, which do not have any physical meaning relative to the usual temperature scales. Real temperatures are exclusively obtained from objects which are known solids, or which are enclosed within, or in equilibrium with, a perfect absorber. For this reason, the currently accepted temperature of the microwave background must be viewed as an apparent temperature. Rectifying this situation, while respecting real temperatures, involves a reexamination of Boltzmann’s constant. In so doing, the latter is deprived of its universal nature and, in fact, acts as a temperature dependent variable. In its revised form, Planck’s equation becomes temperature insensitive near 300 K, when applied to the microwave background.
Category: Condensed Matter

[97] viXra:1310.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 07:27:52

A Critical Analysis of Universality and Kirchhoff's Law: A Return to Stewart's Law of Thermal Emission

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 3, 30-35; also in arXiv:0805.1625 [physics.gen-ph]

It has been advanced, on experimental (P.-M. Robitaille, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267) and theoretical (P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. Phys., 2006, v. 2, 22–23) grounds, that blackbody radiation is not universal and remains closely linked to the emission of graphite and soot. In order to strengthen such claims, a conceptual analysis of the proofs for universality is presented. This treatment reveals that Gustav Robert Kirchhoff has not properly considered the combined effects of absorption, reflection, and the directional nature of emission in real materials. In one instance, this leads to an unintended movement away from thermal equilibrium within cavities. Using equilibrium arguments, it is demonstrated that the radiation within perfectly reflecting or arbitrary cavities does not necessarily correspond to that emitted by a blackbody.
Category: Condensed Matter

[96] viXra:1310.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 07:34:11

Blackbody Radiation and the Carbon Particle

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 20 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 3, 36-55.

Since the days of Kirchhoff, blackbody radiation has been considered to be a universal process, independent of the nature and shape of the emitter. Nonetheless, in promoting this concept, Kirchhoff did require, at the minimum, thermal equilibrium with an enclosure. Recently, the author stated (P.-M. Robitaille, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267; P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. in Phys., 2006, v. 2, 22–23), that blackbody radiation is not universal and has called for a return to Stewart’s law (P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. in Phys., 2008, v. 3, 30–35). In this work, a historical analysis of thermal radiation is presented. It is demonstrated that soot, or lampblack, was the standard for blackbody experiments throughout the 1800s. Furthermore, graphite and carbon black continue to play a central role in the construction of blackbody cavities. The advent of universality is reviewed through the writings of Pierre Prévost, Pierre Louis Dulong, Alexis Thérèse Petit, Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, Siméon Denis Poisson, Frédérick Hervé de la Provostaye, Paul Quentin Desain, Balfour Stewart, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, and Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. These writings illustrate that blackbody radiation, as experimentally produced in cavities and as discussed theoretically, has remained dependent on thermal equilibrium with at least the smallest carbon particle. Finally, Planck’s treatment of Kirchhoff’s law is examined in detail and the shortcomings of his derivation are outlined. It is shown once again, that universality does not exist. Only Stewart’s law of thermal emission, not Kirchhoff’s, is fully valid.
Category: Condensed Matter

[95] viXra:1310.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 05:59:59

An Analysis of Universality in Blackbody Radiation

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First Published in Progress in Physics, 2006, v. 2, 22-23.

Through the formulation of his law of thermal emission, Kirchhoff conferred upon blackbody radiation the quality of universality [G. Kirchhoff, Annalen der Physik, 1860, v. 109, 275]. Consequently, modern physics holds that such radiation is independent of the nature and shape of the emitting object. Recently, Kirchhoff’s experimental work and theoretical conclusions have been reconsidered [P. M. L. Robitaille. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2003, v. 31(6), 1263]. In this work, Einstein’s derivation of the Planckian relation is reexamined. It is demonstrated that claims of universality in blackbody radiation are invalid.
Category: Condensed Matter

[94] viXra:1309.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-22 02:11:49

Supersymmetry in Single Crystals

Authors: Parvaneh Ravadgar
Comments: 10 Pages.

This study compares some fundamental concepts in the fields of crystallography and quantum mechanics. Edge dislocations in a single crystal behave as fermions if they repel each other and behave as bosons if they attract each other. The bosonic and fermionic characteristics of edge dislocations enable it to study some fundamental properties of soliton supersymmetry.
Category: Condensed Matter

[93] viXra:1309.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-19 16:43:55

On the Symmetric Character of the Thermal Conductivity Tensor

Authors: Ali R. Hadjesfandiari
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, the symmetric character of the conductivity tensor for linear heterogeneous anisotropic material is established as the result of arguments from tensor analysis and linear algebra for Fourier’s heat conduction. The non-singular nature of the conductivity tensor plays the fundamental role in establishing this statement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[92] viXra:1309.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-20 03:04:59

River Water Flow Regulation Device

Authors: Edmundas Jauniskis
Comments: 2 Pages.

An analysis of available literature (1), related to non-affluent hydroelectric power plant, has revealed that the main difficulty of installation of this technique is a low flow speed of the majority of plain rivers. So, I offer my own invention that will allow changing the current situation and to increase a flow speed of every river that could be exploited for the aim to generate electric power more efficiently.
Category: Condensed Matter

[91] viXra:1309.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-13 21:55:05

Future Energy/Paradigm Revolutions from Ultra-cold Matter and Nanoscience Discoveries: Historical Context of Current Research and Overview of Developing Trends

Authors: Donald Reed
Comments: 17 Pages.

In the last three decades, the confluence of two streams of research have resulted in some of the most heretofore unknown, innovative, energy-transformative and possible paradigm-shifting developments in the history of science and technology. These are due to both the fruits of the nano-science revolution and those stemming from ultra-cold matter applications as exemplified by the Bose-Einstein condensate. Through examining a wealth of research from each of these areas, some of surprisingly serendipitous nature, this paper will attempt to show that many of the discoveries that have been made in these arenas, point to possible new understanding of the quantum engine that underpins physical reality, and its relationship to electromagnetism and gravitation at both microscopic and large-scale regimes of nature. It is hoped that ultimately this new knowledge will subsequently also guide us in achieving the coveted goal in our quest to harvest energy from the quantum vacuum.
Category: Condensed Matter

[90] viXra:1309.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-10 20:41:51

Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion by TSC Theory

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 6 Pages. Preprint for submittal to JCMNS for ICCF18 Proceedings

Prediction of nuclear products by cold fusion events either for metal-deuterium system (Pd-D) and metal-protium system (Ni-H)is made by the TSC theory. The nucleon halo model of intermediate excited states is applied for final state inetractions. For metal-D system cold fusion, 23.8 MeV per He-4 generation with BOLEP and minor alpha peaks is predicted. For metal-H system, He-3 and D products with 7-2 MeV per event with very weak secondary gamma and neutron emission is predicted. Comparisons with experimental claims are discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[89] viXra:1309.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-10 21:01:13

Anomalous Exothermic and Endothermic Data Observed by Nano-Ni-Composite Samples

Authors: A. Takahashi, A. Kitamura, R. Seto, Y. Fujita, H. Sakoh, Y. Miyoshi, A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama, T. Murota, T. Tahara
Comments: 5 Pages. preprint of submittal to JCMNS for ICCF18 Proceedings

Cu-Ni nano-composite samples showed no excess heat nor meaningfully visible D(H)-loading at room temprature. At elevated temperatures more than 250 deg C, anomalous excess heat lasted for weeks was observed with very large integrated heat as 800 eV per Ni-atom and 600 eV per H-sorption/desorption. Cu0.08Ni0.36/ZrO2 samples gave 10 fold larger excess heat than pure-Ni/ZrO2 samples and 4 fold larger than Cu0.21Ni0.21/ZrO2 samples. Anomalous endothermic effect with abrupt D(H)-desorption was repeatedly observed for pretreatment runs.
Category: Condensed Matter

[88] viXra:1309.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 03:35:09

New Theory on the Hall Effect

Authors: DaeHyeon KANG
Comments: 5 Pages.

In Hall Effect first found by Edwin Hall in 1897, Plus Hall Effect has been measured that is not explained with electron movement only. As a method to explain this effect, a concept of positive holel has been introduced but it has an obvious physical error. Thus, this researcher proposes a new theory from a viewpoint that distribution of conductive electrons is varied by Lorentz Force with isotope centrifugal separation equation used in nuclear physics and in atom unit volume within solid and results in difference of level to generate Hall voltage.
Category: Condensed Matter

[87] viXra:1308.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-26 00:31:44

Large Temperature Dependent Spin Orbit Coupling in Electron-Electron Interaction Dominated Orthorhombic SrIrO3 Film

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Y. B. Chen, Jian Zhou, Shan-Tao Zhang, Zheng-bin Gu, Shu-Hua Yao, Yan-Feng Chen
Comments: 16 Pages. 5 figures

The spin orbit coupling in orthorhombic SrIrO3 film was studied at different temperatures via weak anti-localization effect. The spin orbit coupling increased with the increasing temperature in the regime of two dimensional variable range hopping conduction. Near linearly temperature dependent Rashba coefficient was manifested and interpreted through the electron correlation assisted evolution of Landé g factor, which was assumed to be linearly decrease with temperature rising. Moreover, the t2g band of orthorhombic SrIrO3 is not fully separated into Jeff=1/2 and Jeff=3/2 bands, as proved by the Landé g factor at zero temperature with a value of 1.0568 which is between that corresponding to non-splitted t2g band and that to fully splitted t2g band
Category: Condensed Matter

[86] viXra:1307.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2013-07-06 15:38:24

Energy Gap of Superconductor Close to Tc Without CC+

Authors: A. Boudiar
Comments: 4 Pages.

We derived the energy gap of superconductor close to Tc, without using the usual methods of creation-annulation operators CC+. our approximations ar in good agreement with the numerical estimates and theoretical results.
Category: Condensed Matter

[85] viXra:1306.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-22 23:49:35

Can CDW Physics Explain Ultra Fast Transitions, and Current Vs. Applied Electric Field Values Seen in the Laboratory?

Authors: A.W. Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages. additional re do of part of my PhD dissertation

The tunneling Hamiltonian is a proven method to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wavefunctions in many-body physics. Our problem is how to apply a wave functional formulation of tunneling Hamiltonians to a driven sine-Gordon system. We apply a generalization of the tunneling Hamiltonian to charge density wave (CDW) transport problems in which we consider tunneling between states that are wavefunctionals of a scalar quantum field. We present derived I-E curves that match Zenier curves used to fit data experimentally with wavefunctionals congruent with the false vacuum hypothesis. The open question is whether the coefficients picked in both the wavefunctionals and the magnitude of the coefficients of the driven sine Gordon physical system should be picked by topological charge arguments that in principle appear to assign values that have a tie in with the false vacuum hypothesis first presented by Sidney Coleman. Our supposition is that indeed this is useful and that the topological arguments give evidence as to a first order phase transition which gives credence to the observed and calculated I-E curve as evidence
Category: Condensed Matter

[84] viXra:1306.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-20 05:27:01

Crystal Cell and Space Lattice Symmetries in Clifford Geometric Algebra

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 4 Pages. 2 figures, 2 tables. Iin TE. Simos, G. Sihoyios, C. Tsitouras (eds.), International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005, pp. 937-941 (2005).

The structure of crystal cells in two and three dimensions is fundamental for many material properties. In two dimensions atoms (or molecules) often group together in triangles, squares and hexagons (regular polygons). Crystal cells in three dimensions have triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, hexagonal, rhombohedral, tetragonal and cubic shapes. The geometric symmetry of a crystal manifests itself in its physical properties, reducing the number of independent components of a physical property tensor, or forcing some components to zero values. There is therefore an important need to efficiently analyze the crystal cell symmetries. Mathematics based on geometry itself offers the best descriptions. Especially if elementary concepts like the relative directions of vectors are fully encoded in the geometric multiplication of vectors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[83] viXra:1306.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-18 22:51:41

Interactive 3D Space Group Visualization with CLUCalc and the Clifford Geometric Algebra Description of Space Groups

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 27 Pages. 21 figures, 14 tables. Adv. Appl. Clifford Alg., Vol. 20(3-4), pp. 631–658, (2010), DOI 10.1007/s00006-010-0214-z

A new interactive software tool is described, that visualizes 3D space group symmetries. The software computes with Clifford (geometric) algebra. The space group visualizer (SGV) originated as a script for the open source visual CLUCalc, which fully supports geometric algebra computation. Selected generators (Hestenes and Holt, JMP, 2007) form a multivector generator basis of each space group. The approach corresponds to an algebraic implementation of groups generated by reflections (Coxeter and Moser, 4th ed., 1980). The basic operation is the reflection. Two reflections at non-parallel planes yield a rotation, two reflections at parallel planes a translation, etc. Combination of reflections corresponds to the geometric product of vectors describing the individual reflection planes. We first give some insights into the Clifford geometric algebra description of space groups. We relate the choice of symmetry vectors and the origin of cells in the geometric algebra description and its implementation in the SGV to the conventional crystal cell choices in the International Tables of Crystallography (T. Hahn, Springer, 2005). Finally we briefly explain how to use the SGV beginning with space group selection. The interactive computer graphics can be used to fully understand how reflections combine to generate all 230 three-dimensional space groups. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000). Primary 20H15; Secondary 15A66, 74N05, 76M27, 20F55 . Keywords. Clifford geometric algebra, interactive software, space groups, crystallography, visualization.
Category: Condensed Matter

[82] viXra:1306.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 01:42:14

Interactive 3D Space Group Visualization with CLUCalc and Crystallographic Subperiodic Groups in Geometric Algebra

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass, Daisuke Ichikawa
Comments: 21 Pages. 11 figures, 7 tables. In G. Scheuermann, E. Bayro-Corrochano (eds.), Geometric Algebra Computing, Springer, New York, 2010, pp. 385-400. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-84996-108-0_18

The Space Group Visualizer (SGV) for all 230 3D space groups is a standalone PC application based on the visualization software CLUCalc. We first explain the unique geometric algebra structure behind the SGV. In the second part we review the main features of the SGV: The GUI, group and symmetry selection, mouse pointer interactivity, and visualization options.We further introduce the joint use with the International Tables of Crystallography, Vol. A [7]. In the third part we explain how to represent the 162 socalled subperiodic groups of crystallography in geometric algebra. We construct a new compact geometric algebra group representation symbol, which allows to read off the complete set of geometric algebra generators. For clarity we moreover state explicitly what generators are chosen. The group symbols are based on the representation of point groups in geometric algebra by versors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[81] viXra:1306.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 02:06:08

Crystallographic Space Groups: Representation and Interactive Visualization by Geometric Algebra

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 6 Pages. 2 figures, 3 tables. submitted to: Proceedings of the 26th Int. Conference on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics, New York, USA, 2006.

We treat the symmetries of crystal space lattices in geometric algebra (GA)~\cite{DH:PGSG}. All crystal cell point groups are generated by geometric multiplication of two or three physical cell vectors. Only one or two relative angles subtended by these vectors need to be known. This treatment extends to space groups by including translations. GA helps to identify optimal multivector generators. As example we take the monoclinic case. New free interactive OpenGL and GA based software visualizes these symmetries.
Category: Condensed Matter

[80] viXra:1306.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 02:44:44

The Hidden Beauty of Gold

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 11 Pages. 24 figures. Proc. of Int. Symp. on Adv. Mech. & Power Engin. 2007 (ISAMPE 2007) between Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Kor.), Univ. of Fukui (Jap.) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. & Tech. (PRC), Nov. 22-25, 2007, at Univ. of Fukui, pp. 157-167. Figs. 15,16,17,23 rv.

This paper first reviews the history, the economy, the material properties, and the applications of gold. Then the geometry of the face centered cubic (fcc) gold lattice is introduced. Based on the symmetric arrangement of atoms the gold lattice has a rich variety of symmetry transformations, that interchange the positions of atoms, but leave the lattice as a whole invariant. This begins with the point group symmetry of a single fcc lattice cell and is extended by combination with lattice translations to the full space group symmetry of the whole (practically infinite) lattice. We use the newly created interactive Space Group Visualizer (based on geometric algebra) in order to systematically picture all these symmetries. We can thus understand their origin and their relationships. In particular we give a full geometric explanation of the 192 screw symmetries passing through a single fcc cell of the gold lattice.
Category: Condensed Matter

[79] viXra:1306.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 02:52:40

The Space Group Visualizer

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 9 Pages. 18 figures, 1 table. Proc. of In. Symp. on Adv. Mech. Eng. 2006 between Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Kor.), Univ. of Fukui (Jap.) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. (PRC), Oct. 26-29, 2006, at Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. pp. 172-181 (2006).

A new free interactive OpenGL software tool is demonstrated, that visualizes all monoclinic, and so far part of the orthorhombic, triclinic and hexagonal space group symmetries. The software computes with Clifford (geometric) algebra. The space group visualizer originated as a script for the open source visual CLUCalc, which fully supports geometric algebra computation. This paper briefly describes the historical and scientific developments leading to the space group visualizer project. Then we step by step demonstrate space group selection and the powerful set of interactive tools, including continuous free interactive 3D rotations, repositioning and resizing of the crystal domain in view. The most prominent feature of the space group visualizer is the full visualization of all spatial symmetries of a crystal domain. Beyond this the user can reduce the view to single symmetry operations or to certain classes of symmetries.
Category: Condensed Matter

[78] viXra:1306.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 02:58:51

Space Group Visualizer for Monoclinic Space Groups

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 2 Pages. 4 figures. Bulletin of the Society for Science on Form, 21(1), pp. 38,39 (2006).

A new free interactive OpenGL software tool is demonstrated, that visualizes all monoclinic space group symmetries described by geometric algebra.[1] Keywords: Crystal lattice, space group symmetry, geometric algebra, OpenGL, spacegroup visualizer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[77] viXra:1306.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 03:38:52

Interactive Visualization of Full Geometric Description of Crystal Space Groups

Authors: Christian Perwass, Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 6 Pages. 9 figures. Proc. of the In. Symp. on Adv. Mech. Eng., between Univ. of Fukui (Japan), Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Korea) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. (China), 23-26 Nov. 2005, pp. 276-282 (2005).

In this text we present a software tool that visualises the symmetry properties of the space groups of 3D Euclidean space, which play an important role in the investigation of crystalline materials. The main source that lists the properties of all space groups are the "International Tables For Crystallography, Volume A" [1], where the symmetries are shown in three orthographic projections. It is clearly much more intuitive to look at these symmetry properties in a 3D visualisation. The visualisation software presented here (for monoclinic crystals) allows the user to look at the space group symmetries from any view point and to modify lattice parameters in real time. The visualisation software is freely available from www.spacegroup.info.
Category: Condensed Matter

[76] viXra:1306.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 03:45:12

Full Geometric Description of All Symmetry Elements of Crystal Space Groups by the Suitable Choice of Only Three Vectors for Each Bravais Cell or Crystal Family

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 7 Pages. 7 figures, 2 tables. Proc. of the Int. Sym. on Adv. Mech. Eng., between Univ. of Fukui (Japan), Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Korea) and Univ. of Shanghai for Sci. and Techn. (China), 23-26 Nov. 2005, pp. 19-25 (2005).

This paper focuses on the symmetries of crystal cells and crystal space lattices. All two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) point groups of 2D and 3D crystal cells are exclusively described by vectors (two in 2D, three in 3D for one particular cell) taken from the physical cells. Geometric multiplication of these vectors completely generates all symmetries, including reflections, rotations, inversions, rotary-reflections and rotary-inversions. The sets of vectors necessary are illustrated in drawings. We then extend this treatment to 2D and 3D space groups by including translations, glide reflections and screw rotations. For 3D space groups we focus on the monoclinic case as an example. A companion paper [15] describes corresponding interactive visualization software.
Category: Condensed Matter

[75] viXra:1306.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 03:49:27

Crystal Cells in Geometric Algebra

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 6 Pages. 5 figures. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advanced Mechanical Engineering, between University of Fukui (Japan) - Pukyong National University (Korea), 27 Nov. 2004, pp. 290-295 (2004).

This paper focuses on the symmetries of space lattice crystal cells. All 32 point groups of three dimensional crystal cells are exclusively described by vectors (three for one particular cell) taken from the physical cell. Geometric multiplication of these vectors completely generates all symmetries, including reflections, rotations, inversions, rotary-reflections and rotary-inversions. The sets of vectors necessary are illustrated in drawings and all symmetry group elements are listed explicitly as geometric vector products. Finally a new free interactive software tool is introduced, that visualizes all symmetry transformations in the way described in the main geometrical part of this paper.
Category: Condensed Matter

[74] viXra:1306.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-19 03:58:59

Algorithm for Conversion Between Geometric Algebra Versor Notation and Conventional Crystallographic Symmetry-Operation Symbols

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer, Christian Perwass
Comments: 14 Pages. 6 tables. Preprint (2009).

This paper establishes an algorithm for the conversion of conformal geometric algebra (GA) [3, 4] versor symbols of space group symmetry-operations [6–8, 10] to standard symmetry-operation symbols of crystallography [5]. The algorithm is written in the mathematical language of geometric algebra [2–4], but it takes up basic algorithmic ideas from [1]. The geometric algebra treatment simplifies the algorithm, due to the seamless use of the geometric product for operations like intersection, projection, rejection; and the compact conformal versor notation for all symmetry operations and for geometric elements like lines and planes. The transformations between the set of three geometric symmetry vectors a,b,c, used for generating multivector versors, and the set of three conventional crystal cell vectors a,b,c of [5] have already been fully specified in [8] complete with origin shift vectors. In order to apply the algorithm described in the present work, all locations, axis vectors and trace vectors must be computed and oriented with respect to the conventional crystall cell, i.e. its origin and its three cell vectors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[73] viXra:1306.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-17 05:02:34

Interactive Visualization of Plane Space Groups with the Space Group Visualizer

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 36 Pages. 32 figures, 1 table.

This set of instructions shows how to successfully display the 17 two-dimensional (2D) space groups in the interactive crystal symmetry software Space Group Visualizer (SGV) [6]. The SGV is described in [4]. It is based on a new type of powerful geometric algebra visualization platform [5]. The principle is to select in the SGV a three-dimensional super space group and by orthogonal projection produce a view of the desired plane 2D space group. The choice of 3D super space group is summarized in the lookup table Table 1. The direction of view for the orthographic projection needs to be adapted only for displaying the plane 2D space groups Nos. 3, 4 and 5. In all other cases space group selection followed by orthographic projection immediately displays one cell of the desired plane 2D space group. The full symmetry selection, interactivity and animation features for 3D space groups offered by the SGV software become thus also available for plane 2D space groups. A special advantage of this visualization method is, that by canceling the orthographic projection (remove the tick mark of Orthographic View in drop down menu Visualization), every plane 2D space group is seen to be a subgroup of a corresponding 3D super space group.
Category: Condensed Matter

[72] viXra:1306.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-17 01:41:53

Interactive Visualization of Plane Groups

Authors: Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 4 Pages. 3 figs, 1 tab. Symm.: Art + Sci., Spec. Iss. of The Jour. of the Int. Soc. For the Interdisc. Study of Symmetry (ISIS): G. Lugosi, D. Nagy (eds.), Proc. of Symm.: Art + Sci., 8th Congr. ISIS, Days of Harmonics, Austr., Aug. 2010, v 2010 (1-4), pp. 80-83.

This contribution shows how to successfully display the 17 two-dimensional space groups (wallpaper groups) in the interactive crystal symmetry software Space Group Visualizer (SGV) (Perwass & Hitzer, 2005). We show examples of four wallpaper groups that contain (as sub patterns, i.e as subgroups) all other 13 wallpaper groups. The SGV is described in (Hitzer & Perwass, 2010). It is based on a new type of powerful geometric algebra visualization platform (Perwass, 2000).
Category: Condensed Matter

[71] viXra:1306.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2013-06-17 03:00:32

Symmetry of Orthorhombic Materials and Interactive 3D Visualization in Geometric Algebra

Authors: Daisuke Ichikawa, Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 11 Pages. 12 figures, 4 tables. Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Adv. Mechanical and Power Engineering 2007, between Univ. of Fukui (Japan), Pukyong Nat. Univ. (Korea) and Univ. of Shanghai for Science and Technology (China), 22--25 Nov. 2007, 302-312 (2007).

The Space Group Visualizer is the main software that we use in this work to show the symmetry of orthorhombic space groups as interactive computer graphics in three dimensions. For that it is necessary to know the features and the classification of orthorhombic point groups and space groups. For representing the symmetry transformations of point groups and space groups, we employ (Clifford) geometric algebra. This algebra results from applying the associative geometric product to the vectors of a vector space. Some major features of the software implementation are discussed. Finally a brief overview of interactive functions of the Space Group Visualizer is given.
Category: Condensed Matter

[70] viXra:1305.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-30 22:07:11

Noise-Enhanced Transmission Efficacy of Aperiodic Signals in Nonlinear Systems

Authors: Fabing Duan, Francois Chapeau-Blondeau, Derek Abbott
Comments: 7 Pages. submitted to HotPI 2013

We study the aperiodic signal transmission in a static nonlinearity in the context of aperiodic stochastic resonance. The performance of a nonlinearity over that of the linear system is defined as the transmission efficacy. The theoretical and numerical results demonstrate that the noise-enhanced transmission efficacy effects occur for different signal strengths in various noise scenarios.
Category: Condensed Matter

[69] viXra:1305.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-29 02:54:43

Theoretical Study of Quantization of Magnetic Flux in a Superconducting Ring

Authors: DaeHyeon Kang
Comments: 9 Pages.

We refined the concepts of electric current and fluxoid, and London’s equation that specify quantum phenomena of moving electrons and magnetic flux in a closed circuit similar to a superconducting ring, so as not to violate the uncertainty principle. On this basic the relation between the electron motion and magnetic flux in a superconductor has been theoretically investigated by means of Faraday’s law and/or canonical momentum relation. The fact that minimum unit of the quantized magnetic flux is hc/2e does not mean the concurrent motion of the two electrons in a Cooper pair as is known so far. However, it is shown to be related with independent motion of the each electron in a superconducting state.
Category: Condensed Matter

[68] viXra:1305.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-16 11:01:07

A New Proof that Einsten is Wrong

Authors: John Girault
Comments: 1 Page. We show Einsten wrong.

We EXPOSE the AGENDA of the sientist who tells us thet EINSTEN was wright.
Category: Condensed Matter

[67] viXra:1305.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2013-05-01 12:15:26

The Importance of Being Discrete in Sex

Authors: Renato Vieira dos Santos
Comments: 11 Pages.

The puzzle associated with the cost of sex, an old problem of evolutionary biology, is discussed here from the point of view of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The results suggest, in a simplified model, that the prevalence of sexual species in nature can be a natural and necessary consequence of the discrete character of the nonlinear interactions between couples and their pathogens/parasites. Mapped into a field theory, the stochastic processes performed by the species are described by continuous fields in space and time. The way that the model's parameters scale with subsequent iterations of the renormalization group gives us information about the stationary emergent properties of the complex interacting systems modeled. We see that the combination of one aspect of the Red Queen theory with the stochastic processes theory, including spatiotemporal interactions, provides interesting insights into this old Darwinian dilemma.
Category: Condensed Matter

[66] viXra:1304.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-16 20:03:09

Energy Production in Compressed Matter

Authors: John Shim
Comments: 5 Pages.

The dispersion relation between the conjugate Fourier variables of position and momentum, ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship between the ground-state kinetic energy of a confined quantum, and its degree of containment. This containment can occur in two ways: the first is by an attractive potential, and the second by a repulsive potential. These two cases behave very differently. If the quantum is bound by an attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy remains within the bound system. In the second type of containment, which is only possible by compression, this is not so. In this case, the quantum is contained by collisions with the bounding potential, which must result in a transfer of kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state kinetic energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. An electron contained within the approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 nm, for example, if contained by the attractive potential of the atomic nucleus, would transmit no energy from the atom. The same electron, however, contained in the same volume by a repulsive potential, would transmit energy to the boundary at each collision. Because the minimum velocity of the electron determined by the dispersion relation is very great compared to the dimension of containment, the number of collisions per second with the boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. For even a small energy exchange per collision, this would result in a very large rate of energy transfer. An exchange of only 10^-6 ev per collision, for example, would produce 10^9 ev per second of energy transmitted to the boundary.
Category: Condensed Matter

[65] viXra:1304.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-12 18:20:38

Survival of the Scarcer in Space

Authors: Renato Vieira dos Santos, Ronald Dickman
Comments: 15 Pages. Journal reference: Journal of Statistical Mechanics

Recently a model of intra- and interspecific competition between two species was proposed [Phys. Rev. E 87 (2013) 010101], in which the scarcer species (i.e., with smaller stationary population size) can be more resistant to extinction when it holds a competitive advantage. Here we verify this survival of the scarcer in space (SSS) phenomenon in models with spatial structure, both analytically and numerically. We find that the conditions for SSS, as obtained applying renormalization group analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to a discrete-space model, differ significantly from those found in the spatially homogeneous case.
Category: Condensed Matter

[64] viXra:1304.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-09 21:19:41

Drude-Schwarzschild Metric and the Electrical Conductivity of Metals

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 09 pages; no figures

Starting from a string with a length equal to the electron mean free path in metals and having a unit cell equal to the Compton length of the electron, we construct a Schwarzschild-like metric. We found that this metric has a surface horizon with radius equal to that of the electron mean free path and its Bekenstein-like entropy is proportional to the number of squared unit cells contained in this spherical surface. The Hawking temperature goes with the inverse of the perimeter of the maximum circle of this sphere. Besides this, interesting analogies are traced out with some features of the particle physics.
Category: Condensed Matter

[63] viXra:1304.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-04 18:31:34

Landauer's Erasure Principle and the Fermi Energy of Metals

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 06 pages, no figure

A minimization of a free energy inspired in the Landauer’s erasure principle combined with alternatives treatments of the Brownian motion of the free electrons, is used as a means to derive the Fermi energy of metals. The obtained result differs from the usual one by a small discrepancy between the coefficients of the two versions of it, when expressed as a function of the density of free electrons, its mass and the Planck’s constant.
Category: Condensed Matter

[62] viXra:1303.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-28 10:02:50

What are Colligative Properties? Foundations of Science Part II

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 4 Pages. his report is part of a series I am doing on science which will later be published into a book. This is part 2.

This guide is provided by Andrew Nassif, and is part of a series explanatory on science. This guide will include real life examples of Colligative properties in Chemistry as well as define them.
Category: Condensed Matter

[61] viXra:1302.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-28 07:26:46

Silicon Based Ball Lightning Globule Structures and Signs for Accumulation and Retarded Decrease of Tunneling Energy Bullets.

Authors: Leo Vuyk.
Comments: 13 Pages. 13

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures. These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research.
Category: Condensed Matter

[60] viXra:1302.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-25 17:54:48

Fluid Mechanic Revealed

Authors: Nasir Germain
Comments: 1 Page.

Nasir Germain summarizes fluid mechanics in a quick paper
Category: Condensed Matter

[59] viXra:1301.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-17 12:26:27

Quantum Field Theory,Theoretical Framework

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 7 Pages.

A research paper on some of the biggest controversies in the field of science and theoretical physics. This includes attempts on finding new scientific discoveries and research on the field itself as well as what is Quantum Field Theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[58] viXra:1301.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-14 10:26:00

A Guide to Colligative Properties in Chemistry & Physics

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages.

A guide on what are colligative properties and how they help us in the understanding of chemistry as well as semi-conductor physics. This will also give us the ability to look at modern research and understanding in the field of chemistry through a conceptual thinking to the dimensional analysis behind it.
Category: Condensed Matter

[57] viXra:1212.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-22 08:31:48

Waves in a Dispersive Exponential Half-Space

Authors: Zafar Turakulov
Comments: 6 Pages. Rejected from the Journal of Mathematical Physics.

Maxwell equations for electromagnetic waves propagating in dispersive media are studied as they are, without commonplace substituting a scalar function for electromagnetic field. A method of variables separation for the original system of equation is proposed. It is shown that in case of planar symmetry variables separate in systems of Cartesian and cylindric coordinates and Maxwell equations reduce to one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation. Complete solutions are obtained for waves in medium with electric permittivity and magnetic permeability given as ϵ = e^−κz, µ = c^−2e^−λz. keywords: Maxwell equations, dispersive media, complete solutions PACS numbers: 41.20.Jb, 42.25 .Bs Keywords: Maxwell equations, dispersive media, complete solutions
Category: Condensed Matter

[56] viXra:1212.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2012-12-14 10:15:55

Nanosized Precipitates in H13 Tool Steel Low Temperature Plasma Nitriding

Authors: L. F. Zagonel, J. Bettini, R. L. O. Basso, P. Paredez, H. Pinto, C. M. Lepienski, F. Alvarez
Comments: Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 207, 25 August 2012, Pages 72–78 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.05.081

A comprehensive study of pulsed nitriding in AISI H13 tool steel at low temperature (400°C) is reported for several durations. X-ray diffraction results reveal that a nitrogen enriched compound (Epsilon-Fe2-3N, iron nitride) builds up on the surface within the first process hour despite the low process temperature. Beneath the surface, X-ray Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) indicates relatively higher nitrogen concentrations (up to 12 at.%) within the diffusion layer while microscopic nitrides are not formed and existing carbides are not dissolved. Moreover, in the diffusion layer, nitrogen is found to be dispersed in the matrix and forming nanosized precipitates. The small coherent precipitates are observed by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) while the presence of nitrogen is confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Hardness tests show that the material hardness increases linearly with the nitrogen concentration, reaching up to 14.5 GPa in the surface while the Young Modulus remains essentially unaffected. Indeed, the original steel microstructure is well preserved even in the nitrogen diffusion layer. Nitrogen profiles show a case depth of about ~43 microns after nine hours of nitriding process. These results indicate that pulsed plasma nitriding is highly efficient even at such low temperatures and that at this process temperature it is possible to form thick and hard nitrided layers with satisfactory mechanical properties. This process can be particularly interesting to enhance the surface hardness of tool steels without exposing the workpiece to high temperatures and altering its bulk microstructure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[55] viXra:1209.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-25 18:28:54

Physics of Cold Fusion by TSC Theory

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 6 Pages. Submittal to Proceedings of ICCF17

This paper gives explanation on the basic physics of cold fusion by the TSC (tetrahedral symmetric condensate) theory. Models of TSC formation conditions in condensed matter are first proposed. Secondly formulas for cold fusion rates per D(H)-cluster are explained with typical quantitative results. The 4D/TSC fusion and the 4H/TSC WS fusion are answers, respectively for the D (deuterium)-system and the H (protium)-system.
Category: Condensed Matter

[54] viXra:1209.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-20 14:27:56

Electrical Conductivity of Metals: a New Look at This Subject

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 14 Pages. 1 table, no figures

Various parameters tied to the electrical conductivity of typical metals are estimated and are expressed in terms of universal constants. It happens that they are close to those found in metallic copper at room temperature. The fact that the realization of the model occurs at room temperature is explained by using the Landauer’s erasure principle. The averaged collision time of the electron of conduction is also thought as a particle lifetime. Finally an analogy is established between the motion of the electron of conduction and the cosmological constant problem, where a spherical surface of radius equal to the electron mean free path has been thought as a surface horizon for the charge carriers.
Category: Condensed Matter

[53] viXra:1209.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-18 20:58:03

Nucleon Halo Model of 8Be*

Authors: Akito Takahashi, Daniel Rocha
Comments: 22 Pages.

A model of final state interaction for 8Be* of 4D/TSC fusion is proposed. The 8Be*(Ex=47.6MeV) may damp its excited energy by major BOLEP (burst of low energy photons) process from nucleon-helion halo sate to 8Be-ground state. Intermediate decay states from the nucleon-halo states are scaled by number of effective binding PEF values for mean strong field interaction. A complex decay scheme is proposed. Minor two-alpha break-up channels emit characteristic discrete kinetic energy alpha-particles, which meets wonderful coincidence with observed data by Roussetski et al. X-ray burst data observed by Karabut et al may be photons by BOLEP.
Category: Condensed Matter

[52] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-02 21:56:50

Pd D-D Fusion and Jitterbug Structure

Authors: Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith Jr.
Comments: 11 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle.
Category: Condensed Matter

[51] viXra:1207.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2012-07-03 14:15:38

Superconducting State Generated by Cooper Pairs Bound by Intensified Gravitational Interaction

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 9 Pages.

We show that by intensifying the gravitational interaction between electron pairs it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10−1eV, enough to keep electron’s pairs (Cooper Pairs) at ambient temperatures. By means of this method, metals can be transformed into superconductors at ambient temperature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[50] viXra:1206.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2012-06-29 09:00:58

From Maxwell's Displacement Current to Superconducting Current

Authors: X. Q. Huang
Comments: 6 Pages.

We investigate the nature of the superconducting current from the Maxwell's displacement current. We argue that the conduction current density term of the Maxwell's equations is physically untrue, and it should be eliminated from the equations. Essentially, both the superconducting current and conduction current are originated from the Maxwell's displacement current characterizing the changes of electric field with time or space. Therefore, there are no electrons tunnel through the insulating layer of the Josephson junction. It is shown that the conventional static magnetic field is, in fact, the static electric field of the intrinsic electron-ion electric dipoles in the materials. The new paradigm naturally leads to unification of magnetic and electrical phenomena, while at the same time realizing the perfect symmetry of the Maxwell's equations. Moreover, it is well confirmed that the Dirac's magnetic monopole is indeed the well-known electron. This research is expected to shed light on the high-temperature superconductivity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[49] viXra:1205.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-06 18:08:51

Proposals for Memristor Design and Applications

Authors: Blaise Mouttet
Comments: 59 Pages.

Presentation from the 1st Memristor and Memristive Systems Symposium held at UC Berkeley in December 2008.
Category: Condensed Matter

[48] viXra:1205.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-03 08:45:16

Dynamic Systems Model for Ionic Mem-Resistors

Authors: Blaise Mouttet
Comments: 13 Pages.

Memristive system models have previously been proposed to describe ionic memory resistors. However, these models neglect the mass of ions and repulsive forces between ions and are not well formulated in terms of semiconductor and ionic physics. This article proposes an alternative dynamic systems model in which the system state is derived from a second order differential equation in the form of a driven damped harmonic oscillator. Application is made to Schottky and tunneling barriers.
Category: Condensed Matter

[47] viXra:1205.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-03 08:51:54

Dynamic Systems Model for Filamentary Memresistors

Authors: Blaise Mouttet
Comments: 5 Pages.

A dynamic systems model is proposed describing memory resistors which include a filament conductive bridge. In this model the system state is defined by both a dynamic tunneling barrier (associated with the filament-electrode gap) and a dynamic Schottky barrier (associated with the electron depletion width surrounding the filament-electrode gap). A general model is formulated which may be applicable to many different forms of memory resistor materials. The frequency response of the model is briefly discussed. Keywords- mem-resistor, non-linear dynamic systems, RRAM, ReRAM, Schottky junction, tunneling junction
Category: Condensed Matter

[46] viXra:1205.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-03 08:57:16

Set, Reset, and Retention Times for Ionic and Filamentary Mem-Resistors

Authors: Blaise Mouttet
Comments: 5 Pages.

A dynamic systems model has previously been proposed for mem-resistors based on a driven damped harmonic oscillator differential equation describing electron and ionic depletion widths in a thin semiconductor film. This paper derives equations for set, reset, and retention times based on the previously proposed model. Keywords- mem-resistor, RRAM, ReRAM
Category: Condensed Matter

[45] viXra:1201.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-30 15:34:13

Comments on Analytical Derivation of the Drag Curve CD = CD (R), on Vixra:1112.0066

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 86 pages. Portuguese.

This note collection is related to an analysis throughout the paper viXra:1112.0066.
Category: Condensed Matter

[44] viXra:1201.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-31 00:20:44

Metal, Semiconductor, and Insulator Properties Calculated in Vasp

Authors: Theodore Charles III
Comments: 3 Pages.

VASP can be used to run various material simulations and molecular dynamics. VASP uses DFT with both LGA and GGA approximation-based pseudopotentials to calculate various material properties.
Category: Condensed Matter

[43] viXra:1112.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-26 01:57:02

Electron Equivalent Circuit

Authors: Giuliano Bettini
Comments: 7 Pages.

The electron is interpreted as a small electric current carrying the elementary charge and the elementary mass. The equivalent circuit is a quarter-wave short circuited transmission line, the line having characteristic impedance 25812.807449 Ohm, the von Klitzing constant. A similar line, closed on itself after a twist (as in a Moebius strip), not only justifies the charge and mass, but also the angular momentum of the electron.
Category: Condensed Matter

[42] viXra:1112.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-20 17:51:50

A Pedagogical Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equation

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 13 pages. English.

This brief paper is part of my research on the origins of turbulence. Since the derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are frequently cumbersome, I would like to provide this pedagogical derivation (I hope), discussing the properties of the continuum fluids under a heuristical approach.
Category: Condensed Matter

[41] viXra:1112.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-20 08:13:04

Derivation of the Drag Curve $C_{D}=C_{D}\left(\mathcal{R}\right)$

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 3 pages. English.

Through a convenient mathematical approach for the Navier-Stokes equation, we obtain the quadratic dependence $v^{2}$ of the drag force $F_{D}$ on a falling sphere, and the drag coefficient, $C_{D}$, as a function of the Reynolds number. Viscosity effects related to the turbulent boundary layer under transition, from laminar to turbulent, lead to the tensorial integration related to the flux of linear momentum through a conveniently choosen control surface in the falling reference frame. This approach turns out to provide an efficient route for the drag force calculation, since the drag force turns out to be a field of a non-inertial reference frame, allowing an arbitrary and convenient control surface, finally leading to the quadratic term for the drag force.
Category: Condensed Matter

[40] viXra:1112.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2011-12-07 19:38:19

Manipulating Standard and Inverse Chladni Patterns by Modulating Adhesive, Frictional, and Damping Forces

Authors: Mohit Shridhar
Comments: 19 Pages.

Particles on a plate form Chladni patterns when the plate is acoustically excited. To better understand these patterns and their possible real-world applications, I present a new analytical and numerical study of the transition between standard and inverse Chladni patterns on an adhesive surface at any magnitude of acceleration. By spatial autocorrelation analysis, I examine the effects of surface adhesion and friction on the rate of pattern formation. Next, I explore displacement models of particles translating on a frictional surface with both adhesive and internal particle-plate frictions. In addition, I find that both adhesion and damping forces serve as exquisite particle sorting mechanisms. Finally, I discuss the possible real-world applications of these sorting mechanisms, such as separating nanoparticles, organelles, or cells.
Category: Condensed Matter

[39] viXra:1111.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2011-11-29 10:25:38

Determining the True Cause Behind Superconductivity, Development of a New Theory to Explain it

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 49 Pages. Number of figures:7

In order to explain why (i.e. cause) and how (i.e. way) superconductivity is generated and related properties and its effects take place, presently a new theory has been propounded determining such a cause over which unfortunately, despite having its knowledge, nobody ever tried to think, while it acts as the true cause. Consequently, the present theory gives a very clear and complete explanation (picture) why and how superconductivity is generated and related properties and its effects take place. So far unexplained some properties have also been explained, e.g.: 1. Why and how transition temperature ( ) varies from substance to substance; 2. Why and how very good conductors of current, e.g. gold, silver, copper do not superconduct even down to very low temperatures; 3. Why and how ferromagnetic substances do not superconduct; etc. Most important- it has also been tried to explain how currently known some non-superconducting (e.g. ferromagnetic) substances can be made superconducting. In order to verify/justify the truth of the determined cause, plausible arguments and evidences have been given from the well-established knowledge. The existing theories fail to give a clear and complete explanation as to how superconductivity is generated and related properties and effects take place, which is their great drawback. Because, whenever any phenomenon takes place, there occurs always a way (procedure), how that phenomenon and related properties take place, and hence if any theory is developed in order to explain that phenomenon, the theory must give a clear and complete explanation how that phenomenon and related properties take place. The existing theories, in addition, give rise to several such questions of which no any explanation can be given. The BCS theory for which it is claimed that it provides better explanation and accounts very well for all the properties exhibited by the superconductor. But if we examine this theory closely, we find that it is based on such concepts which: 1. Are practically not possible; 2. Contradict two well-observed facts; 3. Give rise to numerous such questions of which no explanation can be given. These drawbacks raise serious question mark over the truth of the BCS theory. Finally, some possible new effects have been predicted and it has been tried to explain why and how they shall take place.
Category: Condensed Matter

[38] viXra:1111.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2012-05-15 01:01:30

Theory Which Explains Several Greatly Important Mysterious Phenomena and it Determines a New Force Having Characteristics of Nuclear Force.

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 58 pages, 13 figures

When an electric current flows through any conducting rod: 1- Why and how is a magnetic field generated around the rod? 2- Why and how does this field occur in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flow of current and possesses direction? 3- How and which type of magnetism (electromagnetism) is generated? How do electrons move together in electron beams despite having repulsive Coulomb force between them? Why and how does the Lorentz force come into play? No explanation is found how these phenomena take place. Electromagnetic theory has wide success to its credit but it and other theories fail to do so. These theories fail because there are some causes behind the occurrence of these phenomena but no account of those causes have been taken into consideration. The causes are, e.g.: 1- The electron possesses magnetism by virtue of nature similarly as it possesses charge by virtue of nature, and magnetism occurs in the form of a ring around the charge of electron, 2- The magnetism of the electron spins similarly as it's charge spins but in opposite directions, 3- The interaction between magnetic fields of interacting particles (e.g. between magnetic fields of electrons in electron beams) or interacting systems give rise to a force between them. Presently, taking into account the above causes, a new theory has been propounded which gives a very clear and complete explanation of all the above phenomena. The force caused due to interaction between magnetic fields of electrons has some very important and striking properties: this force is strong, short range and charge independent. Since the nature of this force is exactly similar to what we speculate for nuclear force between nucleons, and nucleons possess a magnetic field too, the nuclear force should be due to interaction between magnetic fields of nucleons in nuclei. Most importantly, this force has a repulsive component too, which is very essential to cause, e.g. alpha and beta decays etc. because the Coulomb repulsive force is too weak and hence cannot cause these decays. How this force varies, that has been determined. To confirm the truth of the determined force, so far unexplained an important mysterious nuclear phenomenon has been explained. Finally: i- effects of the present theory on some important current concepts and their consequences have been discussed; and ii- some possible new effects have been predicted and explained why and how they shall take place.
Category: Condensed Matter

[37] viXra:1110.0074 [pdf] submitted on 29 Oct 2011

Maximum Entropy Boundaries in Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Vasili Baranau
Comments: 37 pages.

We propose a universal approach in the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to modeling constant velocity constraints and constant temperature constraints on curved walls, which doesn't depend on dimensionality, LBM scheme, boundary geometry; which is numerically stable, accurate and local and has a good physical background. This technique, called a maximum entropy method, utilizes the idea of recovering unknown populations on boundary nodes through minimizing node state deviation from equilibrium while assuring velocity or temperature restrictions. Also, theoretical justifications of a popular Zou-He boundaries technique and isothermal boundaries algorithm are provided on the basis of the method derived. Finally, while conducting numerical benchmarks, typical straight boundaries algorithm (Zou-He) was compared to a typical curved boundaries algorithm (Guo-Zheng).
Category: Condensed Matter

[36] viXra:1110.0053 [pdf] submitted on 17 Oct 2011

Tridimensional Morphology and Kinetics of Etch Pit on the {0001} Plane of Sapphire Crystal

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Zhiyong Yuan, Ji Zhou, Jianfei Sun, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han
Comments: 17 pages

The tridimensional morphology and etching kinetics of the etch pit on the C-{0001} plane of sapphire crystal (a-Al2O3) in KOH molten were studied experimentally. It was shown that the etch pit takes on tridimensional morphologies with triangular symmetry same as the symmetric property of the sapphire crystal. Pits like centric and eccentric triangular pyramid as well as hexagonal pyramid could be observed, but the latter is much less in density. Analyses show the side walls of the etch pits belong to the {1 0 } family, and the triangular pit contains edges full composed by Al3+ ions on the etching surface so it is more stable than the hexagonal pit since whose edges on the etch surface contains Al2+ ions. The etch pits developed in manner of kinematic wave by the step moving with constant speed controlled by the chemical reaction with activation energy of 96.6KJ/mol between Al2O3 and KOH.
Category: Condensed Matter

[35] viXra:1109.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Sep 2011

Process Design for the Shape Controlling of Pulled Growth Crystal

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Jianfei Sun, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han, Xiaohong Wang
Comments: 18 pages and 8 figures.

A model relating the diameter variation with the process parameters during a practical crystal growth by pulling has been proposed. The crystal shape evolution under various growth process was analysed. The results prove, in theory, that the most effective and convenient measure to control the crystal diameter is adjusting the pulling rate, and the optimal process for growing a equal diameter crystal is simultaneously decreasing the pulling rate and the heater temperature with dropped decreasing rate. Moreover, the model could be used for designing the process for growing a crystal with a desired shape.
Category: Condensed Matter

[34] viXra:1104.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2 Apr 2011

Theoretical Analysis of Growth Shape Evolution of Crystal Grown with Pulling

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Hongbo Zuo, Jianfei Sun, Xiaohong Wang, Jiecai Han, Dawei Xing
Comments: 9 pages and 5 figures, will be submited to the journal Crystal Research and Technology.

This paper constructed a geometric model of crystal growth with pulling. On the basis of the model, effects of processes on crystal shape evolution were clarified. The results shown some effects always used to control the crystal diameter in practice. Some unusual effects also be shown. Crystal could have a self-stable diameter and decreasing the convex extent of solid liquid interface could enhance the increase rate of crystal diameter or reduce the decrease rate of crystal diameter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[33] viXra:1103.0098 [pdf] submitted on 23 Mar 2011

The Lady in Baghdad

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 3 pages.

What would most of us do with only three hours of electricity per day? Yet that is what Dr. Sabiha Al-Jabbar did when she was working on her PhD in Baghdad. She had to design her experiments so that she could have the results she needed before the lights went out.
Category: Condensed Matter

[32] viXra:1103.0059 [pdf] submitted on 14 Mar 2011

Thermodynamics of Heisenberg Chains Coupled to Phonons

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 107 pages, dissertation, Dr. rer. nat. obtained from the University of Dortmund on 19 July 2001

This PhD thesis examines the thermodynamical properties of spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains which are coupled to Einstein phonons. One result of this study is that these spin-phonon systems undergo a phase transition similar to a spin-Peierls transition (cf. Physical Review B 60 (1999) 12125-12133 and Physical Review B 65 (2002) 144438). Another result is that in the undimerized phase the critical exponent nu depends on both the phonon frequency and the spin-phonon coupling constant. This means that these spin-phonon systems change the universality class continuously with the spin-phonon coupling (cf. arXiv: cond-mat/9912150v1).
Category: Condensed Matter

[31] viXra:1103.0028 [pdf] submitted on 10 Mar 2011

A Wave Equation for Electrons in Graphene

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 5 pages.

We accept the statement that "carriers in graphene are described not by the Schrödinger equation" as a challenge to show that electrons in graphene can be described by the Schrödinger equation.
Category: Condensed Matter

[30] viXra:1102.0040 [pdf] submitted on 22 Feb 2011

Quantum Universality of Phase Transitions

Authors: Shpend Mushkolaj
Comments: 21 pages.

The most astonishing properties of condensed matter are the formation of collective quantum states of superconductivity, magnetic order, electric order and crystalline order. In this paper, new universal formulas for transition temperatures are derived, that depend simply on atomatom distances, atomic masses and electron masses. The universality of these formulas is tested by comparing the calculated values and experimental data for critical temperatures of different systems and phases.
Category: Condensed Matter

[29] viXra:1101.0100 [pdf] submitted on 31 Jan 2011

Chemical Potential of Equilibrium Electromagnetic Radiation and the Means for Electromagnetic Waves to Propagate in Free Space

Authors: S.V.Akimenko, V.V.Demjanov
Comments: 3 pages.

The article shows that in case if the photon is viewed as a particle moving in empty space the zero value of chemical potential of equilibrium electromagnetic radiation cannot be explained basing only on first principles of statistical physics. On the contrary, to explain the chemical potential of equilibrium electromagnetic radiation being equal to zero is rather simple if the photon is considered as a quasi-particle that is the way to describe collective motion of a system consisting of particles whose number is a fixed value. Collective motions of the particles of mentioned system are interpreted in the article as oscillations of an electromagnetic field that corresponds to observation data of modern astronomy, according to which the space, that fills the gaps, both between massive objects and between massive particles forming them, should be attributed to characteristics of a continuous medium.
Category: Condensed Matter

[28] viXra:1012.0045 [pdf] submitted on 22 Dec 2010

Role of PdO Surface-Coating in CMNE D(H)-Gas Loading Experiments

Authors: A.Takahashi, A. Kitamura, Y. Sasaki, Y. Miyoshi, A. Taniike, R. Seto, Y. Fujita
Comments: 18 pages, This is a preprint of our paper to J. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Vol.4, to be published in 2011.

The PdO-coated layer of Pd-nano-particle may arrange fractal nano-dips on its surface when D(H)-gas is charged and de-oxidation molecules (D2O or H2O) are released. Fractal nano-dips may make local deep adsorption potentials, through which rapid penetration of D-atoms (ions) into deeper Pd-local lattice (Bloch potential) O-sites of nano-particle may be induced, to realize full or over-full D(H) loaded state (x>1.0) of PdDx in a short time of the Phase-I process. Formation of D-clusters, such as 4D/TSC on surface may be enhanced at nano-dips. A phenomenological model of quasi-free D-motion under constraint of the Bloch potential within a global mesoscopic potential well is proposed for the Phase-II phenomena, where nuclear heating by 4D fusion reactions may rather steadily take place. Generation of collective mesoscopic potential well (CMPW) will make a Pd nano-particle with PdO working as "mesoscopic catalyst" which realizes very large D(H)-loading ratios and anomalously large chemical heat releases both for H-gas and D-gas loading.
Category: Condensed Matter

[27] viXra:1012.0041 [pdf] submitted on 22 Dec 2010

Mesoscopic Catalyst and D-Cluster Fusion

Authors: A.Takahashi, A. Kitamura, Y. Miyoshi, H. Sakoh, A. Taniike, R. Seto, Y. Fujita
Comments: 11 pages, This is a preprint of our paper to Proceedings of JCF11 Meeting, Japan CF-Research Society, to be published in 2011.

Discussions with brief summary of the Kobe group's experiments are given. Phenomenological modeling on mechanisms are made for explaining observed anomalies in D(H)-overloading and high heat-power release rates from nano-palladium-particles and binary metal PdNi nano-particles dispersed in/on ZrO2 ceramics supporter flakes under D(H)-gas loading at room temperature. Roles of PdO layer and Pd-ad-atoms (incomplete outer shell) of nano-Ni-core are modeled as mesoscopic catalysts which have sub-nano-holes (SNH) on nano-particle-surfaces. SNH may realize strong sticking force for D(H)-gas to dissociate and diffuse rapidly into inner local lattice sites. During the beginning process, 4D/TSC cluster fusions with 1watt/g-Pd(or PdNi) may happen on surface. By the very over-loading (x>>1) states in the later region of Phase-I and in the Phase-II after saturation, TSC formation inside nano-particles may be strongly enhanced by the non-linearly coupled QM oscillation (high free energy states of deuterons in local Bloch potentials) under the deep mesoscopic global collective potential well.
Category: Condensed Matter

[26] viXra:1010.0037 [pdf] submitted on 25 Oct 2010

On the Ability of Matter in the Aggregate to Increase Specific Heat near the Absolute Zero of Temperature: a Comment on Arxiv:1010.0259

Authors: Ron Bourgoin
Comments: 2 pages

Arxiv:1010.0259, now withdrawn, presents analysis to show that on approach to the absolute zero of temperature, the specific heat of matter in the aggregate, such as ultrathin wires that do not enter the state of superconductivity, increases. There is good reason to expect that this is true, which we will show in the present paper, which moves us to urge that Arxiv:1010.0259 be restored.
Category: Condensed Matter

[25] viXra:1010.0034 [pdf] submitted on 22 Oct 2010

Shape Function of Directional Solidification Interface under Two-Dimensional Heat Conduction Condition

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Jianfei Sun, Hongbo Zuo, Dawei Xing, Jiecai Han
Comments: 17 pages

The interface shape function for the pure material directional solidification system with temperature disturbances on the heater and cooler is derived. It is approximately a fraction function including cosine terms in the denominator and the numerator. Calculation of the function shows the interface shape can respond to the temperature disturbance. When both the solidification rate V and the interface cooler distance α determined by the boundary temperatures are lower than critical value deteimined by a formula, the interface shape changes from sinusoidal wave to figures pattern with the increase of the rate or the distance. Once the rate or the distance reaches the critical value, the interface branches at the bottom of the grooves between figures and then the branches expand along the sidewall of the figures with further increase of the rate or the distance. According to that, we conclude that the sinusoidal interface shape assumption always used by the interface instability analyses is not always valid and the interface shape in Hele-Shaw solidification experiments in fact maybe is not planar but a cellular interface with quite small amplitude, and the role of temperature disturbance should be considered in experiments studying solidification interface stability.
Category: Condensed Matter

[24] viXra:1007.0010 [pdf] submitted on 8 Jul 2010

On the Critical Temperatures of Superconductors: a Quantum Gravity Approach

Authors: Andrea Gregori
Comments: 30 pages.

We consider superconductivity in the light of the quantum gravity theoretical framework introduced in [1]. In this framework, the degree of quantum delocalization depends on the geometry of the energy distribution along space. This results in a dependence of the critical temperature characterizing the transition to the superconducting phase on the complexity of the structure of a superconductor. We consider concrete examples, ranging from low to high temperature superconductors, and discuss how the critical temperature can be predicted once the quantum gravity effects are taken into account.
Category: Condensed Matter

[23] viXra:1004.0082 [pdf] submitted on 16 Apr 2010

Morphology, Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response of Octopolar Chromophores Embedded in a Silica Sonogel Matrix

Authors: V. Torres-Zúñiga, O.G. Morales-Saavedra, G. Hennrich, J.O. Flores-Flores, R. Ortega-Martínez
Comments: 15 pages. Manuscript submitted and accepted for publication as an article in Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

In this work, a liquid crystalline octopolar molecule 1,3,5-tris(ethynylphenyl)benzene-(1) was successfully embedded as dopant chromophore within a SiO2 based sonogel network in order to prepare stable solid state hybrid materials with intense second harmonic generation (SHG). This recently synthesized octopolar compound exhibit a centrosymmetric C3-symmetry structure, which is constituted by an electron-rich core and electron-poor periphery groups. The sonogel method, induced by energetic ultrasonic (US) waves applied at the TEOS/H2O reactant mixture interface has proven to be a suitable route in the manufacture of monolithic hybrid systems suitable for optical characterizations. The octopolar-based hybrid samples were comprehensively studied in their morphology, spectroscopic, linear and second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, according to several characterization techniques: epimicroscopy, AFM, UV-Vis- and fluorescence (PL) spectroscopies, and the NLO-SHG-technique. Epimicroscopy, photoluminiscent and absorption spectra evidence an optimal and homogeneous inclusion of the octopolar compounds within the glassy sonogel network. Without necessity of molecular poling processes, the effective quadratic-NLO susceptibility χeffS(2) of the hybrid was estimated to 13.6x10-3 pm/V at 1064 nm by SHG-transmission experiments recorded far-off of the resonance regime.
Category: Condensed Matter

[22] viXra:1004.0080 [pdf] submitted on 13 Apr 2010

The Tsallis Entropy and the Boltzmann Entropy Applicable to the Same Classic Generalized System

Authors: Xiangjun Feng
Comments: 3 pages and 3 figures. This paper has been published in the on-line journal of World Chinese Forum On Science of General Systems (WCFSGS), ISSN 1936-7260. Report Number: 300-P-10-04-01. Journal Reference: WCFSGS VOL 6, NO. S1 ( A SPECIAL EDITION ON NONEXTENSIVE MECHANICS ), APRIL 2010, ISSN 1936 - 7260.

It is demonstrated clearly that for the same classic generalized system the Tsallis power-laws with both the q > 1 and the q < 1 can be induced by the constraint of the constant harmonic mean for the so-called reciprocal energies r E and at the same time the Boltzmann distribution or the negative exponential probability distribution can be generated with the constraint of the constant arithmetic mean for the generalized energies E . The author thus argues that there might be no definite "extensive system" or "classic system" and there are only "classic physical parameters" and "classic constraints". For any physical system or generalized system, it is the non-natural constraints which determine both the forms of the entropies and the non-uniform equilibrium distributions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[21] viXra:1003.0054 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

A Note of Extended Proca Equations and Superconductivity

Authors: V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Frank Lichtenberg
Comments: 4 pages

It has been known for quite long time that the electrodynamics of Maxwell equations can be extended and generalized further into Proca equations. The implications of introducing Proca equations include an alternative description of superconductivity, via extending London equations. In the light of another paper suggesting that Maxwell equations can be written using quaternion numbers, then we discuss a plausible extension of Proca equation using biquaternion number. Further implications and experiments are recommended.
Category: Condensed Matter

[20] viXra:1003.0053 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

On Emergent Physics, "Unparticles" and Exotic "Unmatter" States

Authors: Ervin Goldfain, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 pages

Emergent physics refers to the formation and evolution of collective patterns in systems that are nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium. This type of large-scale behavior often develops as a result of simple interactions at the component level and involves a dynamic interplay between order and randomness. On account of its universality, there are credible hints that emergence may play a leading role in the Tera-ElectronVolt (TeV) sector of particle physics. Following this path, we examine the possibility of hypothetical highenergy states that have fractional number of quanta per state and consist of arbitrary mixtures of particles and antiparticles. These states are similar to "un-particles", massless fields of non-integral scaling dimensions that were recently conjectured to emerge in the TeV sector of particle physics. They are also linked to "unmatter", exotic clusters of matter and antimatter introduced few years ago in the context of Neutrosophy. The connection between 'unmatter' and 'unparticle' is explained in details in this paper. Unparticles have very odd properties which result from the fact that they represent fractional field quanta. Unparticles are manifested as mixed states that contain arbitrary mixtures of particles and antiparticles (therefore they simultaneously evolve "forward" and "backward" in time). From this, the connection with unmatter. Using the fractal operators of differentiation and integration we get the connection between unparticle and unmatter. 'Unmatter' was coined by F. Smarandache in 2004 who published three papers on the subject.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19] viXra:1003.0035 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

A New Form of Matter-Unmatter, Composed of Particles and Anti-Particles

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

Besides matter and antimatter there must exist unmatter (as a new form of matter) in accordance with the neutrosophy theory that between an entity <A> and its opposite <AntiA> there exist intermediate entities <NeutA>. Unmatter is neither matter nor antimatter, but something in between. An atom of unmatter is formed either by (1): electrons, protons, and antineutrons, or by (2): antielectrons, antiprotons, and neutrons. At CERN it will be possible to test the production of unmatter. The existence of unmatter in the universe has a similar chance to that of the antimatter, and its production also difficult for present technologies.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18] viXra:1003.0024 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

Hadron Models and Related New Energy Issues

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto
Comments: 476 pages

The present book covers a wide-range of issues from alternative hadron models to their likely implications in New Energy research, including alternative interpretation of lowenergy reaction (coldfusion) phenomena.
Category: Condensed Matter

[17] viXra:1003.0022 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

A Study of the Schrödinger-Langevin Equation with PT-Symmetric Periodic Potential and its Application to Deuteron Cluster, and Relation to the Self-Organized Criticality Phenomena

Authors: V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 pages

One of the most reported problem related to the CMNS (condensed matter nuclear science, or LENR), is the low probability of Coulomb barrier tunneling. It is supposed by standard physics that tunneling is only possible at high enough energy (by solving Gamow function). However, a recent study by A. Takahashi (2008, 2009) and experiment by Arata etc. (2008) seem to suggest that it is not impossible to achieve a working experiment to create the CMNS process. In accordance with Takahashi's EQPET/TSC model [1][2][3], the proposed study will find out some analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of barrier tunneling for cluster deuterium, in particular using Langevin method to solve the time-independent Schrödinger equation. It is hoped that the result can answer some of these mysteries.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16] viXra:1001.0048 [pdf] submitted on 29 Jan 2010

Nonlinear Optical Performance of Poled Liquid Crystalline Azo-dyes Confined in SiO2 Sonogel Films

Authors: V. Torres-Zúñiga, O. G. Morales-Saavedra, E. Rivera, J. O. Flores-Flores, J. G. Bañuelos, R. Ortega-Martínez
Comments: 27 Pages. Manuscript submitted and accepted for publication as an article in Journal of Modern Optics

The catalyst-free sonogel route was implemented to fabricate highly pure, optically active, hybrid azo-dye/SiO2-based spin-coated thin films deposited onto ITO-covered glass substrates. The implemented azo-dyes exhibit a push-pull structure; thus chromophore electrical poling was performed in order to explore their quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) performance and the role of the SiO2 matrix for allowing molecular alignment within the sonogel host network. Morphological and optical characterizations were performed to the film samples according to atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and the Maker finger technique. Regardless of absence of a high glass transition temperature (Tg) in the studied monomeric liquid crystalline azo-dyes, some hybrid films displayed stable NLO activity such as second harmonic generation (SHG). Results show that the chromophores were homogeneously embedded within the SiO2 sonogel network, where the guest-host molecular and mechanical interactions permitted a stable monomeric electrical alignment in this kind of environment.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15] viXra:0912.0038 [pdf] submitted on 18 Dec 2009

Proposing a New Structure to the Electromagnetic Wave a New Solution to the Maxwell's Equations in Vacuum

Authors: V.A.Induchoodan Menon
Comments: 12 Pages.

The author shows that the Maxwell's equations in vacuum have solutions which have helical structure in space while being circularly polarized at the same time. This goes against the universally accepted solutions which treat the electromagnetic wave as sinusoidal wave propagating along a linear path. He shows that the helical wave structure assumes that the fundamental state of the electromagnetic wave is the circularly polarized state and not the linearly polarized state. Since the photon is theorized to exist in a circularly polarized state, the proposed new solution is consistent with that picture. The author proposes a simple experiment using a maser to confirm the veracity of the proposed helical structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14] viXra:0911.0055 [pdf] submitted on 21 Nov 2009

Knot Formation in Open and Closed Self-Avoiding Walks: an Empirical Comparative Study

Authors: Robert A.J. Matthews
Comments: 2 Pages.

We describe an empirical study of the formation of knots in open and closed self-avoiding walks (SAWs), based on a simple model involving randomly agitated cords. The results suggest that the probability of a closed SAW remaining knot-free follows a similar scaling law to that for open-ended SAWs. In particular, the process of closing a given SAW prior to random agitation substantially increases the probability that it will be knot-free following agitation. The results point to a remedy for the well-known problem of tangling of cord, rope, headphone cables etc. The simple act of connecting the two free ends to each other, thus creating a loop, greatly reduces the risk of such tangling. Other implications, in particular for DNA storage in cells, are briefly discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[13] viXra:0909.0059 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

Toward a Mininum Criteria of Multi Dimensional Instanton Formation for Condensed Matter Systems?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 23 pages, extension of "NEW S-S' PAIR CREATION RATE EXPRESSION IMPROVING UPON ZENER CURVES FOR I-E PLOTS; Modern Physics Letters B, Vol. 20, No. 14 (2006) 849-861", as written by the authors, with a so called 'minimum criterion' for formation of instanton structure in condensed matter systems. which the author eventually will send to a condensed matter journal. Has eight figures. Key part of text on pages 21-23, as discussion built about 7th and final question as to applications of false vacuum hypothesis, and instanton physics for condensed matter systems.

We present near the end of this document a promising research direction as to how to generalize a technique initially applied to density wave current calculations to questions of instanton formation in multi dimensional condensed matter systems. Initially we review prior calculations done through a numerical simulation that the massive Schwinger model used to formulate solutions to CDW transport in itself is insufficient for transport of soliton-antisoliton (S S') pairs through a pinning gap model of CDW transport. Using the Peierls condensation energy permits formation of CDW S S' pairs in wave functionals. This leads us to conclude that if there is a small spacing between soliton-antisoliton (S S') charge centers, and an approximate fit between a tilted washboard potential and the system we are modeling, that instantons are pertinent to current/transport problems. This requires a very large 'self energy' final value of interaction energy as calculated between positive and negative charged components of soliton-antisoliton (S S') pairs with Gaussian wave functionals as modeled for multi dimensional systems along the lines of Lu's generalization given below. The links to a saddle point treatment of this instanton formation are make explicit by a comment as to a cosmology variant of instanton formation in multi dimensions we think is, with slight modifications appropriate for condensed matter systems
Category: Condensed Matter

[12] viXra:0909.0056 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

Making a Wavefunctional Representation of Physical States Congruent with the False Vacuum Hypothesis of Sidney Coleman

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 15 pages. Mathematical / condensed matter joint piece designed to explain the congruence of the Bogomolínyi inequality with the fate of the false vacuum hypothesis as given by Sidney Coleman. Foundational issue involved which was key to up dates as to my PhD dissertation, and subsequent work in terms of the tunneling Hamiltonian, and I-E curves in laboratory data taking. Note , the Bogomolínyi inequality is a key work horse as to PARTICLE/ Astro physics, as is the false vacuum hypothesis

We examine quantum decay of the false vacuum in the driven sine-Gordon system and show how both together permit construction of a Gaussian wave functional. This is due to changing a least action integral to be similar with respect to the WKB approximation. In addition we find that the soliton-antisoliton (S-S') separation distance obtained from the Bogomol'nyi inequality permits after rescaling a dominant &phi2 contribution to the least action integrand. This is from an initial scalar potential characterized by a tilted double well potential construction.
Category: Condensed Matter

[11] viXra:0909.0054 [pdf] submitted on 28 Sep 2009

Electrodynamics of a Classical Charge Density Wave Model with Random Pinning

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 18 pages, Constitutes one fifth of the author's PhD dissertation at the U. of Houston, in late 2001. Remainder of dissertation used Sidney Coleman's "fate of the false vacuum" article, plus the Schwinger equation, with chain couplings to fix short comings evident in the simulations presented in this document. 6 figures.

We have evidence that the classical random pinning model, if simulated numerically using a phase evolution scheme pioneered by Littlewood, gives dispersion relationships that are inconsistent with experimental values near threshold. These results argue for a revision of contemporary classical models of charge density wave transport phenomena. Classically, phase evolution equations are in essence driven harmonic oscillator models, with perturbing terms plus damping. These break down when we are adding more 'energy' into a measured sample via an applied electric field than is dissipated via a damping coefficient behavior in a phase evolution equation. We see the consequences of the breakdown of these phase evolution models in Charge Density Wave conductivity and dielectric functional graphs.
Category: Condensed Matter

[10] viXra:0908.0082 [pdf] submitted on 22 Aug 2009

How to Capture an Electron Into Atomic Orbit

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 3 pages

In the article the capture bar of an electron into atomic orbit and mechanism for analysis of screw motion of an electron is described.
Category: Condensed Matter

[9] viXra:0908.0078 [pdf] submitted on 21 Aug 2009

Colloid Systems

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 19 pages

In the article the equations of a kinetics of coagulation of disperse systems and theory of a solvate layer of colloidal particles are given.
Category: Condensed Matter

[8] viXra:0908.0044 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Classical Justification of the Hall Effect

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 7 pages

By exerting a magnetic field normal to a current-carrying strip we cause a deviation in the path of moving electrons as if our conducting path is a wire along an edge of the strip which at a point is deflected normal to the edge and reaches the other edge and afterwards is continued along this other edge in the same direction as before. It is clear that connecting the two end points of the transverse part of such a wire by a minor wire we expect a part of the main current to pass through this minor wire. The direction of such a current flowing in the minor wire is such that as if the current-carrying charges in the main current-carrying strip are positive charges. This is the basis of this article. A quite practical experiment is proposed for testing the presented theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[7] viXra:0908.0043 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Role of Air Pressure in Diamagnetism

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 7 pages

In a gradient of magnetic field, magnetic dipoles of the air are attracted toward the region of intense field such that the air pressure is more in the regions of more intense field. The formed pressure gradient exerts a net force on a body placed in the air in this gradient of magnetic field toward the region of low pressure or the region having weaker field. This is like what takes place in sink-float separation.
Category: Condensed Matter

[6] viXra:0908.0041 [pdf] submitted on 10 Aug 2009

Independence of Capacitance from Dielectric

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 30 pages

It is shown that there exists a uniqueness theorem, stating that the charges given to a constant configuration of conductors take a unique distribution, which contrary to what is believed does not have any relation to the uniqueness theorem of electrostatic potential. Using this theorem we obtain coefficients of potential analytically. We show that a simple carelessness has caused the famous formula for the electrostatic potential to be written as U = 1/2 ∫D.Edv while its correct form is U = 1/2 ∫D.Eρdv in which Eρ is the electrostatic field arising only from the external charges not also from the polarization charges.
Considering the above-mentioned material it is shown that, contrary to the current belief, capacitance of a capacitor does not at all depend on the dielectric used in it and depends only on the configuration of its conductors. We proceed to correct some current mistakes resulted from the above-mentioned mistakes, eg electrostatic potential energy of and the inward force exerted on a dielectric block entering into a parallel-plate capacitor are obtained and compared with the wrong current ones.
It is shown that existence of dielectric in the capacitor of a circuit causes attraction of more charges onto the capacitor because of the polarization of the dielectric. Then, in electric circuits we should consider the capacitor's dielectric as a source of potential not think wrongly that existence of dielectric changes the capacitor's capacitance. Difference between these two understandings are verified completely during some examples, and some experiments are proposed for testing the theory. For example it is shown that contrary to what the current theory predicts, resonance frequency of a circuit of RLC will increase by inserting dielectric into the capacitor (without any change of the geometry of its conductors). It is also shown that what is calculated as K (dielectric constant) is in fact 2 - (1/K).
Category: Condensed Matter

[5] viXra:0908.0033 [pdf] submitted on 7 Aug 2009

About "SURFACE GAS" of Liquids and Solids

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 5 pages

Many characteristics of fluids and solids it is possible to calculate, using notion about existence of "surface gas".
Category: Condensed Matter

[4] viXra:0902.0005 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2009

Basics of Deuteron-Cluster Dynamics by Langevin Equation

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

This paper gives the follow-up study on the basics for our previous papers, Study on 4D/Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate Condensation Motion by Non-Linear Langevin Equation, Symposium 998-Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Source Book, ACS, published on August 2008 from Oxford University Press. Pertaining to the quantum mechanics, the basics of new approach using the stochastic differential equation (Langevin equation) is written for quantifying dynamic motion of known molecules as D2+, D2 and D3+ as well as D-atom state. The role of the Platonic symmetry in these known molecules are discussed for deducing simple one-dimensional (Rdd dependent; here Rdd is distance between nearest d-d pair) Langevin equation and making quantum-mechanical ensemble averaging to obtain equation for expectation value. The methodology is applied for more complicated D-clusters as 4D/TSC and 6D/OSC which would keep the Platonic symmetry, by introducing the force fluctuation deviating from the ideal Platonic symmetry. Time-dependent TSC and OSC trapping potentials which take balance to getting back to the Platonic symmetry from the distorted states were defined and used for numerical solution of Langevin equation. Finally, time-dependent fusion rate formula for simultaneous 4D interaction was obtained based on the Fermi's golden rule and one-pion exchange potential of strong interaction. The 4D fusion is regarded to cause radiation-less excess heat and 4He ash in metal-deuterium systems under dynamic conditions
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:0902.0004 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2009

Study on 4D/TSC Condensation Motion by Non-Linear Langevin Equation

Authors: Akito Takahashi, Norio Yabuuchi
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

Tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC) with 4 deuterons and 4 electrons has been proposed as a seed of clean 4D fusion with 4He product in condensed matter. To solve molecular dynamics motion of 4D/TSC condensation, a nonlinear Langevin equation was formulated with a Coulombic main condensation force term under Platonic symmetry, 6 balancing forces by quantum mechanical electron clouds of dde*(2,2) EQPET molecules on 6 faces of TSC cube and a random quantum mechanical fluctuation term f(t) for d-d distance. Gaussian wave functions for d-d pairs and their ground state energies were first obtained by variational method, for D2 and EQPET molecules. Then same sigma-value was used for time-dependent Gaussian wave functions of d-d pairs of TSC system to calculate the ensemble-averaged <f(t)> for changes of Coulomb energy and force of distorted TSC system deviated from the ideal double Platonic symmetry. Molecular dynamics calculation with TSC Langevin equation by the Verlet time-step method was then done. We obtained mean relative final-stage d-d kinetic energy 13.68 keV with -130.4 keV deep trapping TSC potential at Rdd-minimum = 25 fm and time-to-TSC-minimum =1.4007 fs. Mean kinetic energy of electron of a "d-e-d-e" EQPET molecule of TSC system was estimated as 57.6 keV at Rdd =25 fm. These time-dependent trapping potential for d-d pair of TSC can be approximated by HMEQPET potentials with the empirical relation of m=4.36x104/Rdd, (Rdd in fm unit), continuously as a change of condensation time or Rdd(t). Barrier factors for fusion reactions as a function of Rdd(t) and 4D fusion rate per TSC generation were calculated using these HMEQPET potentials and Fermi's golden rule. We found that 4D/TSC got to the TSC-minimum state with 10 fm-20 fm radius in 1.4007 fs and 4D fusion rate was 100 % per 4D/TSC generation-condensation. Thus we concluded that 4He production rate by 4D/TSC was equal to two times of 4D/TSC generation rate in condensed matter (e.g., PdDx).
Category: Condensed Matter

[2] viXra:0902.0003 [pdf] submitted on 14 Feb 2009

Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation Motion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: recovered from sciprint.org

This paper gives further discussions and explanations on the timedependent quantum-mechanical behaviors of electron-clouds in 4D/TSC condensation motion by Langevin equation, in comparison with steady ground state electron orbits and their de Broglie wave lengths for D-atom and D2 molecule.
Category: Condensed Matter

[1] viXra:0808.0006 [pdf] submitted on 18 Aug 2008

Experiment of High Temperature Superconductor

Authors: S. A. Al-Jabbar
Comments: 42 pages

The present work aims at the preparation of filaments of bismuth powder/ epoxy resin and examined them to be high conductor with locally available material and tools following our technology comparing with Bourgoin method. Three sets of bismuth filaments were prepared at different conditions and the current - voltage (I-V) characteristics measured by 2- probe system to examine the electrical resistance.
Category: Condensed Matter

Replacements of recent Submissions

[37] viXra:1409.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-18 03:51:03

Critical Behavior of Heisenberg Chains Coupled to Phonons

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 4 Pages. This preprint was accepted for publication by Physicsal Review B. The author was forced by Prof. Klaus Fabricius to withdraw the paper from both Physical Review B and the arXiv preprint server. The author is still thinking that the paper is correct.

We present a quantum Monte Carlo study for the isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain coupled to Einstein phonons. By investigating the behavior of the correlation length we find the critical exponent to depend on both the phonon frequency and the spin-phonon coupling constant. Hence, these systems change the universality class continuously with the spin-phonon coupling.
Category: Condensed Matter

[36] viXra:1408.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-22 04:56:34

New Hamiltonian and Cooper Pair's Origin of Pseudogap and Colossal Magnetoresistance in Manganites

Authors: Fu-sui Liu
Comments: 23 Pages.

Based on the thirteen similarities of structures of lattice, electron, and strong correlation Hamiltonian between CMR (colossal magnetoresistance) manganites and the high-Tc cuprates, this paper concludes that the Hamiltonian of the high-Tc cuprates and CMR manganites are the same. Based on uniform and quantitative explanations for fifteen experimental facts, this paper concludes that the pseudogap and CMR of manganites are caused completely by formation of Cooper pairs, consisting of two oxygen 2pσ holes in MnO2 plane
Category: Condensed Matter

[35] viXra:1401.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-18 05:25:23

Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation: A Thought Experiment Refuting Kirchhoff's Law

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. As published on January 18th, 2014 - Progress in Physics, 2014, 10(1), 38-40.

Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission demands that all cavities contain blackbody, or normal, radiation which is dependent solely on the temperature and the frequency of observation, while remaining independent of the nature of the enclosure. For over 150 years, this law has stood as a great pillar for those who believe that gaseous stars could emit a blackbody spectrum. However, it is well-known that, under laboratory conditions, gases emit in bands and cannot produce a thermal spectrum. Furthermore, all laboratory blackbodies are constructed from nearly ideal absorbers. This fact strongly opposes the validity of Kirchhoff's formulation. Clearly, if Kirchhoff had been correct, then laboratory blackbodies could be constructed of any arbitrary material. Through the use of two cavities in temperature equilibrium with one another, a thought experiment is presented herein which soundly refutes Kirchhoff's law of thermal emission.
Category: Condensed Matter

[34] viXra:1401.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-14 12:08:59

Bose-Einstein Condensate and Gravitational Shielding

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this work we show that when possible transform some types of substance into a Bose-Einstein condensate at room temperature, which exists long enough to be used in practice then will be possible to use these substances in order to create efficient Gravitational Shieldings.
Category: Condensed Matter

[33] viXra:1312.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-22 02:32:11

Work Function Measurements of Vanadium Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films by Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Authors: Akihiko Shigemoto, Tomoko Amano, Ryozo Yamamoto
Comments: 8 Pages.

Vanadium doped diamond-like carbon films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering have been investigated by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements for the purpose of revealing electronic structures including values of work function on the surfaces. In addition to these photoelectron measurements, X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed to characterize the crystal structures.
Category: Condensed Matter

[32] viXra:1311.0164 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-01 10:26:19

On Global Solution of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Algirdas Antano Maknickas
Comments: 6 Pages.

The fluid equations, named after Claude-Louis Navier and George Gabriel Stokes, describe the motion of fluid substances. These equations arise from applying Newton's second law to fluid motion, together with the assumption that the stress in the fluid is the sum of a diffusing viscous term (proportional to the gradient of velocity) and a pressure term - hence describing viscous flow. Due to specific of NS equations they could be transformed to full/partial inhomogeneous parabolic differential equations: differential equations in respect of space variables and the full differential equation in respect of time variable and time dependent inhomogeneous part. Finally, orthogonal polynomials as the partial solutions of obtained Helmholtz equations were used for derivation of analytical solution of incompressible fluid equations in 1D, 2D and 3D space for rectangular boundary. Solution in 3D space for any shaped boundary is expressed in term of 3D global solution of 3D Helmholtz equation accordantly.
Category: Condensed Matter

[31] viXra:1309.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-21 00:14:40

On the Symmetric Character of the Thermal Conductivity Tensor

Authors: Ali R. Hadjesfandiari
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, the symmetric character of the conductivity tensor for linear heterogeneous anisotropic material is established as the result of arguments from tensor analysis and linear algebra for Fourier’s heat conduction. The non-singular nature of the conductivity tensor plays the fundamental role in establishing this statement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[30] viXra:1308.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-28 07:43:22

Sensitively Temperature-Dependent Spin Orbit Coupling in SrIrO3 Thin films

Authors: Lunyong Zhang, Y. B. Chen, Jian Zhou, Shan-Tao Zhang, Zheng-bin Gu, Shu-Hua Yao, Yan-Feng Chen
Comments: 8 Pages. 5 figures

Spin orbit coupling plays a non-perturbation effect in many recently developed novel fields including topological insulators and spin-orbit assistant Mott insulators. In this paper, strongly temperature-dependent spin orbit coupling, revealed by weak anti-localization, is observed at low temperature in 5d strongly correlated compound, SrIrO3. As the temperature rising, increase rate of Rashba coefficient is nearly 30%-45%/K. The increase is nearly 100 times over that observed in semiconductor heterostructures. Microscopically, the large increase of Rashba coefficient is attributed to the significant evolution of effective Landé g factor on temperature, whose mechanism is discussed. Sensitively temperature-dependent spin orbit coupling in SrIrO3 might be applied in spintronic devices
Category: Condensed Matter

[29] viXra:1304.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-01 17:45:16

Energy Production in Compressed Matter

Authors: John Shim
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper notes that the dispersion relation ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship between the ground-state mean kinetic energy of a confined quantum, and its dimensions of containment. The containment can occur in two ways: the first by an attractive potential, and the second by a repulsive potential. If the quantum is bound by an attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy remains within the bound system. In the second type, which is only possible by compression, the quantum is contained by collisions with the bounding potential, which may result in a transfer of kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state kinetic energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. This energy transfer could be large. An electron contained within the approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 pm, for example, would have a minimum velocity very great compared to the dimension of containment, so that the number of collisions per second with the boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. An exchange of only 10^-6 ev per collision would produce 10^9 ev per second of energy transmitted to the boundary.
Category: Condensed Matter

[28] viXra:1304.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-31 20:20:04

Energy Production in Compressed Matter

Authors: John Shim
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper notes that the dispersion relation ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship between the ground-state mean kinetic energy of a confined quantum, and its dimensions of containment. The containment can occur in two ways: the first by an attractive potential, and the second by a repulsive potential. If the quantum is bound by an attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy remains within the bound system. In the second type, which is only possible by compression, the quantum is contained by collisions with the bounding potential, which may result in a transfer of kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state kinetic energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. This energy transfer could be large. An electron contained within the approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 pm, for example, would have a minimum velocity very great compared to the dimension of containment, so that the number of collisions per second with the boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. An exchange of only 10^-6 ev per collision would produce 10^9 ev per second of energy transmitted to the boundary.
Category: Condensed Matter

[27] viXra:1304.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2013-06-12 19:22:42

Energy Production in Compressed Matter

Authors: John Shim
Comments: 5 Pages. v2 corrects some typos and a comment in the second to last paragraph

The dispersion relation between the conjugate Fourier variables of position and momentum, ∇px∇x ≥ ħ/2, when expressed as an equality, ∇px∇x = ħ/2, defines the relationship between the ground-state mean kinetic energy of a confined quantum, and its degree of containment. This containment can occur in two ways: the first is by an attractive potential, and the second by a repulsive potential. These two cases behave very differently. If the quantum is bound by an attractive potential, the ground-state kinetic energy is balanced by the containing potential in a stable state where the kinetic energy remains within the bound system. In the second type of containment, which is only possible by compression, this is not so. In this case, the quantum is contained by collisions with the bounding potential, which must result in a transfer of kinetic energy to the boundary. If the boundary is sufficiently massive, then the energy transfer will have a negligible effect on the dimensions of containment, and therefore the ground-state mean kinetic energy of the contained quantum will not significantly change. An electron contained within the approximate diameter of an iron atom, 250 nm, for example, if contained by the attractive potential of the atomic nucleus, would transmit no energy from the atom. The same electron, however, contained in the same volume by a repulsive potential, would transmit energy to the boundary at each collision. Because the minimum velocity of the electron determined by the dispersion relation is very great compared to the dimension of containment, the number of collisions per second with the boundary would be very high, on the order of 10^15. For even a small energy exchange per collision, this would result in a very large rate of energy transfer. An exchange of only 10^-6 ev per collision, for example, would produce 10^9 ev per second of energy transmitted to the boundary.
Category: Condensed Matter

[26] viXra:1302.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-30 14:14:58

Silicon Based Ball Lightning Globule Structures and Signs for Accumulation and Retarded Decrease of Tunneling Energy Bullets.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 14 Pages. 14

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures. These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research. One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of Quantum Knots in the form of micro-black holes or Ball Lightning. According to Quantum FFF Theory, Black holes are the origin of so called universal dark matter phenomena. As a consequence the tunnelling energy bullets are also a first sign of microscopic Dark Matter in the Lab.
Category: Condensed Matter

[25] viXra:1302.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2013-05-29 11:50:19

Silicon Based Ball Lightning Globule Structures and Signs for Accumulation and Retarded Decrease of Tunneling Energy Bullets.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 13 Pages. 13

Recently performed Silicon based Ball Lightning experiments done by two different laboratories have both produced rest products in the form of Silicon globules, both with unusual complex internal and external structures. These Silicon globule structures show strong differences with normal Silicon matter, which was reason to compare these complexities in detail and make suggestions for future research. One of the clear phenomena is, that all globules show internal traces of evaporating tunnelling energy bullets, which according to Quantum FFF theory is supposed to be a first sign of Quantum Knots or micro-black holes. As a consequence this is also a first sign of microscopic Dark Matter in the Lab.
Category: Condensed Matter

[24] viXra:1209.0057 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-19 22:40:06

Nucleon Halo Model of 8Be*

Authors: Akito Takahashi, Daniel Rocha
Comments: 22 Pages.

A model of final state interaction for 8Be* of 4D/TSC fusion is proposed. The 8Be*(Ex=47.6MeV) may damp its excited energy by major BOLEP (burst of low energy photons) process from nucleon-helion halo state to 8Be-ground state. Intermediate decay states from the nucleon-halo states are scaled by number of effective binding PEF values for mean strong field interaction. A complex decay scheme is proposed. Minor two-alpha break-up channels emit characteristic discrete kinetic energy alpha-particles, which meets wonderful coincidence with observed data by Roussetski et al. X-ray burst data observed by Karabut et al may be photons by BOLEP.
Category: Condensed Matter

[23] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-17 22:10:46

Pd/Ni Clusters for D/H TSC Jitterbug Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 28 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine. Version 9 discusses using D2O Heavy Water for heat extraction from Zeolite and using D2O steam to get useful energy.
Category: Condensed Matter

[22] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-11 03:03:41

Pd/Ni Clusters for D/H TSC Jitterbug Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 27 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters. Version 8 adds design for TSC-Jitterbug Zeolite Pd-D fusion heat engine.
Category: Condensed Matter

[21] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-24 08:08:29

Pd/Ni Clusters for D/H TSC Jitterbug Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 27 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad. Version 7 adds Table of Contents and details of use of Zeolite in TSC-JItterbug Fusion of Deuterium-Loaded Palladium NanoClusters.
Category: Condensed Matter

[20] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-16 23:34:10

Pd/Ni Clusters for D/H TSC Jitterbug Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 25 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process. Version 6 adds revised TSC 8Be* decay model by Takahashi and experimental Zeolite results by Parchamazad.
Category: Condensed Matter

[19] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2012-10-01 17:04:03

Pd/Ni Clusters for D/H TSC Jitterbug Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 18 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM. Version 5 revises (and hopefully clarifies) the graphic description of TSC Jitterbug fusion cyclic process.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-30 08:41:33

Pd/Ni Clusters for D/H TSC Jitterbug Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith Jr.
Comments: 16 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion. Version 4 adds a proposal for experimental test using 1.5 nm Pd clusters such as have been synthesized by Sandia/UNM.
Category: Condensed Matter

[17] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-14 01:11:02

Pd/Ni Clusters for D/H TSC Jitterbug Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith Jr.
Comments: 13 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite. Version 3 adds Ni and H to the title and reorganizes to add details about cluster structure for TSC fusion.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16] viXra:1209.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2012-09-04 09:54:23

Pd D-D Fusion and Jitterbug Structure

Authors: Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith Jr.
Comments: 12 Pages.

Clusters of Palladium atoms (also clusters of atoms of Nickel and similar elements) have two basic structures: Icosahedral and Cuboctahedral 1 - Icosahedon <-> Cuboctahedron Jitterbug Transformation. 2 - Palladium clusters with absorbed Deuterium (PdDx) have two states: Icosahedral with Tetrahedral absorption sites Cuboctahedral with Octahedral absorption sites. 3 - Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation (TSC) in PdDx produces Fusion. 4 - Icosahedra TSC Fusion Triggers Jitterbug to Cuboctahedra. 5 - Cuboctahedra Jitterbug back to Icosahedra and reload TSC sites. 6 - Repeat the Cycle. Version 2 adds a mechanical analogy with M1911 type semiauto Colt 10 mm Delta Elite.
Category: Condensed Matter

[15] viXra:1207.0008 [pdf] replaced on 2012-07-19 11:40:40

Superconducting State Generated by Cooper Pairs Bound by Intensified Gravitational Interaction

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 10 Pages.

We show that by intensifying the gravitational interaction between electron pairs it is possible to produce pair binding energies on the order of 10−1eV, enough to keep electron’s pairs (Cooper Pairs) at ambient temperatures. By means of this method, metals can be transformed into superconductors at ambient temperature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14] viXra:1205.0008 [pdf] replaced on 2012-05-15 21:32:04

Pinched Hysteresis Loops Are a Fingerprint of Square Law Capacitors

Authors: Blaise Mouttet
Comments: 5 Pages.

It has been claimed that pinched hysteresis curves are the fingerprint of memristors. This paper demonstrates that a linear resistor in parallel with a nonlinear, square law capacitor also produces pinched hysteresis curves. Spice simulations are performed examining the current vs. voltage behavior of this circuitry under different amplitudes and frequencies of an input signal. Based on this finding a more generalized dynamic systems model is suggested for ReRAM and neuromorphic modeling to cover a broader range of pinched hysteresis curves.
Category: Condensed Matter

[13] viXra:1112.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-29 15:09:21

A Pedagogical Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equation

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 13 pages. English.

This brief paper is part of my research on the origins of turbulence. Since the derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are frequently cumbersome, I would like to provide this pedagogical derivation (I hope), discussing the properties of the continuum fluids under a heuristical approach, viz., we provide a heuristical derivation of the so-called Navier-Stokes equation. We turn out to be concerned with the physical insight regarding the system under consideration, a system of continuum. Derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are, frequently, pedagogically cumbersome, loosing the main heuristics one should grasp under the transition to the continuum. This transition turns out to naturally encapsulate neglected degrees of freedom due to the intrinsically thermodynamic domain. This pedagogical derivation discusses the properties of the continuum fluids and the relation to the taken limit encapsulating the continuum hypothesis, which turns out to raise the question of lack of validity over extremely distorted subdomains, once a grown rarefied subdomain may not provide sufficient large statistics to a smooth description via its center of mass, which is the main hypothesis of the infinitesimal limit process for the local description under the continuum hypothesis. Such transient, albeit not presented here, once it would change the characteristic of this paper to the research one connected to the important question of unicity of the (3+1)-dimensional Navier-Stokes differential equation, is to be pointed out, once it provides ansatz for research on the unicity of description of fluids by the Navier-Stokes equation.
Category: Condensed Matter

[12] viXra:1112.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-23 22:23:59

A Pedagogical Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equation

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 13 pages. English.

This brief paper is part of my research on the origins of turbulence. Since the derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are frequently cumbersome, I would like to provide this pedagogical derivation (I hope), discussing the properties of the continuum fluids under a heuristical approach, viz., we provide a heuristical derivation of the so-called Navier-Stokes equation. We turn out to be concerned with the physical insight regarding the system under consideration, a system of continuum. Derivations of the Navier-Stokes equation are, frequently, pedagogically cumbersome, loosing the main heuristics one should grasp under the transition to the continuum. This transition turns out to naturally encapsulate neglected degrees of freedom due to the intrinsically thermodynamic domain. This pedagogical derivation discusses the properties of the continuum fluids and the relation to the taken limit encapsulating the continuum hypothesis, which turns out to raise the question of lack of validity over extremely distorted subdomains, once a grown rarefied subdomain may not provide sufficient large statistics to a smooth description via its center of mass, which is the main hypothesis of the infinitesimal limit process for the local description under the continuum hypothesis. Such transient, albeit not presented here, once it would change the characteristic of this paper to the research one connected to the important question of unicity of the (3+1)-dimensional Navier-Stokes differential equation, is to be pointed out, once it provides ansatz for research on the unicity of description of fluids by the Navier-Stokes equation.
Category: Condensed Matter

[11] viXra:1112.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-30 11:37:16

Analytical Derivation of the Drag Curve $C_{D}=C_{D}\left(\mathcal{R}\right)$

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 5 pages. English.

Through a convenient mathematical approach for the Navier-Stokes equation, we obtain the quadratic dependence $v^{2}$ of the drag force $F_{D}$ on a falling sphere, and the drag coefficient, $C_{D}$, as a function of the Reynolds number. Viscosity effects related to the turbulent boundary layer under transition, from laminar to turbulent, lead to the tensorial integration related to the flux of linear momentum through a conveniently choosen control surface in the falling reference frame. This approach turns out to provide an efficient route for the drag force calculation, since the drag force turns out to be a field of a non-inertial reference frame, allowing an arbitrary and convenient control surface, finally leading to the quadratic term for the drag force.
Category: Condensed Matter

[10] viXra:1112.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2012-01-29 22:54:30

Analytical Derivation of the Drag Curve $C_{D}=C_{D}\left(\mathcal{R}\right)$

Authors: Armando V.D.B. Assis
Comments: 5 pages. English.

Through a convenient mathematical approach for the Navier-Stokes equation, we obtain the quadratic dependence $v^{2}$ of the drag force $F_{D}$ on a falling sphere, and the drag coefficient, $C_{D}$, as a function of the Reynolds number. Viscosity effects related to the turbulent boundary layer under transition, from laminar to turbulent, lead to the tensorial integration related to the flux of linear momentum through a conveniently choosen control surface in the falling reference frame. This approach turns out to provide an efficient route for the drag force calculation, since the drag force turns out to be a field of a non-inertial reference frame, allowing an arbitrary and convenient control surface, finally leading to the quadratic term for the drag force.
Category: Condensed Matter

[9] viXra:1111.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2012-07-30 09:25:54

Understanding Superconductivity: A New Approach

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 43 Pages. 5 Figures

Presently, determining the true cause (because it cannot be contradicted or overruled) as to why superconductivity is generated, a new theory has been propounded. In order to confirm the truth of the presently determined cause, plausible arguments and evidences from the well established existing knowledge too have been given. Currently, according to BCS theory, it is assumed that at transition temperature (Tc), due to flow of Cooper pairs, the persistent current flows and hence superconductivity is generated. But the BCS theory and the concept of formation of Cooper pairs give rise to numerous such questions of which no explanation can be given. The present theory gives very clear and complete, i.e., true understanding of as to how superconductivity is generated and related phenomena/events, properties and effects etc. take place. Presently, it has also been tried to explain how currently known some non-superconducting (e.g. ferromagnetic) substances can be made superconducting. Finally, some possible new effects have been predicted and it has been tried to explain why and how they shall take place.
Category: Condensed Matter

[8] viXra:1111.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2012-07-30 09:11:03

Understanding Electromagnetism: A New Approach

Authors: Kunwar Jagdish Narain
Comments: 39 Pages. 8 Figures

Presently, determining the true cause, i.e. magnetism of electrons, and taking its account, a new theory has been propounded to explain electromagnetism. The current cause that electromagnetism is generated due to charge of the electrons, is not true. Consequently, electromagnetic theory and all the existing theories fail to explain as to how (i.e. procedure) electromagnetism is generated, which type of magnetism is generated, how a magnetic field is generated around the current carrying rod, how that field occurs in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flow of current through the rod, and how that field possesses direction. The present theory gives very clear and complete understanding of as to how electromagnetism is generated, which type of magnetism is generated, and all the phenomena/events mentioned above. Applying the present theory, some other important phenomena too have been tried to explain, which currently though have been explained but they are not clear and complete and give rise to several questions. Finally, some possible new effects have been predicted and it has been tried to explain why and how they shall take place.
Category: Condensed Matter

[7] viXra:1004.0080 [pdf] replaced on 21 Apr 2010

The Tsallis Entropy and the Boltzmann Entropy Applicable to the Same Classical Generalized System

Authors: Xiangjun Feng
Comments: 3 pages and 3 figures. This paper has been published in the on-line journal of World Chinese Forum On Science of General Systems (WCFSGS), ISSN 1936-7260. The paper has also been included in the NONEXTENSIVE STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: BIBLIOGRAPHY edited by Prof. Constantino Tsallis . ¬ Report Number: 300-P-10-04-01 Journal Reference: WCFSGS VOL 6, NO. S1 ( A SPECIAL EDITION ON NONEXTENSIVE MECHANICS ), APRIL 2010, ISSN 1936 - 7260.

It is demonstrated clearly that for the same classical generalized system the Tsallis power-laws with both the q > 1 and the q < 1 can be induced by the constraint of the constant harmonic mean for the so-called reciprocal energies Er and at the same time the Boltzmann distribution or the negative exponential probability distribution can be generated with the constraint of the constant arithmetic mean for the generalized energies E . The author thus argues that there might be no definite "extensive system" or "classical system" and there are only "classical physical parameters" and "classical constraints". For any physical system or generalized system, it is the non-natural constraints which determine both the forms of the entropies and the nonuniform equilibrium distributions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[6] viXra:1004.0080 [pdf] replaced on 15 Apr 2010

The Tsallis Entropy and the Boltzmann Entropy Applicable to the Same Classic Generalized System

Authors: Xiangjun Feng
Comments: 3 pages and 3 figures. This paper has been published in the on-line journal of World Chinese Forum On Science of General Systems (WCFSGS), ISSN 1936-7260. Report Number: 300-P-10-04-01. Journal Reference: WCFSGS VOL 6, NO. S1 ( A SPECIAL EDITION ON NONEXTENSIVE MECHANICS ), APRIL 2010, ISSN 1936 - 7260.

It is demonstrated clearly that for the same classic generalized system the Tsallis power-laws with both the q > 1 and the q < 1 can be induced by the constraint of the constant harmonic mean for the so-called reciprocal energies r E and at the same time the Boltzmann distribution or the negative exponential probability distribution can be generated with the constraint of the constant arithmetic mean for the generalized energies E . The author thus argues that there might be no definite "extensive system" or "classic system" and there are only "classic physical parameters" and "classic constraints". For any physical system or generalized system, it is the non-natural constraints which determine both the forms of the entropies and the non-uniform equilibrium distributions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[5] viXra:1001.0014 [pdf] replaced on 11 Sep 2011

Information Document About Entirely Novel Energy Technologies and Other Fundamentally New Developments in Science and Technology & Funding Call for an Independent Research Facility

Authors: Frank Lichtenberg
Comments: 22 pages

Brief presentation about fundamentally new developments in physics and technology, entirely novel energy technologies, the potential of non-mainstream science and its present achievements, and a positive evolution of mankind - for laymen, experts, the general public, decison makers, VIPs, and wealthy personalities
Category: Condensed Matter

[4] viXra:1001.0013 [pdf] replaced on 11 Sep 2011

Searching for Room Temperature Superconductors

Authors: Frank Lichtenberg
Comments: 66 pages

The interesting and fascinating physical phenomenon of superconductivity appears, until now, only at very low temperatures and therefore its technical application is limited to relatively few areas. If it is possible to create materials which are superconducting at room temperature, then this could initiate a revolution in technology. More than 10 years fundamental research, experience, knowledge and ideas in the field of special materials (oxides) lead to the conviction that superconductivity at room temperature is possible, and together with Global Scaling - a new knowledge and holistic approach in science - to an extended approach on the search for room temperature superconductors. This presentation is divided into a main part (28 pages) and an appendix (38 pages). A content overview of this presentation is shown on the following pages 3 and 4.
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:0912.0038 [pdf] replaced on 23 Jun 2011

Proposing a New Structure to the Electromagnetic Wave a New Solution to the Maxwell's Equations in Vacuum

Authors: V.A.Induchoodan Menon
Comments: 10 Pages.

The author shows that the Maxwell's equations in vacuum have solutions which have helical structure in space while being circularly polarized at the same time. This goes against the universally accepted solutions which treat the electromagnetic wave as sinusoidal wave propagating along a linear path. He shows that the helical wave structure assumes that the fundamental state of the electromagnetic wave is the circularly polarized state and not the linearly polarized state. Since the photon is theorized to exist in a circularly polarized state, the proposed new solution is consistent with that picture. The author proposes a simple experiment using a maser to confirm the veracity of the proposed helical structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[2] viXra:0912.0038 [pdf] replaced on 30 Dec 2009

Proposing a New Structure to the Electromagnetic Wave a New Solution to the Maxwell's Equations in Vacuum

Authors: V.A.Induchoodan Menon
Comments: 13 Pages.

The author shows that the Maxwell's equations in vacuum have solutions which have helical structure in space while being circularly polarized at the same time. This goes against the universally accepted solutions which treat the electromagnetic wave as sinusoidal wave propagating along a linear path. He shows that the helical wave structure assumes that the fundamental state of the electromagnetic wave is the circularly polarized state and not the linearly polarized state. Since the photon is theorized to exist in a circularly polarized state, the proposed new solution is consistent with that picture. The author proposes a simple experiment using a maser to confirm the veracity of the proposed helical structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[1] viXra:0908.0043 [pdf] replaced on 2013-07-04 10:20:00

Role of Air Pressure in Diamagnetism

Authors: Hamid V. Ansari
Comments: 12 Pages.

In a gradient of magnetic field, magnetic dipoles of air are attracted toward the region of intense field. So, the air pressure is more in the regions of more intense field. The formed pressure gradient exerts a net force on a body placed in the air in this gradient of magnetic field toward the region of low pressure or the region having weaker field. This is like what takes place in the process of sink-float separation. To establish the presented theory we need only to perform diamagnetism experiment in vacuum (according to the presented guidelines)to see if it will cease.(I'm ready to prepare for such an experiment in any university as a guest researcher).
Category: Condensed Matter