[5] **viXra:1310.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:18:02*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 11 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 3-13.

In this work, Kirchhoff’s law (Kirchhoff G. Monatsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, sessions of Dec. 1859, 1860, 783–787) is being revisited not only to mark its 150th anniversary but, most importantly, to highlight serious overreaching in its formulation. At the onset, Kirchhoff’s law correctly outlines the equivalence between emission and absorption for an opaque object under thermal equilibrium. This same conclusion had been established earlier by Balfour Stewart (Stewart B. Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, 1858, v. 22(1), 1–20). However, Kirchhoff extends the treatment beyond his counterpart, stating that cavity radiation must always be black, or normal: depending only on the temperature and the frequency of observation. This universal aspect of Kirchhoff’s law is without proper basis and constitutes a grave distortion of experimental reality. It is readily apparent that cavities made from arbitrary materials (epsilon < 1) are never black. Their approach to such behavior is being driven either by the blackness of the detector, or by black materials placed near the cavity. Ample evidence exists that radiation in arbitrary cavities is sensitive to the relative position of the detectors. In order to fully address these issues, cavity radiation and the generalization of Kirchhoff’s law are discussed. An example is then taken from electromagnetics, at microwave frequencies, to link results in the resonant cavity with those inferred from the consequences of generalization.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[4] **viXra:1310.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 14:22:46*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 14-16.

Through the reevaluation of Kirchhoff’s law (Robitaille P. M. L. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267), Planck’s blackbody equation (Planck M. Ann. der Physik, 1901, v. 4, 553–356) loses its universal significance and becomes restricted to perfect absorbers. Consequently, the proper application of Planck’s radiation law involves the study of solid opaque objects, typically made from graphite, soot, and carbon black. The extension of this equation to other materials may yield apparent temperatures, which do not have any physical meaning relative to the usual temperature scales. Real temperatures are exclusively obtained from objects which are known solids, or which are enclosed within, or in equilibrium with, a perfect absorber. For this reason, the currently accepted temperature of the microwave background must be viewed as an apparent temperature. Rectifying this situation, while respecting real temperatures, involves a reexamination of Boltzmann’s constant. In so doing, the latter is deprived of its universal nature and, in fact, acts as a temperature dependent variable. In its revised form, Planck’s equation becomes temperature insensitive near 300 K, when applied to the microwave background.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[3] **viXra:1310.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:27:52*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 3, 30-35; also in arXiv:0805.1625 [physics.gen-ph]

It has been advanced, on experimental (P.-M. Robitaille, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267) and theoretical (P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. Phys., 2006, v. 2, 22–23) grounds, that blackbody radiation is not universal and remains closely linked to the emission of graphite and soot. In order to strengthen such claims, a conceptual analysis of the proofs for universality is presented. This treatment reveals that Gustav Robert Kirchhoff has not properly considered the combined effects of absorption, reflection, and the directional nature of emission in real materials. In one instance, this leads to an unintended movement away from thermal equilibrium within cavities. Using equilibrium arguments, it is demonstrated that the radiation within perfectly reflecting or arbitrary cavities does not necessarily correspond to that emitted by a blackbody.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[2] **viXra:1310.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 07:34:11*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 20 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 3, 36-55.

Since the days of Kirchhoff, blackbody radiation has been considered to be a universal process, independent of the nature and shape of the emitter. Nonetheless, in promoting this concept, Kirchhoff did require, at the minimum, thermal equilibrium with an enclosure. Recently, the author stated (P.-M. Robitaille, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v. 31(6), 1263–1267; P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. in Phys., 2006, v. 2, 22–23), that blackbody radiation is not universal and has called for a return to Stewart’s law (P.-M. Robitaille, Progr. in Phys., 2008, v. 3, 30–35). In this work, a historical analysis of thermal radiation is presented. It is demonstrated that soot, or lampblack, was the standard for blackbody experiments throughout the 1800s. Furthermore, graphite and carbon black continue to play a central role in the construction of blackbody cavities. The advent of universality is reviewed through the writings of Pierre Prévost, Pierre Louis Dulong, Alexis Thérèse Petit, Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, Siméon Denis Poisson, Frédérick Hervé de la Provostaye, Paul Quentin Desain, Balfour Stewart, Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, and Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. These writings illustrate that blackbody radiation, as experimentally produced in cavities and as discussed theoretically, has remained dependent on thermal equilibrium with at least the smallest carbon particle. Finally, Planck’s treatment of Kirchhoff’s law is examined in detail and the shortcomings of his derivation are outlined. It is shown once again, that universality does not exist. Only Stewart’s law of thermal emission, not Kirchhoff’s, is fully valid.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[1] **viXra:1310.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-10-15 05:59:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 2 Pages. First Published in Progress in Physics, 2006, v. 2, 22-23.

Through the formulation of his law of thermal emission, Kirchhoff conferred upon blackbody radiation the quality of universality [G. Kirchhoff, Annalen der Physik, 1860, v. 109, 275]. Consequently, modern physics holds that such radiation is independent of the nature and shape of the emitting object. Recently, Kirchhoff’s experimental work and theoretical conclusions have been reconsidered [P. M. L. Robitaille. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2003, v. 31(6), 1263]. In this work, Einstein’s derivation of the Planckian relation is reexamined. It is demonstrated that claims of universality in blackbody radiation are invalid.

**Category:** Condensed Matter