[4] **viXra:1405.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-29 13:41:18*

**Authors:** Rajib Chakraborty

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

I correct hundred years old theory of charge distribution within an electrolytic solution surrounded by charged walls. Existing theory always implies excess amount of counter-ions (having polarity unlike walls) everywhere in the solution domain; so it cannot handle a solution that possesses excess ions of other type (co-ions) or is electrically neutral as a whole. Here, in the corrected distribution, counter-ions dominate near the walls, while the rest of the domain is allowed to be dominated by co-ions; the algebraic sum gives the net charge present, which can be of any sign and magnitude that makes theory quite general. This clarifies and raises many important concepts: a novel concept of `Electric Triple Layer' (ETL) replaces `Electric Double Layer' (EDL) theory; widths of electric layers can be calculated accurately instead of estimating by Debye length scale etc.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[3] **viXra:1405.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-26 09:55:18*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 24 pages, 28 eqs, 15 refs; published Russian translation of arXiv:0706.3219; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 11(4) (2013) 679-700

A major challenge of interdisciplinary description of complex system behaviour is whether real systems of higher complexity levels can be understood with at least the same degree of objective, "scientific" rigour and universality as "simple" systems of classical, Newtonian science paradigm. The problem is reduced to that of arbitrary, many-body interaction (unsolved in standard theory). Here we review its causally complete solution, the ensuing concept of complexity and applications. The discovered key properties of dynamic multivaluedness and entanglement give rise to a qualitatively new kind of mathematical structure providing the exact version of real system behaviour. The extended mathematics of complexity contains the truly universal definition of dynamic complexity, randomness (chaoticity), classification of all possible dynamic regimes, and the unifying principle of any system dynamics and evolution, the universal symmetry of complexity. Every real system has a non-zero (and actually high) value of unreduced dynamic complexity determining, in particular, "mysterious" behaviour of quantum systems and relativistic effects causally explained now as unified manifestations of complex interaction dynamics. The observed differences between various systems are due to different regimes and levels of their unreduced dynamic complexity. We outline applications of universal concept of dynamic complexity emphasizing cases of "truly complex" systems from higher complexity levels (ecological and living systems, brain operation, intelligence and consciousness, autonomic information and communication systems) and show that the urgently needed progress in social and intellectual structure of civilisation inevitably involves qualitative transition to unreduced complexity understanding (we call it "revolution of complexity").

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[2] **viXra:1405.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-07 10:17:59*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 3 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 166-168.

In this work, the claim that optically thick gases can emit as blackbodies is refuted. The belief that such behavior exists results from an improper consideration of heat transfer and reflection. When heat is injected into a gas, the energy is primarily redistributed into translational degrees of freedom and is not used to drive emission. The average kinetic energy of the particles in the system simply increases and the temperature rises. In this respect, it is well-know that the emissivity of a gas can drop with increasing temperature. Once reflection and translation are properly considered, it is simple to understand why gases can never emit as blackbodies.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[1] **viXra:1405.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-31 12:03:07*

**Authors:** Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 6 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2014, v. 10(3), 157-162. (revised December 26, 2014 and December 29, 2014)

In this work, the equation which properly governs cavity radiation is addressed once again, while presenting a generalized form. A contrast is made between the approach recently taken (P. M. Robitaille. On the equation which governs cavity radiation. Progr. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 126–127) and a course of action adopted earlier by Max Planck. The two approaches give dramatically differing conclusions, highlighting that the derivation of a relationship can have far reaching consequences. In Planck's case, all cavities contain black radiation. In Robitaille's case, only cavities permitted to temporarily fall out of thermal equilibrium, or which have been subjected to the action of a perfect absorber, contain black radiation. Arbitrary cavities do not emit as blackbodies. A proper evaluation of this equation reveals that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the enclosure and its contents. Recent results demonstrating super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials in the near field and emission enhancements in the far field are briefly examined. Such findings highlight that cavity radiation is absolutely dependent on the nature of the cavity and its walls. As previously stated, the constants of Planck and Boltzmann can no longer be viewed as universal.

**Category:** Condensed Matter