Condensed Matter

1905 Submissions

[13] viXra:1905.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:06:32

Neutron Shines on Dark Chocolate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Looking for improvements, researchers Fernanda Peyronel from the University of Guelph, Ontario, and David Pink from St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia, used a combination of neutrons and x-ray scattering at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne National Laboratories to better understand how tempering affects chocolate's microstructure and, consequentially, how that relationship impacts taste. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[12] viXra:1905.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 04:48:37

Garden-Variety Iron-Based Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In the pantheon of unconventional superconductors, iron selenide is a rock star. But new experiments by U.S., Chinese and European physicists have found the material's magnetic persona to be unexpectedly mundane. [30] Iron-based superconductors (IBSCs) have attracted sustained research attention over the past decade, partly because new IBSCs were discovered one after another in the earlier years. [29] Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits-circuits that have zero electrical resistance-can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[11] viXra:1905.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 07:17:27

Prove that Electromagnetic Waves Are Masses

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you jump from a planet you hit the floor while you jump and hit the floor again as you fall now you could deduce that the masses need to hit each other to move if you make this deduction you could say that the first thing that caused all the masses to move in the universe is a mass or electromagnetic waves are masses
Category: Condensed Matter

[10] viXra:1905.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 09:45:07

Theory of Tracer Diffusion in Concentrated Hard-Sphere Suspensions

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin
Comments: 20 Pages.

A phenomenological theory of diffusion and cross-diffusion of tracer particles in con- centrated hard-sphere suspensions is developed within the context of Batchelor's theory of multicomponent diffusion. Expressions for the diffusion coeffcients as functions of the host particle volume fraction are obtained up to the close-packing limit. In concen- trated systems the tracer diffusivity decreases because of the reduced pore space available for diffusion. Tracer diffusion, and segregation during sedimentation, ceases at a critical trapping volume fraction. The tracer diffusivity can be modelled by a Stokes-Einstein equation with an effective viscosity that depends on the pore size. The tracer cross- diffusion coeffcient increases near the glass transition and diverges in the close-packed limit.
Category: Condensed Matter

[9] viXra:1905.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 02:37:22

Spin Orbit Interactions in Copper Oxide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 89 Pages.

The scientists of Ural Federal University conducted a study in which they found that one of the copper oxides with a structure of a rare mineral spinel-CuAl2O4-is a material with unusual magnetic properties and structure due to significant spin-orbit interactions. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Condensed Matter

[8] viXra:1905.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 12:04:56

Solution to the Poisson Boltzmann Equation Involving Various Spherical Geometries

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 6 Pages.

The distribution of free charges within fluids or plasma is often modeled using linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE). However, this author has recently shown that the usual boundary conditions (BC), namely the Dirichlet condition and the Neumann condition cannot be used to solve the PBE due to some physical reasons. This author has used the BC of `mixed' type to obtain the physical solution to the 1-D PBE and derived the charged density distribution $\rho_e$ within {\it rectangular} and {\it cylindrical} geometries before. Here the 1-D formulae of $\rho_e$ (i) within, (ii) between and (iii) outside {\it spherical} geometries has been derived. The result shows that the electric field is high at the surface of small objects, immersed in electrolyte solution. These formulae could be very useful in explaining similar physical situations that are found in nature or made in the laboratories.
Category: Condensed Matter

[7] viXra:1905.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 22:57:18

The New Perspective For The Superconductor

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 28 Pages.

The superconductor theory based on the electron pair is reviewed and several viewpoints are proposed. A demonstrated case reveals the speed of each electron in the electron pair at Fermi level about 1.82x10^6 m/s in Pb. However, the fastest longitudinal and transverse speeds of crystal waves in Pb at 0 K are 2.18x10^3 m/s and 1.29x10^3 m/s in [100] direction, respectively. It seems to be very hard even impossible that the mediated phonon can real-time transfer momentum and energy between two so high-speed and antiparallel-momentum electrons in the superconducting state. In this research, we focus on single electron based on the experiments of Transmission Electron Microscopy. The new fitting temperature-dependent model for the London penetration depth is proposed. This model is much better than the one- and two-gap models and matches three experimental data much well. Then it further gives the temperature-dependent effective electron mass for the Nb superconductor film. Finally, the expression for the resistivity is deduced which can explain why the resistance is almost zero in the superconductor. All these new results are obtained by using the concept of single electron.
Category: Condensed Matter

[6] viXra:1905.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 07:09:28

2-D Ferromagnetic Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22]
Category: Condensed Matter

[5] viXra:1905.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 08:24:28

Laser Copper Oxide Photocathodes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Copper oxide has a band gap of two electron volts, which matches up very well with the energy spectrum of sunlight. [33] Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[4] viXra:1905.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 09:36:43

Single Atom Nanozymes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Nanozymes-catalytic nanomaterials with enzyme-like characteristics-offer the advantage of low cost, high stability, tunable catalytic activity and ease of mass production. [34] Copper oxide has a band gap of two electron volts, which matches up very well with the energy spectrum of sunlight. [33] Collaborating scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Princeton University have discovered a new layered ferromagnetic semiconductor, a rare type of material that holds great promise for next-generation electronic technologies. [32] Tweaking the design of microring sensors enhances their sensitivity without adding more implementation complexity. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:1905.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 05:25:20

Nanoparticle on Mirror Displays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[2] viXra:1905.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 10:25:29

Water is Magnetized

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Water is Magnetized Physicists in the US have shown that rotating matter at high speeds can magnetize atomic nuclei-104 years after physicist Samuel Barnett showed the same could be done with electrons. [16] After all, it promises the discovery of new magnetic phenomena that may even be used for quantum computers in the future. [15] But for fast things like biomagnetic fields produced by firing neurons, we need to do better than that, or we might miss out on some information." [14] U.S. Army-funded researchers at Brandeis University have discovered a process for engineering next-generation soft materials with embedded chemical networks that mimic the behavior of neural tissue. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[1] viXra:1905.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 09:45:10

Nanopillars Shape Light Applications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

Imagine being able to shape a pulse of light in any conceivable manner—compressing it, stretching it, splitting it in two, changing its intensity or altering the direction of its electric field. [39] When exposed to intense laser pulses, the magnetization of a material can be manipulated very fast. [38] A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37]
Category: Condensed Matter