Astrophysics

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(5) - 0709(1) - 0711(1)
2008 - 0803(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0806(1) - 0807(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)
2009 - 0907(2) - 0908(6) - 0909(5) - 0910(2) - 0911(6) - 0912(2)
2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(8) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(6) - 1006(4) - 1008(6) - 1009(3) - 1010(2) - 1011(3) - 1012(3)
2011 - 1101(7) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(4) - 1105(4) - 1106(6) - 1107(4) - 1108(3) - 1109(1) - 1110(2) - 1111(5) - 1112(3)
2012 - 1201(5) - 1203(2) - 1204(6) - 1205(21) - 1206(8) - 1207(5) - 1208(3) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(6) - 1212(11)
2013 - 1301(12) - 1302(4) - 1303(19) - 1304(7) - 1305(11) - 1306(11) - 1307(4) - 1308(14) - 1309(13) - 1310(53) - 1311(17) - 1312(16)
2014 - 1401(12) - 1402(11) - 1403(14) - 1404(9) - 1405(12) - 1406(12) - 1407(3) - 1408(8) - 1409(7) - 1410(12) - 1411(28) - 1412(6)
2015 - 1501(14) - 1502(16) - 1503(28) - 1504(24) - 1505(12) - 1506(14) - 1507(12) - 1508(24) - 1509(16) - 1510(27) - 1511(12) - 1512(26)
2016 - 1601(22) - 1602(36) - 1603(23) - 1604(18) - 1605(20) - 1606(23) - 1607(35) - 1608(24) - 1609(34) - 1610(26) - 1611(37) - 1612(13)
2017 - 1701(31) - 1702(41) - 1703(28) - 1704(32) - 1705(38) - 1706(26) - 1707(44) - 1708(35) - 1709(27) - 1710(23) - 1711(22) - 1712(36)
2018 - 1801(37) - 1802(36) - 1803(54) - 1804(22)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1584] viXra:1804.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:28:47

Herbig Haro Object Mystery Solved by Dual/Triple New Physics Dark Matter Black Hole Pairing, the Origin of Quick Star/Galaxy Formation.

Authors: ieo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages.

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The rigid FORM and Microstructure of elementary particles (rigid strings), is supposed to be the origin of functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new splitting, accelerating and pairing new paradigm Dark Matter Black Hole, (DMBH) seem to be able to convert vacuum particle energy (ZPE) into real plasma which could explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Galaxy- or Stellar Anchor Black Holes (GABHs respectively SABHs). These Anchor Black Holes can be observed as Herbig Haro ( HH) Hotspots or Bowshocks. Recent observation of two High Energy Cosmic Ray Hotspots, (HECRHs) at solar polar locations, ( Big Dipper and Southern cross) is reason to assume in accord with new physics of Quantum FFF Theory, that these hotspots represents the locations of our Solar Anchor Black Hole (the North-and South SABHs). At the same time in the Quantum FFF model, it is proposed that early Galaxies also are created by dual black hole ( HH) systems being former Big Bang black hole splintered primordial dark matter black holes. They will be called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs) As a consequence, the standard Hot Big Bang with Hot plasma and Hydrogen as the base for everything has to be rejected. Recent observation of a faint galaxy without a dark matter content (NGC 1052 DF2) seems to be created by the star forming capacity even by triple pairing dark matter black hole nuclei of the surrounding globular star clusters assumed to have a triangular topology.
Category: Astrophysics

[1583] viXra:1804.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:52:22

Anything Unusual Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. the Nature of Emergence of the Stationary and Moving Funnels Same Are the Power Educations in a Cloak Which Are a Consequence of Climate Change of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The nature of emergence of the stationary and moving funnels same are the power educations in a cloak which are a consequence of climate change of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1582] viXra:1804.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:46:43

To Shed Light on the Eclipse Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. the Exclusive Hypothesis that the Moon is the Comet Rest, "Delivered Water" to Earth, and the Reason of Global Terrestrial Cataclysms, Eliminates the Existing Contradictions of Scientists on the ma

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The exclusive hypothesis that the Moon is the comet rest, "delivered water" to Earth, and the reason of global terrestrial cataclysms, eliminates the existing contradictions of scientists on the matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1581] viXra:1804.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:48:23

From One Test Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Disk Galaxies do One Turn Approximately for the Same Time Because Have Resulted from Galactic Disintegration of the Universe by Béla Dyry.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Disk galaxies do one turn approximately for the same time because have resulted from galactic disintegration of the Universe by Béla Dyry.
Category: Astrophysics

[1580] viXra:1804.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:49:45

International "RED" Station Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Emergence of Red Fog on Earth and in Space is Logical and Will be Coordinated with Exclusive Hypotheses of on-Stage Performance Group of "NIKI"

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Emergence of red fog on Earth and in space is logical and will be coordinated with exclusive hypotheses of on-stage performance group of "NIKI"
Category: Astrophysics

[1579] viXra:1804.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:03:11

Concerning Relativity Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. in the Universe Everything Concerning Space of Anything, God's Love and Time.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the Universe everything concerning space of Anything, God's Love and Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[1578] viXra:1804.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:33:34

Not so Look for Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Astronomers Have Found the Amazing Galaxy Which Doesn't Contain Anti-Matter. All Galaxies in the Universe Have Arisen Owing to Galactic Disintegration of the Universal White Hole.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Astronomers have found the amazing galaxy which doesn't contain anti-matter. All galaxies in the Universe have arisen owing to galactic disintegration of the Universal White Hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[1577] viXra:1804.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:41:28

The Big Illusion of the Big Bang Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe is Limited and Ordered. Galaxies Have Arisen in the Course of Galactic Disintegration of a Universal White Hole and Move to Suburbs of the Universe.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Our Universe is limited and ordered. Galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of a universal White Hole and move to suburbs of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1576] viXra:1804.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 08:58:55

Gravity with Black Hole Shadows

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1575] viXra:1804.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 13:35:09

A Clear Trend in the Mass-Radius Relationship Concerning Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Data was obtained from the Kepler Space Telescope and through various media to plot the trend in the mass-radius relationship of stars as they evolve. The trend is that as they lose mass and evolve, they shrink in diameter. This is predicted by stellar metamorphosis, as stellar evolution is planet formation itself.
Category: Astrophysics

[1574] viXra:1804.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 21:10:15

Dark Matter is Negative Mass

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 10 Pages.

The fundamental properties of negative mass can explain important characteristics of dark matter. 1) additional centripetal effects, 2) explanations derived from fundamental principles about the reason why dark matter does not have electromagnetic interaction, 3) repulsive gravity ensuring almost even distribution and lower interaction of dark matter, 4) accelerating expansion of the universe can be explained with negative mass. Therefore, we should seriously examine the negative mass model.
Category: Astrophysics

[1573] viXra:1804.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 01:38:19

On the Mathematics of Special Relativity

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

It was once said that only three people in the world understood relativity to which Eddington an astronomer/physicist replied “who is the third”. This statement by Einstein was a little forward considering the simplicity of the foundational theory of the paper itself. It may be the case that due to the disingenuous insertion of conditional statements and erroneous assumptions he realized that the paper itself was so erroneous that it may indeed be seen to be incomprehensible to the unguarded reader. It also appears that he was effective in his quest as the number of advocates of Einstein’s special relativity increases daily, who have neither the desire nor inclination to investigate further but rather accept purely on face value Einstein’s assertions. The arduous task of investigation and validation of his theories being left to a small but also increasing number of dedicated independent researchers who refuse to bow to the logical fallacy of appealing to authority.
Category: Astrophysics

[1572] viXra:1804.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 06:12:35

Superlight Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[1571] viXra:1804.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-10 08:47:05

Sensitive Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[1570] viXra:1804.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 11:39:51

The Diameter Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Piggybacking on the principle of spherical celestial objects according to stellar metamorphosis a new principle is presented to make predictions of not yet discovered stars. The changing diameters of stars is continuous. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1569] viXra:1804.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-06 10:15:26

Dark Matter in the Smallest Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1568] viXra:1804.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 10:50:45

Neutrinos as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1567] viXra:1804.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-05 14:23:48

On the Origin of Asteroid (2867) Steins.

Authors: A. Soumbatov Gur
Comments: 15 Pages.

The enigmatic appearance of asteroid Steins is proved to be the result of its formation inside parent body’s crust and throwing out of it. Steins’ diamond-like cone shape, rotational axis, fractures, chains of craters, evolution trends, etc. are consistently explained from the point of view of explosive ejective orogenesis. The implications for asteroids and satellites are discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1566] viXra:1804.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-03 08:18:50

Black Hole's Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1565] viXra:1804.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 13:35:57

The Location of Mars on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Mars is placed on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[1564] viXra:1804.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 15:51:59

Lord Kelvin's Earth: A Correction in the Age of Exoplanets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Kelvin's Earth cooling timeframe makes sense only when a major assumption is exposed. Of course if Earth started as molten would only take 20-100 million years to cool to its given state, but the Earth did not start off as molten. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1563] viXra:1804.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-01 16:19:37

Optical Image Discovery of Dark Matter Based on Alternative Facts

Authors: A. Onestone
Comments: 5 Pages. 1 figure (b/w), 1 April 2018

Observations of the rotational curves of galaxies, gravitational lensing of galaxy clusters, and of temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background have previously been interpreted as evidence for the gravitational signatures of a non-baryonic component of matter. Disturbingly, this invisible substance, known as "dark matter", makes up about 26.8 % of the entire mass-energy budget of the Universe. It has long been thought that it is in the very nature of dark matter to be invisible. Here we report the first successful direct imaging of dark matter. This discovery, which has been achieved through the use of alternative facts, is the greatest discovery ever. Period.
Category: Astrophysics

[1562] viXra:1803.0734 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 16:23:28

The Locations of K2-229b and K2-229 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

K2-229b and K2-229 are placed on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[1561] viXra:1803.0731 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 23:00:48

On Hawking Hertog Inflation

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 3 Pages.

The last joint paper of Stephen Hawking before his demise is directed at the expansion of the universe and suggests that maybe inflation is not infinite and that splitting may occur. The theory leans heavily towards the multiverse philosophy and is actually posed as a question from the question mark in the title “A Smooth Exit from Eternal Inflation?” Contrary to popular belief, the paper suggests an exit from infinite inflation and its end may be of a smooth nature. The paper itself is replete with acronyms and appears to be intentionally written in the customary prolix manner of theoretical physics. Although the subject of the paper is not particularly new it is cluttered and disjointed and somewhat grammatically challenged resulting in an obtuse presentation. It is the intention of the author of this paper to offer a clearer translation of the Hawking Hartog paper, which is undoubtedly difficult due to its reliance upon several esoteric theories.
Category: Astrophysics

[1560] viXra:1803.0727 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 07:20:53

Origin of the Solar System

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 8 Pages.

The new theory systematically explains the origin of the main features of the solar system.Especially the new doctrine.The exact formula of interplanetary distance is given.It also gives the distance formula for the satellite,For centuries,This is the first one. This study pointed out that the nine planets in the solar system orbit accuracy conforms to a formula, which we have reason to speculate that there are many planetary systems in accordance with the law in the universe, the earth's position are universal, an alien civilization is widespread.
Category: Astrophysics

[1559] viXra:1803.0700 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 01:40:24

On Dark Matter

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

The subject of dark matter seems to have become a universal solution for any anomaly which arises in cosmology today forcing the proverbial square peg into a round hole. It was suspected that galaxies do indeed obey the conventional laws of Kepler and Newton and subsequently a model was obtained so that a more thorough investigation could be made. Upon completion it immediately became apparent that a somewhat naïve interpretation of the rotational properties of galaxies has been used for decades and that the correct interpretation predicts exactly the rotational curve of spiral galaxies without any need for dark matter whatsoever.
Category: Astrophysics

[1558] viXra:1803.0697 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 04:49:59

About the Reason for Universe Explosion

Authors: Albert A. Davydov, Nikolay V. Zhavoronkov
Comments: 12 Pages.

The paper states a hypothesis of the process of proton excess accumulation as a result of neutron two-neutrino decay, the process which takes place in superdense substance consisting mainly of neutrons. This accumulation provokes protons electrostatic repulsion, which exceeds gravitational contraction and gives rise to substance expansion and its going out of the state of gravitational collapse. This hypothesis enables to explain the origin of primary cosmic rays of ultrahigh energies (> 10^20 eV), the origin of supernova star shell expansion energy, neutron star magnetic fields, collapsed substance big mass explosions resulting in formation of galaxies, and “Universe Big Bang”, which is unique only on its scale, but not on its nature, and which concerns not the whole universe but only its substantial part. The reason, for which experiments on two-neutrino decay can not evidence the impossibility of this decay in superdense substance of cosmic bodies, is discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1557] viXra:1803.0679 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 02:12:05

On a Newtonian Cosmos

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

There are only a few equations used by cosmologists to calculate the current view of the Universe all of which can be extracted often with great difficulty and mathematical gymnastics from Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity often covering several pages. Not surprisingly these same equations can also be derived using Newtonian mechanics as Einstein’s theory of General Relativity supposedly reduces to Newton’s equations. The difference is that using only Newtonian mechanics the same result can be achieved with “relative” ease. The results however are not as expected and require that a more critical analysis of the theories of modern cosmology is in order.
Category: Astrophysics

[1556] viXra:1803.0676 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 06:54:14

There is Such Hypothesis! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Red Color of Galaxies on Border of the Universe Indicates Their Fading, Like Fire Sparks.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Red color of galaxies on border of the Universe indicates their fading, like fire sparks.
Category: Astrophysics

[1555] viXra:1803.0649 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 02:00:46

On Special Relativity

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

In Einstein’s paper of 1905 The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” more commonly known as special relativity, he makes one intentional and misleading statement which places the whole paper in jeopardy. To understand this single disingenuous change does not require high level mathematics but rather basic linguistics. The erroneous change was first noticed by the author in the mid-sixties in a high school physics class which yielded incorrect results when calculated. The same basic calculation can be done today and yields exactly the same result. It is certainly strange that to this day not a single person has noticed the misleading statement and the common saying that, “the best place to hide something is in plain sight”, could never be truer. This paper shows where the intentional misleading statement occurs and its effect on the entire theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1554] viXra:1803.0644 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 05:48:27

Victim of the Cometary Flood Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Atlantis – the Victim of the Flood of the Cometary Origin Finishing Ice Age.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Atlantis – the victim of the Flood of the cometary origin finishing Ice Age.
Category: Astrophysics

[1553] viXra:1803.0643 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 05:54:02

Kak Super-Kastryulya with Borshchyom Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Yellowstone Volcano is not a Volcano, But Just Huge Abnormal Power Zone.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Yellowstone volcano is not a volcano, but just huge abnormal power zone.
Category: Astrophysics

[1552] viXra:1803.0639 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 19:12:22

Chromospheric Emission Lines: Rules of Formation

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 10 Pages.

This is a copy of the slides I presented on 3/24/2018 at the Ohio Section Meeting of the American Physical Society at Michigan State University. The accompanying APS abstract in the Bulletin of the APS can be found here: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/OSS18/Session/G2.4 In this talk, when I refer to Condensed Hydrogen Structures (CHS), I am referring to objects such as spicules in the chromosphere.
Category: Astrophysics

[1551] viXra:1803.0636 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 18:11:39

Wave Function of Solar System

Authors: Tufail Abbas, Ruud Loeffen
Comments: 22 Pages.

This paper presents an alternative approach and a possible way forward to combine Gravity, Electromagnetism and Quantum Physics, by deriving analogy between ‘parameters of Hydrogen Atom’ and ‘derived parameters of Solar System’ using postulated Root Mean Square Velocity (v-rms) of Solar System. It is shown that derived parameters can be used to write wave function ψ-sol of the solar system. Further it is shown that αsol(= vrms/c) which is the structure constant of the solar system, could be used to derive a dimensionless Gravitational Constant Similar interesting relationship has been derived with other cosmological parameters to interpret a Mathematical Universe evolving from unities of wave function, embedded within structure constants of its constituents.
Category: Astrophysics

[1550] viXra:1803.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 10:11:36

Trying to Understand the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1549] viXra:1803.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 03:20:36

A Precise Value of the Hubble Constant in the Planck Model

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 3 pages

The matter density parameter omega_m and Hubble constant H_0 appear together twice in the equations of the Planck Model. First, the entropy of the Hubble sphere is given by the product of omega_m and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole of Hubble radius c/H_0. When omega_m and H_0 take realistic values the entropy approximates closely to a special value within a binary scheme formulated for black holes. With the entropy set exactly to that special value, one may write down an equation in which H_0 is a function of omega_m. Second, the dark energy density has a definite value that is related to the Bohr radius. Consequently, one may write down a second equation in which H_0 is a function of omega_m. Solving the two equations simultaneously one finds that omega_m = 0.358 and H_0 = 75.4 km/s/Mpc.
Category: Astrophysics

[1548] viXra:1803.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:56:25

Reminder on the Kernel Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Mysterious Whirlwinds on Gas Planets Are the Investigation of Power Streams of Kernels of Planets.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Mysterious whirlwinds on gas planets are the investigation of power streams of kernels of planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[1547] viXra:1803.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:32:36

Earth and Mars Motions Interaction

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 38 Pages.

Why does Earth rotate 4-years Cycle (1461 days? Because there's an interaction and coherence between Earth, Moon and Mars Motions, this interaction causes this 4-years Cycle This paper tries to prove this fact, and explains its mechanism. Also we discuss here the "Distance" and "Time" Definitions, explaining how to distinguish between the matter and space.
Category: Astrophysics

[1546] viXra:1803.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 10:52:52

Unique Crystals for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1545] viXra:1803.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 07:20:22

Under One Blanket Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Phobos Has Caused a General Flood on Mars, Has Covered Him with a Dusty Red Blanket, Has Forced Out the Atmosphere and Water to His Internal Area, and All Cloak Has Followed on a Surface. the Atacama Desert O

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Phobos has caused a general flood on Mars, has covered him with a dusty red blanket, has forced out the atmosphere and water to his internal area, and all cloak has followed on a surface. The Atacama Desert on Earth was comprehended by the same fate that confirms this hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1544] viXra:1803.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 07:30:12

They Will be Together Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Milky Put and Andromeda Won't Face, They Will Just Merge in a Uniform Power Stream, Like Charged Particles.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Milky Put and Andromeda won't face, they will just merge in a uniform power stream, like charged particles.
Category: Astrophysics

[1543] viXra:1803.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 07:55:36

Without Knot, But with the Hitch Nikitin V. N., Nikitina M.i. the Reason of Formation of Spots on Gas Planets and the Suchkovykh of Rings at Trees is a Result of the Directed Movement of Power Streams Concerning an Object.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The reason of formation of spots on gas planets and the suchkovykh of rings at trees is a result of the directed movement of power streams concerning an object.
Category: Astrophysics

[1542] viXra:1803.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 08:42:25

On the Possible Nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is assumed that the dark matter particle can be a structural unit of cosmological scale (superphoton) emitted by the active center of galaxies, analogous to a photon and ball lightning (macrophoton), which are structural units of micro- and macroscales. The low density, potential and temperature of superphotons make them invisible during astronomical observations, and their negative charge prevents the galaxies from approaching each other that can explain the phenomenon of dark energy. It is shown that the existence of superphotons together with the presence of cosmic rays indicates the conservation of the electric charge as a whole in cosmological scales. It is assumed that the superphoton, like a giant ball lightning with energy of 1.03×1017 J, could collide with the Earth that could explain the Tunguska phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[1541] viXra:1803.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 09:18:03

An Universe Finite :Cosmic Microwave Background and Newton Law of Gravitation

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 4 Pages.

Is the Universe finite or infinite ? In this paper we assume that the Universe is finite . The sites for posible stars the Universe could admit of is finite . Such number can be described from a dimensionless parameter . This dimensionless parameter consists of two particular length dimensions : Bohr radius and Planck’s length . Besides length dimensions , since the universe is dynamic , we must include an exponential parameter .
Category: Astrophysics

[1540] viXra:1803.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 02:54:43

On Hawkings Error

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

Hawking radiation is currently considered by the academic community as being a proven fact however nothing could be further from the truth. It is nothing more than a theory based upon several other as yet unproven theories. Hawking radiation is a theory that can be disproven so simply that any high school physics student can accomplish this with just one equation and little basic logic. There are also blatantly obvious logical errors in the theory itself which will be explained. It does however require thought and the motivation to do so which is the purpose of this paper suggesting why the Hawking radiation theory should be abandoned.
Category: Astrophysics

[1539] viXra:1803.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 09:20:30

Black Holes Like Aspirin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

When Stephen Hawking postulated in the mid-1970s that black holes leak radiation, slowly dissolving like aspirin in a glass of water, he overturned a core tenet of the Universe. [10] That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1538] viXra:1803.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 01:29:00

As Twin Brothers Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Nature of Origin of a Crater of "Monster Eyes" on Earth is Similar to a Crater "Spider" on Mercury /

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The nature of origin of a crater of "Monster eyes" on Earth is similar to a crater "Spider" on Mercury /
Category: Astrophysics

[1537] viXra:1803.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 01:39:47

Concerning Relativity Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. in the Universe Everything Concerning Space of Anything, God and Time! it Belongs Both to Material, and to Inner World!

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the Universe everything concerning space of Anything, God and Time! It belongs both to material, and to inner world!
Category: Astrophysics

[1536] viXra:1803.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 03:15:42

The Banded Future Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Rings of Saturn Are a Consequence of the Climatic Climate Changes of Solar System Caused by Her Movement in the Galaxy and the Galaxy in the Universe.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Rings of Saturn are a consequence of the climatic climate changes of Solar system caused by her movement in the galaxy and the galaxy in the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1535] viXra:1803.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 03:26:50

Shadows Disappear at Midnight Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Luminescence of the Moon in the Period of a Lunar Eclipse is Caused by a Deviation of Rays of Light Near Massive Objects Specularly in Different Directions.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The luminescence of the Moon in the period of a lunar eclipse is caused by a deviation of rays of light near massive objects specularly in different directions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1534] viXra:1803.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 03:39:23

As Stub Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. the Cause of Climatic Rings of Saturn and Annual Rings of Trees – Same.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The cause of climatic rings of Saturn and annual rings of trees – same.
Category: Astrophysics

[1533] viXra:1803.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 04:10:36

In Vain Look for the Cat Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Solar System Should Have no Eighth Planet, and Gravitational Impact on Planets of Solar System is Exerted by Her Power Cover.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Solar system should have no eighth planet, and gravitational impact on planets of Solar system is exerted by her power cover.
Category: Astrophysics

[1532] viXra:1803.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 02:19:32

Experiment that Find Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[1531] viXra:1803.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 10:00:00

World of Dark Matter Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

There is absolutely no guarantee that we will discover a dark matter particle. But we might. And that could change our understanding of everything. [23] A team of researchers from the U.S., New Zealand, Australia and Germany has found evidence suggesting that a type of star formation near the center of the Milky Way is responsible for large gamma ray emissions, not dark matter. [22] The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1530] viXra:1803.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 08:17:34

Magnetism in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Flows of molten metal can generate magnetic fields. This so-called dynamo effect creates cosmic magnetic fields, like those found on planets, moons and even asteroids. [25] Working together, Miller, Boehme, Vardeny and their colleagues have shown that an organic-based magnet can carry waves of quantum mechanical magnetization, called magnons, and convert those waves to electrical signals. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1529] viXra:1803.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 08:45:03

Mismatch in Cosmic Expansion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1528] viXra:1803.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 09:11:53

Gamma Ray not from Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of researchers from the U.S., New Zealand, Australia and Germany has found evidence suggesting that a type of star formation near the center of the Milky Way is responsible for large gamma ray emissions, not dark matter. [22] The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1527] viXra:1803.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 10:24:22

Protoclusters and Quasars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Using Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) mounted on the Subaru Telescope, astronomers have identified nearly 200 "protoclusters," the progenitors of galaxy clusters, in the early universe, about 12 billion years ago, about ten times more than previously known. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1526] viXra:1803.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 10:16:52

The Purging Hypothesis; the New Paradigm for Solar System Formation, Solving All SNDM Paradoxes While Fully Integrating Solar and Planetary Formation

Authors: R. Winnubst
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Solar Nebular Disk Model (SNDM) is the widely accepted paradigm for solar system formation. However, this modern variant of the almost 300 year-old ‘Nebular Hypothesis’ is plagued by an unacceptable number of paradoxes and unsolved issues such as the angular momentum paradox, the formation of terrestrial planets and abundant presence of water. Suspecting SNDM may be fundamentally flawed, a new paradigm was synthesised via ‘connective reversed engineering’ under the most challenging design parameters possible: 1.None of SNDM’s paradoxes are allowed to remain 2.All formation aspects must be consistent with the latest footage of Hubble ST, Spitzer ST and ALMA 3.All formation aspects must logically interconnect to provide a solid end-to-end ‘story line’. After nearly 2 years of re-designing efforts, eliminating countless sequence permutations, only one process emerged that can explain solar system formation in the required integrated and paradox free way: The Purging Hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1525] viXra:1803.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 04:49:40

Residual Annual and Diurnal Variations of the P10 Radio Doppler Signals Eventually Resolved in CMB Space Approach

Authors: Roland Pabisch
Comments: 6 Pages.

Applying the general, classical Doppler formula of first order for two-way radio Doppler signals in the fundamental rest frame of the isotropic cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) between earthbound Deep Space Network stations (DSN) and the Pioneer 10 space probe (P10) resolves the phenomenon of the residual, so far unexplained annual and diurnal variations. We use the absolute velocities ue of Earth, and upio of P10, derived from the absolute velocity usun of the solar system barycenter in the CMB, with usun = 370.0 ± 0.22 km/s, and the relative revolution velocity ve of Earth, and the relative velocity vpio of P10 in the heliocentric frame from January 1987 until December 1996. The revolution of Earth causes a significant variation of ue, since the absolute velocity vector usub inclines the ecliptic plane with a small declination of β = -10.6 ° at λ = 169.5 ° towards constellation Becher. The anomal annual and diurnal deviations of the radio Doppler signals vanish, if instead of the standard Doppler formulas of first and second order the above mentioned CMB-Doppler formula is used. The thus only apparent residual annual term, which is derived from that theoretical method, matches closely the experimental data, published and analyzed in detail by Anderson & Laing & Lau & et al. (2002), in magnitude of the amplitude, date of the minima and maxima of the approximate sine wave, and the decrease of the amplitude between 1987 and 1996. For the diurnal term the observed magnitude, and an annual term maximum on 1996 December 17, also fit our theoretical prediction. Finally we analyze in brief the flyby Doppler- and ranging data anomalies, which also can be resolved by using the new theoretical assertions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1524] viXra:1803.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 08:56:42

The Anteros Hypothesis

Authors: Dan James
Comments: 4 Pages. 1500 words

It is widely accepted that Valles Marineris is tectonic in origin, but despite almost five decades of research this remains a hypothesis and it is generally agreed that there is no other evidence for tectonic activity on Mars. Using Valles Marineris to prove a tectonic theory is therefore a circular argument. Despite the observation that most planetary surfaces have been modified principally by impact events, dismissing an impact event as an origin for Valles Marineris has been trivially easy owing to the lack of any rigorous or plausible mechanism. Here I propose a mechanism for an impact event which is consistent with observation and physical theory, and which, I claim, has far more explanatory power than a tectonic hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1523] viXra:1803.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 09:07:10

Merger Between Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A merger between galaxies can trigger can intense radiation from bursts star formation and from the accretion of gas onto the two supermassive black holes at their centers. [26] However, a surprising new discovery from a Caltech researcher suggests that the Schrödinger Equation—the fundamental equation of quantum mechanics—is remarkably useful in describing the long-term evolution of certain astronomical structures. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1522] viXra:1803.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 08:46:55

Dark Energy and Recent Controversy.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 3 Pages. Questioning the dark energy?

The concept of gravity and calculation from red shift may not be correct and we are confused by our approach from relativity theory. Our universe is much more dynamic and non isotropic than we think or standard model suggests. Recently, I have published more than a dozen papers to re look our basic concepts and interpret correctly from my theories .
Category: Astrophysics

[1521] viXra:1803.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 08:41:01

New Relativistic Quantum Star

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

In a paper recently published in Physical Review Letters, Carballo-Rubio describes a novel mathematical model combining general relativity with the repulsive effect of quantum vacuum polarization. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1520] viXra:1803.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 23:52:23

On the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1687 Isaac Newton published “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” , which established the three laws of motion and the law of Universal Gravitation which laid the groundwork for classical mechanics. The relationship between force, mass and distance inspired by Kepler’s earlier work gave rise to the value what is now more commonly referred to as the gravitational constant “G”. The value of this constant has since become a fundamental part of almost every cosmological theory to the current day. This paper analyzes the profound effect Newton had upon modern cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[1519] viXra:1803.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 09:58:06

The Truth About Exoplanet False Positives

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In this paper two diagrams are shown. One explains what the dogma considers a “false positive” with reference to exoplanet discovery, the other shows that false positives are not false positives. Reasoning is provided based on the new worldview.
Category: Astrophysics

[1518] viXra:1803.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 08:40:49

Stellar Explosions Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1517] viXra:1803.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 11:32:08

Astrophysics by Schrodinger Equation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

However, a surprising new discovery from a Caltech researcher suggests that the Schrödinger Equation—the fundamental equation of quantum mechanics—is remarkably useful in describing the long-term evolution of certain astronomical structures. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1516] viXra:1803.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 20:52:29

On the Hubble Law

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since the announcement that supernovae data shows that the universe is expanding there has been little to no further analysis of the claim. Recent observations have cast doubt upon this result and suggest that new physics may be required. It is thought by the author that existing physics is adequate to explain current anomalous observations. To achieve an acceptable solution, there is however a requirement not only to accept the overwhelming observational data but also to set aside any preconceived notions that may exist in relation to the Hubble law and red-shift in general. It will be shown that an aspect of the mathematical model upon which almost all of the claims to recessional velocity are based, may indeed be erroneous.
Category: Astrophysics

[1515] viXra:1803.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 01:21:25

In a New Way Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. Russian National Fairy Tale "Turnip" in a New Way as Result of Effective Informative and Creative Communication with the Child.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 1 Page.

Russian national fairy tale "Turnip" in a new way as result of effective informative and creative communication with the child.
Category: Astrophysics

[1514] viXra:1803.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 01:34:01

You Are Simply Divine, the Chicken of Ryaba! Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. in the Beginning there Was Information on the Universe, and Then Already Her Materialization.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the beginning there was information on the Universe, and then already her materialization.
Category: Astrophysics

[1513] viXra:1803.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 05:51:16

Jets from Supermassive Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[1512] viXra:1803.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-02 11:09:00

Sharp Dark Matter Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[1511] viXra:1803.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 09:20:21

Dark Matter from the First Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1510] viXra:1803.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 13:19:40

Redshift/CBR as Intrinsic Blackbody Cavity-QED Absorption/Emission Equilibrium Dynamics

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 35 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812839312_0007

Alternative interpretations for the two main pillars of Big Bang cosmology are formally introduced. A redshift / CBR complementarity is delineated as complex blackbody equilibrium conditions intrinsic to the Cavity-QED resonance dynamics of the spin exchange coupling inherent in extended spacetime hyperstructure oscillations rotating relativistically within the topology of a higher dimensional (HD) form of a covariant polarized Dirac vacuum, with correspondence to the usual asymptotically flat Einstein/Minkowski energy-dependent spacetime metric, . In this frame a Vigier style dissipative redshift mechanism is described as absorption and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CBR) as emission within the context of an extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal interpretation of quantum theory that includes extended EM theory and photon mass anisotropy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1509] viXra:1803.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 01:53:26

Is a Different Search Protocol Required for Success in SETI Research?

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 18 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812839312_0013.

In an Anthropic Multiverse intelligent civilizations are purported to be the rule rather than the statistical exception, providing circumstantial evidence that the current SETI search protocol to find civilizations similar to our own is inadequate since the SETI program is over fifty years old. From the current cosmological perspective researchers are content to perform straight forward searches for narrow-band electromagnetic transmissions from technologically based extra-solar civilizations. Here it is suggested that the scenario in an Anthropic Multiverse requires a radical new observational approach.
Category: Astrophysics

[1508] viXra:1802.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 08:09:56

Riemmann-Reechi Local Curvature Hypothesiis of Observable Belestial Objectes

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 3 Pages.

Rules for guideance of natural knowledge should be of guided by EXPERIENCE alone. And not hypotetical thinking whicvh will lead to paths down of dark way, like in current physics research of lie. Most basic observation are of REAL type and thefore should have of REAL theories. Unacceptable idea such as string theory and hyptotetical particle like Albert Higgs “God Particle” is counter to REAL observcation. Much physiscs since time of Einstein is decption! String have NO PROOF. QCD confinement problem is of unreal believe. Amplitude discovereis analysis recent gluposti. Most widespred deception is copernickan hypothis and round celestial body. Here it is to demonstrate how decption is refute by REAL observajion.
Category: Astrophysics

[1507] viXra:1802.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-27 01:46:53

Have Begun to Whirl the Head Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. Images on Fields Are the Messages for Aliens from Underground Inhabitants of Earth Created by Means of the Power Transmitter – a Projector.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Images on fields are the messages for aliens from underground inhabitants of Earth created by means of the power transmitter – a projector.
Category: Astrophysics

[1506] viXra:1802.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 07:40:14

Black Holes Erase Your Past

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1505] viXra:1802.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 09:44:01

Dark Matter Detector Success

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1504] viXra:1802.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 10:36:43

Black Hole Mystery Deepened

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1503] viXra:1802.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 01:37:23

To See Through Dust! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. at Change of a Condition of Power Space of Mars Gas and Power Streams Escape on His Surface And, Thereby, Cause Dust Storms.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

At change of a condition of power space of Mars gas and power streams escape on his surface and, thereby, cause dust storms.
Category: Astrophysics

[1502] viXra:1802.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 01:54:24

And Them Has to be Seven! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. in Solar System there Have to be Seven Planets Because it Has Been so Conceived and Created by God.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In Solar system there have to be seven planets because it has been so conceived and created by God.
Category: Astrophysics

[1501] viXra:1802.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 02:03:03

They Muddle Something Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Border of the Universe Has the Maximum Density of Dark Matter.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The border of the Universe has the maximum density of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1500] viXra:1802.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 02:19:27

Hypothesis of Relationship of Souls Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. the Structure and the Nature of Emergence and Evolution of Jupiter and Live Stones Are Similar.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 1 Page.

The structure and the nature of emergence and evolution of Jupiter and live stones are similar.
Category: Astrophysics

[1499] viXra:1802.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-21 04:09:12

Black Holes do not Exist

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 2 Pages.

The body can not contract to infinite density due to the existence of repulsive force. It is proved that the escape velocity of the maximum contracted body is equal to the free space velocity of light. Therefore the black holes do not exist.
Category: Astrophysics

[1498] viXra:1802.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 01:11:09

Gravitational Field Equation

Authors: Patel Arvind Rajkumar
Comments: 4 Pages. Sir I have made a formula on inertia. I have proven it both practically and mathematically. I want to see it. Help me make it public.I have also worked on some other topics that are available on my blog. This is my blog address - arvinrajsun1999.blogspot.

In this research I have given formula of gravitational field and hypothesis of gravitational volume. I have not given hypothesis of field of gravitational. I have given new hypothesis of gravitational boundary.
Category: Astrophysics

[1497] viXra:1802.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-18 18:53:04

The Theory of the Chain Reaction

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 6 Pages.

The “theory of the chain reaction” is a new theory, for the creation of the Universe, the Universes, the Antiuniverses and the whole Cosmos, from the elementary particles to infinity
Category: Astrophysics

[1496] viXra:1802.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 02:05:51

Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. Отчего покраснели планеты Красная почва внутренних планет Солнечной системы является кометной пылью. Спутник Юпитера Европа является остатком кометы.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Красная почва внутренних планет Солнечной системы является кометной пылью. Спутник Юпитера Европа является остатком кометы.
Category: Astrophysics

[1495] viXra:1802.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 02:16:09

Nikitin I.v., Nikitin V.N. and Then Already Egg! at the Beginning there Was Information, and Then Already Her Materialization!

Authors: Nikitin I.V., Nikitin V.N.
Comments: 1 Page.

At the beginning there was information, and then already her materialization!
Category: Astrophysics

[1494] viXra:1802.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 07:36:33

Axions have Fewer Places to Hide

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1493] viXra:1802.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 05:27:36

An Amplified Standard Model

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Standard Model (SM) consists of 16 matter and force particles: six quark matter particles (up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top); six lepton matter particles (electron, muon, tau, electron-neutrino, muon-neutrino, and tau-neutrino); and four force particles (photon, W/Z’s, gluon, and Higgs). Although the SM is the gold standard of particle physics, it is inadequate because it: does not emphasize Higgs particles’ supremacy; does not differentiate between more important permanent and less important transient particles; defines only a single Higgs force; does not include the graviton; and does not include dark matter, dark energy, supersymmetry, and super supersymmetry of Higgs particles. Via amplification of four independent theories (superstring, particle creation, Higgs forces or bosons, and spontaneous symmetry breaking), the SM was amplified to Fig. 6 Fundamental SM/supersymmetric/super supersymmetric matter and force particles containing 64 matter and force particles.
Category: Astrophysics

[1492] viXra:1802.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 05:17:20

Solving the Dark Energy Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Forty-five years ago this month, a telescope tucked inside a 14-story, 500-ton dome atop a mile-high peak in Arizona took in the night sky for the first time and recorded its observations in glass photographic plates. [23] The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[1491] viXra:1802.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 02:52:00

Back to the Moon and on to the Stars

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages.

This is a copy of a comment I sent to ABC TV about their "Catalyst" program on 13/02/2018. That comment was limited to 1,500 words but readers get a bonus here: the comment's been expanded to 1,900 words. Professor Duffy's comment in "Catalyst" about using the Moon as a launching pad to Mars, then the stars, is a great dream for our future. But our present slow rockets aren't very convenient for travel to the stars. I can see 3 better ways - each is faster than the previous one. (1) is the controversial EmDrive which, through future application of Maxwell's and Einstein's theories as well as the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics, may not only see huge benefits for spaceflight but also huge benefits to many areas of life for the average person who never journeys to space. (2) is the combining of a 2009 electrical-engineering experiment at America's Yale University with the ideas of Albert Einstein to produce a type of wormhole, or shortcut through space-time. (3) is mathematical – the use of the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem in future space-time travel (there's no cause for concern if you're not trained in maths – it's explained in English).
Category: Astrophysics

[1490] viXra:1802.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 06:33:34

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 9 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden technische Anwendungen zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie.
Category: Astrophysics

[1489] viXra:1802.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 19:15:12

Notes & Considerations on Proposal for Astrosphere Catalog and Baseline Model for Comparison and Reference over Time

Authors: Jayson R. Abalos
Comments: 20 Pages.

The proposition of a catalog for comparing diverse astropause and astrosphere modeling equations and methods is outlined and examined.
Category: Astrophysics

[1488] viXra:1802.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 01:15:44

Vselenochka of the Abnormal Help Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. Everything is Simple, How in the Fairy Tale About Doctor Aybolit! Vselenochka of the Abnormal Help of Annunak – a Prototype of the First-Aid Kit of Doctor Aybolit of People of Earth!

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Everything is simple, how in the fairy tale about doctor Aybolit! Vselenochka of the abnormal help of annunak – a prototype of the first-aid kit of doctor Aybolit of people of Earth!
Category: Astrophysics

[1487] viXra:1802.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 04:14:25

Dark Matter Nuggets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1486] viXra:1802.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 09:31:54

Annihilation of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1485] viXra:1802.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 21:31:50

Solar Group General Description

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 62 Pages.

1.The Main Hypothesis: The Matter Is Created From The Light 2.The produced matter is created in motion, that means the solar planets are created in motions (regardless the motion reason) 3.The solar group are a group of motions conveyors, So the motions of all solar planets are depended on each other 4.The solar group motions aim to create a difference in motion velocity = C between 2 points in the group. 5.i.e. The Solar Planets work as gears or conveyors group, transfer the motion from point to another point, aiming to create a difference in motion velocity = C velocity. And that's happening where the solar group motions create a difference in velocities between the Earth and Sun motions = C velocity (for that reason the sun is our source of light) 6.The solar group is A Dipole System has 2 heads (the sun and the Earth) 7.The light Production by the planets motions (i.e. by transferring of the mechanical waves into light waves), the original source of light beams energy, from which the solar planets were created, will be conserved. 8.Because there's a difference in velocity = C between 2 points in the solar group (the sun and the Earth), we may conclude easily that, there's more than one frame in the solar group. 9.To create a difference of velocity = C, all solar planets should revolve around the dipole line (The Sun-Earth Line) in the same direction, enabling the velocities addition process to gather all motions in the same point… 10.The Produced Solar Planets should have relationships between their Geometrical structures (if they were created from the light), so the planets are not created independent but related to each other geometrically.
Category: Astrophysics

[1484] viXra:1802.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 06:31:00

Gravitons kill Aliens

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 117 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitons kill Aliens” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who explained the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill Aliens” Adrian Ferent I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than: E = 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV “Gravitational radiation is gravitons” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational Radiation is the most dangerous because it travels the farthest and is the most penetrating” Adrian Ferent The number of civilizations in our galaxy, Drake equation. Drake equation is wrong because Drake concluded that N ≈ L, this means N is between 1000 and 100,000,000 civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy. The Milky Way is estimated to contain 100–400 billion stars. This means the majority of stars do not have at least a planet with intelligent life. The Milky Way is home to more than 100 million black holes. “Black holes are Ferent matter” Adrian Ferent “There are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy” Adrian Ferent “Around each Black hole there is a volume where can not exist civilizations, because of deadly gravitons emitted by Black hole” Adrian Ferent We have to look for extraterrestrial civilizations, only in the volume Vl, not in the entire Milky Way galaxy, like Drake equation and other equations do or how Asimov calculated. The Fermi paradox is the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence and high probability estimates for the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations. There are billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy that are similar to the Sun and no evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations. “Why there is no evidence of extraterrestrial civilizations? Because gravitons emitted by black holes kill Aliens” Adrian Ferent “I found the answer to this question: why the Universe is so quiet and why we do not see UFOs? There are only a small number of extraterrestrial civilizations in a galaxy; there are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of the galaxy where is the highest density of stars, there are not extraterrestrial civilizations around Black Holes” Adrian Ferent
Category: Astrophysics

[1483] viXra:1802.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 22:52:46

Proof of Existence of the Horizontal Component of Gravitation Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v.the Horizontal Component of Gravitation Exerts Impact on Change of the Direction of Atmospheric Streams on Objects of Solar System.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The horizontal component of gravitation exerts impact on change of the direction of atmospheric streams on objects of Solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1482] viXra:1802.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 23:22:27

Yes so that Even the Comet Has no Place to Fall! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. When Falling to Earth of a Comet Seek to Move Along a Surface and Blow Up, and Asteroids Burn and Fall.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

When falling to Earth of a comet seek to move along a surface and blow up, and asteroids burn and fall.
Category: Astrophysics

[1481] viXra:1802.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 01:52:44

Deviates Somehow Strange Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Ray of Light Deviates in Different Directions Under the Influence of Gravitational Field of a Body.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The ray of light deviates in different directions under the influence of gravitational field of a body.
Category: Astrophysics

[1480] viXra:1802.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 01:31:47

Not to Rush on Space in Vain Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Universe is Ordered and Limited. Everything is Simple, How in the Textbook by Physics: Solar Wind Moves with Acceleration from the Center to Borders of Solar System.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Universe is ordered and limited. Everything is simple, how in the textbook by physics: solar wind moves with acceleration from the center to borders of Solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1479] viXra:1802.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 01:40:24

Materialization of God's Love Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Convergence of Fertile Fire is a Process of a Materialization of the Universal Phantom of Boundless God's Love to Us.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The convergence of Fertile fire is a process of a materialization of the Universal phantom of boundless God's love to us.
Category: Astrophysics

[1478] viXra:1802.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 01:49:04

Our Fire in Fog Shines Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. People Can Infinitely Look at a Fire. Because See in Him the Life and All in the Universe!

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

People can infinitely look at a fire. because see in him the life and all in the Universe!
Category: Astrophysics

[1477] viXra:1802.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 01:57:50

To Slightly Open the Blanket of Mars Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Catastrophic Condition of Mars is Caused by Influence of Comets.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The catastrophic condition of Mars is caused by influence of comets.
Category: Astrophysics

[1476] viXra:1802.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 02:02:59

Principle of Relativity of All Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Any Limited and Closed System Has Own Energy Which Depends on the Speed of Her Movement and Situation Concerning Space of Nothing.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Any limited and closed system has own energy which depends on the speed of her movement and situation concerning Space of Nothing.
Category: Astrophysics

[1475] viXra:1802.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 15:02:16

Translation of Some Star Catalogs to the XEphem Format

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 22 Pages. Contains mostly the Java source code, licensed under the LGPL-v3.

The text lists Java programs which convert star catalogs to the format of the XEphem visualiser. The currently supported input catalog formats are (i) the data base of the orbital elements of the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), (ii) the data base of the Hipparcos main catalog or the variants of the Tycho-1 or Tycho-2 catalogs, (iii) the systems in the Washington Double Star catalog, (iv) the Proper Motions North and South catalogs.
Category: Astrophysics

[1474] viXra:1802.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 19:10:58

The Conservation of Mass and Stars in the General Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The meaning of conservation of mass is given and applied to stars. This paper completely destroys all past theories of stellar evolution except for the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1473] viXra:1802.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 14:14:36

Cool Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1472] viXra:1801.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 22:53:58

Look for at the Bottom … Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Blue Educations on Mercury Are Similar to "Blueberry" on Mars and Are Confirmation of Exclusive Hypotheses of a Structure and Origin of Satellites and Planets of Solar System.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Blue educations on Mercury are similar to "blueberry" on Mars and are confirmation of exclusive hypotheses of a structure and origin of satellites and planets of Solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1471] viXra:1801.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 23:02:03

Also, as All Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Mercury in the Future Will Turn Into the Satellite of Venus

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Mercury in the future will turn into the satellite of Venus
Category: Astrophysics

[1470] viXra:1801.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 23:10:09

Have Pleased Under the Gravitational Guillotine Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Interaction of Material Objects Needs to be Considered Taking Into Account a Possibility of Existence of a Horizontal Component of Gravitation.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Interaction of material objects needs to be considered taking into account a possibility of existence of a horizontal component of gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1469] viXra:1801.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 23:18:41

Now it is Clear Where to Look for Magnetic Field Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v.magnetic Field of Objects of the Universe Can be Internal.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Magnetic field of objects of the Universe can be internal.
Category: Astrophysics

[1468] viXra:1801.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 23:36:24

Space Tsunami Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Exclusive Hypothesis of the Cause of a Tsunami as Result of Emergence and Movement of Gravitational Educations in the Top Layers of a Cloak Concerning the Earth's Surface, Solves Also the Mystery of Existence of W

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Exclusive hypothesis of the cause of a tsunami as result of emergence and movement of gravitational educations in the top layers of a cloak concerning the Earth's surface, solves also the mystery of existence of waves of the satellite of Saturn of Prometheus.
Category: Astrophysics

[1467] viXra:1801.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 23:59:20

Gegenüberstellung Zweier Technischer Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 2 Pages.

Gegenüberstellung zweier technischer Anwendungen zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie
Category: Astrophysics

[1466] viXra:1801.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-30 01:54:47

The Super-SUPER… V.n.nikitin, I.v.nikitin the Steady Growth of the Number of Arcanas of the Mysterious Universe is a Sign of Imperfection of Existing Theories and Ideas About the Surrounding World, Which Contributes to the Creation of Radically New Altern

Authors: V.N.Nikitin, I.V.Nikitin
Comments: 4 Pages.

The steady growth of the number of arcanas of the mysterious universe is a sign of imperfection of existing theories and ideas about the surrounding world, which contributes to the creation of radically new alternative ideas and theories. New ideas should be piercing and understandable to everyone, to promote an adequate perception of reality and to be as much as possible interconnected with each other and with existing scientific knowledge. In this case, alternative ideas will inevitably become punchy! The results of long-term theoretical studies of abnormal physical phenomena of the processes of the origin and evolution of the universe are embodied in the exclusive hypotheses of the creative collective "NIKI" and are set forth here in a logical sequence, from the moment the Universe emerged to its transformation into "nothing."
Category: Astrophysics

[1465] viXra:1801.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 07:50:55

Reminder on the Exclusive Hypothesis Nikitina N.N., Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. God Has Lodged Disobedient вселенян on the Earth's Surface Where Various Cataclysms and Space Threats Rage

Authors: Nikitina N.N., Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

God has lodged disobedient вселенян on the Earth's surface where various cataclysms and space threats rage.
Category: Astrophysics

[1464] viXra:1801.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 02:05:06

Heretical Physics the Antikythera Mechanics of Mercury

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 5 Pages.

Astro-Physics from Tycho Braha ; Kepler (1571-1630); Newton (1643-1727) are not in agreement. Further the Antikythera MOON Mechanism, a two thousand year old Greek mechanism, required thirty seven (37) gears to reproduce Sun-Moon ellipse cycles, but ignored by the ‘Standard Model’ for a few lines of corrupt mathematics, (approximations in lieu of correctness). Newton’s gravitational hypothesis fails everywhere as it relies on a two dimensional theory to describe a three dimensional System. In this paper spherical “Models” will be constructed from cross sections of orbiting ‘charge’ spheres, becoming the mechanics to match existing data. i.e. constructing an elliptical orbit from circling spheres. A function in opposition to both Newton and Kepler’s theories. Gears are cross sections of circling spheres.
Category: Astrophysics

[1463] viXra:1801.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-26 18:51:30

Why The Light Is The Universe Highest Velocity?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

Why The Light Velocity Is The Highest In The Universe? Because our bodies (Matters = Bright Fringes) are created from the Light beams coherence, So our bodies are connected with this specific light beams from which were created, so any other light beams (for example the original light beam) we can't discover it by our 5 senses because we connected to the bright fringes only So, Even if there's light higher velocity, we can't discover it
Category: Astrophysics

[1462] viXra:1801.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-25 19:30:34

Special Relativity Hypothesis Reason (Matter Creation Theory)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 47 Pages.

Why there's No velocity higher than Light Velocity C =300000km/sec? Because -The Matter is created from light beams coherence (according to Young Experiment- The Main Hypothesis) -The Time is created as the Matter Changing measurement -Our body (matter) is produced by the same method, from this light beams coherence -Our bodies are connected with specific Light velocity and specific time rate because our bodies are produced by specific Light Beams coherence What does that mean? ..i.e. -If there's a light velocity higher than C we can't realize it, why? Because Our Body defines only this specific time which is produced from this specific light Now we can see much better -Why we can't understand easily the solar System geometry? Because NOT all data is available for us! And why NOT? Because Our Body Connected Us To Specific Category Of Data… oSo we connected to specific light beam (standard velocity C) And oWe connected to specific time defined by our body changes So the Special Theory of Relativity is Correct No Velocity higher than C is available in our Universe
Category: Astrophysics

[1461] viXra:1801.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-24 13:42:44

Active Galactic Nuclei Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there’s a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
Category: Astrophysics

[1460] viXra:1801.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-24 04:55:18

Speed of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1459] viXra:1801.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-23 05:19:04

Winds Outside Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1458] viXra:1801.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-23 03:26:40

New Bound on Axions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An axion is a hypothetical elementary particle whose existence was postulated in order to explain why certain subatomic reactions appear to violate basic symmetry constraints, in particular symmetry in time. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1457] viXra:1801.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-22 06:53:48

Basics of Astrophysics Revisited. IV Gravitation Redshift, Gravitation Lensing, Superhot Solar Corona Hoaxes

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 3 Pages.

Stellar rotation and factors from palette of Tesla/Alfven have obviously caused mentioned errors. Shortcomings of astrospectroscopy are highlighted.
Category: Astrophysics

[1456] viXra:1801.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-22 11:07:42

Extreme-Energy Space Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

New model connects the origins of very high-energy neutrinos, ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, and high-energy gamma rays with black-hole jets embedded in their environments. [15] Gamma ray bursts, intense explosions of light, are the brightest events ever observed in the universe – lasting no longer than seconds or minutes. [14] X-ray-optics technology has progressed such that future astrophysics X-ray observatories will have orders-of magnitude better performance than existing observatories such as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. [13] Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10] It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1455] viXra:1801.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-21 14:48:51

The Locations of the Stars in the K2-138 System and Io on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

I can place the older stars of K2-138 and Io on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[1454] viXra:1801.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-22 00:16:21

An Alternative Explanation of Non-Newtonian Galactic Rotation Curves

Authors: Morgan Weinberg
Comments: 11 Pages.

Inspired by the continued success of MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) in the prediction of galactic rotation curves, an attempt to derive the deep-MOND equation from known mechanics has resulted in a third explanation apart from MOND and dark matter. It is proposed that particle velocities follow the relation v = √(GM)r -1/2 + √(ax)r1/2, where ax is a scalar accelerating field that is independent of mass. This yields the following relation for centripetal acceleration: a = (GM)r-2 + 2√(axGM)r-1 + ax, which, at large radii, is nearly identical to the deep-MOND equation a = √(a0GM)r-1. When applied to a handful of galaxies, the velocity equation prefers an ax on the order of 10-14 (km s-2), which gives a good fit of velocity curves to observed values. It is posited that scalar field ax is a result of local galactic expansion, such that ax = cHg, where Hg is the rate of expansion. For the Milky Way, it is estimated that Hg ≈ 9.3 E-4 (km s-1 kpc-1). This rate would predict an increase of the astronomical unit of 14 (cm yr-1), which compares well with the recently reported measurement of 15 ±4 (cm yr-1).
Category: Astrophysics

[1453] viXra:1801.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 06:04:47

Existing Models of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there’s a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1452] viXra:1801.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 10:49:50

Importance of Conic Section “size” in the Derivation of Propositions X-XVI in Newton’s Principia Book I

Authors: Gopi Krishna Vijaya
Comments: 14 Pages.

The “direct problem” of the inverse-square law is examined, by retracing the derivations of Propositions X-XVI in Newton’s Principia. It is found that transfers of constants of proportionality are inconsistent between the propositions, leading to errors in the derived relations for multiple orbits. Proposition X has to be corrected for the relations of time period to the force law by including the area constants for conic sections. Propositions XI-XIII assume the expression 2h^2/L to be constant, that in turn implicitly assume a modified version of Kepler’s third law, while Propositions XIV-XVI apply this to multiple orbits leading to further “size” inconsistencies with the original form of Kepler’s third law. It has been shown how this relevance of “size” has been missed in the Newtonian literature, leading to a necessity of revising the existence of an exact inverse-square law.
Category: Astrophysics

[1451] viXra:1801.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 10:52:05

Original Form of Kepler’s Third Law and its Misapplication in Propositions XXXII-XXXVII in Newton’s Principia (Book I)

Authors: Gopi Krishna Vijaya
Comments: 14 Pages.

The original form of Kepler’s Third Law contains a caveat regarding the requirement of small eccentricities – a fact that has been missed by the traditional Newtonian derivations. This constraint is analyzed, and a re-clarification of the real meaning of “mean distance” in the law is provided, by following up the indications given by Kepler in the Harmonices Mundi. It is shown that the modified expression for the “mean distance” not only clears up conceptual difficulties, but also removes a discrepancy found by Kepler for Mercury. Based on this re-evaluation, the result of ignoring the small-eccentricity constraint is analyzed in the Propositions XXXII-XXXVII in the Principia. It is seen that there are several conceptual and mathematical mistakes that are inevitable with the Newtonian form of Kepler’s Third Law.
Category: Astrophysics

[1450] viXra:1801.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 10:53:27

Celestial Dynamics and Rotational Forces In Circular and Elliptical Motions

Authors: Gopi Krishna Vijaya
Comments: 14 Pages.

The understanding of circular motion as being conditioned by a central force coupled to a tangential velocity is questioned, by analyzing the origins of its derivation, and revising it in the light of rotational kinematics. It is shown that one cannot stop the analysis at a force directed to the center, but has to continue it to include an infinite series of higher order rotational forces in four perpendicular directions. The verification of this in terrestrial dynamics, as well as the consequences of its application in celestial dynamics is presented. It is shown that Newton’s Moon Test and inverse-square law, even with the corrections of General Relativity, do not support circular and elliptical motion and lead to an erroneous expression – a problem that has been noticed and remedied by other independent researchers.
Category: Astrophysics

[1449] viXra:1801.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 03:42:15

Residual Annual and Diurnal Periodicities of the P 10 Acceleration Term Resolved in Absolute CMB Space

Authors: R. Pabisch
Comments: 6 Pages.

Applying the general, classical Doppler formula (CMB-Doppler formula) of first order for two-way radio Doppler signals in the fundamental rest frame of the isotropic cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) between earthbound Deep Space Network stations (DSN), and the Pioneer 10 space probe (P 10) resolves the phenomenon of the residual, so far unexplained annual and diurnal signal variations on top of the constant acceleration term Anderson & Laing & Lau & et al. (2002), Anderson & Campbell & Ekelund & et al. (2008). The anomalous annual and diurnal variations of the acceleration term vanish, if instead of the relativistic Standard-Doppler formula (SRT-Doppler formula) of first and second order the CMB-Doppler formula is used. That formula contains the absolute velocities ue of Earth, and upio of P 10, derived from the absolute velocity usun of the solar system barycenter in the CMB, with usun = 369.0 ± 0.9 km/s, and the relative revolution velocity ve of Earth, and the relative velocity vpio of P 10 in the heliocentric frame from January 1987 until December 1996. The flyby radio Doppler and ranging data anomalies can be resolved as well by using the CMB-Doppler formula with the absolute, asymptotic velocities of the inbound and outbound maneuver flights, which have usually slightly different magnitudes, inducing the so far unexplained frequency shift, and the unexplained difference in the ranging data.
Category: Astrophysics

[1448] viXra:1801.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-15 09:13:17

Mini Gamma Ray Burst in the Lab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Gamma ray bursts, intense explosions of light, are the brightest events ever observed in the universe – lasting no longer than seconds or minutes. [14] X-ray-optics technology has progressed such that future astrophysics X-ray observatories will have orders-of magnitude better performance than existing observatories such as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. [13] Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10] It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars - highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1447] viXra:1801.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 13:51:33

White Dwarfs, Nova and Stellar Youth in the General Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages. 3 photocopies of a book with notes, 1 illustrative diagram

A few thoughts as compared to early scientists on white dwarfs, (super)novas and stellar youth in the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1446] viXra:1801.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 09:58:16

Stellar Metamorphosis: From Neptune to Earth

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 3 Pages. For my father, in memoriam

A look at the evolution from a Gas Dwarf (Neptune) to a Life Host (Earth) and describing what happens in each phase; where the real history of how the crust of the Earth formed and evolved is theorized; the first crust a complete shell that expanded.
Category: Astrophysics

[1445] viXra:1801.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 06:06:02

Quantum FFF Theory, a Conscious String Theory with Different Vacuum Trajectories for Axion-Higgs Field/ Photons Respectively Fermions, Gluons and Bosons.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 11 Pages.

This conscious string theory also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical cold Big Bang evaporation into 8 or 12 CP ( Charge Parity) symmetric copy (anti) material universes. It can be called a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum shaped rigid stringy entangled particles. Each particle is supposed to be conscious by its entanglement with 7 or 11 CP symmetric copy particles located inside the other 7 or 11 CP symmetric universal bubbles at long distance with raspberry shape. The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang. So each particle has to compete for wavefunction collapse with 7 or 11 anti copy particles and each person’s choice ( free will) also. So: we live inside 8 or 12 quantum particle based instant entangled pinball machines making choices for our own reptile brain based flash intuition down to single particle slit interference. However our frontal cortex seems to be able to make social corrections ( Vetos) within 300 msec. The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for other theories.
Category: Astrophysics

[1444] viXra:1801.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 19:51:36

Solar Planets Order Disproves the Gravity Theory

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 59 Pages.

-The Solar Planets order proves that, the planet orbital distance is defined based on his Diameter and NOT his Mass, which disproves the Gravity Theory.. But -Planet Diameter and Orbital Distance Relationship Equation is so hard to define…! Why? Because -The solar Group has 2 Heads (The Sun and Earth). The Solar Group is A Dipole…. We need to modify the Solar Group Basic Description to be " A Dipole System"… -This paper also discusses the Sun nature and Origin…
Category: Astrophysics

[1443] viXra:1801.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 08:24:27

High-Resolution X-Rays Gratings

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

X-ray-optics technology has progressed such that future astrophysics X-ray observatories will have orders-of magnitude better performance than existing observatories such as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. [13] Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10] It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1442] viXra:1801.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 15:06:47

Some Physics United: With Predictions and Models for Much (extract 1)

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 61 Pages.

We address four physics opportunities. First, predict new elementary particles and forces. Second, explain phenomena such as dark matter. Third, unite physics theories and models. Fourth, point to opportunities for further research. We use models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators. First, we show solutions that match the known elementary particles. We propose that other solutions correlate with elementary particles that people have yet to detect and with dark energy forces leading to the three known eras - initial acceleration, subsequent deceleration, and current acceleration - pertaining to the rate of expansion of the universe. Second, we extend solutions to encompass known conservation-law symmetries. We note that extended solutions correlate with known kinematics. We propose that extended solutions describe dark matter, explain ratios of density of dark matter to density of ordinary matter, correlate with dark energy density, and explain other phenomena. Third, we note that the work unites, extends, and limits aspects of traditional physics. Those aspects include classical physics, special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the elementary particle Standard Model, and the cosmology timeline. The work provides possible insight regarding foundations of physics topics. Fourth, we suggest opportunities for people. We suggest opportunities for observational, experimental, and theoretical physics research. We point to possible opportunities to further develop and apply math we use.
Category: Astrophysics

[1441] viXra:1801.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 10:33:29

Open Letter To Dr Penrose

Authors: Ricardo Gil
Comments: 1 Page.

Let’s say one explodes a Russian TSAR in the cold spot. This would be a literal big bang and create some form of universe. Conversely a hot quantum particle could or may have caused the big bang even at equilibrium because it pops into the cold spot in the universe. Think weather, hot and cold front equals a turbulent thunder storm or violent weather patterns or conditions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1440] viXra:1801.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 17:28:10

GJ 436b: A Gas Dwarf/Pre-Ocean World in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is explained that GJ 436b is a gas dwarf/pre-ocean world according to the measurement of its radius. A simple illustration offered by an establishment physicist shows this and an explanation for its stage of evolution is provided according to the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1439] viXra:1801.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 05:07:09

Magneton Constitute Substance Theory -- 11. Photon Trajectory Bend Measure

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In 1919, British scientist Eddington organized a total solar eclipse big observation. Confirm photon trajectory is arc line. What is reason for photon trajectory bend? Einstein thinks. Gravitation makes photon trajectory bend. Thus created black hole theory. Magneton constitute substance theory thinks. In magnetic field, photon abide by photon deflect right hand rule. Due to, photon mass is less than 1/100000 of electron mass. Therefore, it is hard to measure photon trajectory bend. According to magneton constitute substance theory, design photon new measure. Decrypt photon trajectory bend reason. Measurement proves, photon trajectory bend is result of photon magnetism and spin and ambient magnetic field interaction, has nothing to do with gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1438] viXra:1801.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 14:38:27

Cargo Cult Science – The Solar and Sunspot Cycles

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 9 Pages.

The description of the solar and sunspot cycle is being tagged herein as cargo cult science because it is incomplete. The solar cycle and sunspot cycle are the events that take place over time that alter the visible and dynamic characteristics of the Sun. Two prominent Sun cyclic events are the periodic change in the number of sunspots and the reversal of the Sun's magnetic field. The solar science community know the cyclic events are related but do not consider that an outside influence can cause them. There is evidence that a very long wavelength, multi-year, extremely high magnitude electromagnetic wave is responsible for the readily observable solar and sunspot cycles and much longer solar related cycles identified in Earth strata. All scientists before 1940 were unaware that electromagnetic waves, other than light, were traversing the cosmos. Even before and after 1940, the manner in which the basic characteristics of electromagnetic waves are taught can lead to an improper interpretation of electromagnetic related events when they do not fit the textbook descriptions. Sunspot characteristics identify the probable source of the electromagnetic wave or waves that are causing our Sun's variability. Solar scientists have identified the presence of the electromagnetic wave that causes the Sun's variability but have misidentified it.
Category: Astrophysics

[1437] viXra:1801.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 13:12:50

The Principle of Crystallization in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of crystal formation is offered to explain that rocks and minerals do not form in any significance in vacuum in outer space.
Category: Astrophysics

[1436] viXra:1801.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 13:38:03

Black Holes Control Star Formation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A new study, published January 1, 2018, in Nature, shows that the mass of the black hole in the center of the galaxy determines how soon this "quenching" of star formation occurs. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1435] viXra:1712.0678 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-31 08:04:44

Cable Dragging Horizontal Takeoff Spacecraft Air Launch System

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper proposed an Air Launch System which uses cables with auxiliary wing to drag spacecraft into upper air. This launch system can make air launch more effective and easier, and the launch devices can be recyclable and reusable. It is a potential and easy way to reduce the cost of space launch.
Category: Astrophysics

[1434] viXra:1712.0671 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-30 15:08:58

Correcting the False Worldview of Chondrites with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Chondrites in the year 2017 are still accepted and interpreted as being formed from dust in the early solar system just as they were in 1987, before the age of Astrons and before stellar metamorphosis theory was developed (the author was only 2 years old). The replacement interpretation is presented and shows the reader where mainstream science went wrong, and where alternative science is correct.
Category: Astrophysics

[1433] viXra:1712.0640 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-28 10:35:42

Chemically Primitive Dwarf Star

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Spanish astronomers have identified a new carbon-rich ultra metal-poor unevolved star in the halo of the Milky Way galaxy. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1432] viXra:1712.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-24 22:18:42

Pitfall of Space Expansion

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 27 Pages.

Space is everywhere with us. It's in our hands. However, it's impossible to bent, stretch, compress, or doing anything with it. Expansion of the space would intertwine with many paradoxes that is beyond comprehension. We have learned to manipulating matter and energy since our first existence on Earth, however, never space.

Additionally, space can not have boundary. Otherwise, it would separate space from something else outside of the space. Neither the boundary or surface of the space nor the outside of the space can be defined as anything other than space. Hence, space, boundary of space, and the outside can only be space. Thus, the shape, size, surface, and boundary of the space can not be detected or measured. Neither the age of the space can be measured. Space and the universe can only be considered infinite.

Logically, we can not detect vacuum, or emptiness. We can only detect the absence of detectable. Absence of detectable is not absolutely equal to emptiness. The same logics that we can only prove the absence of detectable matter and energy. It is impossible to prove the absence of space. The question is, how can you bend or expand infinite and undetectable space that has no surface and boundary?


Category: Astrophysics

[1431] viXra:1712.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:15:15

The Making of Planet and Gravity

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 15 Pages.

Gravity is not force of attraction. An one way concentrative potential is created by head-on congregation of particles from gentle pairing to high speed collision. It can be started by electromagnetic attraction or disturbance in the environment internally or externally. A terrestrial planet, for example, is the coalition of elements. It grows in the process of construction. The coalition builds the body and the force of keeping it together, gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[1430] viXra:1712.0585 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:33:31

The Making of Star and Solar System

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 11 Pages.

To me, the gravity of super-sized planet can trigger global nuclear reactions and become a star. The expelled particles embrace objects in it's path and create a space cyclone, solar system. Our Solar System is a cyclone powered by the vortex force of a single dominating star, the Sun, in weightless space. The Sun regulates the orbits and reduces the collision of all plants and alike within it's reach. The question is, would it be second star if Jupiter got a chance to gather more mass?
Category: Astrophysics

[1429] viXra:1712.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:37:50

The Making of Black Hole And Galaxy

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 9 Pages.

To me, a star is analogous to a constant and all directional nuclear exploding jet engine. Expelling particles would create it's opposite imploding force. By squeezing mass and energy into single point, I don't see other action can create stronger concentrative mass and force than implosive compression. Under this constant compression, a star can reach it's limit of structure and go supernova. The surface activities would radiate the frequency beyond our detection, a black hole disappeared from our view. Massive black hole can create its' own super space cyclone. Other subsystems can be caught by the storm and form a galaxy, a superset collection of solar and planetary systems by nature's inheritance and self-similarity. Considering nature's capability of creating such varieties of microorganism; Planets, stars, galaxies, and alike will continue to surprise us with our slowly opening eyes. Yet, the universe can only be seen by anyone in very short blink.
Category: Astrophysics

[1428] viXra:1712.0582 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:44:57

From Redshift To Cosmic Background Radiation

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 56 Pages.

Doppler redshift of radiations is dominating in all observations. And, path loss of frequency causes exponentially proportional redshift. Radiation, over space, can continue to stretch below visual and infrared detection, the source would merged into the background (CBR). In the meantime, space is filled with dominating low frequency below visible radiations which can come from outside of the visible universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1427] viXra:1712.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:58:41

Age of The Universe Paradox

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: Pages.

The question are: Will we ever know if there are objects outside of the detectable universe radiating in wave length longer than CBR? Can we date fundamental particles, or space? We only measure the universe with visual radiations. Doesn't it seem that the size and age of the universe is determined by the size of our telescope?
Category: Astrophysics

[1426] viXra:1712.0578 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-24 00:05:22

Big Bang Inflation Paradox Essay

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 10 Pages.

Big-bang and universe expansion are illusions of cosmic redshift. Doppler redshift is over 92% dominating. And, path loss of frequency causes exponentially proportional redshift. The expansion of the universe is defined by it's boundary, not the separation galaxies. The fundamentals of redshift and space are examined.
Category: Astrophysics

[1425] viXra:1712.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-24 00:15:58

Dark Matter and Dark Energy Paradox Essay

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 7 Pages.

Many incomprehensible paradoxes are created by dark matter and dark energy. Physical matter, dark or not, has to occupy space and prevent other matter from taking the same location. On the other hand, isn't it meaningless if dark matter and dark energy can occupy the same space of ordinary matter and energy without interactions?
Category: Astrophysics

[1424] viXra:1712.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-22 00:57:12

To Study on Examples! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Hypothesis of Emergence of Extraordinary Events on Earth – the Movement of Power Educations on the Internal Surface of the Pacific Plateau Causes a Tsunami, and on His Borders – Earthquakes and Volcanoe

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The hypothesis of emergence of extraordinary events on Earth – the movement of power educations on the internal surface of the Pacific plateau causes a tsunami, and on his borders – earthquakes and volcanoes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1423] viXra:1712.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 19:54:51

Updated Kepler Exoplanet Discoveries Due to New Theory of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Utilizing the General Theory and the Radiation Principle of Stellar Evolution it is made clear that the actual count of discovered exoplanets is over 40,000,000 as of the publication date of this paper. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1422] viXra:1712.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 21:54:13

The Refutation of Gravitationa Attraction

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 12 Pages.

Gravitational acceleration is independent of composition, shape, size, surface, and distance by falling body experiments.

On the other hand, attraction acceleration is dependent on it's mass and composition (shape, size, surface, and distance are distribution of mass, or function of mass and distance).

Therefore,gravity is not attraction.


Category: Astrophysics

[1421] viXra:1712.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 01:33:03

Никитин В.Н., Никитина Н.Н., Никитин И.В. ГОРОД БОГА – КВИНТЭССЕНЦИЯ ЭКСКЛЮЗИВНЫХ ГИПОТЕЗ ИЗ ГЛУБИНКИ Город Бога – это продукт галактического распада Вселенской Белой Дыры.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina N.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Город Бога – это продукт галактического распада Вселенской Белой Дыры.
Category: Astrophysics

[1420] viXra:1712.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-18 07:26:09

At the Bottom Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v., Nikitina N.N. the Flat Bottom of Lunar Craters is a Pripylenny Surface of the Frozen Liquid

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitina N.N.
Comments: 1 Page.

The flat bottom of lunar craters is a pripylenny surface of the frozen liquid.
Category: Astrophysics

[1419] viXra:1712.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 16:18:36

Tying Gravitational Work to Energy Transformations and Other Principles in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Gravitational work is defined as the star doing work on itself as it collapses into a "planet". This work translates to various energy transformations, due to Gravitational Potential energy being converted to kinetic energy and then to friction, heat and electrical energy and back to potential energy in different forms. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1418] viXra:1712.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 08:28:16

Stellar Metamorphosis: Astron Classification Table

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 3 Pages.

I present a classification table of astrons made possible due to the theory of Stellar Metamorphosis(GTSM).
Category: Astrophysics

[1417] viXra:1712.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 08:11:26

Without Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Three mathematicians have a different explanation for the accelerating expansion of the universe that does without theories of "dark energy." [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1416] viXra:1712.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 06:45:11

Particle Double Nature Reason

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 34 Pages.

How The Matter Is Created? Why The Particle Has Double Nature? What's The Gravity Reason And Mechanism? Does the gravity needs time to effect or works instantly? If the Planet moves by gravity, why does the moon revolve the Metonic cycle which the Earth doesn't? The Matter Creation is the main question I discuss in this paper, tries to explain why the Particle has double nature.. ( Paper Main Hypothesis: "The Matter Is Made Of Light")
Category: Astrophysics

[1415] viXra:1712.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 21:42:30

A Brief Experiment of Space

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: Pages.

We have learned to manipulating matter and energy since our first existence, however, never space. Luckily, there is vacuum sharing some properties of space. We can create and shape vacuum to some extent. The experiment observes the interactions of vacuum, mass and energy to derive a logical understanding of space.
Category: Astrophysics

[1414] viXra:1712.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 02:55:57

On the Limit Energy of Cosmic Rays

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 4 Pages. 4 p., 1 fig.

It is established that the upper limit of cosmic-ray energy due to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect is local. On the basis of the mechanistic interpretation of J. Wheeler's geometrodynamic concept, a more fundamental limitation on this limit was established, which, in the final analysis, depends on Planck's size (ђγ/c^3)^1/2 and for protons the limit is 4.51×10^18 eV. The inflection in the spectrum curve, the "knee", corresponds to the mass-energy of the vortex tube of the limiting proton-electron contour, 1.46×10^15 eV. For other nuclei these energies increase in proportion to the atomic number of the element.
Category: Astrophysics

[1413] viXra:1712.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 06:21:21

Particle Double Nature Reason

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 34 Pages.

How The Matter Is Created? Why The Particle Has Double Nature? What's The Gravity Reason And Mechanism? Does the gravity needs time to effect or works instantly? If the Planet moves by gravity, why does the moon revolve the Metonic cycle which the Earth doesn't? The Matter Creation is the main question I discuss in this paper, tries to explain why the Particle has double nature.. ( Paper Main Hypothesis: "The Matter Is Made Of Light")
Category: Astrophysics

[1412] viXra:1712.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 11:26:37

Time Arrow and Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time - from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn’t dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment world-wide, commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1411] viXra:1712.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 19:43:19

Gravitational Waves Carry Negative Energy

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 90 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitational waves carry negative energy” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons” Adrian Ferent This means gravitational waves carry gravitational energy and momentum. “The Gravitational waves have their energy contained in gravitons” Adrian Ferent “The gravitons give a negative momentum to mass-carrying particles to attract them.” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational force is mediated by gravitons faster than the speed of light, with negative momentum” Adrian Ferent The momentum of the graviton is negative p = - m × v and I calculated the speed of the graviton va. “Because the momentum is negative, the relativistic mass -m of the graviton is negative!” Adrian Ferent “The relativistic mass m of the graviton is negative, this implies that the energy of the graviton is negative, E = - m × va2.” Adrian Ferent This means: “Gravitation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons have negative energy E = a × f and the speed higher than the speed of light” Adrian Ferent Einstein’s gravitational waves carry positive energy. That is why: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything because Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist. The same fraud was in 2013 with the Higgs Boson, the so-called “God particle”.
Category: Astrophysics

[1410] viXra:1712.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 09:47:16

Black Hole's Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1409] viXra:1712.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 14:11:00

Gravitational Collapse: A Mass and Energy Loss Phenomenon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 3 illustrations

For gravitational collapse to occur, a body needs to have mass and energy to lose. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1408] viXra:1712.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-09 19:33:05

Strong Support for the Mass Independence and Coherency Principles of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis: NGTS-1b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 3 references

The discovery of NGTS-1b strongly supports the principles of mass independence and coherency of stellar evolution and formation according to the general theory. Explanation is provided along with link to original discovery paper showing the issues.
Category: Astrophysics

[1407] viXra:1712.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 11:31:38

Earth is Bombarded with Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1406] viXra:1712.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 04:00:27

Basics of Astrophysics Revisited. III Supercritical Sun Idea.

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 1 Page.

Supercritical state of solar matter might overcome some remaining difficulties of liquid Sun concept.
Category: Astrophysics

[1405] viXra:1712.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 07:59:31

New Candidate for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1404] viXra:1712.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 01:44:27

What Cut the Dinosaurs

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin IV, Nikitina N.N.
Comments: 5 Pages.

High-energy currents of the Moon caused cataclysms on the Earth. The observed flares on the objects of the solar system are the result of explosions of energy bubbles.
Category: Astrophysics

[1403] viXra:1712.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 07:04:09

Molecular Diffusion Model as an Alternative to Dark Energy

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy is rightfully considered to be the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. The Big Bang theory is strongly favoured and the most accepted theory for the origin of the universe. On the other hand the competing Steady State theory also has an equal importance. In this paper I present a theory that bridges the gap between the Big Bang theory and the Steady State theory. The molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this manuscript as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1402] viXra:1712.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-02 11:24:10

The Mass Modeling Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis stars lose mass as they evolve, therefore a simple principle can be drawn up regarding their mass loss and modeling for future scientists.
Category: Astrophysics

[1401] viXra:1712.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 16:28:58

The Angular Momentum Problem with Barycenters in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A serious problem is brought to light concerning establishment's acceptance of stars not losing most of their mass and their acceptance of the permanence of orbits. This is due to the angular momentum of objects in the outer solar system being way too high to maintain a stable barycenter given stars lose considerable mass as they evolve.
Category: Astrophysics

[1400] viXra:1711.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-27 18:51:15

Multilinear Extensions of Gerges Francis Twadrous Equation

Authors: NS Fugato
Comments: 5 Pages.

1. The Gerges Francis equation states: D = A R^2 Pi^n 2. Clearly this equation follows from the basic planetary chart and the seminal work of Gerges Francis. 3. If the read is not familiar with this basic equation, we refer to [1-5]. 4. This paper discusses multilinear extensions. 5. Much future research needs to be done.
Category: Astrophysics

[1399] viXra:1711.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-24 06:05:26

Exclusive Condition of Existence of Life on Earth

Authors: Nikitina N.N, Nikitin I.V, Nikitin V.N.
Comments: 1 Page. 1

Life on Earth arose because of the anomalous structure of the solar system
Category: Astrophysics

[1398] viXra:1711.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-24 06:09:28

Attention! We Pass the Cosmic Forecast of the Future

Authors: Nikitina NN, Nikitin IV, Nikitin VN
Comments: 3 Pages.

The climate of the solar system is predictable and entirely determined by the energy state of outer space
Category: Astrophysics

[1397] viXra:1711.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-22 05:52:56

The Raspberry Shaped Multiverse, Pulsating Between Big Crunch and Big Bang, Based on Rigid Transformable Massless Axion Higgs Particles.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of rigid transformable string particles. The resulting model is called “Quantum FFF Theory” (FFF=Function Follows Form). As a consequence however, the standard model should be extended with an alternative Higgs boson of different mass series (recent LHC measurements) as a base for unstable microscopic dark matter black hole (DMBH) nuclei (for Ball Lightning as interference Higgs knots) up to stable (Sunspot and S-Nova) black hole nuclei merging into a cyclic Big Crunch/ Big Bang nucleus. Dark Energy of the vacuum is assume to be created by an oscillating massless springy stringy Axion/Higgs field virgin vacuum particle, being one half of a new emerging quantum gravity system combine with the opposing pressure of a pushing graviton. . The vacuum particles are assumed to oscillate in tandem inside spiral (chiral) flux tubes between photon communication nodes with a variable Planck length as a base, creating a tetrahedron based chiral vacuum lattice connected by nodes between two tetrahedrons. As a result, the dark matter black hole Big Bang was the cold explosion into dark matter black hole splinter chunks evaporating into the oscillating Axion/ Higgs field and series of smaller chunks, leaving a trail of Hydrogen creating stable black holes behind, also called the Lyman Alpha forest. So, the new extended standard model is based on different geometrical string structures for Higgs based dark matter black holes but also extended with a monopole photon/ Gluon system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1396] viXra:1711.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-20 23:52:24

Die Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektr. Energie, Die X81 Zum Avancieren Und Die Dunkle Energie im Detail 1

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 10 Pages.

Aufgezeigt wird die Möglichkeit der Wechselwirkung zwischen der Rotationsenergie der Erde und ihrer Gravitationskraft zur Energieumwandlung ihrer Rotationsenergie in mechanische / elektrische Energie. Gezeigt wird eine technische Anwendung, bei der sich die Kreisel nicht tangential, sondern senktrecht von der Erde entfernen können. Hinweise zum Michelson-Experiment (richtige Wahl der Bezugssysteme), zur Konstanz der Lichtgeschwindigkeit und zur "Dunklen Energie" als elektromagnetische Strahlung
Category: Astrophysics

[1395] viXra:1711.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-21 01:10:20

ИЛЛЮЗИЯ СУЩЕСТВОВАНИЯ ЧИСЛА «ПИ»

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Асимметрия всего – вот главное условие существования Вселенной, а значит не существует абсолютной окружности и, как следствие этого, числа Пи.
Category: Astrophysics

[1394] viXra:1711.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-17 15:50:05

Differences Between Establishment Dogma, Electric Universe and Stellar Metamorphosis (GTSM)

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A diagram is presented to show the differences between establishment dogma, electric universe and stellar metamorphosis (GTSM). Additions will be made at a later date for further clarification.
Category: Astrophysics

[1393] viXra:1711.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-18 00:38:43

Heretical Physics Pluto Without Newton

Authors: John E.Miller
Comments: 6 Pages.

Physics has been static for the last '400' years, hidebound by Newton's hypothesis of gravitational attraction between heavenly bodies. Such hypothesis is not proven, by existing published data. This paper will derive a solution that complies with published data and the correct application of mathematical laws by analyzing the orbiting, Pluto-Charon circular waltz. The ultimate pointer, to the failure of Newtonian theory and a correction to Kepler's laws. A previous paper "NEWTON CORRECTED", the theory of galaxy energy spheres will be applied to explain the complete mechanics for Pluto-Charon orbits and spins. The Universe is a mass packed solid, as is an ocean of water, when something moves everything else responds.
Category: Astrophysics

[1392] viXra:1711.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-18 03:41:43

ЭКСКЛЮЗИВНОЕ УСЛОВИЕ СУЩЕСТВОВАНИЯ ЖИЗНИ НА ЗЕМЛЕ

Authors: Nikitin V.N.
Comments: 1 Page.

Жизнь на Земле возникла благодаря аномальному строению Солнечной системы
Category: Astrophysics

[1391] viXra:1711.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-18 03:44:10

Внимание! Передаём космический прогноз будущего

Authors: Nikitina N.N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitin V.N.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Климат Солнечной системы предсказуем и всецело определяется энергетическим состоянием космического пространства.
Category: Astrophysics

[1390] viXra:1711.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-17 01:34:00

The Most Romantic from the Most Current

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 4 Pages.

The steady growth of the number of arcanas of the mysterious universe is a sign of imperfection of existing theories and ideas about the surrounding world, which contributes to the creation of radically new alternative ideas and theories. New ideas should be piercing and understandable to everyone, to promote an adequate perception of reality and to be as much as possible interconnected with each other and with existing scientific knowledge. In this case, alternative ideas will inevitably become punchy! The results of long-term theoretical studies of abnormal physical phenomena of the processes of the origin and evolution of the universe are embodied in the exclusive hypotheses of the creative collective "NIKI" and are set forth here in a logical sequence, from the moment the Universe emerged to its transformation into "nothing."
Category: Astrophysics

[1389] viXra:1711.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-15 07:17:40

The Einstein Cross Lensing Effect Explained by the Quadruple Dark Matter Formation Process of Edge-on Spiral Galaxies, According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, it is assumed that the Galaxy formation process starts with the dual pairing process of so called dark matter black hole splinters created by the Big Bang nucleus explosion.. Galaxy stability is assumed to be based on the external (new physics) dual dark matter black hole configurations with a growing spiral shaped star and Super Nova black hole population in between, perpendicular to the dual Black Hole axis.. As a consequence, all spiral galaxies should show to the edge-on observer, a quadruple configuration of dark matter postulated to be the origin of the Einstein Cross effect. The successive central dark matter black hole, is supposed to be growing by smaller super nova black hole mergers, created inside the spiral galaxy plane.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[525] viXra:1801.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-11 04:52:23

Quantum FFF Theory, a Conscious String Theory with Different Vacuum Trajectories for Axion-Higgs Field/ Photons Respectively Fermions, Gluons and Bosons.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 12 Pages.

This conscious string theory also called Quantum FFF Theory, (FFF = Function Follows Form) is a semi classical theory based on a symmetrical cold Big Bang evaporation into 8 or 12 CP ( Charge Parity) symmetric copy (anti) material universes. It can be called a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and shape transformation processes of real sub quantum shaped rigid stringy entangled particles. Each particle is supposed to be conscious by its entanglement with 7 or 11 CP symmetric copy particles located inside the other 7 or 11 CP symmetric universal bubbles at long distance with raspberry shape. The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity (CP) mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang. So each particle has to compete for wavefunction collapse with 7 or 11 anti copy particles and each person’s choice ( free will) also. So: we live inside 8 or 12 quantum particle based instant entangled pinball machines making choices for our own reptile brain based flash intuition down to single particle slit interference. However our frontal cortex seems to be able to make social corrections ( Vetos) within 300 msec. The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for other theories.
Category: Astrophysics

[524] viXra:1712.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-24 08:18:37

Disproof of Bigbang

Authors: Ivo van der Rijt
Comments: 18 Pages.

NA
Category: Astrophysics

[523] viXra:1712.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 06:21:29

Disproof of Bigbang

Authors: Ivo van der Rijt
Comments: 15 Pages.

NA
Category: Astrophysics

[522] viXra:1712.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-20 06:56:08

Disproof of Bigbang

Authors: Ivo van der Rijt
Comments: 15 Pages.

NA
Category: Astrophysics

[521] viXra:1712.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-19 11:41:55

Disproof of Bigbang

Authors: Ivo van der Rijt
Comments: 14 Pages.

NA
Category: Astrophysics

[520] viXra:1712.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-13 04:39:42

Molecular Diffusion Model as an Alternative to Dark Energy

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 4 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy is rightfully considered as the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. The Big Bang theory is strongly favoured and the most accepted theory for the origin of the Universe. On the other hand the competing Steady State theory also has an equal importance for some scientists. In this paper I present a theory that bridges the gap between the Big Bang theory and the Steady State theory. A theory/model has also been introduced in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion.
Category: Astrophysics

[519] viXra:1712.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-26 04:13:27

Molecular Diffusion Model as an Alternative to Dark Energy

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 3 pages, 1 figure

Dark energy is rightfully considered to be the reason for causing the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Universe expanding at an accelerated rate instead of slowing down or coming to a stop seems extremely uncanny. The Big Bang theory is strongly favoured and the most accepted theory for the origin of the Universe. On the other hand the competing Steady State theory also has an equal importance. In this paper I present a theory that bridges the gap between the Big Bang theory and the Steady State theory. A novel theory/model has also been introduced in order to explain the mysterious accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this theory/model, the large-scale structures are receding away from each other at an accelerated rate instead of space undergoing accelerated expansion.
Category: Astrophysics

[518] viXra:1711.0443 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-09 03:13:10

The Semi Classical Model of Quantum FFF Theory based on Symmetric Transformable Entangled Rigid Strings.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 36 Pages.

Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and transformation processes of real but different shaped symmetric sub quantum rigid stringy particles. Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles. The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang. The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.
Category: Astrophysics

[517] viXra:1711.0379 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-23 03:47:16

The Raspberry Shaped Multiverse, Pulsating Between Big Crunch and Big Bang, Based on Rigid Transformable Massless Axion Higgs Particles.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages. sorry.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of rigid transformable string particles. The resulting model is called “Quantum FFF Theory” (FFF=Function Follows Form). As a consequence however, the standard model should be extended with an alternative Higgs boson of different mass series (recent LHC measurements) as a base for unstable microscopic dark matter black hole (DMBH) nuclei (for Ball Lightning as interference Higgs knots) up to stable (Sunspot and S-Nova) black hole nuclei merging into a cyclic Big Crunch/ Big Bang nucleus. Dark Energy of the vacuum is assume to be created by an oscillating massless springy stringy Axion/Higgs field virgin vacuum particle, being one half of a new emerging quantum gravity system combine with the opposing pressure of a pushing graviton. . The vacuum particles are assumed to oscillate in tandem inside spiral (chiral) flux tubes between photon communication nodes with a variable Planck length as a base, creating a tetrahedron based chiral vacuum lattice connected by nodes between two tetrahedrons. As a result, the dark matter black hole Big Bang was the cold explosion into dark matter black hole splinter chunks evaporating into the oscillating Axion/ Higgs field and series of smaller chunks, leaving a trail of Hydrogen creating stable black holes behind, also called the Lyman Alpha forest. So, the new extended standard model is based on different geometrical string structures for Higgs based dark matter black holes but also extended with a monopole photon/ Gluon system.
Category: Astrophysics