Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1123] viXra:1702.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-20 09:33:51

First Image of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1122] viXra:1702.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:45:36

Gravitomagnetism Including an Introduction to the Coriolis Theory

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 207 Pages.

One day in 2002, I discovered in a newspaper that "dark matter" is supposed to be responsible for the constancy of the orbital velocity of the stars, and that velocity is supposed to be in contradiction with the Kepler laws. I was upset. We can travel to the moon and invent great medicines, we have the supposed miracle-theory of general relativity and nobody can explain it? Next hour, I was rumbling in a slide of my old desk, where I stored old papers from my university period, and I found back the analogy I made between electromagnetism and gravitation. I never trusted Einstein's relativity theory, because it only calculates what is observed by using light, but not what is really happening. Also the great Richard Feynman once confessed that he didn't understand why gravitation would be so different from other physical theories. A few days later, I found the gravitational consequences of the motion of masses. Month after month, I steadily discovered that all the cosmic issues that are not understood by mainstream, make sense through gravitomagnetism. The shape of supernovae, the disc and the spiral galaxies, the motion of asteroids, the flatness of planetary systems, the tiny rings of Saturn, black holes, the expanding Earth and Sun, etc. I can't find any cosmic issue that is in contradiction with gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1121] viXra:1702.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:47:06

The Solar Protuberance Theory - Our Solar System and the Planetary System Creation

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 56 Pages.

It is a widely accepted misconception that the solar system would have been created by the collapse of nebulae around the solar region, just as our galaxy itself. Where this is true for the stars in the galaxy, this is definitely wrong for our planetary system. Indeed, many stars in our galaxy were created during the formation of our disk galaxy out of a regular, spherical or elliptical galaxy, due to the angular momentum of the galaxy's center, which contains fast spinning stars and black holes. This process has been extendedly explained in my book “Gravitomagnetism - including an introduction to the Coriolis Gravity Theory”. The disk was compressed by the angular gravity of the galaxy's center, a second gravity field on top of Newtonian Gravity. The smaller and colder parts were able to clump together and heathen up by that compression. Elsewhere, voids were created that way, and a heterogeneous disk, as our spiral disk galaxy shows us, could form. The difference between the solar system creation and the galaxy creation is enormous. Where we find numerous stars in the galaxy on the same orbit or at close orbits, our solar system counts only nine (or, more correctly: eight) planets, which orbit very far from each-other. Moreover, on each orbit or nearby it, there are no other planets nor objects. The only place where other objects are found is on the asteroid belt and, as an extension of that belt, a number of asteroids, called Trojans, on Jupiter’s orbit. The nebula theory has numerous unsolved problems. The very existence of the Trojans prove that asteroids doesn’t just go away or aren’t just absorbed by the planet of (or near) an orbit. At the contrary, one should then find several planets on the same orbit, and remaining asteroids from the nebula. The diversity of the planets’ spin orientations is another problem. More problems arise regarding the big difference between the set of core planets and the set of gas planets. Nothing in the nebula theory can explain the differences of spin either. In this little book, the reader will find numerous arguments in favor to a totally different point of view: the planets all come from an electromagnetic solar explosion. The reason of the existence of a set of four core planets versus the set of four gas planets will be explained, and why their masses, as groups, are related like the mass quotient of a proton versus an electron. Jupiter’s spin rate will be explained and the orientation of the planets’ spin as well. Also the orbital distance between the planets can be explained with very high probability. In a few moments, the reader will discover this fresh Solar Protuberance Paradigm, enriched with a multitude of evidence. Enjoy the reading!
Category: Astrophysics

[1120] viXra:1702.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:58:27

Gravitational Constants, the Earth's Expansion and Coriolis Gravity

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 33 Pages.

Is not everything settled with Gravitomagnetism, the analogy of electromagnetism for gravity, with which I explained the formation of disk galaxies without dark matter, the shape of supernova and hourglass stars, and many other phenomena? Is there more to be told? In this little booklet, I show that one of the parameters that are used to define the Sun's dynamics can be expressed by the other parameters. In other words, the Sun's gravity is defined by its angular velocity and its radius. This amazing property finds its origin in the way how particles interact, and the way how I expect that all kinds of forces work: by a Coriolis effect between particles. Henceforth the calculus of the Gravitational Constant is possible. Linked to this phenomenon is the expansion of spinning objects, like the Earth, the Sun and the stars. This occurs by gravity as well, and this can be explained by both the Gravitomagnetic as the Coriolis approach. Discover in the next few pages how these new gravitational realities take form.
Category: Astrophysics

[1119] viXra:1702.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 12:16:51

Asteroid Redirect

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

Asteroids are a great threat to mankind. Here we will show that it is possible to redirect them from their trajectories by means of a strong gravitational repulsion, produced by the gravitational interaction between the asteroid and a Gravitational Spacecraft positioned close to the asteroid.
Category: Astrophysics

[1118] viXra:1702.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-18 22:26:45

Rocket Invention Using Anti-Gravity Wheel Torque Induced Gyroscopic Precession to Decrease Apparent Weight and Increase Thrust Efficiency.

Authors: H Dhaliwal
Comments: 4 Pages.

By attaching multiple massive anti- gravity wheel type structures to the rocket we may achieve a less apparent weight for the rocket, allowing it to lift easier. Instead of a wheel, a hollow saucer like pod shall be used, attached to a bar, which connects to the rocket. There are multiple anti gravity saucers attached to the rocket in a symmetric fashion connecting to a point at the rocket. These saucers will carry water, fuel or cargo which is minused from the rocket and added to the saucer. Displacing the weight from the rocket and into the saucers will ensure no extra weight is added. These saucers will be spun up extremely fast from the ground via motors, storing energy in them. The motors are ground based at the lift off site and will decouple from the saucers on lift off. The torque induced gyroscopic precession of these spinning saucers will decrease the apparent weight of the rocket as the rocket raises, allowing the thrust to make the rocket raise easier. The fuel in the rocket tank will not be filled 100%. Perhaps it will be filled 50%. The other 50% of the fuel is displaced and divided amongst the saucers and stored in them. As the rockets main fuel tank level lowers during mid flight, the fuel in the saucers can be pumped into the tank of the rocket for continued use. These saucers spin rate will be slowed down as the rocket raises, allowing easier transfer of fuel. When the fuel in the saucer tanks is depleted, the anti gravity saucer arms can be disconnected from the rocket and the saucers shall fall back towards earth. Instead of fuel, water can also be stored in these saucers for long term human missions to mars. The water can be frozen solid in the saucer tanks to keep the saucers cool as they ascend, and the ice will melt as the rocket ascends. The water tank in the rocket will be empty on lift off. But will be refilled in the same manner as above after reaching a certain altitude. Cargo that can withstand centrifugal forces can also be stored, such as food, or metal equipment. This equipment can then be reintroduced to the rocket by moving the saucer pods to the rocket. The whole rocket structure can be on a platform that makes the rocket setup rotate just before liftoff so the saucer wheels can start their gyroscopic precession. Or mechanism can be built into the saucer arms to push the saucer outward a bit to start the gyroscopic precession. Or such a setup may not be needed as a rocket rotates by itself usually as it ascends which will efficiently create the needed gyroscopic precession.
Category: Astrophysics

[1117] viXra:1702.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:25:24

Introduction to the Flyby Anomaly: the Gyrotational Acceleration of Orbiting Satellites

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the former paper “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination”, a physical deduction is found for the motion and the variations of the tilt of asteroids. This deduction is based upon the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1116] viXra:1702.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:30:02

The Observed Symmetrical Supernovae Remnants Form Overwhelming Evidence for the Gravitomagnetic Force

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 6 Pages.

Supernovae remnants that are double-lobe or double-ring shaped with a central ring are fully explained by Gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1115] viXra:1702.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:37:15

On the Formation of Prograde Disk Galaxies from Spherical Galaxies with a Global Null Angular Momentum

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

There seems to exist a way to transform apparent chaos into an ordered system. The key for such a behavior lays in gravity itself, and more precisely in gravitomagnetism. The results of the G Probe-B experiment, in 2011, proved gravitomagnetism’s superiority over other theories like General Relativity and its deduced metrics, and it is in this light that the solution can be found. We apply the gravitomagnetic principles to a random spherical galaxy with a global null angular momentum and unveil how this system eventually becomes a disk galaxy. Moreover, we deduce the quantum nature of galaxies through this process and, by the analogy between electromagnetism and gravitomagnetism, we prove by deduction the quantum nature of atomic structures as well.
Category: Astrophysics

[1114] viXra:1702.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:46:36

Gravitomagnetic Evolutionary Classification of Galaxies

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Milky Way might be a bar galaxy. In this paper, we show that bar galaxies are spiral galaxies with an orientation change of the bulge's gravitomagnetic field. The tilting of the gravitomagnetic field evolves from the bulge to the galaxy's extremities at wave speed and the physical acceleration of the stars away from the disc follow soon. Finally, this will result in a new, slightly elliptical galaxy that will again turn into a disc galaxy and then a spiral galaxy. If the Milky Way really is a bar galaxy, the solar system will some day get a novel acceleration (an apocalyptic sway?) towards a new, widely oscillating position in the galaxy. Finally, we come to a Gravitomagnetic Evolutionary Classification of Galaxies that is different from the usual classifications.
Category: Astrophysics

[1113] viXra:1702.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:49:23

Does Gravity Conserve Angular Momentum at a Distance?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

We found [4] that the key for many cosmic events lays in gravity, which is very well explained by gravitomagnetism, as suggested by O. Heaviside and further developed as a causal and coherent theory by O. Jefimenko. The angular momentum of spinning objects is transmitted to the surroundings by gravity, and form the rings of Saturn and the disc galaxies. In this paper, we analyze what happens with the gravity fields of collapsing stars. It is found that not only the mechanical angular momentum is regulating the orientation of disc galaxies. The magnetic-like component of gravity, which is velocity-dependent, is found to create forces that are consistent with the conservation of angular momentum. However, the retardation of the gravity fields by the speed of light, which is velocity-dependent, is found to cause a discrepancy between the mechanical angular momentum and the transmitted gravitational angular momentum.
Category: Astrophysics

[1112] viXra:1702.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:57:29

On the Variability of the Gravitational Constant by the Evolution of Stars and Galaxy Clusters

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 6 Pages.

Gravitomagnetism, initiated by O. Heaviside [1] and further developed by O. Jefimenko [2] consists of the Newtonian gravity and gyrotation, which is totally analogous to magnetism. This model successfully explained an important number of physical and cosmic phenomena [3]. Striking is the possibility of gravitational repel by particles with like-oriented spins. I also showed [5] why the gravitational constant is varying locally and I prove that, the particles in rotating bodies will preferentially form distributions that globally attract. This explains why masses have never been found to be repulsive. I deduced a new definition for “mass” as a vector, and conclude that the gravitational constant’s value is the sum of the orientations of the elementary vector-masses while taking their spacing into account. I found why the gravity force is so weak and why cohesion forces are so large. In this paper, I attempt to define the variations of the Gravitational Constant in the evolution of stars, and show that, for the same global mass of a star during its evolution, white dwarfs possess a much stronger gravitational constant than the red giant stars. Based upon these findings, I study the possibility that relaxed galaxy clusters possess, due to the same process, a much lower gravitational constant than unrelaxed galaxy clusters. This might be the reason why gravity lensing is a hundred times larger than the visible mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[1111] viXra:1702.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:37:03

Elliptical Fly-By and Expected Gyro-gravitational Orbit Accelerations

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 8 Pages.

Following to the two former papers “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination” and “Cyclic Tilt Spin Vector Variations of Main Belt Asteroids due to the Solar Gyro-Gravitation”, wherein we theoretically studied the tilt motions and variations of spinning asteroids, we continue the analysis with the study of the orbit anomalies of satellites. The equations for the fly-by of satellites near the Earth, or near planets in general are deduced.
Category: Astrophysics

[1110] viXra:1702.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:40:10

The Gravitational Stellar Constant Allows for an Improved Description of Stellar and Black Hole Dynamics

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Sun’s dynamics defines our Gravitational Constant. In a former paper [2], that strict relationship has been shown, based upon the most fundamental equations of gravity and gyrotation (the magnetic equivalent for gravity), applied upon elementary particles. The consequence is that one parameter can be eliminated, as explained before [6] and this allows me to unveil some issues on the shape and the moments of inertia of stars, supernovae and black holes, and the possibility of double bursts of forming black holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1109] viXra:1702.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:43:35

Natural Decrease of Orbital Eccentricities

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

The amazing Solar Protuberance Theory gives three strong proofs for the creation of our planets from a huge electromagnetic eruption. I found a 99,98% probability fit between the initial planetary orbit diameters calculated with the theory and the actually observed ones. Since the initial orbits probably were highly eccentric, the question remains whether or not the actual planetary orbital eccentricities can be explained by the theory. This is proven here in different ways.
Category: Astrophysics

[1108] viXra:1702.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:46:57

Are Venus’ and Uranus’ Tilt of Natural Origin?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 15 Pages.

The formation theories of our solar system have still remained filled of question marks. Why are the orbits of Mercury and Pluto that much eccentric, and that of the other planets much less? Why are the axial tilts what they are? This we will discover in this paper. Here we will start from the primary model of a huge solar protuberance and next apply the electromagnetic and the gravitational dynamics to it. The application of these physics leads us to the description of how the planets arose, their orbits, their tilt, and their composition. Also we will comment why the Asteroids Belt and the Trojan Asteroids probably arose. Initially, we will bring in that the complete planetary system originated from a solar eruption, and reveal that the planets have successively developed in the order : Mercurius, Venus, the Earth, and Mars on the one hand, and on the other hand Neptune, next Uranus and probably Pluto, then successively Saturnus and Jupiter. At last, the Asteroids Belt was formed, just after the formation of Mars and Jupiter. This theory is supported by the other parameters such as the comparison of the planet’s density, size and chemical composition. Also the comparison of their tilt, the spacing between their orbits, and the elliptic orbit and tilt of some planets support the theory. We find evidence that Venus’ and Uranus’ tilt are totally natural.
Category: Astrophysics

[1107] viXra:1702.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:48:57

Outsmarting Inertia

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

Inertia is analyzed in the light of the Coriolis Gravity Theory. It is found that inertia is orientation-dependent, which opens a way to outsmart its effects. Particles can be oriented and made inertia-insensitive for given accelerations and forces by using magnetic fields. Although the theory allows it, effective technology to realize this still has to be developed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1106] viXra:1702.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:50:57

Novel Method for the Evaluation of the Rotation Velocity of Solar-like Stars

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

The evaluation of stars’ properties is classically performed by comparing the stars’ light spectra and fluxes to the known solar properties. Another method to find the stars’ rotation velocity will be discussed here: the extrapolation to the other solar-like stars of an empiric solar property, which consists of a direct relationship between the star’s frequency and its surface gravity, without the need of any other parameters.
Category: Astrophysics

[1105] viXra:1702.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:54:02

Gravitomagnetism Successes in Explaining the Cosmos

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 41 Pages.

Gravitomagnetism is almost totally similar to Electromagnetism. I call 'Gyrotation' the magnetic-like part of gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1104] viXra:1702.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:01:32

How to Measure the Spin of a Black Hole

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

Black holes and fast spinning stars attract the surrounding objects in a different way than Newtonian gravity. As shown by my work on Gravitomagnetism [1], the spin of fast spinning stars and black holes is far the most important factor in the behavior of nearby objects. This paper shows that the accretion disc of any black hole is orbiting in prograde way. Moreover, it is explained that the accretion disc’s turbulence, curvature and quantity of the vortexes are predominant factors for the gravitational strength of a black hole. The measurement of the spin of a black hole depends mainly on this factor, and to a lesser extent, to a few other factors.
Category: Astrophysics

[1103] viXra:1702.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:05:47

Considerations on the Fundamental Forces Based Upon the Coriolis Gravity Theory

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 4 Pages.

The gravitational constant G is clearly not a universal constant [5]. It seems impossible to find a precise value for G. In this paper, I will analyze the reasons for that issue, according Gravitomagnetism and the Coriolis Gravitation Theory. In my paper “Fundamental Causes of an Attractive Gravitational Constant, Varying in Place and Time” [4], I explained that, according Gravitomagnetism and the Coriolis Gravitation Theory, the orientation of the particles’ spin determines whether a set of particles attract or repel, but I proved that attraction takes the lead. Here, I show, based upon [3] , that the constant G depends from star to star. Furthermore, I generalize the Coriolis concept for the forces in electromagnetism and in quantum mechanics, as an identical process for all types of forces. I look at the meaning of matter, mass and electrical charge.
Category: Astrophysics

[1102] viXra:1702.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:08:11

Thoughts on the Nebular Theory of our Planetary System Formation

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 5 Pages.

The hypothesis of a Solar Nebula, also known as the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, is currently the most accepted explanation for the origin of the Solar System.
Category: Astrophysics

[1101] viXra:1702.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:10:01

On the Formation of Close Binary Systems

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

I discuss the approach of black holes based upon the improved theory of gravity originated by Oliver Heaviside [2] and find that the Schwarzschild metric is highly improbable to occur at all, if not impossible. I found that a spinning black hole is always emitting information at the poles [6]. Close binary stars containing a fast spinning star or black hole and a companion are found to emerge from only one original star. Close binary stars consisting of two fast spinning stars or black holes are found to be much more rarely.
Category: Astrophysics

[1100] viXra:1702.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:16:21

Why Does Saturn Have Many Tiny Rings ?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 7 Pages.

This publication is based on the fundamentals of the dynamics of masses interacting by gravitation, given by the Maxwell analogy for gravitation or the Heaviside field. In our paper “A coherent dual vector field theory for gravitation” © oct 2003, we have developed a model. This dynamics model allowed us to quantify by vector way the transfer of angular movement point by point, and to bring a simple, precise and detailed explanation to a large number of cosmic phenomena. With this model the flatness of our solar system and our Milky way has been explained as being caused by an angular collapse of the orbits, creating so a density increase of the disc. The constant velocity of the stars has been calculated, and the halo explained. The “missing mass” (dark matter) problem has been solved without harming the Keplerian motion law. The theory also explains the deviation of mass like in the diablo shape of rotary supernova having mass losses, and it defines the angle of mass losses at 0° and above 35°16’. Some quantitative calculations describe in detail the relativistic attraction forces maintaining entire the fast rotating stars, the tendency of distortion toward a torus-like shape, and the description of the attraction fields outside of a rotary black hole. Qualitative considerations on the binary pulsars show the process of cannibalization, with the repulsion of the mass at the poles and to the equator, and this could also explain the origin of the spin-up and the spin-down process. The bursts of collapsing rotary stars are explained as well. The conditions for the repulsion of masses are also explained, caused by important velocity differences between masses. Orbit ‘chaos’ is better explained as well. Finally, the demonstration is made that gyrotation is related to the Relativity Theory. The detailed photographs of the Saturn rings made by the Cassini-Huygens mission gives us new evidence for the validity of Gravitomagnetism. It explains the presence of the flat rings around Saturn, the presence of thin parallel rings, the shape of the edges of the F-ring and the reason why such rings are present at the border of large ring zones.
Category: Astrophysics

[1099] viXra:1702.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 11:50:33

New Axion Detection Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1098] viXra:1702.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 01:08:29

Cause Hypothesis Lunotryaseny Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Movement of Gravitational Educations on an Internal Surface of a Cover of the Moon Owing to Influence of "Tidal" Forces of the Moon and the Sun is the Main Reason for Lunotryaseniye.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Movement of gravitational educations on an internal surface of a cover of the Moon owing to influence of "tidal" forces of the Moon and the Sun is the main reason for lunotryaseniye.
Category: Astrophysics

[1097] viXra:1702.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 01:21:17

Hypothesis of the Origin of Ice Ages on the Earth Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Recurrence of Fluctuations of Internal Energy Pressure of the Solar System is a Basic Reason of Emergence of Ice Ages on Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Recurrence of fluctuations of internal energy pressure of the Solar system is a basic reason of emergence of Ice Ages on Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1096] viXra:1702.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-13 14:23:15

Next-gen Dark Matter Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1095] viXra:1702.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-10 10:55:07

Modified Gravity from Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1094] viXra:1702.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 09:31:55

New Findings Concerning Dark Matter

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 9 Pages.

SUMMARY. Dozens of exceeding experiments all over the world were performed with high hopes to find dark matter particles. No evidence for any dark particle could be found despite all these efforts. This is an overwhelming result. Furthermore, one must consider some discrepancy between the theory of dark matter and astrophysical observations. But there is another theory to explain the galactic rotation curve by calculation, called method of gravity areas, which is based on the gravitation theorem and other well-known facts. Newton's gravitation law remains untouched, and no unknown is needed. At any position there is a single gravitational vector towards the centre and another single vector towards the opposite direction. So the billions-of-masses-problem has changed to a solvable threecomponent- problem. The summed up gravitational vectors of all near and far away mass within a galactic disc, baryonic mass only, will result in a horizontal gravitation curve, equivalent to a horizontal rotation curve. The theory of gravity areas is based on well-known physical laws and verifiable parameters. Therefore, the theory can be proved wrong, but up to now it has not been disproved.
Category: Astrophysics

[1093] viXra:1702.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-08 09:31:36

CP Symmetry Between Material and Anti Material Copy Universes Combined with Local- and Multi-Universal Cycle Time.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

Recent measurements by the LHC are a strong support for the stability differences between (anti)-proton and (anti)-neutrons. See Nature: “Measurement of matter–antimatter differences in beauty baryon decays” According to Quantum FFF Theory however there should be a multiversal CP symmetric origin if we assume that the vacuum is able to become chiral. So I concentrate here on Construction principles for chiral “atoms of spacetime” based on geometrical 3-D chiral vacuum lattice models and consequences for spacetime, general relativity based space curvature and time variation, including cyclic Multi- Universal time, and local time. The chirality of the oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum lattice in each universe is assumed to be the origin of the difference between material or anti-material universes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1092] viXra:1702.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 14:15:10

Rethinking Gravity

Authors: Adrian Packham
Comments: 7 Pages. phulpackham@gmail.com

GRAVITY ABSTRACT. With advances in technology in recent years, in particular space telescopes and space probes, mankind can now see further into space with more accuracy than ever before. This also applies to the microscopic world with the development of The Large Hadron Collider and electron telescopes. On a macroscopic level, it is now possible to view our solar system, galaxies and a portion of the known universe. Similar patterns are now emerging that may indicate that celestial bodies and systems have more in common than previously thought. From the planets in our solar system to the sun to other stars and galaxies it would appear that the activity around these bodies equators and polar regions require further investigation. That investigation should also include whether there are similarities to how the quantum world operates. Mankind may now be at the tipping point of being able to understand gravity at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. This paper attempts to explain how this is possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[1091] viXra:1702.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 08:05:27

The Time Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since stellar evolution takes billions of years, and planet formation is stellar evolution in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis, it takes billions of years for a planet to form.
Category: Astrophysics

[1090] viXra:1702.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 04:02:52

The Beautiful Nebula and Its Formation Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about the formation mechanism of a Cat's eye nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[1089] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 10:02:14

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t), and all the other measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). So, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. Only the issue of which equation is a better choice to describe it is at this moment a point of contention. In order to determine the mass of the dark matter particle, in this work we will focus on developing such quantum equation for dark matter under gravity and on its application to galactic halos taking the Milky Way as our case of study. Also we consider the evaluation of such equation as the sought after halos' universal law. Afterwards, we will resolve such equation to estimate the mass of the dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[1088] viXra:1702.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 02:00:21

The CMB is Light Pollution from the Younger Universe Gravitationally Lensed Back After Millions of Turns.

Authors: H. Dhaliwal
Comments: 1 Page.

The CMB is light pollution from the younger universe gravitationally lensed back after millions of turns. Imagine the Milky Way when it was just a baby galaxy. Let's follow a photon that it emitted from a random point. This photon will pass by millions of galaxies or black holes, turning its direction with each pass via light bending as it passes by a gravity well. As the photon passes by each object, the objects get older since more time is passing. The photon, when had enough time to traverse the universe with enough turns will make its way back to the Milky Way. Now imagine the baby Milky Way galaxy with all its photons radiating every which way as a 360 degree light source, combined with the billions of galaxies doing the same thing. Most of these photons will gravitationally lense back to us at some point. The colder cmb is light that travelled longer. The hotter cmb is light that travelled a lesser distance relatively.
Category: Astrophysics

[1087] viXra:1702.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 03:14:35

The Real Origin of Hubble Redshift : Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[1086] viXra:1702.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:11:36

Rotation Curves of the Cosmic Objects and Attractive Force in the Universe

Authors: Tamara Kudykina, Alexander Pervak
Comments: 12 Pages.

A hydrodynamic model of the motion of galaxies, planets and moons is proposed in this paper. The solution of the Euler equation gives the description of the rotation curves with the positive parts of the Bessel functions J1(βr), where is the distance from the object to the axis of rotation, and β — is the parameter depending upon the angular velocities, the dimension of the system and the velocity of the progressive motion of the system. In the dimensionless units the case with β>>1 corresponds to the rotation curves of the planets and moons and in this limit coincides with the Kep-ler-Newton law. In the case of parameters β≤1 we have the rotation curves of the galaxies. The hydrodynamic theory describes the rotation curves of both the galaxies and the planets systems without invoking dark matter hypothesis. Within the limit of motion of the cosmic objects in the ideal medium, the expres-sion of the generalized attractive force is derived. In the case of planets (β>>1), the form of the attractive force coincides with the Newton law; in the case of the galax-ies, the attractive force differs sufficiently from the Newton law. The distribution of the energy-density for the cosmic objects is obtained. For the Solar system, the distances between the planets and the Sun are derived. For small planets, the calculation agrees well with the observed values at the parameters β≈80÷90 and for the planets-giants — at β≈40÷50.
Category: Astrophysics

[1085] viXra:1702.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:16:38

Redshift Of Quasars And Time Dilation

Authors: Tamara Kudykina, Alexander Pervak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The most of the cosmic objects moves along a screw line: a rotation and progressive motion. The shift of the spectrum of the emitting bodies is due to the time difference in the motionless and moving reference frames. In the case of the progressive motion, the Doppler effect takes place, in the case of rotation – the Sagnac effect is observed. It is shown that the observed redshift (and blue shift as well) of the spectra of cosmic objects is due to the Sagnac effect. The parameter of redshift z depends on the parameters of its own non-inertial reference frame of every cosmic object (its angular velocity and dimension). It is intrinsic ones for every object and does not determine the distance from us to a cosmic object. It was shown that the Sagnac effect predominates, and therefore, the time dilation and the change of the distances between close objects have to be negligible even at great z. Therefore, the Hubble law and the hypothesis about the Universe expansion (BigBang theory) don’t have their main grounds and are wrong.
Category: Astrophysics

[1084] viXra:1701.0669 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-30 09:07:54

Evidence of Holographic Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A UK, Canadian and Italian study has provided what researchers believe is the first observational evidence that our universe could be a vast and complex hologram. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1083] viXra:1701.0659 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 04:58:58

Extreme Facts about Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a massive star dies, expelling most of its guts across the universe in a supernova explosion, its iron heart, the star's core, collapses to create the densest form of observable matter in the universe: a neutron star. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1082] viXra:1701.0650 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-28 10:24:55

Two New Non Baryonic Dark Matter Profiles for Milky Way Halo

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this work has been calculated two new non baryonic DM density profiles inside halo region of Milky Way, MW hereafter, and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Data have been got from rotation curve published in [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P.2014. The first profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in halo rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. The second one, DM density as power of E, E is gravitational field, has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, where it has been used to study non baryonic DM in several galaxies. It is called “as power of E” because DM density depend on E as a power function. Hypothesis which is the basis of theory is that non baryonic DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside MW halo. These data come from [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P. Chaudary, S. Kundu, S.2014. In addition it is fitted a power regression of rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b . In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression of velocity depending on radius. Also it is compared Direct DM got from rotation curve [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P.2014 and Direct DM got from rotation curve [5] Sofue, Y.2015. It is shown that relative difference oscillate between 2.6% at 40 kpc and 3.8 % at 190 kpc which is a very exiguous difference. It is a very good news that two prominent teams of researchers got so similar results. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that Direct DM profile is mathematically equivalent to DM density depending on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B, where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of velocity). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 4% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. In seventh chapter is compared Direct DM density got in this paper with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Throughout dominion NFW profile is bigger than Direct DM profile. Its relative difference oscillate between 25% at 40 kpc and 22% at 190 kpc. In my opinion this remarkable fact could be explained because NFW profile is fitted with total DM enclosed inside galactic disc and as it is known inside bulge and disc there is an unknown amount of baryonic DM such as dwarf browns and cold gas clouds. However Direct DM profile is fitted with data which radius are bigger than 40 kpc where baryonic matter is negligible. It is clear that extra DM density data inside disc have influence over the whole NFW profile so it is right to conclude that relative difference between Direct DM and NFW profile might be explained by baryonic DM inside bulge and disc. In eight chapter is compared DM density as power E in MW with DM density as power E in M31, which was published in [ 11] Abarca,M.2016. Results show that at a specific E, both DM densities are very similar. Relative differences are under 15 % inside main part of dominion. This fact support strongly author hypothesis about DM as power of E as Universal law.
Category: Astrophysics

[1081] viXra:1701.0633 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-27 05:15:17

Local and Multi-Universal Cycle Time According to Quantum FFF Theory. (FFF= Function Follows Form)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

Construction principles for chiral “atoms of spacetime” based on geometrical 3-D chiral vacuum lattice models and consequences for spacetime, general relativity based space curvature and time variation, including cyclic Multi- Universal time, and local time.
Category: Astrophysics

[1080] viXra:1701.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 13:57:24

The Mystery of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dark energy pulsating hypothesis challenging mystery of cosmic large-scale structure. Even a hundred billion galaxies are distributed like bubbles (void) of aggregate space design structure. Galaxies are distributed to the grid of bubbles. Galaxy does not exist on the inside of the bubble. That is a mystery of Cosmic Physics. Oscillatory universe model to challenge its mysteries. Repeated mini-big bang due to pulsation of the microcosm. In each of its Moving bubbles around galaxies formed by the previous mini-big bang, centered in the grid of bubbles.
Category: Astrophysics

[1079] viXra:1701.0620 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 10:02:09

Electronic Chip Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12] To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1078] viXra:1701.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 14:19:03

From Neutrino's Microtokamaks or Microstellarators to Neutrino's Quantum Extradimensional Respectively Extraterrestrial Bundles and Boundless Neutrino's Transmissions of Yotta Bytes Neutrinic's “space Music”

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 5 Pages.

There have been observed very scientifically important facts and astrophysical events in the Scorpius Stars Constellation during the last twenty years. Like an example I can introduce Discovery of nova Scorpii 2007, probably Binar System (V 1280 Sco.), described by Japanese astronomer Yukio Samurai on 4th – 5th February 2007. In 1998 in many scientific journals (Science, Scientific American) was published many informations about our Sun's (G2V) homolog or equivalent in Scorpii Constellation. In exceptionally but probably case an existence of high–tech civilization or metacivilization with building of Super Dyson sphere could be important for radiowave or other way of communication. There could be an existence some extrasolar's planets with advanced hi–tech civilization respectively based on neutrinic or spin–tronic technology. In the Scorpius Constellation are these typically our Sun's homolog stars: Shaula (λ Scorpii), Dschubba (δ Scorpii) -> tetrastellar system, Acrab (β Scorpii) and Binar Sun System Wei (ε Scorpii).
Category: Astrophysics

[1077] viXra:1701.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 10:42:08

Hawking Radiation in the Lab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1076] viXra:1701.0604 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 05:44:04

Magnetic Fields Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1075] viXra:1701.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 08:33:34

Distances, Locations, Ages and Reproduction of Galaxies in our Dynamic Universe

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 9 Pages. This Exxay was submitted to FQXI---- FQXi FORUM: Wandering Towards a Goal Essay Contest (2016-2017) January 24, 2017

There are many distant Galaxies whose distances are about 30 Giga light years. There are Galaxies which were born just after 400 million years after Bigbang and which were born 6 to 7 billion years after Bigbang. In Dynamic Universe Model all the Galaxies are distributed at different distances and the Universe looks similar as it is now. On 01March2016 the news of the discovery about the observation of most distant Galaxy ‘GNZ11 or GN11’having an light travel distance 13.4 Giga light years & co-moving distance of 32 Giga light years and having a red shift z of 11.1 created quite a stir. There are many such Galaxies like EGSY8p7 (with z= 8.68, age =13.2) and EGS-zs8-1 (with z= 7.73, age =13.04). To show that Universe exists further to GNz11, a Galaxy at distance of 100 times 13.4 Billion light years (1.26862E+28 meters) is simulated and named it as GNz11 in this simulation. 132 more galaxies were assumed in the range (3.02001E+26 to 1.26862E+28) meter. Later distance of the first Galaxy was reduced by 50% and found the graphs of Universe become similar in both the simulations after 102 iterations. Slowly life of the stars and hence subsequently the life of Galaxy will come to end because of their electromagnetic radiation. Galaxies tend to evolve from spiral to elliptical structure and they perish to form Blue clouds known as Galaxy "quenching". Hence we can say that our Universe had reproduction ability, which is a very slow process. Universe produces new Galaxies, and the already formed Galaxies perish slowly. Ours is single universe and is a closed one. In other words, our Universe reproduces its Galaxies, as and when light and other electromagnetic radiation condenses to form enough matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1074] viXra:1701.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 08:53:27

Existence of Many Blue Shifted Galaxies in the Universe by Dynamic Universe Model Came True

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 32 Pages. This paper is published in Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation with DOI 10.4236/ojmsi.2017.51009 . ISSN Print: 2327-4018 , ISSN Online: 2327-4026 , Gupta, S.N.P., (2017), 5, 113-144.

There are many blue shifted Galaxies in our universe. Here we will see old simulations to make such predictions from the output graphs using SITA simulations. There are four new simulations also presented here. In these sets of simulations, different point masses are placed in different distances in a 3D Cartesian coordinate grid; and these point masses are allowed to move on universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. The output pictures depict the three dimensional orbit formations of point masses after some iterations. In an orbit so formed, some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted). In this paper, the simulations predicted the existence of a large number of Blue shifted Galaxies, in an expanding universe, in 2004 itself. Over 8300 blue shifted galaxies have been discovered extending beyond the Local Group by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the year 2009. Thus Dynamic Universe model predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[1073] viXra:1701.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 11:51:47

Is Newton's Gravitational 'Constant' Increasing?

Authors: Alphonsus J. Fagan
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Beckenstein-Hawking formula for black hole entropy indicates that black holes have the highest possible entropy density in the universe. This suggests that, in addition to increasing entropy by its inexorable expansion, the universe can also increase it by creating more black holes. And one way to accomplish this would be to have the gravitational 'constant' ('Big G') increase with time. This paper explores how the dynamic of these two competing entropic processes might play out, how 'Big G' might vary with time, and where to look for evidence.
Category: Astrophysics

[1072] viXra:1701.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 03:32:22

Quantum Horizon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Patrick Hayden and Robert Myers describe how the study of “qubits”, quantum bits of information, may hold the key to uniting quantum theory and general relativity into a unified theory of quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1071] viXra:1701.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 04:36:42

Dark Matter and Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1070] viXra:1701.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-22 13:17:59

Wave Gravity the Way Towards Planck's Scale

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Gravity phenomenon is observed as periodic and wavy by its nature. Wave function describing state of space encircling gravitodynamic vortex is being suggested. In the “strong field” area, a quantization of orbits should be quite natural and fully observable. That phenomenon is named as gravitonium. The so-called Resonance with de Broglie’s wave arises as a natural. A direct consequence is the natural existence of Planck’s values as the main quanta. Resonance observed there could be possible mechanism of mass creation. The whole concept leads to change of 20th century geometrization paradigm towards real wave dynamic description of Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1069] viXra:1701.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 21:17:29

The Law of Capture in Star System Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

If there are older stars orbiting younger ones, then star system formation via capture is the law of star system formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1068] viXra:1701.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 10:05:13

Violations of Energy Conservation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists have proposed that violations of energy conservation in the early universe, as predicted by certain modified theories of quantum mechanics and quantum gravity, may explain the cosmological constant problem, which is sometimes referred to as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1067] viXra:1701.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-18 13:49:36

Purpose of Life in Universe

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 13 Pages.

This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.
Category: Astrophysics

[1066] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 23:28:52

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[1065] viXra:1701.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 12:46:36

Inflation Space Model and Pulsation Space Model.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

The inflation space model becomes the leading role of the cosmology now. The inflation cosmology supposes space to have been the size of the elementary particle level at a moment of the space birth and applies particle physics and is going to understand it. But for now, Innumerable inflation cosmology is proposed, and one cannot identify it. Introduction of the super velocity of light concept more than the velocity of light, A unit infinite other than the space where we live in other space with existing, There is it in confusion.
Category: Astrophysics

[1064] viXra:1701.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 01:10:24

White Spots of the Universe "FULL of HOLES" Become Black Holes Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe – One of Galaxies Multivselenna Limited to a Gravitational Cover and the Black Hole in the Center. the White Hole Has Turned Black, Having Let Out Gala

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Our Universe – one of galaxies Multivselenna limited to a gravitational cover and the Black hole in the center. The white hole has turned black, having let out galactic "tears", and we see that today, as have to see!
Category: Astrophysics

[1063] viXra:1701.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 01:15:27

How Much "BLUEBERRY" on Mars? Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Once the Tail of an Unknown Comet "Covered" Mars with Red "Cover". Martian "Blueberry" is the Hail Which Arose from the "Torn-Off" Tail of an Unknown Comet.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Once the tail of an unknown comet "covered" Mars with red "cover". Martian "blueberry" is the hail which arose from the "torn-off" tail of an unknown comet.
Category: Astrophysics

[1062] viXra:1701.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 14:18:40

Supermassive Black Holes Galaxies Merge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In roughly four billion years, the Milky Way will be no more. Indeed, our home galaxy is on course to collide and unite with the Andromeda Galaxy, at present some two million light years away. [16] A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. [15] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1061] viXra:1701.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 02:38:07

Hypothesis of Multistage Synthesis of Elements of Stars Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Hydrogen and Helium – the Subsequent Product of Synthesis of Elements of Stars.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Hydrogen and helium – the subsequent product of synthesis of elements of stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1060] viXra:1701.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 12:01:39

Could Planet 9 be a Dwarf star?

Authors: Jerrold Thacker
Comments: 12 Pages.

A review of parallax measurements of stars indicates there are major discrepancies in the distance measurements to red giant stars. There is very strong evidence that the nearest star is Betelgeuse, only a few light-weeks away and actually a dwarf star. It is possible that this dwarf star may be the missing Planet 9
Category: Astrophysics

[1059] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 07:30:58

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1058] viXra:1701.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 05:36:59

Video of Explosion Like Phenomena in the CMB Hot Spots Are Observed When WMAP and Planck CMB Images Are Superimposed and Transitioned Back and Forth.

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: 19 Pages.

I have compared Wmap to Planck and there appears to be explosion like phenomena occurring in the Cmb. A hot spot, after some time, disappears or explodes in the before and after comparisons. There are also observations of hot spots appearing where once there was a cold region. One may say this is noise in the data, to carry on the big bang theory, but there is a significant chance it is not as these changes are too large. If they are explosions, these hot spots may leave black holes behind and eject matter outwards, similar to a super novae event but macro. In some observations you will notice a round hollowish dark dot is left after the explosion like event. This observation, if correct, means we cannot rely on the redshift-distance theory interpretation as we know it when it comes to the distance between us and the Cmb. If in fact these were explosions, they should be significantly different in there frequency. There is also evidence from simulations on the Cmb of numerous concentric circles existing in the map. These circles may be the after affects of these Cmb hot spots exploding. The midpoint of these concentric rings do not have any hot spots in them, because the hot spot at the midpoint may have exploded in the past, which turned into cold spots, and the after affect was the concentric rings. A superimposition of the concentric circles on the Cmb is also included in the paper. Note some concentric rings have unique dark spots in the mid point, a black circle is placed over these interesting observations (Obs. 17).
Category: Astrophysics

[1057] viXra:1701.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-09 18:11:54

A Simple Solution to the Dark Matter Problem

Authors: Jerrold Thacker
Comments: 1 Page.

There is evidence that the attractive force of gravity is logarithmic instead of linear. If this is true, then the motion of stars in spiral galaxies is easily explained and there is no need for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1056] viXra:1701.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 11:34:02

Giant Atoms Unveil Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Giant atoms could help unveil 'dark matter' and other cosmic secrets. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1055] viXra:1701.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 13:52:39

Exploring the Inflation and Gravity of the Universe with Eyring’s Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao, Yuanze Xu, Ting Hao
Comments: 20 pages, 4 figures

On the basis of the very successful free volume theory applicable to wide length scales from electrons to small molecules, macromolecules, colloidal particles and even granules, hypothetical particles dubbed “freevons” are proposed to fill up the free volume available in any system from microscopic atomic world to the macroscopic universe. The Eyring’s rate process theory that has a wide applicability to many chemical and physical phenomena is assumed to govern the behaviors of freevons. It turns out that for keeping the universe to expand in an accelerated manner, the freevons must form the paired structures, like electrons paired in superconductivity state and helium-3 atoms paired in superfluidity state; at about 5 K, there is a temperature induced phase transition happening and the Hubble’s constant is predicted to dramatically increase, implying that the universe will inflate even further rapidly. The universe is therefore viewed as particles, the stars and galaxies, dispersed in the superfluidity freevon sea and the gravity is considered to be induced from the force density, usually defined as a negative gradient of pressure in fluid mechanics. The Newton’s gravity equation is thus easily obtained under those assumptions, and similarly the Coulomb’s Law can also be obtained using the same approach. In this superfluiditiy framework, the volumes rather than the masses of particles are found to be important in determining the gravitational forces. The expansion driving force comes from the activity or concentration gradient of freevons formed at the beginning of the big bang, and there is no need to postulate a dark energy or dark matter to be responsible for such an accelerated inflation; Or freevons can be considered “dark matter”. Our approach may bridge many different theories in astrophysics field and provide a possibility to use quantum mechanics to study the universe through exploring the quantum mechanics behaviors of freevons.
Category: Astrophysics

[1054] viXra:1701.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 07:53:05

Existence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1053] viXra:1612.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 04:52:24

Loss of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1052] viXra:1612.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 02:31:53

Variations of the Gravitational Constant with Time in the Framework of the Expanding Universe

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to find an answer in the matter of expanding universe from the time variance of the gravitational constant point of view. We took as reference the equivalent variation of the gravitational constant of a static universe and report the observational data to it. The equivalent variation of the gravitational constant of a static universe is estimated in a reference universe hypothesis. An expanding force is balanced by an attracting force and this is the basis from which we can establish a formal time variance for the gravitational constant in two cases. The first one correspond to an expanding universe, hence this case can’t be a reference for our evaluation. The second case corresponds to a static universe and it is the same as a de Sitter universe. This is the reason why this case can be a reference case. Thus the observational data smaller than our reference theoretical value, are linked to a collapsing universe and the observational data greater than the same reference value are characteristic to an expanding universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1051] viXra:1612.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 02:15:28

Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Background

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1050] viXra:1612.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 13:25:00

Verlinde's Theory of Gravity Tested

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team led by astronomer Margot Brouwer (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) has tested the new theory of theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde (University of Amsterdam) for the first time through the lensing effect of gravity. [21] Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1049] viXra:1612.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 13:57:47

Photonic-Magnetic Field in Interplanetary Space

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 14 Pages.

Imagine an interplanetary space where each celestial object will be attracted by the magnetic waves from these electromagnetic waves are created in more of photonic waves. From this set of waves there arises the photonic-magnetic field theory which is to attract a celestial body when the celestial object is undergoing a total shutdown. From this shutdown of the celestial body or planet, there is created an energy that emanates (Aggressively) photons. The photons have the function of joining with the magnetic waves, from this bond will create a cloud of magnetic charges (+ ;-) and photons ( Note that the photons are radiation magnetic waves.
Category: Astrophysics

[1048] viXra:1612.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 09:31:06

Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 47 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. We then study according to our new theory of dark matter the different possible distributions of dark matter in galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters. Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). Despite that our Theory of dark matter is compatible with the SCM, we then expose a new Cosmological model based on this new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM and that we will call local Cosmological frame. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new Cosmological model. The 1st mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd mathematical model of expansion of the Universe is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model of expansion used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1047] viXra:1612.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 06:58:44

Examples of Gravitational Polarization of Objects of the Universe Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Gravitational Polarization is Inherent in All Objects of the Universe

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Gravitational polarization is inherent in all objects of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1046] viXra:1612.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:51:06

Smoother Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1045] viXra:1612.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 14:09:38

Co-Decaying Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

There isn't as much dark matter around today as there used to be. According to one of the most popular models of dark matter, the universe contained much more dark matter early on when the temperature was hotter. As the universe cooled, the dark matter annihilated away, at least up until a point when thermal equilibrium was reached and the annihilations ceased, resulting in the number of dark matter particles in the universe "freezing out" and remaining roughly constant. [21] Much of the universe is made of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1044] viXra:1612.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:22:10

Object Moving Towards the Observer Might Appear to Have Infinite Velocity and Hit Without Giving Any Warning.

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 4 Pages. apparent velocities might be faster than light

The apparent velocity of an object moving towards or away from the observer will be different from its actual velocity. To get the apparent velocity, actual velocity will have to be multiplied by a factor called scale factor. For an object moving away from an observer at considerable speed compared to that of light, scale factor is given by1/1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of the moving object and c = velocity of light in vacuum. So, apparent velocity = Actual velocity/(1+z).But when the object is moving towards an observer, it appears to move faster than actual velocity. This is because Scale factor for objects approaching the observer=1/ (1-z). Most important thing is that the velocity of the object appears to be faster than the velocity of light in vacuum, for all values of z > 0.5.Also, it appears to be approaching at infinite speed for z =1.
Category: Astrophysics

[1043] viXra:1612.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 05:00:50

Democratic Free Will and Telepathy in the Instant Entangled Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 16 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. However I would propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas. Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”. Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all instant entangled ideas of copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally. If I are able to “Tap into” those instant entanglement connections” sent out by other people, then even telepathic effects (mind reading) could be explained.
Category: Astrophysics

[1042] viXra:1612.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 04:23:32

Quantum Property of Empty Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

By studying the light emitted from an extraordinarily dense and strongly magnetized neutron star using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers may have found the first observational indications of a strange quantum effect, first predicted in the 1930s. The polarization of the observed light suggests that the empty space around the neutron star is subject to a quantum effect known as vacuum birefringence. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1041] viXra:1611.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:58:45

Unknown Source of Positrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of researchers known as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Collaboration has found evidence of a possible unknown source of positrons making their way through the universe to Earth. [9] Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1040] viXra:1611.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 13:25:47

Pioneer Anomaly Re-visited

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 7 Pages.

This mysterious effect has been given considerable thought as to its nature. Some have thought that the effect is due to unknown spacecraft effects, such as gas leaks or anisotropic thermal radiation. Others hold out for some fundamental physics that might alter the theory of gravitation. Recently, a complete analysis of rediscovered spacecraft data provides a credible story for spacecraft engineering being the cause. However, more fundamental physics has not been absolutely ruled out. This paper will relook at the anomaly from a fundamental perspective by applying a recently published physical theory to the Pioneer anomaly, and will show that a new theory can explain the effect.
Category: Astrophysics

[1039] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 17:30:03

Hawking Radiation Addition to Theory Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12; UK English; Freelance scientist.

_ABSTRACT_ __Hawking Radiation -Addition to theory__ http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[1038] viXra:1611.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 11:37:49

Dark Force of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1037] viXra:1611.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 07:54:18

High-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1036] viXra:1611.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:24:49

The 1600 Kelvin Gap in Astrophysics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 screenshots

In the accepted astronomy literature, and collected, publicly disbursed data there is a large temperature gap in the young stars which host older stars. It is apparent that specific data is ignored so that accepted models and theories do not receive unwanted attention by critical eyes. A prediction is therefore made concerning the presence of evolved stars (planets/exoplanets) around younger stars between the temperature range 540 – 2100 Kelvin, of which no public exoplanet data exists.
Category: Astrophysics

[1035] viXra:1611.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:55:08

16 Psyche in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The asteroid 16 Psyche is claimed to be a protoplanet that did not continue its formation process in the “early solar system”. This is false. The asteroid is a piece of the core of a dead star according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1034] viXra:1611.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 06:26:29

Rest of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Much of the universe is made of of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1033] viXra:1611.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 12:35:52

Mysterious Dark Photon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1032] viXra:1611.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 08:56:03

Computing the Mystery of Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1031] viXra:1611.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 09:38:36

Hexagonal Storm on Saturn

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn.
Category: Astrophysics

[1030] viXra:1611.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 06:11:32

Magnetic Reconnection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1029] viXra:1611.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 08:33:01

X-ray Pulsars Propeller Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1028] viXra:1611.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 07:50:24

Saturn Hexagon Storm \\ Шестиугольный шторм на Сатурне

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages. in Russian

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn. \\ На северном полюсе Сатурна уже более 30 лет существует гигантский шторм в форме шестиугольника, каждая сторона которого больше диаметра Земли. Этот шестиугольник не перемещается на планете, вращается и сохраняет свою форму. Это явление до сих пор не имеет объяснения. Ниже предлагается математическая модель такого шторма, аналогичная математической модели океанского водоворота (предложенной автором ранее). При этом показывается, что источником энергии, позволяющей шторму длительное время вращаться, является гравитационное поле Сатурна.
Category: Astrophysics

[1027] viXra:1611.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 10:52:29

Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1026] viXra:1611.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 06:07:51

New Theory of Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1025] viXra:1611.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 11:26:03

Unusual Origins of High-Energy Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

High above the surface, Earth's magnetic field constantly deflects incoming supersonic particles from the sun. These particles are disturbed in regions just outside of Earth's magnetic field-and some are reflected into a turbulent region called the foreshock. New observations from NASA's THEMIS mission show that this turbulent region can accelerate electrons up to speeds approaching the speed of light. Such extremely fast particles have been observed in near-Earth space and many other places in the universe, but the mechanisms that accelerate them have not yet been concretely understood. [8] The scientists analyze the magnetic field strengths and show that, even in the least massive fragment the field is not strong enough to inhibit gravitational collapse. In fact, they find indications that gravity, as it pulls material inward, drags the magnetic field lines along. [7] Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars-small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1024] viXra:1611.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 09:51:51

Are Quazars White Holes?

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on the mechanistic interpretation of J. Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept, which allows for transitions between distant regions of space, it was suggested that a quasar is a cosmological object, i.e. a white hole, where gravitational forces are replaced with dynamic ones with together the balance of electric and magnetic forces. Thus, a schematic model of a typical quasar was proposed. Its parameters (calculated on the basis of this model) are consistent with the observational data on quasars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1023] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 04:58:29

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[1022] viXra:1611.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 09:16:55

Dark Matter and Intergalactic Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A correlation between the cosmic microwave background and hydrogen absorption lines may reveal a connection between dark matter and intergalactic gas clouds. [19] Currently, one of the strongest candidates for dark matter is weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS, although so far this hypothetical particle has not yet been directly detected. Now in a new study, physicists have proposed that dark matter is not a WIMP, and further, it is not any particle that is so far known or theorized to exist. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1021] viXra:1611.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 01:20:31

Relativistic Time Correction on Movement of Distant Galaxies Makes the Present Age of the Universe as 28.2 Billion Years

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 5 Pages. It changes the age of the universe from 14.1 to 28.2 billion years.

The relativistic approach gives us the apparent time of the events happening on a fast moving object away from us. It is called scale factor. It is given by Scale factor = 1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of moving object and c= speed of light in vacuum. This paper aims to illustrate that the above relativistic time correction when applied to Hubble’s law, gives us the age of the universe as 2/H0 and not 1/H0, where H0 is the present Hubble constant. This makes the age of the universe to a value double that of the present estimate. That is from 14.1 billion light years to 28.2 billion light years. Linear expansion of the universe is assumed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1020] viXra:1611.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:14:33

On the Secular Recession of Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon

Authors: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., Tsoka, W.
Comments: 13 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., & Tsoka, W., (2015), ‘On the Secular Recession of the Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon’, Astrophys. & Space Sci., Jun. 2, Vol. 358(1): pp.1-12. (doi:10.1007/s10509-015-2394-4)

We here apply the ASTG-model to the observed anomalous secular trend in the mean Sun-(Earth-Moon) and Earth-Moon distances. For the recession of the Earth-Moon system, in agreement with observation, we obtain a recession of about 11.20 ± 0.20 cm/yr. The ASTG-model predicts orbital drift as being a result of the orbital inclination and the Solar mass loss rate. The Newtonian gravitational constant G is assumed to be absolute time constant. Standish (2005); Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004) reported for the Earth-Moon system, an orbital recession from the Sun of about (15.00 ± 4.00) cm/yr; while Williams et al. (2004); Williams and Boggs (2009); Williams et al. (2014) report for the Moon, an orbital recession of about 38.00 mm/yr from the Earth. The predictions of the ASTG-model for the Earth-Moon system agrees very well with those the findings of Standish (2005); Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004). The lost orbital angular momen-tum for the Earth-Moon system – which we here hypothesize to be gained as spin by the two body Earth-Moon system; this lost angular momentum accounts very well for the observed lunar drift, therefore, one can safely safely say that the ASTG-model does to a reasonable degree of accuracy predict the observed lunar drift of about 38.00 mm/yr from the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1019] viXra:1611.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:18:07

On the Secular Recession of the Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon (II)

Authors: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., Tsoka, W.
Comments: 4 Pages. Work in Progress

We here apply – albeit, with improved assumptions compared to our earlier work (Nyambuya et al., Astron. & Astro-phys. S. Sci. 358(1) : pp.1 − 12, 2015); the ASTG-model to the observed secular trend in the mean Sun-(Earth-Moon) and Earth-Moon distances thereby providing an alternative explanation as to what the cause of this secular trend may be. For the semi-major axis rate of the Earth-Moon system, we now obtain a new value of about +3.00 cm/yr while in the earlier work we obtained a value of about 5.00 cm/yr. This new value of +3.00 cm/yr is closer to that of of Standish (2005)'s measurement of (7.00 ± 2.00) cm/yr. Our present value accounts for only 43% of Standish (2005)'s measurement. The other 57% can be accounted for by invoking the hypothesis that the θ-component of the angular momentum maybe non-zero. In the end, it can be said that the ASTG-model predicts orbital drift as being a result of the orbital inclination and the Solar mass loss rate. The Newtonian gravitational constant G is assumed to be an absolute time constant
Category: Astrophysics

[1018] viXra:1611.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 10:27:17

Dark Matter in a Hidden Sector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Currently, one of the strongest candidates for dark matter is weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS, although so far this hypothetical particle has not yet been directly detected. Now in a new study, physicists have proposed that dark matter is not a WIMP, and further, it is not any particle that is so far known or theorized to exist. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1017] viXra:1611.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 02:40:49

Calculating Axion Masses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1016] viXra:1611.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 06:47:12

Bright and Dark Sides of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Since dark matter is the main component of these galaxies—and thus the main determinant of galactic rotation—this finding implies that the distribution of conventional matter in the disk specifies the density profile of the surrounding dark matter halo. [18] A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [17] A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1015] viXra:1611.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 09:05:21

Active Galactic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In the 1970s, astronomers became aware of a compact radio source at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy – which they named Sagittarius A. After many decades of observation and mounting evidence, it was theorized that the source of these radio emissions was in fact a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Since that time, astronomers have come to theorize that SMBHs at the heart of every large galaxy in the Universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1014] viXra:1611.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 12:53:06

Dark Matter Depending on Gravitational Field in Solar System

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 9 Pages.

For last two years I have published several papers about DM on galaxies and cluster of galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original hypothesis which states that DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal law. As consequence this hypothesis, gravitational field is calculated through a Bernoulli differential equation which gives rightly DM density named Bernoulli profile. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters which are supposed to be valid for every gravitational system. Parameters A&B come form calculus made in paper [7] Abarca, M.2016. Specifically were calculated in M31 galaxy from rotation curve data for radius bigger than 40 kpc and lower than 200 kpc. In this region gravitational field is lower than 10^-11 m/s^2. Whereas inside Solar System gravitational field is billions of times bigger. However if it is supposed that DM generation mechanism is Universal then the same parameters should be right to study Dark matter density inside Solar System. It is remarkable the fact that through the same method I have published successful results for cluster of galaxies scale and galaxy scale. Unfortunately there is not experimental measures for DM inside Solar System yet so it is not possible for now check theoretical results published in this paper. The main results this paper are DM enclosed by spherical coronas defined by radius of Sun and planetary orbits. Through mass of Earth as unit of mass, results are the following ones: DM up to Mercury orbit is 71,61 MEARTH , up to Venus orbit is 75.57 MEARTH , up to Earth orbit is 77.33 MEARTH , up to Mars orbit is 79.32 MEARTH , up to Jupiter orbit is 83.76 MEARTH , up to Saturn orbit is 85.37 MEARTH , up to Uranus orbit is 86.85 MEARTH , up to Neptune orbit is 87.63 MEARTH , up to Pluto orbit is 88.056 MEARTH
Category: Astrophysics

[1013] viXra:1611.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:24:31

Observed Dual Higgs Mass 124-126 Gev and the Chirality of the Vacuum Lattice.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 9 Pages. 9

Observed dual LHC signals of 124-126 GeV Higgs The chirality of our material universal vacuum lattice formed by the massless Axion/Higgs oscillating dark energy field, is supposed to be the origin of these different masses. According to Quantum FFF Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1012] viXra:1611.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:28:35

Emergent Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [17] A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1011] viXra:1611.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 08:29:10

9 Series of Evidences of Periodical Bursts of Young Stars and Planets

Authors: GP Zhang
Comments: 12 Pages.

Fred Hoyle, the famous British astronomer, had the idea that matters explode from the Sun form planets. This paper develops this idea into the theory of periodical bursts of young stars and planets, provides 9 series of evidences to prove the theory, and explains many facts of the solar system and exoplanetary systems with the theory simplly, self-consistently, and systematically. First, the ratio of semi-major axes and stellar radius of three young exoplanets (V830 Tau b, K2-33 b and GJ674 b) increases with age, because they were born from the burst of their parent star and were pushed away by the strong stellar wind (Table 1). Second, there are many exoplanets and candidates with the ratio less than 5, such as K2-92 b, WASP-103 b and PTFO 8-8695 b. They are in the range of the contracting prostar and there were no enough nebular matters left in the range to accrete into planets. So they were born from the burst of their parent star (Table 2). Third, there is a law of semimajor axis of planets in multi-planet systems, such as Kepler-90’s system with 7 planets and HD 10180’s system with 6 planets. The law is similiar to Bode’s law in the solar system and it means that the planets were born from periodical bursts of their parent star in their youth (Table 3). Fourth, the jovian planets have density, composition and internal energy source similiar to the Sun, which mean they were once parts of the Sun (Table 4). Fifth, different classes of meteorites formed from very high temperature which cannot be reached with energy from accretion. They were once parts of the Sun. They were burst out from the Sun and they cooled down from the very high temperature. Sixth, Mars had widespread liquid water 3.7 billion years ago. Terrestrial and lunar rocks in early time recorded solar wind 10 million times stronger than it is now. These evidences proved that the terrestrial planets then were much nearer to the Sun than they are now. Seventh, satellites of the terrestrial planets, Moon, Phobos and Deimos, have lower density than the terrestrial planets and there is a law of their density. They were burst from the boundary between the core and the mantle of their parent planet in their youth (Table 5). Eighth, Galilean satellites have different ages, of their surface and as a whole, which proved they were born from periodical bursts of Jupiter (Table 6). Ninth, there is a law of semimajor axis of satellites and rings of the jovian planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[1010] viXra:1611.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 08:18:47

Muon Telescope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope, the largest and most sensitive cosmic ray monitor recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays that indicated a crack in the Earth's magnetic shield. The burst occurred when a giant cloud of plasma ejected from the solar corona struck Earth at a very high speed causing massive compression of the Earth's magnetosphere and triggering a severe geomagnetic storm. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1009] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:03:57

Igid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages. 27

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes, with a different functions like masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Zparticles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1008] viXra:1611.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 13:59:32

Supercomputer Profile of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1007] viXra:1611.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 02:06:21

Cause of Radiation Belts of the Earth Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Hypothesis of the Cause of an Internal Radiation Belt of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cover of a Kernel and Its Contents is Made.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the cause of an internal radiation belt of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cover of a kernel and its contents is made.
Category: Astrophysics

[1006] viXra:1611.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 06:28:13

Electric Dark Matter Black Holes in the Moon (Orientale Basin)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

The multiple cliff-ringed lava plains on the moon are breath taking and how they came to be has puzzled scientists and even philosophers. However, multi-cliff ringed basins are also found in many different locations on other worlds. So, what created the basins? The suggestion of Quantum FFF Theory is that the double charged static electric fields assumed to be active concentric around new physics black holes should be the origin of circular cliff formation after the impact of a special comet which is only based on one nuclear black hole. Many comets however seem to be created around more than one new physics black hole as we may have observed in comets like 67P C-G and Shoemaker Levy 9. The resulting lava plains of such crashed comets are supposed to be represented by less circular gravity variations or less circular cliffed plains. Recent discussions around the foundation of black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about the nature of black holes and adjacent subjects.
Category: Astrophysics

[1005] viXra:1610.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 10:52:13

The Value of the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper presents a derivation of the value of the cosmological constant. The approach was based on the Einstein’s gravitational field equations and the Hubble’s law. The value of the cosmological constant Λ was found to be: Λ=(Ho^2)/3 , here Ho is the Hubble constant.
Category: Astrophysics

[1004] viXra:1610.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 12:53:01

FRB 150418 Confirms Predictions Made by New Tired Light

Authors: Lyndon Ashmore
Comments: 4 Pages.

For the first time, in April 2015, both the Dispersion Measure (DM) of a fast radio burst, FRB 150418, and the redshift of the host galaxy were measured. This gave the opportunity to test the New Tired Light Theory and its predictions. DM in mainstream physics is found from the time delay between the arrival of different frequencies from a short, sharp cosmological source (FRB or pulsar). DM is related to the mean free electron density along the path, n, and the distance from source to observer, d, by the formula DM=nd. New Tired Light (NTL) is an alternative cosmological theory to the Big Bang. In NTL the universe is static and redshifts are caused by photons of light interacting with the electrons in the plasma of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Energy is transferred from the photon to the recoiling electron on absorption and re-emission resulting in a reduction in frequency of the photon and an increase in the wavelength. The redshift distance relation is z=exp(Hd⁄c) -1 where c is the speed of light and H the Hubble constant. In NTL the Hubble constant is derived in terms of, n, the plank constant, h,and m and r the rest mass and classical radius of the electron giving H=(2nhr⁄m). Making, d, the subject of both equations from DM and NTL gives us the SI equation DM=(mc⁄2hr)LN(1+z). Substituting the measured redshift, z, and values for m,c,h and r as well as converting from SI units to those used in radio astronomy (pc cm^-3 ) gives a predicted DM of DM=949 pc cm^-3. This compares well with the observed DM of FRB 150418 of 776.2 pc cm -3 – a difference of just 22%. It is noted that a DM is produced for all electron number densities whilst in NTL redshifts only occur in the sparsely populated plasma of the IGM since in dense plasma, strong electromagnetic forces reduce or even prevent the electrons from recoiling. Consequently it is possible to have a DM but no redshift if the plasma density is too high. It is possible that denser plasma along the path may have resulted in the predicted DM being a little higher than the measured one - though the agreement is close and gives strong support to NTL.
Category: Astrophysics

[1003] viXra:1610.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:13:47

Rotating and Gravitationally Collapsing Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned in a simple principle of stellar evolution that for a star to increase in rotational velocity, it cannot experience solar wind or significant flaring events. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1002] viXra:1610.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:31:25

Fusion as Thermodynamically Open System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A thought to consider when developing a fusion reactor is mentioned. Maybe fusion is not a closed system, with internal feedback, but completely open as a result of another process.
Category: Astrophysics

[1001] viXra:1610.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:47:16

Stellar Age Location Theory vs. Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

In the accepted sciences, the ages of stars and their companions can be determined by their location in specific areas. This is false for simple reasons. Explanation in provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1000] viXra:1610.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 11:58:21

Fuzzy Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The idea is called "FDM", for "fuzzy dark matter". It posits that an extremely light boson, one almost exactly massless in fact, could be responsible for the scale of galaxy halos we observe in the universe. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[999] viXra:1610.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 16:30:44

Mass Continuum Principle in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned in a simple principle of stellar evolution that the masses of stars are not stepped, but continuous. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[998] viXra:1610.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 07:45:42

Cosmic Microwave Background 3D Print

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers have created a 3D printed cosmic microwave background-a map of the oldest light in the universe-and provided the files for download. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[997] viXra:1610.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 14:15:40

Future of Dark Matter Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[996] viXra:1610.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 07:40:42

Latest Dark Matter Searches

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[995] viXra:1610.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 02:38:49

Dark Energy Supernova Analysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[994] viXra:1610.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 08:29:26

The Speed of a Black Hole to Attract a Celestial Body

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 6 Pages.

The speed of a black hole to attract a celestial body thanks to its universal gravity and many other parameters described in article
Category: Astrophysics

[993] viXra:1610.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 19:35:06

The Cooling Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 picture

According to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics stars will cool indefinitely. Explanation is provided below.
Category: Astrophysics

[992] viXra:1610.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 16:02:25

Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Average Particles

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[991] viXra:1610.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 09:32:59

Dynamics of Satellite Rotation (Revisiting the Results of J.wisdom, et Al. (1984)).

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 15 Pages. AMS Subject Classification: 70F15, 70F07 (Celestial mechanics); Keywords: Beletskii’s equation, satellite rotation, Abel ODE, gradient catastrophe.

The main motivation of the current research is the analytical exploring of the dynamics of satellite rotation during the motion on the elliptic orbit around the planet. We should discuss the revisited results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984). By elegant change of variables (considering the true anomaly f as the independent variable), the governing equation of satellite rotation is presented in a form of the Abel ODE of the 2-nd type, a kind of generalization of Riccati ODE. We should also note that for the reason of a special character of the solutions of Riccati-type ODE, there exists a possibility for sudden jumping of the magnitude of a solution at some moment of time-parameter. In physical sense, such the jumping of the Riccati-type solutions of the governing ODE could be associated with the effect of sudden acceleration/deceleration of the satellite rotation around the chosen principle axis at definite moment of parametric time. It means that there exists not only a chaotic regime of rotation of satellite (according to the results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984)), but a kind of gradient catastrophe Arnold 1992 could occur during the process of satellite rotation. We should especially note that if gradient catastrophe could occur, it does not mean that it must occur: such a possibility depends on the initial conditions. Besides, the asymptotical solutions have been obtained, manifesting a quasi-periodic character of the solution even at a strong simplifying assumptions e → 0, p = 1, which reduces the governing equation of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984) to a kind of the Beletskii’s equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[990] viXra:1610.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 17:18:20

Decreasing Plasma Instabilities in Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided to explain that plasma instabilities decrease as stars age and cool.
Category: Astrophysics

[989] viXra:1610.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 18:07:07

Interpreting Disks Alongside Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is used to explain that disks cannot be used to determine the ages of stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[988] viXra:1610.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 08:27:06

Understanding Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[987] viXra:1610.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 12:02:26

Dark Matter and the Dynamics of Galaxies: a Newtonian Approach

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I propose a correction to the well-known Newtonian gravitational potential, a correction which explains the form of the radial velocities as a function of the discoid galaxies radii. The main scope of this work is to find a correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential which has to fulfil two major conditions: a) to take into account the entire amount of the experimental data; b) the resulting potential to be a consequence of condition a) from a physical perspective. As a result, the corrected form of the Newtonian gravitational potential was found to belong to a physical cause and this cause can be the existence of the dark matter, evenly distributed within galaxies. This distribution makes dark matter to act as a binder for ordinary matter, so that the discoid galaxies not rotate as a fluid (as standard Newtonian theory states), but as some rigid frames (as the observational data state).
Category: Astrophysics

[986] viXra:1610.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 07:48:35

The Blue Shift Paradox

Authors: Eran Sinbar, Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s equation E=mc^2, matter and anti-matter annihilate into photonic radiation energy. Photons have unique characteristics since they are massless and they travel at the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. No other particle shares these unique characteristics. We claim that this unique behavior is due to the fact that photons do not apply gravitational effects on space-time, meaning, although photons will be forced to move in a curved line if space-time is curved they will not curve space time by themselves or apply gravity forces and time dilation . In order to prove our claims we suggest a thought experiment that leads to a blue shift paradox which happens after annihilating 2 symmetrical in size and mass, matter and anti- matter (A&B) in the center of a hollow particles spherical shell . The only way to explain this paradox is to conclude that anti-matter imposes anti–gravity and therefore matter and anti-matter together impose zero gravity. Furthermore, this proves that the photonic energy from the annihilation phase has also zero gravity effect on space-time.
Category: Astrophysics

[985] viXra:1610.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 07:39:12

Magnetar for Axion Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[984] viXra:1610.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 10:07:20

Computational Geometry Provides Indirect Evidence of Dark Matter Location in Cosmic Structures

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Shela Ramanna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The elusive dark matter is the best candidate in order to explain gravitational effects such as, for example, the motion of stars in galaxies. We introduce a novel method for the measurement of information in cosmic images called maximal nucleus clustering (MNC) i.e., nucleus clustering’s Rényi entropy derived from strong proximities in feature-based Voronoï tessellations. MNC is a novel, fast and inexpensive image-analysis technique, independent from other detectable signals. It permits the assessment of changes in gradient orientation into zones of two-dimensional cosmic images that generally are not taken into account by other techniques. In order to evaluate the potential applications of MNC, we looked for the presence of MNC’s distinctive hallmarks in the plane surface of astronomic images. We found that Rényi entropy is higher in MNC areas of cosmic images than in the surrounding regions, and that these patterns are correlated with cosmic zones containing a lesser amount of dark energy. Therefore, computational geometry provides a bridge made of affine connexions and proximities between features of a two-dimensional pictures and physical features of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[983] viXra:1610.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 16:15:40

Using External Galactic Forces as an Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Scott S Neal
Comments: 13 Pages. 13 pgs.

It has been over 30 years since the first Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model was proposed as a way of describing Dark Matter, but as yet, there have been no experimental results that support CDM. CDM depends on the discovery of new non-baryonic particles not defined in the Standard Model as the source of the needed mass. Recently, final results from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, have failed to find any traces of these non-baryonic particles, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has not detected any strong evidence of supersymmetry particles. With the lack of supporting experimental results for CDM or supersymmetry, it is time to examine other solutions that might explain Dark Matter without requiring any new particles to be detected. The current concept of Dark Matter assumes the undiscovered particles add an additional gravitational mass to the galaxy. Another solution to the galaxy rotation problem would be to assume there is some external force pressing in on the galaxies holding them together. This research shows how external gravitational forces on the galaxies can duplicate the galaxy rotation curves that have been observed, without any Dark Matter. It also offers an explanation for the acceleration constant a_0, that results from the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theory of galaxy dynamics. The results show that a model using an external galactic force is a valid approach to explain the effect known as Dark Matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[982] viXra:1610.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 10:52:52

Proof for HST WFC3 Uvis and ir Channel Njy Measurements Are Wrong

Authors: B. Ravi Sankar
Comments: 7 Pages. This is related Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 camera.

The context of the paper is related to the flux density of the order of nJy reported in recent papers. The aim is to prove that the reported flux density of the order of nJy is wrong. A new table for both IR and UVIS channel of the HST/WFC3 is created of the order of flux density mJy. This table should be used as a template for future projects related to HST/WFC3. Any new measurements below mJy (reported in the table) should be rejected for obvious reasons reported in this paper. Due to the advent of algorithms and digital computing technology, these errors are possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[981] viXra:1610.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 07:44:35

Planet Formation Theories in the Age of Statistically Insignificant Data

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Planet formation theories were invented before any statistically significant data was obtained. This is made apparent because before the 1980’s, there was only one solar system, our own. This issue will be addressed in simple terms.
Category: Astrophysics

[980] viXra:1609.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 07:45:49

Laws of Orbital Semimajor Axes and Periods, and Their Application in 5-Planet Systems

Authors: G. P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in 5-planet systems, and prove the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20, Kepler-102, Kepler-122, Kepler-154, Kepler-238, Kepler-55, Kepler-84, and HIP 41378’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. Point out the possible mistakes in papers about Kepler-186.
Category: Astrophysics

[979] viXra:1609.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 03:32:35

Dark Energy: a Partial, Preponderant or Complete Illusion Evidenced by the Redshift Anomaly Which Occurs Due to Non Doppler Redshifts Caused by Strengthening Gravitational Wells

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: Pages. Correction: when I refer to "doppler affect", I am also referring to the cosmological redshift

The redshift anomaly is key to understanding dark energy. Unfortunately anomalous redshifts have largely been ignored and require further study. "If we find in observation that the Hubble redshift relationship is subject to notable exceptions, which certainly appears to be the case, it is to be hoped that they would attract careful scrutiny. Just one such exception, reasonably verified, would suffice to cast doubt upon the reliability of redshift/distance theory, with far reaching consequences for astrophysics" (Ratcliffe H., 2010, Journal of Cosmology). This paper will explain the cause of the redshift anomaly and then apply the newfound knowledge to the galaxies in the observable universe. NGC 7603 is one example of a redshift anomaly with a discordant redshift system. The objects in the system that have high-z values are in the process of gaining/accreting mass at a high rate relative to their companions at time of observation which causes the anomaly. Applying this knowledge to galactic objects, as matter condenses, the gravity well will "deepen" or strengthen which has the effect of red shifting photons in accordance with the gravity well's rate of strengthening. Thus the observed redshift of any galaxy isn't solely based on the Doppler effect but also the rate of change of the galaxy's gravitational well. The further the look back time, the younger the galaxy is, the faster its mass is increasing, the faster its gravity well is strengthening, the higher the z-value observed will be. The implications of this interpretation is dark energy is either non existent or is overestimated when the proposed phenomenon isn't taken into account when measuring z-values. It is also plausible the universe is static or contracting while still retaining higher redshifts the further we look due to the nature of the look back time. Conversely, when an object is in the process of losing mass, its gravity well shallows which blue shifts photons. Numerous observations that support the hypothesis are provided in the paper. Several tests to prove the hypothesis are described also.
Category: Astrophysics

[978] viXra:1609.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 12:05:28

Stellar Evolution and Planet Formation are Mass Loss Phenomenon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A logical proof is provided to prove that planet formation is a mass loss phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[977] viXra:1609.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 18:58:44

Laws of Orbital Semimajor Axes and Periods of Exoplanets, and Their Application

Authors: G.P. Zhang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in extrasolar multi-planets systems, and discover the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20 and Kepler-102’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. The strong stellar wind near the stars pushed them away to their present orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[976] viXra:1609.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 13:33:58

Killer Electrons in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

New findings by a UCLA-led international team of researchers answer a fundamental question about our space environment and will help scientists develop methods to protect valuable telecommunication and navigation satellites. [12] A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[975] viXra:1609.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 08:41:24

New Physics Elements in the Quantum Function Follows Form Model.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 18 Pages. 18

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. In Quantum Function Follows FormModel, the Higgs is interpreted as a massless transformer particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merge with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots. What are the main differences with the standard model? 1, A Fermion repelling- and producing electric dark matter black hole. 2, An electric dark matter black hole splitting Big Bang with a 12x distant symmetric instant entangled raspberry multiverse result, each with copy Lyman Alpha forests. 3, Fermions are real propeller shaped rigid convertible strings with dual spin and also instant multiverse entanglement ( Charge Parity symmetric) . 4, The vacuum is a dense tetrahedral shaped lattice with dual oscillating massless Higgs particles ( dark energy). 5, All particles have consciousness by their instant entanglement relation between 12 copy universes, however, humans have about 500 m.sec retardation to veto an act. ( Benjamin Libet)
Category: Astrophysics

[974] viXra:1609.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 20:12:14

Why Young Stars are So Big and a Hypothesis for CMEs

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that since stars are not hot enough to engage fusion reactions, it is reasoned that electrostatic pressure from extremely ionized stars makes them really large.
Category: Astrophysics

[973] viXra:1609.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 01:59:35

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Reason of the Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of the Earth the Hypothesis of the Reason of a Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cloak and Bark is Made

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the reason of a polarity reversal of magnetic field of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cloak and bark is made
Category: Astrophysics

[972] viXra:1609.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 08:34:28

Universe Has no Direction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[971] viXra:1609.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 21:14:36

Lithium Abundance to Determine Future Size of Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new idea is presented to try and predict the future size of stars as they cool and solidify into solid worlds many billions of years into their metamorphosis, by utilizing the abundances of lithium.
Category: Astrophysics

[970] viXra:1609.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 06:34:03

Космологическое красное смещение.The Cosmological Red Shift.

Authors: Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich
Comments: 6 Pages.

Аннотация: В статье изложен другой взгляд на наличие фраунгоферовых линий в спектрах, что в корне меняет представление о межгалактическом космологическом красном смещении. Ключевые слова: спектр, излучение, галактики, красное Abstract: the article outlines a different view of the existence of Fraunhofer's lines in the spectra that radically changes the picture of the intergalactic cosmological redshift. Key words: spectrum, radiation, galaxy, red
Category: Astrophysics

[969] viXra:1609.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 22:01:54

The Observer Effect

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 26 Pages.

This paper discusses how an observer, when properly defined, can lead to a different interpretation of the universe by providing a way to connect General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. First, this was used to investigate the mass of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the result suggests that dark matter does not exist. Then, Hubble's Law was examined, and we were led to the same conclusion, i.e., dark energy does not exist. Finally, the linkage of quantum mechanics and relativity provides another explanation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and casts doubt on the Big Bang theory. All of these observations and conclusions were made possible by examining the philosophical foundation provided by a better understanding of how intelligent life forms make sense of the physical world. First, we discuss the intelligent life forms that are responsible for all observations and theories related to the universe. With this new understanding of ourselves, from a physics perspective, a philosophy emerges that alters our understanding of space and time. A theory is developed on this philosophical foundation that provides a way to connect the background dependence of quantum mechanics and the background independence of general relativity.
Category: Astrophysics

[968] viXra:1609.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 19:10:20

Supernovae Are Young Stars that Have Popped

Authors: Baz J. Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Images taken from http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2016/g11/

This paper proposes that Supernovae are the remnants of young stars that have expanded and ‘popped’.
Category: Astrophysics

[967] viXra:1609.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:59:00

Redshift Anomalies Are Key to Understanding Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Black Holes and the Unobservable Universe.

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: Pages.

A galaxy's redshift is not related to the Hubble velocity alone. Numerous redshift anomalies have been detected which suggest this. This papers goal is to explain the nature of these redshifts. Redshift anomalies in Quasars with a high-z, binary galaxies with a mass gaining companion with a discordant high-z, and the furthest galaxies with high-z values all have a similar trait, their mass is increasing at a high rate at time of observation. This paper proposes that when an objects gravity well is in the process of strengthening (by gaining mass), the light observed during its gravity well strengthening phase is redshifted accordingly. I provide numerous observations of objects that are closer than their high z values places them under current interpretation that support the hypothesis. The greater the look back time, the younger the galaxy, the younger the galaxy when observed, the faster its gravity well is strengthening. The faster a gravity well is figuratively deepening, the further photons will be stretched that traverse and depart the morphing gravity well. The implications of this phenomenon have one of three outcomes for the nature of the observable universe. A. the universe is not expanding as fast as estimated. B. the universe is static (redshifts will still appear higher the farther we look). C. the universe is contracting (the redshifts still appear higher the farther we look). The redshift anomaly can help us understand dark matter also. Z total = the affects of (change in GW well of the observable universe) + (change in GW of Milky Way) + (change in GW of observed galaxy) + (Velocity of observed galaxy). The paper contains numerous tests that may prove the hypothesis presented. To not even glance at these redshift anomalies because they don't agree with today's model of measuring expansion is just preventing advancement in the field, halting future discoveries. Correction: (Obs. 2) Here, object 2 (z=0.243) and Object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining mass from their surroundings. Object 3 (z=0.391) has a higher z than object 2 (z=0.243) because object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining a higher rate of mass relative to its own size than object 2 (still both are gaining mass from the bridge). Object 1 (z=0.057) has a higher z value than NGC 7603 (z=0.029), which may mean object 1 (z=0.057) is gaining mass from NGC 7603 (z=0.029) through the arm connecting them.
Category: Astrophysics

[966] viXra:1609.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 07:42:26

Determining the Ages of Stars Mathematically Using Luminosity

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars exhibit exponential decay. A simple mathematical relationship based off luminosity as compared to the Sun is given so that stars can have their ages determined. This paper is up for continued revision, as it only serves as a starting point to develop stellar metamorphosis in a mathematical sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[965] viXra:1609.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 11:49:19

Dark Matter as Power of Gravitational Field for MW VS M31. Two Similar Laws

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 24 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about non baryonic dark matter nature, which was published by the author in [1] Abarca,M.2014. [3] Abarca,M.2015. [8] Abarca,M.2016. [ 11] Abarca,M.2016 and others papers. It was postulated that non baryonic dark matter density depend on E, gravitational field, through a power of E as a Universal law. In order to check this theory in this paper will be studied DM density in halo region of MW and M31. Throughout the paper, DM refers to Non Baryonic DM. Briefly will be described paper procedure. In third chapter are introduced rotation curves of MW, [5] Huang,Y.2016, and M31, [13] Sofue, Y.2015. It is fitted a power regression for velocity depending on radius in halo of both galaxies. Formula is v = a• R^b. In fourth chapter it is deduced mathematically a DM density profile for MW & M31 in halo region. This new profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression velocity depending on radius. In fifth chapter is found a new DM density as power of E, which is mathematically equivalent to Direct DM density. Its formula is DM density = A• E^B. Where A & B are coefficients which depend on a & b, coefficients of velocity power regression in rotation curve. Also are calculated A&B for MW and M31. Finally it is explained that hypothesis of DM depending on gravitational field as Universal law allows enlarge dominion DM as power E for radius inside disc and radius bigger than dominion measures. In sixth chapter, according theory of DM generated by gravitational field, is defined galactic halo as region where own gravitational field dominates over neighbour gravitational field. Through this criterion is found halo MW = 310 kpc and halo M31 = 460 kpc. The seventh is a crucial chapter, because it is successfully compared DM as power E in MW & M31. Both formulas are compared and relative differences throughout dominion of E are below 14 %. Agreement of both functions is the main evidence about DM power E as Universal law. In eighth chapter is compared DM density as power E with NFW profile given by author of rotation curve in his paper. [5] Huang,Y.2016. NFW density is bigger than DM power E throughout all dominion, and relative differences oscillate between 34% and 13%. Such remarkable differences will be properly justified. In ninth chapter is calculated total mass through NFW profile and dynamical method. Mass through NFW profile is bigger than through dynamical method. Difference might be explained by the same reason given in previous chapter. In tenth chapter is calculated Local DM density through DM power E profile, which gives 0,16 GeV/cm^3 and is compared with same magnitude given by [5] Huang,Y.2016, which is 0,32 GeV/cm^3. It is defended that there is not contradiction between both data because the first profile gives Non Baryonic DM only, whereas experimental data measure Baryonic and non Baryonic DM. It is concluded three main ideas which will be properly justified in following pages. The first one is that there are strong evidences about that fraction of Baryonic DM vs Non Baryonic DM inside bulge and galactic disc is bigger than the same fraction inside halo. The second one is DM generated by gravitational field theory leads rightly a new definition for halo radius. According this theory are calculated halo radius MW equal to 310 kpc and halo radius M31 equal to 460 kpc. The third one is that there are strong evidences that non baryonic DM density is generated by gravitational field as a Universal law. Main reason to support this hypothesis is got in chapter seventh.
Category: Astrophysics

[964] viXra:1609.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-14 13:47:05

Dark Matter with Supermaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Superconducting aluminum or superfluid helium could be used to detect superlight dark matter particles. [14] Technological advances are ushering in a new era of understanding in the search for fundamental physical particles-including dark matter-scientists will tell a public event. [13] The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved the detector's sensitivity. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[963] viXra:1609.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 16:48:59

Some of the Consequences of the Entropic Relativistic Dark Matter

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

The objective of this article is to draw some important consequences of the theory of the entropic relativistic dark matter (GEST) which the weak fields approximation (SWFA) is a model. There will be shown the derivation of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship, the derivation of a new form of frequency shift, the intrinsic shift, and the distribution curve of the dark mass (matter). These theoretical extensions may help to understand the inexplicable experimental errors in the calculation of the Hubble constant and the problem of the creation and the stabilization of galactic disks. Moreover, since the exposed dark matter field is probably the BEHHGK field, the implications of the calculation of the distribution curve goes far beyond the field of astrophysics.
Category: Astrophysics

[962] viXra:1609.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 22:13:24

7 Evidences of Periodic Bursts of Stars and Planets in Their Youth

Authors: Guiping Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Based on the idea of Fred Hoyle that matter burst from the Sun formed planets, raise the theory of periodic bursts of stars and planets in their youth and provide a simple self-consistent model to explain many facts of the solar system and other planetary systems. Prove the theory with 7 evidences. First, the recently confirmed hot Jupiter V 830 Tau b orbiting a 2-Myr-old solar-mass T Tauri star was born from the burst of the star. Second, the similarity and differences of the architectures of the planetary system of Kepler-90 and the solar system was explained systematically. Third, the composition and low mean densities of the jovian planets which are similar to that of the Sun mean that they were once parts of the Sun. Fourth, parent bodies of meteorites from asteroids cooled down and solidified without or with differentiation from the temperature of the photosphere of the Sun. Fifth, widespread liquid water and valley networks on Mars about 3.7 Ga ago mean Mars was at the present orbit of the Earth or closer to the Sun at that time. Sixth, ancient rocks of the Earth and the Moon recorded solar wind 10 million times stronger than it is now. Seventh, regular satellites were products of bursts of planets in their youth.
Category: Astrophysics

[961] viXra:1609.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 20:55:54

Dynamic Universe Model: Sita Software Simplified

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 220 Pages. Book3 of Dynamic Universe Model... ISBN 978-3-639-36469-9

With this Book, we have provided a CD or downloadable software in the e-book which has the simplified version of SITA software. Otherwise anyone can contact the author at snp.gupta@gmail.com Anyone with very limited knowledge in Physics and Microsoft Excel can try hands on with this software. This SITA software is developed for the singularity free solution to N-body problem – Dynamic Universe Model; which is, inter body collision free and dynamically stable. Basically this is a “how to go about” for using the SITA software. SITA solution can be used in many places like presently unsolved applications like Pioneer anomaly at the Solar system level, Missing mass due to Star circular velocities and Galaxy disk formation at Galaxy level etc. This is the third book, after the earlier books, 1) “Dynamic Universe Model- a singularity free N-body problem solution” (ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1), and 2) Dynamic Universe Model- SITA singularity free software (978-3-639-33501-9) Here in this book a subset of SITA (Simulation of Inter-intra-Galaxy Tautness and Attraction forces) computer implementation Excel program software about 3000 equations are explained with usage out of all the 21000 equations used in the second book. Provision for a lot of modifications exists in the SITA program to tune to individual needs. This book is prepared in such a way it can be read independently of the first two books.
Category: Astrophysics

[960] viXra:1609.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 15:56:10

Dynamic Universe Model :sita Singularity Free Software

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 268 Pages. This is Book2 is published in Germany ISBN 978-3-639-33501-9

In this monograph,all the equations of SITA software are explained for the singularity free solution to N-body problem – Dynamic Universe Model; which is, inter body collision free and dynamically stable are presented. SITA solution can be used in many places like presently unsolved applications like Pioneer anomaly at the Solar system level, Missing mass due to Star circular velocities and Galaxy disk formation at Galaxy level etc. This is the second book, after the earlier book, “Dynamic Universe Model- a singularity free N-body problem solution” (ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1). Here SITA (Simulation of Inter-intra-Galaxy Tautness and Attraction forces) computer implementation Excel program software and its methodology and all the 21000 equations used there are explained in detail. One COPY OF SITA COPYRIGHTED SOFTWARE WILL SENT FREE OF COST BY CONTACTING THE AUTHOR AT ‘snp.gupta@gmail.com’ Provision for a lot of modifications exists in the program to tune to individual needs. This book is prepared in such a way it can be read independently of the first book
Category: Astrophysics

[959] viXra:1609.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 19:13:01

Dynamic Universe Model: a Singularity Free N-Body Problem Solution

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 120 Pages. This Book was published in Germany ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1

The failure to arrive at a singularity free solution for a general N-body problem for nearly 300 years has led people to treat this case of N-body simulations as being very turbulent. But I would like to reiterate and say that there is no reason for chaos here in Dynamic Universe Model. I am able to say this confidently after having worked on this Model for the last 18 years and creating 100,000 simulations using this SITA algorithm. The trick here is to follow the law of Newtonian Gravitation fully without any deviation to calculate the Universal Gravitational force (UGF) on each mass. Other N-body simulations either deviated from this law or did not calculate UGF. Apprehensions abound in any new field. As pointed earlier, my work in the last 18 years has given me enough confidence and I can say that the solution proposed hereunder will work almost in any physical situation and explain all the anomalies which arose due to the earlier theories. I can prove the working of the algorithm to any technical team. Many people asked me the reason for selecting 133 masses. There are many reasons for this ‘why133 masses?’ question. It was in the beginning of the 1990’s that the Dynamic Universal Model project began. The common man had minimal access to computers during this period in India. Processor 8088 prevailed. PC with two floppy drives was becoming redundant and was being slowly replaced by the hard drive. This resulted in limitations to data handling capacity. Computers used to take a few hours to calculate something like 50 iterations. Today, these iterations can be done in 8 to 10 minutes with a five – year old laptop. The Milkyway, our Galaxy has 1011 Stars approximately with number of planets being an additional 10 times. Estimated number of dwarf planets would be 1000 times the number of planets, say about to 1015. Chunks of planets and asteroids may be a million times the number of planets, say about 1018. All these figures are on the lower side. Hence, about 1019 masses and their positional data is required to simulate a Galaxy. The total number of masses required to simulate would be about 1025 to 1028. Is there any Super computer on Earth, which can handle such huge amount of data, today? Do we have all such data to feed the computer? May be 133 masses are too less a number to begin a simulation. However, even 3 body problem is not simple to solve directly with the usual differential equations method. Even if we create a simulation with a million or 10 million masses, it will approximately be 1020 less than what is required for simulating the universe. My resources being limited and having no access to higher computers, the best I can do is testing this SITA algorithm of Dynamic Universe model for the various situations within the available resources and time. I have carried out this work out of my own interest and have not sought any Government or University funding for the same. I came up with the Dynamic Universe Model after 18 years after much effort and hard work. The Model uses Newtonian Gravitation for calculating the resultant Universal Gravitational force on every mass. No special assumptions have been made for arriving at the Model. In those days I did not think of lower side at all like N=2,3 4..etc. What I was aiming is to accommodate as many numbers of masses as possible. I did not take it in the way of mathematical induction process, i.e., if it is true for n=2, and n=3, then test for n and n+1. I have no way of testing that approach. People asked me why I worked with only 133 masses. The SITA simulations can be done with higher number of masses on any Supercomputer provided funds and resources are available. I have successfully tested the SITA solution for 2, 3, 4, 133, 25000 point masses. I am sure we can arrive at the same results when tried with higher masses also. Now I can say, this Dynamic Universe model is no more a fantasy, but it is reality …………..
Category: Astrophysics

[958] viXra:1609.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 14:07:25

The Electrodynamic Algorithms of Core of Stars and Black Holes

Authors: Alexandris G Nikos
Comments: 7 Pages.

The prediction of the magnetic field of Sgr A* by the algorithm of a star's core rotation is presented in my book “Modified Hawking field” 2010 .In the present article we can see the way .We can calculate the electrodynamic parameters of the nucleus of stars and black holes like Sgr A*
Category: Astrophysics

[957] viXra:1609.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 12:45:24

Blue and Red Shifted Galaxies Are Resulted Due to Frequency Shifting in Electromagnetic Radiation Near Gravitating Masses in Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 11 Pages.

According to General theory of relativity the frequency shift in electro-magnetic (EM) radiation close to a gravitating mass happens in one direction only, but in accordance with Dynamic Universe Model this frequency shift happens on both the sides of spectrum. Here we will derive the results using general Physics and Mathematics that changes the frequency of electromagnetic radiation passing near a moving gravitating mass. The frequency of the radiation will increase (Red shifted) when the relative movement of the gravitating body is in opposite direction to EM radiation and the frequency will reduce when in same direction (Blue shifted).
Category: Astrophysics

[956] viXra:1609.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 07:59:30

On Existence of Gravitational Repulsion Forces

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 10 Pages.

The article substantiates a new standpoint on origin and nature of the forces causing an accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this standpoint the Newton’s gravitational theory describing only pairwise interactions and recognizing only attraction forces needs a generalization. Such a generalization made in the article on the basis of energodynamics as a unified theory of transport and the transformation processes of all forms of energy. Herein the existence of gravitational repulsion forces in the non-baryonic matter of the Universe is substantiated, which makes superfluous introducing the dark energy as a hypothetical medium under negative pressure. At the same time the generalized theory of gravitation predicts existence of strong and weak gravitation, zones of stable and unstable gravitational equilibrium, standing and running gravitational waves, as well as huge stores of free gravitational energy available and ready to be used. The latest results of astronomical observations are also presented as verifying the concept proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

[955] viXra:1609.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 08:31:43

Great Age Cosmology #3

Authors: Allen Graycek
Comments: 3 Pages.

Extending from galaxies are huge halos of gas and dust, much larger than previously thought. Mass estimates of these halos indicate a mass about equal to the galaxy’s stars. Material type verifies these halos to be the exudate of the galaxy’s supernovae (SNs). It is known stars that explode give considerable force and speed to the gas and dust they blow off. The rate of SNs when searched for was found to be very low. Simple calculations using this data results in a very great age for a Milky Way size galaxy and provides answers to current research on mysteries such as dark matter. It is known it takes trillions of years for stars to cool down, and once cool they would emit millions of times less heat, and no light. They might be IR detectable within a few light years from us.
Category: Astrophysics

[954] viXra:1609.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 10:12:32

Dwarf Galaxies with Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries of dwarf galaxies has to do with dark matter, which is why scientists are so fascinated by them. [17] Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[953] viXra:1609.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 03:46:54

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. How the Mother Earth "BECAME POPULATED" "Settling" of Earth Began with Poles. the General Cold Snap is Inevitable.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

"Settling" of Earth began with poles. The general cold snap is inevitable.
Category: Astrophysics

[952] viXra:1609.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 03:42:13

Two New Dark Matter Density Profiles for Milky Way Halo Got from Rotation Curve

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of Milky Way, MW hereafter, and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. The first is called direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in halo rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. In fact this function got by power regression has a correlation coefficient of 0,85. The second one, DM density as power of E, E is gravitational field, has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, where it has been used to study DM in several galaxies. It is called as power of E because DM density depend on E as a power function. Hypothesis which is the basis of theory is that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside MW halo. These data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. In addition it is got a power regression for rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b getting a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,85. In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression function got in chapter three. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that a power regression function for rotation curve is mathematically equivalent that DM density depend on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of rotation curve). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 44 kpc ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 2% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. The seventh is a short chapter where is compared direct DM density got with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Relative differences between both density profiles are under 25% inside main part of halo dominion. In addition it is explained why NFW profile is bigger than direct DM throughout dominion. Eighth chapter, called Masses in Milky Way, is dedicated to calculate masses through dynamical method and NFW profile. In addition both methods are compared at different radius. Results show that relative differences of masses are under 20% inside main part of radius dominion. In ninth chapter is compared DM density as power E in MW with DM density as power E in M31, which was published in [ 11] Abarca,M.2016. Results show that at a specific E, both DM densities are very similar. Relative differences are under 15 % inside main part of dominion. This fact support strongly author hypothesis about DM as power of E as Universal law. In tenth chapter, it is introduced a new definition for halo radius. According theory DM generated by gravitational field, it is right to definite halo as region where gravitational field dominate over gravitational field of galactic neighbour. So it is calculated that halo radius for MW is 292 kpc and halo radius for M31 is 478 kpc. Also are calculated total masses which belong these new radius and it is calculated new ratio baryonic mass vs total mass. Such ratio is 18% for MW and 8 % for M31.
Category: Astrophysics

[951] viXra:1609.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-05 20:51:13

The Radiometric Dating Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stellar evolution is planet formation, a star is a young planet and a planet is an ancient star, they are the same objects. Therefore a complete reinterpretation of isotopic abundances of radioactive elements needs to be done. A simple principle is presented to guide future physicists away from the false nebular hypothesis and all of its modern variants, and towards a new theory of stellar evolution/planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[950] viXra:1609.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 19:18:52

The Cementation Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustration

In stellar metamorphosis the majority of the cementation of rocks and minerals in the newly forming crust occurs during the transition of early stage ocean worlds and worlds with exposed rocky surfaces similar to the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[949] viXra:1609.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-04 01:49:32

Does Dark Matter Replaces Ether?

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 8 Pages.

Substantiates the concept, according to which all forms of matter in the universe formed from a single "protomatter", which was previously called ether, and now - dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[948] viXra:1609.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 09:36:01

Two New Dark Matter Density Profiles for M31 Halo Got from Rotation Curve

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 20 Pages. Direct DM density profile has been calculated directly from rotation curve of M31

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. The first is called direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. In fact galactic rotation curve inside M31 halo has a power regression of velocity depending on radius with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,95 inside halo region. The second one, called Bernoulli profile has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, and others papers quoted in bibliography, where it has been used to study DM in several galaxies. It is called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. In addition A& B are similar for different galaxies on condition that galaxies are similar and giants, not dwarfs. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside M31 halo. These data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. In addition it is got a power regression for rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b getting a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,95. In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression function got in chapter three. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that a power regression function for rotation curve is mathematically equivalent that DM density depend on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of rotation curve). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc then ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. The seventh is a short chapter where is compared direct DM density got with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Relative differences between both density profiles are under 25% inside main part of halo dominion. In addition it is shown that NFW profile is bigger than direct DM through all dominion. In eighth chapter is got a Bernoulli differential equation for gravitational field. Hypothesis to state this equation is that DM density is a power function of gravitational field i.e. DM density = A• E^B. Solution for E allows to get Bernoulli density profile. In ninth chapter is demonstrated that Bernoulli profile is mathematically equivalent to direct DM profile. In tenth chapter has been got masses for M31 by direct DM and NFW profiles at different radius. Through whole dominion masses got by NFW are bigger than direct DM profile although relative difference between both profiles are under 25 %. In conclusion chapter will be pointed reason, which in author opinion, explain that NFW profile gives bigger values than direct DM profile.
Category: Astrophysics

[947] viXra:1609.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 08:21:52

X-ray Signal not from Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A mysterious X-ray signal from clusters of galaxies recently caused some excitement among astronomers: Does it perhaps originate from dark matter, which makes up around 80 percent of the matter in the universe, but which scientists have not yet been able to detect? In order to help answering this question, physicists at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg checked an alternative explanation. [15] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[946] viXra:1608.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 15:54:41

Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks, Charles F. Radley
Comments: Pages.

The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.
Category: Astrophysics

[945] viXra:1608.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 09:38:18

Hot Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[944] viXra:1608.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 12:27:16

The Energy Loss and Decai of Photons at Cosmological Distances

Authors: Pereverzev Vladimir
Comments: 10 Pages.

To date, accumulated a large number of observational data, which showed a loss of energy and decay photons at cosmological and intergalactic distances. This is evidenced by the folloving observational data: 1. Reduction of diameter of the elliptical galaxies with increase distance to them. The mass and age of the stellar population of galaxies with increasing distances to them do not change. In spiral galaxies with increasing distances to them are no longer observed portion of the spiral arms with low luminosity. The spiral arms seen as wispy at large distances. Spiral galaxies observed as irregular, anemic, diffuse at large distances. However, the diameter of spiral galaxies, for certain parts of the most striking, is not changed to the large distances. 2. The gradual reduction of the size structure of radio galaxies (their radio - emitting parts) at distances from z = 0 to z = 3. At distances greater then z = 3 radio-emitting structures are not observed. 3. With the increase in the distance to quasars have redused the length of jets. So, on z=1-2 jets length of about 100 kpc, and on z=4 - about 10 kpc. Although other parameters do not change or change slightly. 4. Reduced number of spiral galaxies with a bar, where increasing the distance to them. 5. The detection of very faint dwarf galaxies, in which the ratio of the mass-luminosity reaches 1000. Thet is, the stars in the shell of these galaxies are not observed. The reason for this is the loss of energy and decay of photons, because photons in the flow of a small power lose energy and decompose faster then photons in a higher power flows. 6. Powerful streams of photons from a gamma-ray bursts (GRB) raise the temperature of microwave background radiation. This fact confirms the reduction of photon energy loss in the power flovs. 8. Metallicity of galaxies decreases with increasing distances to the galaxies. However, if the flow of photons from the galaxy coincides with a stream of photons from the gamma-ray basts in this case does not decrease metallicity of galaxies. 9.Statistical analisis shows relationship thet galaxies with increasing their mass and luminosity deccreases the ratio of the mass-luminosity. This is due to a higher concentration of stars within the effective radius and visible radius of the massive (large) galaxies compared to galaxies of smaller mass. Terefore, the critical density of photons when they cease to be observed,move to the center of galaxies, if the mass of galaxies is reduced. The opening energy loss and decay of photons require an adjustment of the quantum and classical electrodinamics. Also, it would require to retarn to the model of a stationary universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[943] viXra:1608.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 14:42:26

The Failed Hypothesis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 105 Pages.

We – LIVING IN A STRANGE AND wonderful universe (WHOSE age, size, violence, and beauty require extraordinary imagination to appreciate) still discovering the fundamental laws of nature – regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit of the new picture of reality that is emerging as a result. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community (who can trace the roots of modern astronomy back to the ancient Greeks. Around 340 B. C) as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. who can work out the distances to nine different galaxies -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[942] viXra:1608.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:05:24

The Temperature Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper it is explained that stars’ surfaces cool as they evolve, therefore leading to a general principle of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[941] viXra:1608.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:39:44

The Crust Solidification Principle of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained another principle of foundational structure of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[940] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 04:19:30

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving an explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[939] viXra:1608.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 01:17:34

Dark Matter Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[938] viXra:1608.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 04:35:33

Fast Radio Bursts and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[937] viXra:1608.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 07:23:46

God Seems to Plays Dice with Dual Entangled Pinball Machines in a Super Symmetric (Susy) Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

In a SUSY (Super symmetric ) multiverse, God seems to plays dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us humans make decisions. Intelligent beings are lucky to became more time ( 0.5 sec.) to veto actions initiated by one of the other universes. As a result: the creation of "democratic free will" In Quantum FFF Theory it is assumed that each quantum is instant entangled with one or more dual Charge Parity (anti) symmetric copy particles present in opposing multiverse bubbles embedded in the so called raspberry shaped multiverse. Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. In addition, I found recently support for a multiverse related quantum experiment done by Giulia Rubino and Philip Walther of Institute for Quantum Optics Vienna as a strong indication, that not only for humans but also for “ dead” quanta a possible multiverse relation could be postulated. As a result we may say, that God seems to plays dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines (universal bubbles like ours) to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us make more or less conscious decisions.
Category: Astrophysics

[936] viXra:1608.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 12:02:20

Dynamic Universe Model Solves “Faster Than Light Neutrinos” Riddle

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. Additional supplimentary files are there

There are many instances that reported Superluminal neutrinos. Dynamic Universe Model explains the how and why of “Faster than Light Neutrinos” without any modification in its theory. Various instances like Astronomical jets, Gravitational catapult, MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy Neutrinos travelling faster than speed of light were recorded. There were 76 theoretical experiments conducted and their results are reported in this paper. These experiments were done between 2009 to 2011. Dynamic Universe Model theory was tested in explaining many anomalies in Physics. Dynamic Universe Model’s many predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[935] viXra:1608.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 19:38:38

The Sun is a Planet

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Masses, orbits and definitions of stars change as they evolve with us.
Category: Astrophysics

[934] viXra:1608.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 08:15:20

Neutrinos and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Three distinguished particle physicists have joined the lab over the past months to pursue research on two particularly mysterious forms of matter: neutrinos and dark matter. [10] New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave, which could explain why matter persists over antimatter. [9] Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Astrophysics

[933] viXra:1608.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-18 07:41:01

Three-body

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 1 Page.

The three-body problem Author:LeiGuanji contact:gaimotuanti@sina.com Abstract:The three-body problem maybe could be solved by studying the move orbit of the mass center.So I finished this paper to describe it. Background:There is many three-body system in our universe,but we don't have a theory to describe them. The context and purpose of the study:I want to describe the move of three-body's mass center. Results:Describing the motion of the three-body. The main findings:the motion of the three-body's mass center is law-abiding. Conclusions:the mass center is moving on a cone-curve. Brief summary and potential implications: maybe it will explain many three-body's moving in our universe. Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article For Research Article:The three-body problem,mass center,star's orbit. Abstract:The three-body problem is a very inportant question.We can't solve it used common math ways because we only study the move of star but not study the move of mass center.I want to describe the motion of mass center in this paper. Introduction:I want to explain the motion of the star by the motion of the mass center. Methods:math analyse,determent analyse,go to the 5-dimension space-time to observe Discussion and Results:   We all make a mistake of three-body problem:we only want to know the equation of the three stars,but not pay attention to the moving of the centre of mass.(we only discuss the star's movement in this paper)   The three stars A,B,C make up a triangle ABC,that define a plane surface ABC. 1、one star is moving   If there is a star A is moving and the other two star isn't moving,so there is a fix line segment BC.   If A has a speed not perpendicular to BC.Using the simple math inference,we could know that the centre of mass υ is moving on a ellipse orbit and the focus point of the ellipse K isn't moving. (A doesn't between BC if A on BC line) In the framework of the planar and circular Restricted Three-Body Problem, we consider an asteroid that orbits the Sun in quasi-satellite motion with a planet.[1] 2:there is two stars moving   If there is a star A is static,and other two star B and C all have a speed.We can see that the centre of mass of AB υ1 is moving on a ellipse orbit O1. The centre of mass of AC υ2 is moving on another ellipse orbit O2.If we make O1 and O2,we can get the orbit of the ABC's centre of mass.We could find that it is on a ellipse surface.(A doesn't between BC if A is on BC line) The case of the planar circular photogravitational restricted three-body problem where the more massive primary is an emitter of radiation is numerically investigated. A thorough numerical analysis takes place in the configuration(x,y)and the(x,C)space in which we classify initial conditions of orbits into three main categories: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. Our results reveal that the radiation pressure factor has a huge impact on the character of orbits. Interpreting the collisional motion as leaking in the phase space we related our results to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. We successfully located the escape as well as the collisional basins and we managed to correlate them with the corresponding escape and collision times. We hope our contribution to be useful for a further understanding of the escape and collision properties of motion in this interesting version of the restricted three-body problem.[2] 3:ABC is all moving(A doesn't between BC if A on the BC line.B doesn't between AC if B is on the AC line .C doesn't between AB if C is on theAB line)   We could find that the centre of mass of AB,AC and BC are all moving on a ellipse orbit.So the ABC's centre of mass is moving on a ellipse shape. 4:other If a star is between another two stars when it is on their line.We could know that it doesn't moving on a ellipse orbit but moving on a odd orbit,we also can resolve its orbit into three orbits.We could find a point on the orbits are a part of a ellipse like a point on the cone spiral is a part of a circle. The presence of mean-motion resonances (MMRs) in exoplanetary systems is a new exciting field of celestial mechanics which motivates us to consider this work to study the dynamical behaviour of exoplanetary systems by time evolution of the orbital elements of the planets. Mainly, we study the influence of planetary perturbations on semimajor axis and eccentricity. We identify (r 1):rMMR terms in the expression of disturbing function and obtain the perturbations from the truncated disturbing function. Using the expansion of the disturbing function of three-body problem and an analytical approach, we solve the equations of motion. The solution which is obtained analytically is compared with that of obtained by numerical method to validate our analytical result. In this work, we consider three exoplanetary systems namely Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11. We have plotted the evolution of the resonant angles and found that they librate around constant value. In view of this, our opinion is that two planets of each system Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11 are in 2:1, 4:3 and 5:4 mean motion.[3]   If we have those conclusions,we could get the analytical solution of the three-body problem.I think now I can give this question to human being to solve. Conclusions:The mass center of the three-body moving on a complex but law-abiding motion. Acknowledgements Thanks to all kind lives. References: [1]On the co-orbital motion in the Planar Restricted Three-Body Problem: the Quasi-satellite motion revisited Alexandre Pousse, Philippe Robutel, Alain Vienne arXiv:1603.06543 [2]、Astrophysics and Space Science November 2015,360:1 First online:01 October 2015 Euaggelos E. Zotos: Unveiling the influence of the radiation pressure in nature of orbits in the photogravitational restricted three-body problem [3]、Orbital Dynamics of Exoplanetary Systems Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11 Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah Volume 459Issue 3July 01, 2016
Category: Astrophysics

[932] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 00:31:50

Black-Holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint regard to black-holes’ innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[458] viXra:1702.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-05 00:16:14

The Beautiful Nebula and Its Formation Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about the formation mechanism of a Cat's eye nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[457] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-15 10:39:48

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t) and all of the measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). Therefore, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. So at this point the only element of contention would be which equation may be a better choice to describe the behavior of Ψ(r,t) for a dark matter particle in a galactic halo: 1) a Schrödinger type of equation 2) a Klein-Gordon type of equation 3) or even perhaps a new type of quantum equation better suited to our application in untested galactic dimensions. In this work we will focus on evaluating which quantum equation could be used, and under which conditions, to describe quantum states available to dark matter in galactic halos, under the gravitational field produced my all galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. We also will propose such quantum equation as the sought after halos' universal law. And at the end we will solve such equation, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, to estimate, applying this entirely different approach, the mass of the so elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[456] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-12 06:04:22

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 40 Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t) and all of the measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). Therefore, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. So at this point the only element of contention would be which equation may be a better choice to describe the behavior of Ψ(r,t) for a dark matter particle in a galactic halo: 1) a Schrödinger type of equation 2) a Klein-Gordon type of equation 3) or even perhaps a new type of quantum equation better suited to our application in untested galactic dimensions. In this work we will focus on evaluating which quantum equation could be used, and under which conditions, to describe quantum states available to dark matter in galactic halos, under the gravitational field produced my all galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. We also will propose such quantum equation as the sought after halos' universal law. And at the end we will solve such equation, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, to estimate, applying this entirely different approach, the mass of the so elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[455] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-03 08:12:27

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[454] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-18 00:39:26

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[453] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-30 10:13:04

Black Holes, White Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about black holes, white holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[452] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-30 07:08:30

Black Holes, White Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about black holes, white holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[451] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-23 23:54:57

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[450] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-23 04:40:03

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[449] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 21:35:24

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[448] viXra:1701.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-06 16:04:29

Exploring the Inflation and Gravity of the Universe with Eyring’s Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao,Yuanze Xu,Ting Hao
Comments: Pages.

On the basis of the very successful free volume theory applicable to wide length scales from electrons to small molecules, macromolecules, colloidal particles and even granules, hypothetical particles dubbed “freevons” are proposed to fill up the free volume available in any system from microscopic atomic world to the macroscopic universe. The Eyring’s rate process theory that has a wide applicability to many chemical and physical phenomena is assumed to govern the behaviors of freevons. It turns out that for keeping the universe to expand in an accelerated manner, the freevons must form the paired structures, like electrons paired in superconductivity state and helium-3 atoms paired in superfluidity state; at about 5 K, there is a temperature induced phase transition happening and the Hubble’s constant is predicted to dramatically increase, implying that the universe will inflate even further rapidly. The universe is therefore viewed as particles, the stars and galaxies, dispersed in the superfluidity freevon sea and the gravity is considered to be induced from the force density, usually defined as a negative gradient of pressure in fluid mechanics. The Newton’s gravity equation is thus easily obtained under those assumptions, and similarly the Coulomb’s Law can also be obtained using the same approach. In this superfluiditiy framework, the volumes rather than the masses of particles are found to be important in determining the gravitational forces. The expansion driving force comes from the activity or concentration gradient of freevons formed at the beginning of the big bang, and there is no need to postulate a dark energy or dark matter to be responsible for such an accelerated inflation; Or freevons can be considered “dark matter”. Our approach may bridge many different theories in astrophysics field and provide a possibility to use quantum mechanics to study the universe through exploring the quantum mechanics behaviors of freevons.
Category: Astrophysics

[447] viXra:1612.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-14 04:18:08

Physical Properties of Stars and Stellar Dynamics

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 15 Pages. Accepted for publication in Progress in Physics

The present study is an investigation of stellar physics based on observables such as mass, luminosity, radius, and photosphere temperature. We collected a dataset of these characteristics for 360 stars, and diagramed the relationships between their characteristics and their type (white dwarf, red dwarf, main sequence star, giant, supergiant, hypergiant, Wolf-Rayet, carbon star, etc.). For stars dominated by radiation pressure in the photosphere which follow the Eddington luminosity, we computed the opacity and cross section to photon flux per hydrogen nuclei in the photosphere. We considered the Sun as an example of star dominated by gas pressure in the photosphere, and estimated the density of the solar photosphere using limb darkening and assuming the adiabatic gradient of a monoatomic gas. We then estimated the cross section per hydrogen nuclei in the plasma of the solar photosphere, which we found to be about 2.66\e{-28} \, m^2, whereas the cross section of neutral hydrogen as given by the Bohr model is 8.82\e{-21} \, m^2. This result suggests that the electrons and protons in the plasma are virtually detached. Hence, a hydrogen plasma may be represented as a gas mixture of electrons and protons. If the stellar photosphere was made of large hydrogen atoms or ions such as the ones we find in gases, its surface would evaporate due to the high temperatures.
Category: Astrophysics

[446] viXra:1612.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-28 06:20:13

Democratic Free Will and Telepathy in the Instant Entangled Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. However I would propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas. Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”. Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all instant entangled ideas of copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally. If I am able to “Tap into” those instant entanglement connections” sent out by other people, then even telepathic effects (mind reading) could be explained. Uri Geller like others, is the man who seems to be able to “tap in” and even influences metal objects like spoons.
Category: Astrophysics

[445] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 18:14:53

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 2 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-positron & Proton-antiproton Event Horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[444] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-28 18:36:58

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to theory, Seeing within the electron-positron & proton-antiproton event horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[443] viXra:1611.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-23 09:42:58

Hexagonal Storm on Saturn \\ Шестиугольный шторм на Сатурне

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn. \\ На северном полюсе Сатурна уже более 30 лет существует гигантский шторм в форме шестиугольника, каждая сторона которого больше диаметра Земли. Этот шестиугольник не перемещается на планете, вращается и сохраняет свою форму. Это явление до сих пор не имеет объяснения. Ниже предлагается математическая модель такого шторма, аналогичная математической модели океанского водоворота (предложенной автором ранее). При этом показывается, что источником энергии, позволяющей шторму длительное время вращаться, является гравитационное поле Сатурна.
Category: Astrophysics

[442] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-02 04:03:06

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 31 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[441] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 10:35:08

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole. Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) and leave a temporary superconducting channel behind . Black Holes of all sizes, (even the fast evaporating smallest ones) are supposed to EAT the Vacuum and leave a super conducting channel behind, e.g. for fast lightning charge transmission. According to Quantum FFF Model.
Category: Astrophysics

[440] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-13 07:19:18

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[439] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-09 02:42:19

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[438] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-28 11:07:56

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages. 30

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[437] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-16 11:17:25

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[436] viXra:1611.0187 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 12:42:02

Pioneer Anomaly as a Mass Accretion Phenomenon

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2015): Oct. 11, ‘Pioneer Anomaly as a Mass Accretion Phenomenon’, Oct. 10, Vol. 6(10) Article 18, PSTJ, pp.1015 − 1022. (ISBN: 1518674054; EAN13: 9781518674051)

We consider a possible scenario that we strongly believe has never been considered before in the quest to understand the origins of the Pioneer Anomaly (PA). If our investigation is anything to go by, then, perhaps we have made an omission in our application of Newton's second to the spacecrafts. That is – in the region 20 − 70 AU (and perhaps beyond), there may very well be an Interplanetary Medium (IPM) through which the spacecrafts ac-crete mass as they swim through it. If this simple idea is correct description of physical and natural reality, then, we find that the accretion rate of the spacecrafts required to account for the PA is ∼ 6.00 × 10 −4 kgyr −1. Additionally, we find that in-order to explain the non-existence of the PA in the region (1 − 20 AU), the IPM must have an opacity that is two orders of magnitude larger than the average Interstellar Medium (ISM). In the perhaps very narrow margin of the likelihood that the our suggested idea has anything at all to do with reality, then, the present findings suggest that opacity, which is a frequency dependent quantity, it may very well have a density dependence as-well.
Category: Astrophysics

[435] viXra:1611.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 14:36:23

Dark Matter in Solar System

Authors: Manuel abarca hernandez
Comments: 9 Pages. II version has calculated DM up to Eris orbit and up to Proxima Centauri distance

For last two years I have published several papers about DM on galaxies and cluster of galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original hypothesis which states that DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal law. As consequence this hypothesis, gravitational field is calculated through a Bernoulli differential equation which gives rightly DM density named Bernoulli profile. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters which are supposed to be valid for every gravitational system. Parameters A&B come from calculus made in paper [7] Abarca, M.2016. Specifically were calculated in M31 galaxy from rotation curve data for radius bigger than 40 kpc and lower than 200 kpc. In this region gravitational field is lower than 10^-11 m/s^2. Whereas inside Solar System gravitational field is billions of times bigger. However if it is supposed that DM generation mechanism is Universal then the same parameters should be right to study Dark matter density inside Solar System. It is remarkable the fact that through the same method I have published successful results for cluster of galaxies scale and galaxy scale. Unfortunately there is not experimental measures for DM inside Solar System yet so it is not possible for now check theoretical results published in this paper. The main results this paper are DM enclosed by spherical coronas defined by radius of Sun and planetary orbits. Through mass of Earth as unit of mass, results are the following ones: DM up to Mercury orbit is 71,8 MEARTH , up to Venus orbit is 75.76 MEARTH , up to Earth orbit is 77.5 MEARTH , up to Mars orbit is 79.5 MEARTH , up to Jupiter orbit is 83.96 MEARTH , up to Saturn orbit is 85.56 MEARTH , up to Uranus orbit is 87.04 MEARTH , up to Neptune orbit is 87.82 MEARTH , up to Pluto orbit is 88.25 MEARTH, up to Eris orbit is 88.98 MEARTH, up to half distance to Proxima Centauri is 92.33 MEARTH and up to Proxima Centauri distance is 92.39 MEARTH
Category: Astrophysics

[434] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-09 02:17:06

Rigid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes. These shapes permit the particles to have different functions like different masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Z particles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[433] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-03 08:01:36

Rigid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages. 27

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes. These shapes permit the particles to have different functions like different masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Z particles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[432] viXra:1611.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-02 04:56:30

Electric Dark Matter Black Holes in the Moon (Orientale Basin)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

The multiple cliff-ringed lava plains on the moon are breath taking and how they came to be has puzzled scientists and even philosophers. However, multi-cliff ringed basins are also found in many different locations on other worlds. So, what created the basins? The suggestion of Quantum FFF Theory is that the double charged static electric fields assumed to be active concentric around new physics black holes should be the origin of circular cliff formation after the impact of a special comet which is only based on one nuclear black hole. Many comets however seem to be created around more than one new physics black hole as we may have observed in comets like 67P C-G and Shoemaker Levy 9. The resulting lava plains of such crashed comets are supposed to be represented by less circular gravity variations or less circular cliffed plains. Recent discussions around the foundation of black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about the nature of black holes and adjacent subjects.
Category: Astrophysics

[431] viXra:1610.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-22 06:43:23

Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Sphere Packed Average Particles

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[430] viXra:1609.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-17 17:23:45

Dark Matter as Power of Gravitational Field for MW VS M31. Two Similar Laws.

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 27 Pages. V2-Two new chapters with DM density formulas through dimensionless variables power.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about non baryonic dark matter nature, which was published by the author in [1] Abarca,M.2014. [3] Abarca,M.2015. [8] Abarca,M.2016. [ 11] Abarca,M.2016 and others papers. It was postulated that non baryonic dark matter density depend on E, gravitational field, through a power of E as a Universal law. In order to check this theory in this paper will be studied DM density in halo region of MW and M31. Throughout the paper, DM refers to Non Baryonic DM. Briefly will be described paper procedure. In third chapter are introduced rotation curves of MW, [5] Huang,Y.2016, and M31, [13] Sofue, Y.2015. It is fitted a power regression for velocity depending on radius in halo of both galaxies. Formula is v = a• R^b. In fourth chapter it is deduced mathematically a DM density profile for MW & M31 in halo region. This new profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression velocity depending on radius. In fifth chapter is found a new DM density as power of E, which is mathematically equivalent to Direct DM density. Its formula is DM density = A• E^B. Where A & B are coefficients which depend on a & b, coefficients of velocity power regression in rotation curve. Also are calculated A&B for MW and M31. Finally it is explained that hypothesis of DM depending on gravitational field as Universal law allows enlarge dominion DM as power E for radius inside disc and radius bigger than dominion measures. In sixth chapter, according theory of DM generated by gravitational field, is defined galactic halo as region where own gravitational field dominates over neighbour gravitational field. Through this criterion is found halo MW = 310 kpc and halo M31 = 460 kpc. The seventh is a crucial chapter, because it is successfully compared DM as power E in MW & M31. Both formulas are compared and relative differences throughout dominion of E are below 14 %. Agreement of both functions is the main evidence about DM power E as Universal law. In eighth chapter is compared DM density as power E with NFW profile given by author of rotation curve in his paper. [5] Huang,Y.2016. NFW density is bigger than DM power E throughout all dominion, and relative differences oscillate between 34% and 13%. Such remarkable differences will be properly justified. In ninth chapter is calculated total mass through NFW profile and dynamical method. Mass through NFW profile is bigger than through dynamical method. Difference might be explained by the same reason given in previous chapter. In tenth chapter is calculated Local DM density through DM power E profile, which gives 0,16 GeV/cm^3 and is compared with same magnitude given by [5] Huang,Y.2016, which is 0,32 GeV/cm^3. It is defended that there is not contradiction between both data because the first profile gives Non Baryonic DM only, whereas experimental data measure Baryonic and non Baryonic DM. In eleventh chapter is developed a mathematical procedure to change physics magnitudes as power into dimensionless power variables. This change has been possible thanks a new parameter Rs called scale radius. So it is defined x = radius/ Rs being x dimensionless. This way velocity v = c• x^d. As a consequence Direct DM is changed into a new dimensionless power and similarly happen to DM as power of E, where E is changed by a new dimensionless variable. In twelfth chapter is made use of new formulas to Milky Way data. New results have being checked and it has been shown that they are identical to got in previous chapters. It is concluded three main ideas which will be properly justified in following pages. The first one is that there are strong evidences about that fraction of Baryonic DM vs Non Baryonic DM inside bulge and galactic disc is bigger than the same fraction inside halo. The second one is DM generated by gravitational field theory leads rightly a new definition for halo radius. According this theory are calculated halo radius MW equal to 310 kpc and halo radius M31 equal to 460 kpc. The third one is that there are strong evidences that non baryonic DM density is generated by gravitational field as a Universal law. Main reason to support this hypothesis is got in chapter seventh.
Category: Astrophysics

[429] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-28 00:49:38

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a new explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[428] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 09:57:16

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a new explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[427] viXra:1608.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-25 08:42:40

God Seems to Play Dice with Dual Entangled Pinball Machines in a Supersymmetric (Susy) Multiverse

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

In a SUSY (Supersymmetric ) multiverse, God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us humans make decisions. Intelligent beings are lucky to became more time ( 0.5 sec.) to veto actions initiated by one of the other universes. As a result: The creation of a "democratic veto related free will" of each individual human! In Quantum FFF Theory it is assumed that each quantum is instant entangled with one or more dual Charge Parity (anti) symmetric copy particles present in opposing multiverse bubbles embedded in the so called raspberry shaped multiverse. Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. In addition, I found recently support for a multiverse related quantum experiment done by Giulia Rubino and Philip Walther of Institute for Quantum Optics Vienna as a strong indication, that not only for humans but also for “ dead” quanta a possible multiverse relation could be postulated. As a result we may say, that God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines (universal bubbles like ours) to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us make more or less conscious decisions.
Category: Astrophysics

[426] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-10 09:17:46

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[425] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-29 09:13:36

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[424] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-19 09:18:47

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[423] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-19 02:12:23

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[422] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-17 07:55:42

Black-Holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint regard to black-holes’ innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics