Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[850] viXra:1604.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 16:13:27

Correcting Wikipedia on Star Systems and Planetary Systems

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Wikipedia has planetary systems as mutually exclusive of star systems and multiple star systems. A simple correction (with options) is provided so that astronomy can be simplified for the 21st century in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[849] viXra:1604.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 15:41:48

The Principle of Stellar Coevolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented a simple principle to explain stars as they evolve in star systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[848] viXra:1604.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 03:42:03

Herbig Haro Hotspots or Bowshocks Are the Origin of Star Formation, not the Result as the Mainstream Suggest.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 15 Pages. 15

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The rigid FORM and Microstructure of elementary particles (strings) , is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing new paradigm Black Holes, seem to be able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy and even matter and explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Stellar Anchor Black Holes (SABHs), Herbig Haro Hotspots ( Bowshocks), down to Sunspots, Comets and even Ball Lightning. Recent observation of a Cosmic Hotspot under the big dipper is reason to assume that this is the location of one of our solar Stellar Anchor Black Hole (the North-SABH), reason to search for the other one: south located. At the same time it is proposed that Galaxies also are supported by dual black hole systems being the former Big Bang splitted primordial black holes. Called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs)
Category: Astrophysics

[847] viXra:1604.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-27 13:23:17

Understanding Flattening of Galaxies' Rotation-Curves Without Dark-Matter and Mond

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Three-page initial draft

This letter attempts to understand the observed flattening of galaxies’ rotation-curves in terms of gravitational-pull of fast-rotating interior-stars on the slow-rotating stars at out-skirts of the galaxy. Due to fast rotation of the interior-stars, the relative-position of the stars vary at different times, adding a sinusoidal-component to the tangential-velocity of the stars at the out-skirts. These sinusoidal-components, caused by different stars in the interior, are of different frequencies, depending upon the tangential-speed of the star. The resultant sum of these sinusoidal components of different frequencies mutually nullify up to a certain radial distance, but then start adding coherently at the out-skirts; causing significant increase in the rotational velocity of the star at the out-skirts. Thus, it may not be necessary to invoke Dark-Matter, or to modify Newtonian Dynamics, as proposed in MOND or scalar-vector-theory of John Moffat.
Category: Astrophysics

[846] viXra:1604.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-22 17:43:43

Correcting the Metallicity Page on Wikipedia

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A passage from the metallicity page on Wikipedia is corrected in this paper. Explanation is provided of the issues.
Category: Astrophysics

[845] viXra:1604.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-23 03:07:31

Certain Axion-Like Particles Excluded

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[844] viXra:1604.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 16:45:01

Correcting Wikipedia’s Exoplanet Page on Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

An update to wikipedia’s page on direct imaging of exoplanets is provided in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The author cannot edit the Wikipedia page to correct it, so an account of what it says will be recorded here, and the correction as well so that editors cannot erase the history.
Category: Astrophysics

[843] viXra:1604.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 05:54:55

Universe Expanding 8 Percent Faster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[842] viXra:1604.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 11:03:33

The Purposes of the Standard Solar Model Versus the Purposes of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The purposes of the Standard Solar Model are compared to the purposes of Stellar Metamorphosis. An explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[841] viXra:1604.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 11:18:12

Dark Matter Through Wormholes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A new paper shows that one of the most popular types of dark matter – the axion – could make wormholes possible if strong electromagnetic fields, like those found around supermassive black holes, are present. Unclear remains how such wormholes would be formed and whether they would be stable. [18] Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[840] viXra:1604.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 04:51:27

Binary Star Challenges Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A team of astronomers at the Friedrich Alexander University led by Péter Németh has discovered a binary star moving nearly at the escape velocity of our galaxy. There are about two dozen so-called hypervelocity stars known to be escaping the galaxy. [18] Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[839] viXra:1604.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-09 19:31:26

Accreting Bodies in Outer Space

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is explained that establishment astrophysical dogma has a gap in understanding concerning the sizes of accreting bodies. A simple correction is provided utilizing the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[838] viXra:1604.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-09 02:06:31

Interferometry for Remote Sensing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In a paper, published in Science Advances today, the researchers demonstrate that for light from a source such as the Sun, random fluctuations of intensity give rise to correlations of twisted light beams. They showed the presence of these correlations by modifying a now classical experiment called Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry to focus on the angular information contained in light, the "twist" in the light. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[837] viXra:1604.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-08 10:44:07

Lighthouses of the Galaxy; Explaining the Overabundance of Transiting Exoplanet Detections in the Keppler Data

Authors: B.T.N. Sijpthjes, G.R.M. Moeyers
Comments: 3 Pages. Email: testkannontest@gmail.com

An overabundance of transiting exoplanets in the Keppler data is observed based on simple estimations from average properties of known exoplanets and stars. This implies that there is larger amount of variable stars than stars with exoplanets. An anomaly which can be elegantly resolved the need for navigational beacons by galactic extraterrestrial civilizations.
Category: Astrophysics

[836] viXra:1604.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-07 22:36:08

Galactic Schumann Resonance Type Waves

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: Four pages

One of the enigmas in astronomy is the cause for stars having varying brightness, and that includes our Sun. The current theory for stars energy does not support fast variations nor the proliferation of different types of variable stars. Variations of the energy output of our Sun have been noted for many centuries and current instruments can record the periodic magnetic field reversal. There is an energy source that can account for many of the variable star actions, but the wavelengths of this energy are not easily measured directly. Sir Arthur Eddington mentioned a suggestion, but dismissed it.
Category: Astrophysics

[835] viXra:1604.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-06 09:21:04

Galaxy Evolution and Mergers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Earth is constantly jostled by low-frequency gravitational waves from supermassive black hole binaries in distant galaxies. Astrophysicists are using pulsars as a galaxy-sized detector to measure the Earth's motion from these waves. [7] Last week's announcement that Gravitational Waves (GW) have been detected for the first time—as a result of the merger of two black holes—is huge news. But now a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) originating from the same place, and that arrived at Earth 0.4 seconds after the GW, is making news. Isolated black holes aren't supposed to create GRB's; they need to be near a large amount of matter to do that. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[834] viXra:1604.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-01 05:08:22

Dark Matter in the Milky Way Halo

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[833] viXra:1603.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 15:16:49

The Principle of Diminishing Solar Abundances

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[832] viXra:1603.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 01:31:45

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. and What, if Expansion of the Universe – Illusion? the Universe is Limited and Ordered, Galaxies Have Arisen in the Course of Galactic Disintegration of the Universe, there Was no Big Bang and there is no Dark Energy.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, there was no Big Bang and there is no dark energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[831] viXra:1603.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-28 14:55:44

Парадоксы расширения вселенной или в действительности все иначе, чем на самом деле.

Authors: A. G. Dyshkant
Comments: 7 Pages. Язык русский. На основе Общей теории отноительности А. Эйнштейна

Новый взгляд на время и пространство в видимой части вселенной.
Category: Astrophysics

[830] viXra:1603.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-28 05:12:44

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Hypothesis of the Origin of Space Whirlwinds Space Whirlwinds (Tornadoes, Tornado) Have the Power Nature.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Space whirlwinds (tornadoes, tornado) have the power nature.
Category: Astrophysics

[829] viXra:1603.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-28 05:25:23

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Hypothesis of Illusion of the Flat Form of the Universe the Universe is Limited and Ordered, Galaxies Have Arisen in the Course of Galactic Disintegration of the Universe, the Universe Can't Have the Flat Form.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, the Universe can't have the flat form.
Category: Astrophysics

[828] viXra:1603.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 12:07:59

Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies May Not Reflect Orbiting Bodies

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 5 Pages.

The rotation curves of spiral galaxies usually display near-constant velocities in their outer regions. This is contrary to an expected continuing decline in the velocities moving away from the galaxies’ centers. The behavior prompted astrophysicists to declare that dark matter must exist and enclose these galaxies to hold the velocities constant. The centrifugal accelerations that the velocities would produce if the bodies were in orbit are small. They imply that the gravitational accelerations toward the centers of the galaxies on the bodies are also small relative to other orbital systems (e.g., the solar system). The accelerations may not be strong enough to hold the bodies in orbits about the galactic center. Consequently, the bodies may not be in orbit around the galactic centers, but moving away from them. That would allow explanations of flat rotation curves without introducing dark matter or altering gravity. However, due to the radii of the orbits (kilo-parsecs) and the assumed orbital velocities of the bodies (hundreds of km/s), the bodies would move only an infinitesimal distance of the length of their presumed orbital paths over many human generations. This makes verification that the bodies are actually in orbit virtually impossible.
Category: Astrophysics

[827] viXra:1603.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-20 06:46:29

Alternative Reflections on Podkletnov's Gravity Experiments

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the 1990s Eugene Podkletnov published results of experiments which in his opinion proved the effect of gravity shielding. The present paper is concerned with the question, what results may be expected from such experiments on the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation", (ARG). The results of these considerations are in excellent agreement with those experiments. There, however, appeared no gravity shielding, but the production of additional, highly focused repulsive forces. Such curious results can hardly be explained on the basis of classical gravitational theories, which deal with attractive forces and their strong decrease with distance.
Category: Astrophysics

[826] viXra:1603.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-19 18:00:03

Newton’s Gravitational Law over Dark Matter

Authors: Cameron Rebigsol
Comments: 22 Pages.

The shape of a gravity body can play a critical role in affecting the movement of an object moving in its vicinity of close range. If the shape is disregarded while the gravity body is regarded as a point mass regardless of the distance between the two bodies, the concept of dark matter may find its chance to surface up in theoretical treatment concerning gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[825] viXra:1603.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-17 20:43:40

The Speed of Light Change

Authors: Zhang Peng
Comments: 9 Pages.

我想到了一个简单的方法证明光速可变与否,根据下文的理论,红移是光子同观测点的相对速度发生变化产生的,也就是在我们看来,发生红移的星的光子的运动速度比光速要慢,也就是说如果两个观测点有距离差的话,他们观测到的红移的星光的时间差应该要大于以光速计算出来的时间差。谁有能力对比验证一下? 或者也就是说,两个存在直线距离的观测点,同一时间观测到的两个红移量不一样的天体的图案是不同和存在时间差的。
Category: Astrophysics

[824] viXra:1603.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-17 01:48:20

The Motion of Celestial Bodies Complies with Conservation of Angular Kinetic Energy

Authors: Chen jun Dr
Comments: 15 Pages.

Application of force accompany with energy consumption is the basic common sense. Based on this common sense, Newtonian mechanics system is studied according to energy transformation and conservation law. A concept of dissipation work is proposed and a calculation formula of dissipation work is derived. Meanwhile, thermal effect of force is obtained through inference, kinetic energy theorem is amended, and supplements of angular kinetic energy theorem and the law of conservation of angular kinetic energy are made. Through these researches, celestial body movement is found to comply with conservation of angular kinetic energy, rather than the conservation of angular momentum or the so-called conservation of mechanical energy. Also, the potential energy, which is superfluous in Newtonian mechanics, is found not to be energy. Therefore, the unity of conservative forces and non-conservative forces is realized. The revised Newtonian mechanics will have a profound influence on subjects and relative research fields of physics, astronomy and astronautics.
Category: Astrophysics

[823] viXra:1603.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-15 10:26:38

New Model for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[822] viXra:1603.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-14 12:07:37

Dark-Matter Frequency

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

" Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[821] viXra:1603.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 11:35:08

The Principle of Spherical Celestial Objects

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of celestial objects is presented to clarify the star sciences.
Category: Astrophysics

[820] viXra:1603.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 11:54:50

The Principle of Diminishing Gravitation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of celestial objects is presented to clarify the star sciences according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[819] viXra:1603.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 12:08:01

The Principle of Stellar Adoption

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of celestial mechanics is presented to clarify the star sciences according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[818] viXra:1603.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-12 21:44:49

The Energy/Mass Dissipation Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution is written to account for the rate of dissipation of energy and mass during stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[817] viXra:1603.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 15:05:49

The Radiation Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[816] viXra:1603.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 11:54:37

An Important Addition to the Venus Wikipedia Page

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since it is well known that establishment astrophysics/astrochemistry experts are confused concerning the formation and evolution of Venus and everything physical in outer space, a simple addition is made on Venus page concerning its formation and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[815] viXra:1603.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 00:38:46

Mercury "HAS COVERED" Venus?

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Mercury – a kernel of the former comet which tail "has covered" Venus.
Category: Astrophysics

[814] viXra:1603.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 00:56:44

And What, if Expansion of the Universe – Illusion?

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, there was no Big Bang and there is no dark energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[813] viXra:1603.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-09 12:14:15

Simulated Expansion of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have developed a new code of numerical simulations that offers a glimpse of the complex process of the formation of structures in the Universe. Based on Einstein's equations, they were able to integrate the rotation of space-time into their calculations and calculate the amplitude of gravitational waves, whose existence was confirmed for the first time on February 12, 2016. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[812] viXra:1603.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-06 05:47:27

Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe (V4)

Authors: Thierry DELORT
Comments: 46 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). We then study according to our theory of dark matter and dark energy the different possible distributions of dark matter around galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters. Then we expose a new model of expansion of the Universe based on the new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new model of expansion. The 1st proposed mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd proposed mathematical model is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[811] viXra:1603.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 13:48:34

Correcting Another Wikipedia Page Concerning Presolar Dust Grain Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustration

Since it is well known that establishment astrophysics/astrochemistry experts are confused concerning the formation of Earth and everything physical in outer space, a simple correction is made on the formation of their presolar dust grain page.
Category: Astrophysics

[810] viXra:1602.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-28 11:03:36

The Relation of Mass to Youth in Stellar Evolution/Planet Formation According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple relation of youth to mass is given concerning stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis. Youth and mass are directly proportional for young stars, and become less proportional as they age depending on how much matter was accreted during the star’s evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[809] viXra:1602.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-28 11:05:38

Correcting Wikipedia Again Concerning Stars’ Evolutionary Paths

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since Wikipedia will revert edits to their pages to account for incorrect theories simply because they are status quo, it is suggested a simple edit so that future scientists can see where they made grave mistakes in theory, preventing our understanding of the stars. This paper also serves as a warning to future scientists to always be aware of how powerful group think and the perception of scientific authority can be. Think for yourself! Do not trust authority! Authorities have led us astray multiple times in history, it is up to us to correct them!
Category: Astrophysics

[808] viXra:1602.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-26 13:51:14

Correcting the Exoplanet Page on Wikipedia Concerning their Formation and Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since Wikipedia will revert edits to account for status quo, regardless if status quo is incorrect, it is presented a correction to the exoplanet page to account for superior theory. The main purpose is to provide a timestamp of the events which are transpiring, as well provide an alternative to the dogma. The new theory is called stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[807] viXra:1602.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-25 13:58:30

An Explanation of Mercury's Perihelion Shift by Asteroid Impact

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 4 Pages.

SUMMARY: Heavy asteroid impacts can explain the perihelion shift of Mercury. As the kinetic energy of both Mercury and any asteroid is known, vector analysis of the deviation may be carried out. Pendulum experiments are bearing out vector analysis.
Category: Astrophysics

[806] viXra:1602.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-25 08:55:53

Astronomical Evidence for an Alternative to Dark Matter and a Re-Interpretation of Spatial Curvature

Authors: Alphonsus J. Fagan
Comments: 21 pages

Unexplained gravitational potentials in deep space have been generally attributed to dark matter. This paper explores an alternative that unites the concepts of dark matter, dark energy, time and gravity. Spatial curvature is reinterpreted as the spatial variation in dark energy density. The passage of time is interpreted as a manifestation of the rate at which quantized space is created and expands. Dark matter is interpreted as arising from congenital dark energy variations introduced by quantum/inflationary effects at, or near, the Big Bang, and from the presence of large quantities of antimatter which is proposed to experience and produce antigravity. Combining these conjectures leads to possible explanations for a number of poorly understood phenomena, including: the antimatter cloud; the structure of certain ring galaxies; the dark matter halo; the vacuum catastrophe; the distance to the cosmic horizon; and, large scale cosmic features. Although the ideas are mainly discussed at a conceptual level, the proposed model makes a number of testable predictions.
Category: Astrophysics

[805] viXra:1602.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 13:00:23

How a Massive Planet Can Affect Human Consciousnesses When Passing Nearby the Sun

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 6 Pages.

Evidences of a giant planet orbiting our sun, in an orbit whose period would last approximately of 15 thousand years it seems to have been found. The orbit of the new planet is gigantic, never coming closer to the Sun than 30.5 billion kilometers. The discovery of planets whose orbits go beyond Pluto is not new. We know Sedna, Haumea and Makemake, and also Eris, which is more massive than Pluto. But all these planets have much less mass than the giant planet that was recently found orbiting our sun. Here we show how massive planets like these can affect the human consciousnesses, when they approach the Sun, and pass nearby the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[804] viXra:1602.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 14:18:25

Discovery Finds Missing Matter in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[803] viXra:1602.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 10:08:21

The Astrochemical Principle of Planet Formation and Stellar Evolution According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented a rule of thumb or principle with regards to astrochemical understanding in explaining planet formation and stellar evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[802] viXra:1602.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 10:18:55

The Soul’s Thoughts as Dark Energy

Authors: Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir
Comments: 10 Pages.

The great mystery concerning our Universe is Dark Energy, which is introduced to explain the acceleration of the expanding galaxies. In the contemporary cosmology, Dark Energy is modeled by a perfect fluid having a very simple equation of state; pressure is proportional to Dark Energy density. The acceleration of the expansion clearly implies the existence of some force that acts to push galaxies apart, and the source of this force is what we have dubbed Dark Energy. However, we have little idea of what the nature of Dark Energy might actually be. None of the four known forces in nature could provide a force to oppose gravity. The main objective of this theory is to derive new equation of state of Dark Energy considering with its Nature. Its Nature has been assumed to be an unknown kind of force generated from our thoughts. First of all, our soul is assumed to be the nature of our thoughts and dreams. More precisely, it has been assumed and described that, respectively, Imaginary fields of the Soul’s thoughts are based on the fact that they are only produced when we are thinking or dreaming about everything and everyone and the main difference between the Imaginary fields of the Soul’s thoughts and the electromagnetic fields. Then it has been explained that a negative mass with negative gravity behavior in the space, like the Soul, produces perpendicular Imaginary fields which provide a force to oppose gravity and accelerate the expansion of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[801] viXra:1602.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-23 07:43:07

The Refractory Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is provided a simple principle of planet formation in light of needing refractory material to melt iron and nickel into alloy in any amount. These alloys are called taenite and kamacite.
Category: Astrophysics

[800] viXra:1602.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-22 09:13:49

What is Time?

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 8 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s explanation of Time Dilation, along with “The Twin Paradox” explained by Paul Langevin, pose two scientific questions: (1) ”What IS Time if it can be dilated?” and (2) “HOW is Time dilated by velocity and gravity?” The answers in this paper may be only a revisualization of what has been known for over a century, but it appears the topic has never before been explained by a layman in layman’s terms. This paper is an expansion of an observation about Time Dilation described in my previous paper: “Time Dilation Re-Visualized.”
Category: Astrophysics

[799] viXra:1602.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-21 10:06:01

Last and Final Historic Statement from Hasmukh K. Tank

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Single-page Note

Through my write-ups I have been trying, most politely, to convince the influential readers, that Big-Bang Model of Cosmology needs reconsideration, because, there are many possibilities, some of them pointed out by me, that the intergalactic photon can loose its energy. Now, I declare my final words: 1. The Big Bang Model of Cosmology is an illusion, arisen from the mathematical model, of space-time-continuum. Because, time is not a physical entity. 2. Big banger's belief that time too began with the big bang, and there was no time before the bang, is an incorrect out-come of the mathematical model. Time is actually a dimension of our consciousness, our mind, that we use for perceiving and understanding. 3. Correct theory is that in which the photon looses its energy, and gets red shifted. 4. Similarly, the anthropic-principle is also not correct, nor the many-world interpretation of the quantum mechanics. 5. There was a reason why Einstein was not awarded the Nobel Prize for any of his Relativity Theory. Physics is not mathematics. A model may predict some thing, but it does not mean that it describes the real physical process. Scientific community should choose, whether they are ready to consider Hasmukh K. Tanks views, or want to remain deluded for centuries to come. Yours faithfully, Hasmukh K. Tank
Category: Astrophysics

[798] viXra:1602.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-21 10:15:34

The Principle of Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is outlined a basic principle to stellar evolution/planet formation regarding gravitational collapse.
Category: Astrophysics

[797] viXra:1602.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-20 06:17:11

Gamma Ray Accompany Gravity Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Last week's announcement that Gravitational Waves (GW) have been detected for the first time—as a result of the merger of two black holes—is huge news. But now a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) originating from the same place, and that arrived at Earth 0.4 seconds after the GW, is making news. Isolated black holes aren't supposed to create GRB's; they need to be near a large amount of matter to do that. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[796] viXra:1602.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-19 20:44:15

What Ligo Experiment Actually Detected?

Authors: Mihai Grumazescu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Spacetime distortion by matter is a purely abstract concept. Consequently, spacetime elusive ripples are unlikely to have been detected in the natural world. In a proposed gravitational model, it is assumed that a net linear momentum is constantly generated in the direction of each nucleon's spin due to an asymmetric vibration of the quarks and gluons. The atomic nucleus is a kinetic dipole and a neutrino transceiver. Nucleons generate the whole package contributing to the phenomenon of gravity: the self-propelling force through the kinetic dipole and the information on their instant position in space through neutrinos carrying it. Gravitational lensing could be just a neutrino-photon interaction. Instead of gravitational waves, the LIGO experiment may have detected a form of gravitational lensing due to an increased flux of high energy neutrinos produced by the alleged gravitational event.
Category: Astrophysics

[795] viXra:1602.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-19 08:39:37

A Two-Step Integrated Theory of Everything - Revision A

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 45 Pages.

A Two-Step Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE) – Revision A consisted of a fundamental physics step followed by a mathematics step. Via a single string theory solution, a Two-Step Integrated TOE unified all known physical phenomena from the Planck cube to the Super Universe (multiverse). Each of 129 fundamental matter and force particle types was defined by its unique closed string in a Planck cube. Any object in the Super Universe was defined by a volume of contiguous Planck cubes containing fundamental matter or force particle strings. Super force string doughnut physical singularities existed at the center of Planck cubes at the start of the Super Universe, all precursor universes, and all universes including our universe. String theory’s six extra dimensions were the dynamic point particle’s position and velocity coordinates in a Planck cube. Two reasons for replacing inadequate existing matter and force particle symbols were explicit Higgs particle representation and elimination of ambiguities. Our universe’s 128 matter and force particle types were created from the super force. Matter creation was time synchronous with both inflation start time and the one to seven Planck cubes energy to energy/matter expansion. Super force particles were God particles because they constituted 100% of our universe’s energy/mass. Higgs particles were associate God particles because they constituted approximately 82% of our universe’s total energy/mass. The sum of eight Higgs force energies associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy. Extremely high temperatures caused spontaneous symmetry breaking. The latter occurred for eight permanent matter particles and three permanent Higgsino types. Decays were a series of evaporations/condensations of matter particles/Higgs forces to and from the super force. Neutrinos oscillated between three flavors via the seesaw model using a neutral heavy lepton. Dark matter consisted of zinos, photinos, and three permanent Higgsino types. There were four types of sequential universe expansions. The product of the non-uniform distribution of matter expansion rate and the graviton’s intergalactic propagation time was string theory’s seventh extra dimension. By the end of matter creation, our universe consisted of atomic/subatomic matter (5%), cold dark matter (26%), and dark energy (69%), and those percentages remained constant for 13.8 billion years (Lamda cold dark matter ΛCDM cosmological model). Messenger particles contained embedded clocks/computers. The relative strengths of gravitational and electromagnetic forces were due to gravitational propagation factor dilution. All 128 matter and force particle types complied with conservation of energy/mass accountability. The single vacuum Super Universe consisted of nested parallel precursor and nested parallel universes. Stellar black holes included quark stars (matter) and black holes (energy). The Friedmann metric had three scenarios. The proposed entropy formula for a quark star (matter) was proportional to the quark star’s volume and inversely proportional to a Planck cube’s volume. In our precursor universe, a super supermassive quark star (matter) instantaneously evaporated, deflated, and gravitationally collapsed to its associated super supermassive black hole’s (energy) which created our universe. The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfied only the third of three laws of physics and should be replaced by “A Two-Step Integrated TOE” which satisfied all three. Our universe was nested in our older precursor universe which was nested in the still older Super Universe. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was 10exp120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via an existing multi-wavelength and advanced gravitational observatory technique. Intrinsic or structural information was lost in a super supermassive quark star (matter)/black hole (energy) formation and none was emitted as Hawking radiation. Charge, parity, and time violation caused baryogenesis. String theory and an Integrated TOE were identical to quantum gravity theory. A Two-Step Integrated TOE had a fundamental physics step and a two part mathematics step. Twenty independent existing theories were replaced by twenty interrelated amplified theories and summarized in Table V. Six Integrated TOE advanced validation techniques and independent analyses/validations by physicists were proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

[794] viXra:1602.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-15 10:35:29

Detecting Gravitational Waves by Video Shooting the Standing Wave Pattern and Diffraction Pattern

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 12 Pages

We propose two novel techniques for assuredly detecting Gravitational Waves through enhancement techniques proposed to make these ridiculously tiny waves detectable. Suppose that the Gravitational Waves are passing through the spacetime fabric, say, through a region bounded by two planes parallel to say X-Y plane, i.e. through a slab parallel to the X-Y plane. The first technique that we propose consists of continuously photographing the Standing Wave Pattern that we create in this slab which is bounded by two planes parallel to say X-Y plane, and through this slab these incredibly feeble waves are passing and causing stretching and squeezing in this region parallel to X-Y plane. We create Standing Wave Pattern in this slab parallel to the X-Y plane, which has extent simultaneously along X as well as Y axis, and we video shoot this region by fixing camera at a suitable height on say Z axis while Gravitational Waves are passing through it. Through this camera we video shoot the region of X-Y plane, to capture as large region as possible, where we have created the Standing Wave Pattern, which is present simultaneously along X as well as Y axis due to our special experimental arrangement. In the second technique we propose to create 2-dimensional Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern due to a square shaped aperture, and also due to circular shaped aperture, kept parallel to X-Y plane in the slab through which Gravitational Waves will be passing causing stretching and squeezing of this region parallel to X-Y plane. Below this slab bounded by two planes parallel to X-Y plane we keep the screen on which 2-dimensional Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern will be produced. As previous by fixing camera at a suitable height on Z axis we carry out photographing (video-shooting) of this 2-dimensional Fraunhofer Diffraction Pattern. Is there any simple way to enhance the extremely tiny local effects of stretching and squeezing of spacetime fabric when these waves pass through it? We suggest in this paper two novel techniques which propose to enhance the locally occurring effects on spacetime when Gravitational Waves pass through it through the technique of cumulative additions of such several tiny effects occurred locally into a big assuredly detectable and measurable effect!!
Category: Astrophysics

[793] viXra:1602.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-15 12:04:07

Equation of Everything

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

Equation of the universe (quantum gravity equation). [1] quantum gravity equation [2] Grounds zero cosmological constant of quantum gravity equation. [3] The challenge of quantum gravity equation. [4] The challenge quantum gravity equation, part 2 [5] The challenge of quantum gravity equation (3) [6] Gravity equations apply to particle physics. [7] universal gravitation constant is zero when all things become the vacuum. [8] all things equation diagram [9] Cover of quantum gravity equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[792] viXra:1602.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-15 02:21:57

Double Slit Experiment Interpretation by Gravity Waves.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 6 Pages.

Double slit experiment interpretation by gravity waves. Elementary pulsation principle predict the particle mass flickering. Due to relativistic mass flickering raises the gravity waves. Career change in the interference of gravity waves.
Category: Astrophysics

[791] viXra:1602.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-14 14:09:51

Down-to-Earth Explanation for the 'Cosmological Red Shift' and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Five-page letter

We first recall here that (i) the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 (ii) Also the ratio h H0 / me c2 = (G me mp) / e2 [1] These findings lead us towards a possibility that ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be caused by some mechanism in which the photon itself may be radiating out gravitational waves, and loosing its energy. It is well known [2-3-4] that a ‘photon’ can have ‘spin angular momentum (SAM) as well as ‘orbital angular momentum (OAM), which is comparable with a particle orbiting around its axis of motion. So, it is proposed here that OAM of the photon is expected to radiate gravitational waves, and cause continuous loss in its energy, which we seem to have been observing as the ‘cosmological red shift’.
Category: Astrophysics

[790] viXra:1602.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-14 08:25:20

Discovering Dark Matter Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Technological advances are ushering in a new era of understanding in the search for fundamental physical particles-including dark matter-scientists will tell a public event. [13] The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved the detector's sensitivity. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[789] viXra:1602.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-13 10:39:13

Amusing Connections Among Some Astrophysical Parameters

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Four-page letter

This letter points out some interesting correlations among cosmological parameters, like Hubble’s constant H0, radius of the universe R0 and total-mass of the universe M0 which may prove to be a clue to deeper understanding of physics.
Category: Astrophysics

[788] viXra:1602.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-12 05:41:47

A Two-Step Integrated Theory of Everything

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 7 Pages.

Two opposing Theory of Everything (TOE) visions are, a Two-Step Integrated TOE consisting of a fundamental physics step followed by a mathematics step, and the prevailing Stephen Hawking’s single mathematics step. The essence of the Two-Step Integrated TOE’s fundamental physics step is the intimate relationships between 20 existing theories. Currently, these 20 theories are independent of each other because physicists in one theory worked independently of physicists in the 19 other theories. Intimate relationships between 7 of the 20 theories (e.g., string, particle creation, inflation, Higgs forces, spontaneous symmetry breaking, dark energy, and dark matter) follow.
Category: Astrophysics

[787] viXra:1602.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-12 06:09:50

The Search for Life in the Universe

Authors: Sergej Plotkin
Comments: 5 Pages.

In the paper we propose another way in contacting other civilizations. We give an explanation why Fermi paradox exists ie we explain the Great Silence.
Category: Astrophysics

[786] viXra:1602.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-11 01:31:25

Mercury: Planet or Comet? Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Mercury – a Comet Nucleus

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Mercury – a comet nucleus
Category: Astrophysics

[785] viXra:1602.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-10 14:22:49

Pulsating Hypothesis Reveals Higgs Mechanism

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 6 Pages.

Pulsating hypothesis reveals Higgs mechanism. * Photons are pulsating and getting forward. In the 4-dimensional space * Zigzag progress of photons is same as the Higgs mechanism.  Particle acquires mass. * Dark energy is equivalent to the Higgs field and the mass of small amplitude of the zig-zag.
Category: Astrophysics

[784] viXra:1602.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-10 14:23:03

The Nuclear Age Ruined Astrophysical Philosophy

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is apparent that assumptions were falsely applied to the stars and their evolutionary paths. A simplified step by step realization is outlined concerning the downfall of common sense in the astrophysical sciences.
Category: Astrophysics

[783] viXra:1602.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-10 04:52:26

Could be Explained the Origin of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Through the Introduction of a Virtual Proper Time ?

Authors: Nikolai V. Volkov
Comments: 18 Pages.

If we introduce a virtual proper time in the space-time metric, then any physical field is complemented by its own virtual field. This virtual field has an energy-momentum and a massive in the presence of field sources. In this article we consider the above phenomenon for the electromagnetic (Maxwell`s) field whose own virtual field is scalar-electric. This virtual scalar-electric field is massive in the presence of electric charges and currents. In the case of gravitational field its massive virtual field has an energy-momentum and manifests itself in gravitational interactions. Such massive virtual field could explain the origin of dark matter and dark energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[782] viXra:1602.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-10 01:21:40

Superlight Dark Matter Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

To address this problem, physicists are working on developing ever more sensitive dark matter detectors. In a new paper, researchers have proposed a new type of dark matter detector made of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance at ultracold temperatures—that may offer the highest sensitivity yet for detecting "superlight" dark matter. Superlight dark matter has a mass at the low end of the range of 1 keV (1000 electron volts) to 10 GeV, or in other words, up to a million times lighter than the proton. [17] Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[781] viXra:1602.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-09 06:13:48

Dark Matter, Dark Universe

Authors: Ahab bahlool
Comments: 6 Pages.

answer for the question: what is dark matter?
Category: Astrophysics

[780] viXra:1602.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-09 07:25:32

An Integrated Higgs Force Theory

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 7 Pages.

An integrated Higgs force theory was primarily based on Higgs force requirements amplifications. Two key amplifications were a matter particle/Higgs force were one and inseparable and a matter particle/Higgs force bidirectionally condensed and evaporated from and to the super force. These amplifications were the basis of matter creation, baryogenesis, superpartner and Standard Model (SM) decays, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and stellar black hole evaporation. Additional Higgs amplifications included: our universe’s 129 matter and force particles contained 64 supersymmetric Higgs particles; nine transient matter particles/Higgs forces decayed to eight permanent matter particles/Higgs forces; the Higgs force was a residual super force; and mass was given to a matter particle by its Higgs force and gravitons. The sum of eight Higgs forces associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[779] viXra:1602.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-06 10:04:47

Bright Light on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Bright Light on Dark Matter Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [18] The XENON1T Experiment hopes to finally detect and prove the existence of dark matter particles with the help of much, much more sensitive equipment. [17] Dark matter has never been seen directly, but scientists know that something massive is out there due to its gravitational effects on visible matter. One explanation for how such a large amount of mass appears to be right in front of our eyes yet completely invisible by conventional means is that the dark matter is hiding in the centers of stars. [16] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be m = 2.3 * 10-6 eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter. [15] Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[778] viXra:1602.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-04 12:09:29

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 18 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for Milky Way. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 15%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. [5] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside Milky Way galaxy. These data come from [6] Sofue,Y.2015. In fourth epigraph, velocity data has been fitted as power function depending on radius. In fifth chapter, it has been calculated and tabulated gravitational field through Virial theorem, which it is got as a direct calculus having velocity data depending on radius. In this paper, dominion of gravitational E extends from 30 kpc to 200 kpc. In sixth epigraphs it has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [6] Sofue, Y.2015. for Milky Way. In seventh epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B .Where A = 7.310686 •10-7 B= 1,59883364 and correlation coefficient r = 0,9997776774 into I.S. of units. In eighth epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are almost everywhere below 6%. In ninth epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region (30 to 200 kpc) where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then. M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density of D.M = A•E^B. In tenth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 16% for radius bigger than 60 kpc, and below 18% in the whole dominion, from 30 kpc to 200 kpc. This is a superb result, specially if it is considered that Do parameter of NFW profile has 40 % as relative error and velocity measures of rotation curve have error bigger than 15% in the whole dominion.
Category: Astrophysics

[777] viXra:1602.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-03 13:25:01

Dark Matter in Milky Way's Center?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[776] viXra:1602.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-02 10:43:21

Asymmetric Dark Matter Particle Models

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[775] viXra:1602.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 02:57:03

Mac's Principle Based Explanation for the 'Cosmological Red Shift' and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Two page preliminary note

This paper proposes a new, Mac's principle based explanation for the 'cosmological red-shift', that every object is expected to feel cosmic gravitational force, and a constant value of acceleration H0 c , when it tries to move in any direction. Strikingly, the anomalous deceleration experienced by Pioneer-10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses spacecrafts match perfectly with the numerical value of H0 c, providing supportive evidence of our hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[774] viXra:1601.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-31 20:12:19

Photon is a Promising Candidate for Dark Matter.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 16 Pages.

The hypothesis of subatomic particles. photon is a promising candidate for dark matter. Light has a mass in four-dimensional space, could become a candidate for dark matter. In the physics of current light propagates at the speed of light, the mass is zero; That is the equivalent in mass and energy according to the equation E = mc2, and. So, say that E/c2 = m, energy has mass. Full of outer-space according to the principle of dark energy pulsating light (Photon Group) are pulsating at the Planck time in 4-dimensional space. Observation of three-dimensional space represented as a horizontal line of mass zero, zero, zero is the mass of light pulsates, Photon Group, was up and down from the horizontal component is ±0. represents a mass having mass m and light in 4-dimensional space is the. If has been zero mass and light mass, would be good candidates for dark matter. Found total out as dark matter mass discovery of the neutrino recently became the subject of the Nobel Prize in neutrinos have been expected as a prime candidate for dark matter, but as a result account for 23% of the universe, dark matter. Total mass of the photon of light has mass, then filled in space would be enough as a dark matter;
Category: Astrophysics

[773] viXra:1601.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-31 12:09:57

Hypothesis of Pulsation Principle

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 15 Pages.

Hypothesis of Pulsation principle. The physics of dark energy (2) The discovery of the new 4-d space. Four dimensional space is not Carter Klein space advocate. Pulsating hypothesis) The density of dark energy in the vacuum space filled with horizontal lines. The horizontal setting and zero. Energy wave picture showed changes in the energy density, 3D space we are aware horizontal line. Set the upper and lower parts of the horizon is 4-dimensional space. In repeatedly Planck time period pulsating particle oscillation hypothesis is a hypothesis. Assuming the wave of changes in the density of dark energy and matter waves that propagate at the speed of light. theoretical evidence supporting the existence of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[772] viXra:1601.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-30 07:16:03

The Differences Between Wormholes and Black-Holes

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the differences between wormholes and black-holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[771] viXra:1601.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-26 08:29:50

Measuring the Acceleration of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[770] viXra:1601.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-22 14:27:11

The Spectrums of the Most Ancient Stars According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A non-contradictory statement concerning the measurement of the spectral characteristics of the most ancient stars is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[769] viXra:1601.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-22 12:05:45

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 16 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. Also were proposed several experimental test to check that theory. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for M31. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 10%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside M31 galaxy. These data come from [5]Sofue,Y.2015. In fourth epigraph, considering rotation curve of M31 from Sofue data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field inside a wide region of halo, from 40 kpc to 300 Kpc. In fifth epigraphs has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [5] Sofue, Y.2015. for M31. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B Where A = 0,0012004275 B= 1.878838501 and correlation coefficient r = 0,9996041653 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are mainly below 6%. In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density of D.M = A•E^B. In nineth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 10% for radius bigger than 100 kpc, and below 12% from 40 kpc to 100 kpc. This is a superb result, speciallly if it is considered that Do parameter of NFW profile has 10,7 % as relative error.
Category: Astrophysics

[768] viXra:1601.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-20 12:46:32

Dark Matter Speed Test

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Analyzing the motion of X-ray sources could help researchers identify dark matter signals. [15] Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[767] viXra:1601.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 17:52:15

Magnetic Flux Amplification and Magnetosphere Evolution During Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

An alternative type of magnetochronology as applied to stellar evolution is hypothesized in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The presence of a core structure can be determined by whether the star has a strong global magnetic field, as well as other inferences.
Category: Astrophysics

[766] viXra:1601.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 10:14:55

Dynamic Gravitational Red-Shift Experienced by Intergalactic-Photons Possibly-Observed as the ‘Cosmological Red-Shift'

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Single page preliminary note

Photon is a chunk of energy h f where h is Planck’s constant, and f the frequency. Every chunk of energy has to produce a gravitational field around it. The ‘particle’ photon travels in the manner of ‘quantum jumps’; whereas the field travels in the manner of ‘waves’. Therefore, when the photon jumps to a new position from ‘a’ to ‘b’ at a distance, say equal to its ‘wavelength’, the gravitational-field produced by its previous position ‘a’ is present there; so the ‘photon’ experiences the ‘gravitational red-shift’. By this time the gravitational-field around the position ‘a’ collapses and new field at the position ‘b’ gets established; so when the photon jumps to a new position ‘c’, it has to ‘climb’ the gravitational potential-well produced at ‘b’; and so it again experiences the gravitational red-shift. This process continues for every jump of the photon, reducing its frequency at every step. It is proposed here that the ‘cosmological red-shift’, first observed by Edwin Hubble, is possibly caused by this mechanism, termed here as ‘dynamic gravitational red-shift’.
Category: Astrophysics

[765] viXra:1601.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-16 10:40:18

On Modified Keplerian Dynamics (Mokd)

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 10 Pages.

Orbits are parameterized with the space−time dimensions of the gravitational constant. Novel solutions for the flyby anomaly, dark matter, and the gravitational lensing effect are deduced from first principles. Observable evidence is provided with several experimental predictions to test the modified Keplerian dynamics (MoKD) hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[764] viXra:1601.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-15 18:18:38

The Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 reference

Anthony Abruzzo hypothesized the foundational understanding that planets are by-products of stellar evolution, and not the by-products of their formation. The principle is described below. The title of Abruzzo's paper is misleading, as this is a new understanding and requires that a considerable amount of discernment be used.
Category: Astrophysics

[763] viXra:1601.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-15 03:26:31

Dark Energy in Supercomputers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Next-generation telescopic surveys will work hand-in-hand with supercomputers to study the nature of dark energy. [15] Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[762] viXra:1601.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-14 11:30:46

The Astrodynamics and Mechanics of Orbital Spaceflight

Authors: Vedant Chandra
Comments: 11 Pages.

The study of orbital mechanics is vast and fascinating, but requires a prerequisite knowledge of some basic concepts. This paper aims to be a formal introduction into the field of astrodynamics. It teaches the tools and measures used to describe spaceflight, and will give the reader a strong base upon which to pursue further study.
Category: Astrophysics

[761] viXra:1601.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-13 08:08:20

The Mass Loss Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[760] viXra:1601.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-13 09:19:43

The Phase Transition Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[759] viXra:1601.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-08 03:20:32

Galaxy Quakes and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A trio of brightly pulsating stars at the outskirts of the Milky Way is racing away from the galaxy and may confirm a method for detecting dwarf galaxies dominated by dark matter and explain ripples in the outer disk of the galaxy. [16] A recent uptick in the discovery of the smallest, oldest galaxies benefits studies of dark matter, galaxy formation and the evolution of the universe. [15] Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[758] viXra:1601.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 06:55:25

Evidence for New State of Hydrogen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Scientists have recreated an elusive form of the material that makes up much of the giant planets in our solar system, and the sun. [10] Stephen Hawking described it as the most spectacular failure of any physical theory in history. Can a new theory of information rescue cosmologists? [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[757] viXra:1601.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-06 11:30:46

Dark Matter of Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A recent uptick in the discovery of the smallest, oldest galaxies benefits studies of dark matter, galaxy formation and the evolution of the universe. [15] Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[756] viXra:1601.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-06 10:11:52

Gravity-Based Explanation for the 'Cosmological Red-Shift' and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Eight-page Letter

We first find here that the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 leading us towards a possibility that ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be due to gravitational effect. So we consider three different possibilities how the reduction in energy of the photon can be understood in terms of gravitational effects; namely: (i) absorption and re-emission of intergalactic photons by the ‘virtual particles’ in space, (ii) photons have to climb the gravitational potential well produced by their own energy, and (iii) the quantum jumps of the photons causing repeated productions and collapses of gravitational fields giving rise to gravitational waves or ripples. Then it is argued that if such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. et. al. match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for the simple explanation proposed here.
Category: Astrophysics

[755] viXra:1601.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-05 21:44:29

"Rings of a Super Saturn" as Published in Scientific American Vs. Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

An overview of an article published in the January, 2016 issue of Scientific American in opposition to stellar metamorphosis theory is presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[754] viXra:1601.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-03 19:33:50

Gravitational Casimir Modeling of Dark Energy

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The essence of the Casimir effect is the confinement by a physical system of a part of the ground-state energy of a quantum field; for the classic Casimir effect, the system is a conducting cavity and the quantum field is electromagnetic. The actual amount of ground-state quantum field energy the physical system confines varies with the system's details; in particular the variation with the system's size of the quantum field ground-state energy it confines is manifested as a spontaneous pressure exerted on the system. Here we take the system to be a uniform-density dust ball (in lieu of the universe), and the quantum field to be that of any positive-mass stable fundamental particle. Such a particle gravitationally confined within the dust ball will be in a discrete quantum state of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator with a negative energy offset. The amount of ground-state quantum field energy confined within the dust ball is half of the sum of the offset oscillator energy eigenvalues, up to a maximum beyond which particles are capable of egress from the dust ball. The magnitude of the resulting negative energy gently increases with dust ball radius, flagging the repulsive pressure signature of dark energy. This repulsive pressure is inversely proportional to the 5/2 power of the dust ball radius, i.e., dust ball expansion dilutes this pressure only slightly less than it dilutes ordinary matter density, a big improvement over the cosmological constant's implausible imperviousness to expansion dilution.
Category: Astrophysics

[753] viXra:1601.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-03 11:40:45

Dark Matter Detection Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[752] viXra:1601.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-03 12:15:23

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field.

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 17 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated and supported, with several experimental evidences, that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. That paper studied six big galaxies whose velocity in flat area of rotation curve is bigger than 200 km/s. Current paper studies a similar law for M33, which is an intermediate satellite galaxy of M31, it is 850 kpc away from Earth and its velocity in flat area of rotation curve is approximately 120 km/s. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for M33. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with Burket ones below 2%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to Burket DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about DM density inside halo of M33 galaxy. These data come from [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. In fourth epigraph, considering rotation curve of M33 from Corbelli data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field inside a wide region of halo, from 8 kpc to 22 Kpc. In fifth epigraphs has been tabulated and plotted data of Burket DM density profile published by [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. for M33. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of Burket DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B. Where A= 29,02219371 and B= 2,242193511 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and Burket profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are mainly below 5%. In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density. Considering that Density D.M = A•E^B then M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density D.M = A•E^B. In nineth epigraph Bernoulli and Burket DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 2% for radius bigger than 10 kpc, which is a superb result. Last chapter makes a comparison between DM densities as power of E for M33 and NGC 3198 galaxies. The goal is to show a general law for galaxies: the more massive galaxy is the less DM density at a specific value of E.
Category: Astrophysics

[751] viXra:1601.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-02 13:05:02

Wormholes are Quantum Entangled Black Holes?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Two separate research groups, one of which is from MIT, have presented evidence that wormholes — tunnels that may allow us to travel through time and space — are “powered” by quantum entanglement. Furthermore, one of the research groups also postulates the reverse — that quantum entangled particles are connected by miniature wormholes. [6] A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory. [5] Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Astrophysics

[750] viXra:1512.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-31 08:14:31

The Nice Model Versus Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

According to the Nice Model gas giant planets were formed closer to the Sun and migrated outwards. This differs from stellar metamorphosis considerably. An explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[749] viXra:1512.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-28 12:59:48

Correcting the Gross Misinterpretation of Black Dwarf Stars with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Black dwarf stars are grossly misinterpreted by establishment astrophysics. Their hypothetical, unseen, unverified theoretical black dwarf is pitted against real black dwarfs as presented inside of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[748] viXra:1512.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-28 07:21:24

Magnetic Fields in Central Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[747] viXra:1512.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-27 16:25:18

The Absence of Refractory Material, Fuel and Gravitation Needed to Melt Iron/Nickel in Outerspace

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is well known to industry that refractory (heat blocking) material is needed so that iron and nickel can be melted from their ore in blast furnaces, as well as superheated air at high pressures and gravitation to provide direction for the iron to flow as well as a fuel such as coke. It is posed as a challenge to the astronomers to explain how iron/nickel melt without refractory material, without superheated air (vacuum is absent air), without strong gravitation or high pressure (provided there is air and gravity), or fuel as in coke, to form meteoritic material.
Category: Astrophysics

[746] viXra:1512.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-25 21:17:08

Determination of the Neutrino Mass

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 10 Pages. 10 p., 2 fig.

The neutrino mass in four different independent formulations has been successfully calculated on the basis of the mechanistic interpretation of J.Wheeler‘s geometrodynamics concept. Mechanical analogue of the weak interaction is presented. Its adequacy is confirmed by the various variants for calculating the neutrino mass. The calculated mass agrees well with the indirect estimation of the neutrino mass obtained on the basis of cosmological data. It has been established that neutrinos can change its structure and properties, in particular, a magnetic moment, that leads to changes in the power of detected neutrinos flow (neutrino oscillations). The time constant of neutrino oscillations is calculated.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[379] viXra:1603.0269 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-20 11:18:51

Newton’s Gravitational Law over Dark Matter

Authors: Camerorn Rebigsol
Comments: (1) Add page number to the previous submission; (2) delete the following text from the previous submission: (See appendix for detailed calculation development)

The shape of a gravity body can play a critical role in affecting the movement of an object moving in its vicinity of close range. If the shape is disregarded while the gravity body is regarded as a point mass regardless of the distance between the two bodies, the concept of dark matter may find its chance to surface up in theoretical treatment concerning gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[378] viXra:1603.0204 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-30 07:34:34

The Principle of Spherical Celestial Objects

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 Picture

A new principle of celestial objects is presented to clarify the star sciences.
Category: Astrophysics

[377] viXra:1602.0314 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-13 06:10:47

How a Massive Planet Can Affect Human Consciousnesses When Passing Nearby the Sun

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 9 Pages.

Evidences of a giant planet orbiting our sun, in an orbit whose period would last approximately of 15 thousand years it seems to have been found. The orbit of the new planet is gigantic, never coming closer to the Sun than 30.5 billion kilometers. The discovery of planets whose orbits go beyond Pluto is not new. We know Sedna, Haumea and Makemake, and also Eris, which is more massive than Pluto. But all these planets have much less mass than the giant planet that was recently found orbiting our sun. Here we show how massive planets like these can affect the human consciousnesses, when they approach the Sun, and pass nearby the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[376] viXra:1602.0314 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-30 13:08:18

How a Massive Planet Can Affect Human Consciousnesses When Passing Nearby the Sun

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

Evidences of a giant planet orbiting our sun, in an orbit whose period would last approximately of 15 thousand years it seems to have been found. The orbit of the new planet is gigantic, never coming closer to the Sun than 30.5 billion kilometers. The discovery of planets whose orbits go beyond Pluto is not new. We know Sedna, Haumea and Makemake, and also Eris, which is more massive than Pluto. But all these planets have much less mass than the giant planet that was recently found orbiting our sun. Here we show how massive planets like these can affect the human consciousnesses, when they approach the Sun, and pass nearby the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[375] viXra:1602.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-19 09:39:42

What is Time?

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 8 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s explanation of Time Dilation [1], along with “The Twin Paradox” explained by Paul Langevin [2], pose two scientific questions: (1) ”What IS Time if it can be dilated?” and (2) “HOW is Time dilated by velocity and gravity?” The answers in this paper may be only a revisualization of what has been known for over a century, but it appears the topic has never before been explained by a layman in layman’s terms. This paper is an expansion of an observation about Time Dilation described in my previous paper: “Time Dilation Re-Visualized.[3]”
Category: Astrophysics

[374] viXra:1602.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-05 00:46:51

The Initially Searches of Galaxies Merger

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the cause and process of small galaxies merger.
Category: Astrophysics

[373] viXra:1602.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-02 04:15:34

Mach's Principle Based Explanation for the Cosmological Red Shift and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Six page full paper

We first find here that the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 leading us towards a possibility that ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be due to gravitational effect. Also the ratio h H0 / me c^2 = (G me mp) / e^2. Starting with Mach’s principle, that ‘mass’ of an object is because of its ‘cosmic gravitational potential energy’, we arrive at a possibility that every chunk of matter and energy should experience a fixed value of acceleration H0 c. For the purpose of comparison we express the ‘cosmological red shift’ as deceleration of the photon, and find that the deceleration experienced by the photon matches perfectly with the expected value H0 c. Then it is argued that if such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. ET. Al. match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for the explanation proposed here.
Category: Astrophysics

[372] viXra:1601.0020 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-19 06:34:47

Gravitational Casimir Modeling of Dark Energy

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The essence of the Casimir effect is the confinement by a physical system of a part of the ground-state energy of a quantum field; for the classic Casimir effect, the system is a conducting cavity and the quantum field is electromagnetic. The actual amount of ground-state quantum field energy the physical system confines varies with the system's details; in particular the variation with the system's size of the quantum field ground-state energy it confines is manifested as a spontaneous pressure exerted on the system. Here we take the system to be a uniform-density dust ball (in lieu of the universe), and the quantum field to be that of any positive-mass stable fundamental particle. Such a particle gravitationally confined within the dust ball will be in a discrete quantum state of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator with a negative energy offset. The amount of ground-state quantum field energy confined within the dust ball is half of the sum of the offset oscillator energy eigenvalues, up to a maximum beyond which particles are capable of egress from the dust ball. The magnitude of the resulting negative energy gently increases with dust ball radius, flagging the repulsive pressure signature of dark energy. This repulsive pressure is inversely proportional to the 5/2 power of the dust ball radius, i.e., dust ball expansion dilutes this pressure only slightly less than it dilutes ordinary matter density, a big improvement over the cosmological constant's implausible imperviousness to expansion dilution.
Category: Astrophysics

[371] viXra:1601.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-10 10:09:54

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 32 Pages. Contains new chapters where have been shwon that it is possible to extrapolate the new DM profile outside dominion data.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated and supported, with several experimental evidences, that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. That paper studied six big galaxies whose velocity in flat area of rotation curve is bigger than 200 km/s. Current paper studies a similar law for M33, which is an intermediate satellite galaxy of M31, it is 850 kpc away from Earth and its velocity in flat area of rotation curve is approximately 120 km/s. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for M33. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with Burket ones below 2%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to Burket DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about DM density inside halo of M33 galaxy. These data come from [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. In fourth epigraph, considering rotation curve of M33 from Corbelli data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field inside a wide region of halo, from 8 kpc to 22 Kpc. In fifth epigraphs has been tabulated and plotted data of Burket DM density profile published by [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. for M33. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of Burket DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B. Where A= 29,02219371 and B= 2,242193511 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and Burket profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are mainly below 5%. In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density. Considering that Density D.M = A•E^B then M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density D.M = A•E^B. In nineth epigraph Bernoulli and Burket DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 2% for radius bigger than 10 kpc, which is a superb result. The tenth chapter makes a comparison between DM densities as power of E for M33 and NGC 3198 galaxies. The goal is to show a general law for galaxies: the more massive galaxy is the less DM density at a specific value of E. In the eleven chapter it is fitted DM density as power of E for a reduced data set, and it is studied its behaviour outside dominion regression. In chapter twelve DM Bernoulli profile is extrapolated up to 70 kpc and it is compared with Burket profile.
Category: Astrophysics