Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[655] viXra:1508.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-03 18:42:12

New Newton Mechanics Taking Law of Conservation of Energy as Unique Source Law (Revised Version 3)

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: English,25 pages

According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, this paper presents the New Newton Mechanics (NNM) taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. Examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity by using the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space), derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum) can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal gravitation can be derived, which can be used to solve the problem of advance of planetary perihelion and the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun. Again, according to accurate experimental result, the synthesized gravitational formula (including the effects of other celestial bodies and sunlight pressure) for the problem of deflection of photon around the Sun is presented. Unlike the original Newton Mechanics, in New Newton Mechanics, for different problems, may have different laws of motion, different formulas of gravity, as well as different expressions of energy. For example, for the problem of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane, and the problem of advance of planetary perihelion, the two formulas of gravity are completely different.
Category: Astrophysics

[654] viXra:1508.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-03 03:22:12

ГИПОТЕЗА ОТСУТСТВИЯ ОСЕВОГО ВРАЩЕНИЯ ЛУНЫ

Authors: Valeriy Nikolaevich i Igore Valereevich Nikitini
Comments: 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи. На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались. Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!
Category: Astrophysics

[653] viXra:1508.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-03 03:23:58

ГИПОТЕЗА СТРОЕНИЯ ПРОТОНА

Authors: Valeriy Nikolaevich i Igore Valereevich Nikitini
Comments: 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи. На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались. Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!
Category: Astrophysics

[652] viXra:1508.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-02 14:15:13

The Misplacement of Fusion Reactions in Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The energies required for nuclear reactions far exceed the thermal energies hypothesized to exist in stellar interiors.
Category: Astrophysics

[651] viXra:1508.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-01 03:24:53

Гипотеза существования горизонтальной составляющей гравитации планет

Authors: Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich
Comments: 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи. На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались. Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!
Category: Astrophysics

[650] viXra:1508.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-01 03:33:44

ГИПОТЕЗА ОСЕВОГО ВРАЩЕНИЯ ВЕНЕРЫ

Authors: Valeriy Nikolaevich i Igore Valereevich Nikitini
Comments: 2 Pages.

Dear sirs scientists! We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations. We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent.
Category: Astrophysics

[649] viXra:1508.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-01 03:35:06

ГИПОТЕЗА ВОЗНИКНОВЕНИЯ ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНЫХ СОБЫТИЙ ПРИРОДНОГО ХАРАКТЕРА

Authors: Valery Nikolaevich, Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny
Comments: 6 Pages.

Dear sirs scientists! We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations. We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent.
Category: Astrophysics

[648] viXra:1508.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-01 03:43:18

Гипотеза ограниченности Вселенной

Authors: Nikitin Valeriy Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igore Valereevich
Comments: 1 Page.

Созданный нами независимый творческий коллектив «НИКИ» инициативным порядком занимается решением актуальных задач в фундаментальных отраслях науки и техники. Результаты наших исследований понятны и не требуют каких-то допущений, догадок и ограничений. В основе наших исследований лежит оригинальный и нетрадиционный подход к решению поставленной задачи. На сегодняшний день нами создан внушительный научный задел. До настоящего момента времени результаты наших исследований не публиковались, не защищены и не рекламировались. Для нас процесс исследований начинается с создания законченной теории (не гипотезы!) и поэтому все известные загадки природы и науки являются доказательствами (подтверждениями) и следствиями правильности наших идей. «ГЛУПЫЕ» ИДЕИ ИНОГДА СТАНОВЯТСЯ ВЕЛИКИМИ И НАОБОРОТ!
Category: Astrophysics

[647] viXra:1507.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-30 08:57:12

Universe at Point

Authors: Klimets A.P.
Comments: 3 Pages.

We are considering the possibility of placing the space of any length in the "point" (ie, in a small region of space), including the Universe at the "point" with to the Planck size. The problem is solved in a multidimensional space.
Category: Astrophysics

[646] viXra:1507.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-28 14:27:59

Comment on the ASTG-model

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 7 Pages; 2 Figures; 1 Reference

More recently, G. G. Nyambuya published an article entitled "Azimuthally symmetric theory of gravitation – II. On the perihelion precession of solar planetary orbits" [MNRAS451(3)3034-3043 (2015)], which considered by the author as an improved version of the "Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (I) – On the Perihelion Precession of Planetary Orbits" [MNRAS403(3) 1381-1391(2010)]. This comment proves that the so-called ASTG-model is physico-mathematically incorrect. Consequently, the said model cannot possibly be a (new) gravity theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[645] viXra:1507.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-21 07:29:24

Dark Matter in Dead Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Galaxies in a cluster roughly 300 million light years from Earth could contain as much as 100 times more dark matter than visible matter, according to an Australian study. The research, published today, used powerful computer simulations to study galaxies that have fallen into the Coma Cluster, one of the largest structures in the Universe in which thousands of galaxies are bound together by gravity. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[644] viXra:1507.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-18 10:05:48

Theory of Transitional Universe (New Model of Space-Time)

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 31 Pages.

This is a theory that makes macroscopic predictions based on the principle of duality as universal constant in space-time continuum, which is finite in its infinity due to integrated horizon and inherent reverse polarity. It implies that there is an absolute frame of reference in our uniform double cone space-time model (as observed in cosmos) which shows that the state of our universe is a deterministic function of its previous state of a primordial universe where the rotating mass of first order extended in our universe to second order in the angular momentum. Locality assumes that the current state of space-time is determined by the states of a fixed number of previous time steps. Discretized difference equations use at least the current and previous time steps if they are second order systems like the wave equation. Physical quantities come in pairs which are called conjugate quantities. According to quantum mechanics, under some conditions, a pair of quantum systems may be described by a single wave function, which encodes the probabilities of the outcomes of experiments that may be performed on the two systems, whether jointly or individually. It means that the actual space-time is not flat per Einstein-Minkowski space-time formed on 2D Lorentzian geometry, and that there couldn’t be a singular event of a Big Bang due to a single, primitive force (“primeval atom”), which allegedly caused a sudden “birth’ of space-time without a preceding event -- past “conception” of our universe in a primordial universe, constituting thereby a double cone universal structure. Accordingly, our 4D time-space model comprises a cross-like structure with an integrated spiral timeframe that enables no analogy spacecrafts to traverse space unimpeded, as described in this article.
Category: Astrophysics

[643] viXra:1507.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-18 03:42:11

Гипотеза природы белого шума

Authors: Nikitin Valery Nikolaevich, Nikitin Igor Valerievich
Comments: 1 Page. Russian

Offer about the conclusion of the safe and mutually advantageous agreement Dear sirs scientists! We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations. We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent. Yours faithfully, Valery Nikolaevich and Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny
Category: Astrophysics

[642] viXra:1507.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-18 03:44:07

Гипотеза природы возникновения вулканов и землетрясений

Authors: Valery Nikolaevich, Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny
Comments: 1 Page. Russian

Offer about the conclusion of the safe and mutually advantageous agreement Dear sirs scientists! We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations. We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent. Yours faithfully, Valery Nikolaevich and Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny
Category: Astrophysics

[641] viXra:1507.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-16 07:04:34

Magnetism Nature Hypothesis Solid-State Planets of Solar System. Hypothesis of Lack of Axial Rotation of the Moon

Authors: Valery Nikolaevich, Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny
Comments: 9 Pages.

Offer about the conclusion of the safe and mutually advantageous agreement Dear sirs scientists! We offer you the services in creation of alternative and exclusive scientific offers on any of the problems offered by you in the terms specified by you on a grant basis! We can present results of the work in the form of hypotheses or summaries by analogy with one of hypotheses offered in this address for discussion and the conclusion. Thus you lose nothing, and we will have an honourable possibility of carrying out further collaborations. We see the interest in assistance to processes of modeling of physical processes. Are ready to get to work right after receiving your consent. Yours faithfully, Valery Nikolaevich and Igor Valeryevich Nikitiny
Category: Astrophysics

[640] viXra:1507.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-16 09:27:54

LHC Dark Matter Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Other scientists hope to create them in powerful particle collisions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. “Most supersymmetric theories estimate the mass of the lightest WIMP to be somewhere above 100 gigaelectronvolts, which is well within LHC’s energy regime,” Tait says. “I myself and others are very excited about the recent LHC restart. There is a lot of hope to create dark matter in the lab.” [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[639] viXra:1507.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-14 02:38:40

Direct Orbital Dynamics: Using Independent Orbital Terms to Treat Bodies as Orbiting Each Other Directly While in Motion

Authors: Daniel S. Orton
Comments: 29 Pages.

Abstract: There are many longstanding problems associated with orbital systems at all scales. Direct Orbital Dynamics applies a set of independent orbital terms to the Newtonian orbital equations, in place of the standard combined orbital terms. This results in a number of surprisingly successful applications. The standard orbital equations treat the bodies in a two-body system as orbiting their mass center point at the combined orbital period. These orbital terms are all combined terms containing the influence of both bodies. The direct orbital system treats each body as orbiting the other body directly at the full radius distance, with each body also orbiting the other at its own natural, independent orbital period (which is a portion of the combined period). The orbital velocity of each body is now based solely on the mass and radius distance of the body being orbited. It is no longer affected by the mass of the orbiting body, as in the standard system, because the effects of the combined orbital terms are removed from the calculations. The orbital equations remain balanced when using the terms of the direct orbital system frame of reference, with some additional equations balancing. The direct orbital set of equations initially treats the bodies as orbiting each other independently rather than as a combined system. The two bodies are treated as being the orbital center points of each other. However, these two orbital center points are also in motion and are constantly altering the orbital direction of the two bodies. The orbiting bodies must therefore be treated as responding to both the gravitational acceleration and the physical motion of each other. This additional motion factor of the orbital center points is then applied to the direct orbital system. This results in the same mass and velocity to the fourth power relationship found in the excessive orbital velocities and flat rotation curves of disk galaxies, as seen in the Baryonic Tully Fisher Relation (M∝V4). These excessive velocities are thought to be caused by either halos of dark matter, or by a change in gravitation at low accelerations (MOND). Direct Orbital Dynamics is shown to be the source of this fourth power radial force law. This same mass-velocity relationship of galaxies is found to also exist in smaller orbiting systems within the high acceleration Newtonian regime. The direct orbital system goes on to provide successful application to well known orbital problems. Keywords: cosmology: dark matter – galaxies: kinematics and dynamics – galaxies: structure – planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability – gravitation
Category: Astrophysics

[638] viXra:1507.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-12 17:34:16

CGA-influence: Giant Planets Acting on Small Planets

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 7 Pages; 4 Tables; 9 References.

It seems that up to now researchers have not fully and systematically taken into consideration the gravitational influence of the giant planets on the small ones in our solar system. The main purpose of the present work is to show that, while the intensity of the giant planets' influence is certainly very weak compared to that of the Sun, it cannot be completely neglected. In this research paper we have qualitatively and quantitatively studied such effects in order to clarify, for example, the possible causal origin of the unexpected secular increase of the Astronomical Unit. The approach uses the concept of Combined Gravitational Action (CGA).
Category: Astrophysics

[637] viXra:1507.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-09 21:41:43

The Model of Space Convection System Instead of Big Bang Theory

Authors: Ichiro Nakayama
Comments: 10 Pages.

It was found that the universe is inflating with accelerated speed in 1998. But until today there is no theory to explain it. This time, a stationary space model instead of inflating model was made up that accounts for the cause of galaxies’ leaving each other with accelerating speed, by presuming space is equivalent to elementary particles. Also it explains gravity generation. Gravity and dark energy are created at the same time of a star formation by space’s change to elementary particles. After space changed to elementary particles around the center of the universe, it is transported to the verge of the universe. And around the verge of the universe, stars and galaxies change back to energy body again, after bursting into elementary particles. This is the space convection system. And the interaction by gravity or dark energy is caused by the energy level difference of energy body.
Category: Astrophysics

[636] viXra:1507.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-08 09:46:27

Stellar Metamorphosis: Destroying Fusion Model of Sun with Ockham’s Razor

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

We can destroy the fusion model by using Ockham’s Razor.
Category: Astrophysics

[635] viXra:1506.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-30 10:06:38

On the Possibility of Relativistic Shock-Wave Effects in Observations of Quasar Luminosity

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso
Comments: 17 Pages.

A growing number of conflicts within the Standard Model call into question the fundamental interpretation of the Doppler component of the putative Hubble Expansion Law and the nature of events in spacetime associated with conventional coordinates of the line element as attached to the physical basis of the observer. Also of paramount importance is that Einstein’s geometrodynamics is not a complete theory of gravity. We postulate that nonlinear effects associated with the propagation of light in an intense gravitational field produces shock waves creating ‘light-booms’ along boundary conditions at cosmological distances approaching the limit of observation that if correct would explain Quasi-Stellar Object (QSO) luminosity. These gravitational shock waves are considered observationally manifest in the spectrum of QSOs and Supernova as a continuous front of ‘light booms’ produced by superluminal boosts associated with continuous coordinate transformations relative to a distant observer. This model aligns with the view suggesting that QSOs are most likely a form of Seifert spiral galaxy with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the vicinity of the putative observational limit of the Hubble radius, HR.
Category: Astrophysics

[634] viXra:1506.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-26 10:55:03

New Idea of Gravitation

Authors: Tobias Richter
Comments: 2 Pages. no comment

It's a new perspective of gravitation and how it works. The Author sees in this paper gravitation as an magnetic force. The paper is in german.
Category: Astrophysics

[633] viXra:1506.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-24 18:22:24

Stellar Mass Black Holes vs. Stellar Metamorphosis/GTSM

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A stellar mass black hole is an invented mathematical construct and has no place in physical theory such as the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[632] viXra:1506.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-20 16:51:12

Main Concepts for Explaining Star Evolution (Planet Formation) According to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Since it is known in alternative scientific communities that planet formation is star evolution itself via the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis, some basic concepts are needed. Negligence of these concepts in application to any model concerning star evolution (planet formation) are more than likely incomplete or false.
Category: Astrophysics

[631] viXra:1506.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-14 10:28:41

Dark Substance-Physical Interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then we give a Physical Interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF). This new Interpretation of the CRF permits also a new interpretation of the Cosmological time. Moreover it is in agreement with the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM) on many points. For instance it assumes the validity of the Special and General Relativity. Then using these new interpretations of dark matter and of the CRF, we are led to propose a new model of Universe, flat and finite, that is not predicted by the SCM. Despite of this we will see that a first mathematical model of our Physical Interpretation of the CRF, that is based on the equations of the General Relativity as the SCM, leads to an observable Universe with the same theoretical astrophysical predictions as the SCM. We will see that a 2nd mathematical model, much simpler, has nonetheless theoretical astrophysical predictions that are in agreement with astronomical observations. We will then study the theoretical consequences of those 2 models.
Category: Astrophysics

[630] viXra:1506.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-14 00:44:33

Frequency Decay Through Electromagnetic Radiation Absorption and re-Emission by Inter-Galactic Dark Matter as an Alternate Explanation for the Hubble Constant

Authors: D.G. Taylor
Comments: 27 Pages. Copyright#: 1-2601748241

Presently, the decreasing frequency of Electromagnetic radiation from Galactic/Cluster objects as their distance from the Milky Way [MW] increases is taken as an absolute declaration of their motion away from the Solar system. The decay rate defined by the Hubble constant is so miniscule, it is reasonable to propose that frequency reduction of the signal could be due to interfering effect of inter-Galactic gases as an alternate explanation. It also reasons that if the objects on the edge of the Universe (an example being the UDFj-39546284 stellar structure at 13.423 Billion light years) were receding at the velocity reasoned from their Redshift, any EM signal would be moving more slowly, because of Relativistic effects. This paper determines the rate of frequency decay in an inter-Galactic scale environment. It also argues against the velocity of Universe expansion demanded by the Big Bang theory, given the currently accepted time for that event, and the time for the signals from the observed objects to move between the objects and our observation points. An alternate cause for the EM frequency shifts downward would be the Dark Matter throughout the Universe. A simple parallel to the reddening of solar radiation as it travels through a greater thickness of the atmosphere during both Sunrise and sunset. Support for this alternate supposition is that in current Hubble Theory, the M31 Galaxy and the NGC 300 Galaxy are at distances inconsistent with their recession velocity.
Category: Astrophysics

[629] viXra:1506.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-14 01:16:30

Dark Energy from Quantum Vacuum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

The mysterious dark energy that's driving the universe's accelerated expansion may have its roots in the background "vacuum energy" that pervades all of the cosmos, a new study suggests. [6] The leading theory to explain the accelerating expansion is the existence of a hypothetical repulsive force called dark energy. But in the new study, Massimo Villata, an astrophysicist at the Observatory of Turin in Italy, suggests the effects attributed to dark energy are actually due to a kind of "antigravity" created when normal matter and antimatter repel one another. [5] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[628] viXra:1506.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-12 12:38:02

Stellar Metamorphosis: Star Plasma as Electrolyte During Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is presented a simple reasoning as to why plasma is the electrolyte to facilitate reduction and oxidation reactions during stellar evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[627] viXra:1506.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-11 11:53:07

Galactic Disk Dynamics from Galactocentric Potential-Simple Harmonic Motion

Authors: Kamal Barghout
Comments: 10 Pages. stellar perpendicular osscilation from simple harmonic motion of stars

Galactocentric gravitational force is used to model disk stars’ kinematics in the vertical direction. Stellar oscillation perpendicular to the galactic plane is modeled as simple harmonic motion (SH) made by the centrifugal force (Mach principle) opposite to the gravitational pull by the enclosed mass within the star’s galactic orbit. It was found that the galactocentric force of rotationally supported disks produces the observed stellar velocity ellipsoid tilt at all disk vertical distances in the solar neighborhood. The observed galactic rotational velocity at the solar location is used to obtain the galactocentric gravitational field of . The velocity ellipsoid tilt angles for the sun as well as stellar mid-plane velocities vs. maximum heights computed from SH model were compared with those computed from mass models of the Milky Way. It was found that a galactocentric potential alone that produces the stellar rotational velocity, with no adjusting parameters, describes well the kinematics of the disk in the vertical direction.
Category: Astrophysics

[626] viXra:1506.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-11 04:28:11

The Informational Deficiency of the “Big Bang”

Authors: Aleksey Vaneev
Comments: 2 Pages.

This essay presents a possible deficiency of the “Big Bang” theory from the position of quantity of information. The essay poses an ultimate question: how many bits of pre-set information the Universe requires to evolve from the “Big Bang” further?
Category: Astrophysics

[625] viXra:1506.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-07 13:29:38

A Gravity Equation

Authors: Suomy Nona
Comments: 2 Pages. This work replaces earlier viXra:1402.0070 and viXra:1404.0430

A nontrivial way of expressing the Universal Gravity constant with an error rate less than one part in a million. (Planck time)* (Ampere)/(Elementary Charge) equals the (Fine Structure constant)^(1/4 coth(7^(19/49)/pi^4)). The equation represents the fractional part of a charge carrier that passes through a boundary during a Planck time.
Category: Astrophysics

[624] viXra:1506.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-06 11:36:07

Stars Do Not End as Internal Explosions/Implosions

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that a star never ends as an internal implosion/explosion event, but slowly cools and dies. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[623] viXra:1506.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-06 03:15:40

Theory of Unified Matter

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 8 Pages. COSMOLOGICAL DISCOVERY

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This new theory of astrophysics proves that unified matter of coupled superstrings created a supercavity previously thought to be a black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the macroscale density of space and not the microscale density of matter should be examined. What was previously conceived as a “black hole” is a cosmic supercollider of doubly elliptic strings manifold, as elaborated in this article. In re: In 2008 a team of researchers from the California Institute of Technology in the US came up with a physical model that could explain the existence of the asymmetry in terms of a very large-scale variation in the density of the universe that is observable on a particular distance scale – one which is slightly larger than the size of the observable universe. Moreover, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin self-gravitating accretion discs by twin superstrings in gauge/gravity duality, where at D = 26 the string dynamics is that of harmonic oscillators, as was predicted earlier by dual theorists. Hence, our new cosmic model is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.
Category: Astrophysics

[622] viXra:1506.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-05 15:16:07

Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies as a Consequence of a Natural Physical Mechanism?

Authors: Marek Kurpiewski
Comments: 5 pages, license: CC BY-SA

Rotation curves of spiral galaxies for baryonic masses, which are inconsistent with the law of gravity, constitute one of the pillars of the dark matter concept. This publication shows that the effects attributed to the influence of dark matter in spiral galaxies, are extremely similar to effects of a certain physical mechanism, which has been noticed during the analysis of this problem.
Category: Astrophysics

[621] viXra:1505.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-31 15:49:09

Time Dilation Re-visualized

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract: Albert Einstein’s explanation of Time Dilation [1], along with “The Twin Paradox” explained by Paul Langevin [2], are re-visualized for the layman, using a pulsar as a natural clock that can be seen by both the traveling twin and the stationary twin. This eliminates the need to magically see ordinary clocks instantly across vast distances. It also assists in providing additional explanations for what Time is and why Time slows down significantly when an object moves at near-light speeds.
Category: Astrophysics

[620] viXra:1505.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-28 10:59:31

A Derivation of the Etherington's Distance-Duality Equation

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Etherington's distance-duality equation is the relationship between the luminosity distance of standard candles and the angular-diameter distance. This relationship has been validated from astronomical observations based on the X-ray surface brightness and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect of galactic clusters. In the present study, we propose a derivation of the Etherington's reciprocity relation in the dichotomous cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[619] viXra:1505.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-25 05:50:41

Milky Way’s Substance Loop

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 5 Pages.

Milky Way center exists a star of super huge mass, its called milky way "nuclear-star". Its rotation and gravitation led milky way all substances movement. Super huge mass make it produces super huge center pressure. Super huge center pressure make it produces super high center temperature. Nuclear-star center super high temperature so any substance fissile become photons, and towards all directions jet out photons. Photon side sideswiped make it deceleration becomes low-speed-photon, micro-speed-photon. Magnetic force make micro-speed-photon bond into positive or negative electrons, atoms, molecules, cosmic dust, planets, stars. Micro-speed-photon bond substance's distribution into spherical, radius up to hundreds thousands lightyears. Nuclear-star gravitation and rotation make the spherical change into a flat disc, thus forming milky way galactic disk. Nuclear-star gravity eventually will attract them back to nuclear-star. Milky way the substance hot transpire and cold cohesion constitute milky way's substance loop. Substance form and position determine loop cycle long or short.
Category: Astrophysics

[618] viXra:1505.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-22 18:07:19

A Resolution of the Vacuum Catastrophe

Authors: David Harding
Comments: 10 Pages.

Described as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." the vacuum catastrophe can best be described as the roughly 120 orders of magnitude difference between measured gravitational values of the vacuum energy density and a theoretical zero-point energy suggested by naïve application of quantum field theory. The nature of vacuum energy continues to be ambiguous. The interacting quantum field, its renormalization, and its interaction with gravity in Minkowski space (that is, in our real universe) is still being debated. Does the vacuum energy gravitate? Walther Nernst questioned the consequences of the huge vacuum energy on gravitation. How does one calculate the vacuum density? Is summing the quantum mechanical zero point energies a valid approach? Is it uniform, or does it reveal varying energy probability with varying local mass? This paper proposes that increasing gravitational effects of a body or group of bodies augment the likelihood of quantum interactions occurring. The reverse of this is also true. The emptier space is, the less likely it becomes to have quantum interactions occurring.
Category: Astrophysics

[617] viXra:1505.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-21 03:06:54

The Doppler shift and the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Sjaak UItterdijk
Comments: 7 Pages.

This article shows the calculations of the Doppler shift in all possible situations and compares the result of one of these situations with the result as predicted by the STR in this same situation. An astonishing contradiction between this predicted result by the STR and the hypothesis on which the STR is built shows up.
Category: Astrophysics

[616] viXra:1505.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-16 11:26:39

Maybe Dark Matter is not Made up of Heavy Particles After All?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Scientists have conducted a simulation that explains the collision between two clusters of galaxies. Clusters of galaxies are the biggest objects that exist in the universe. They are collections of hundreds of thousands of galaxies pulled together by gravity. Rare, extreme examples of clusters caught in the act of colliding seem to be challenging the accepted view that dark matter is made up of heavy particles. [13] Dark matter may not be made of tiny particles as most scientists believe, but instead may consist of large chunks of strange matter anywhere from the size of an apple to an asteroid, researchers said. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[615] viXra:1505.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-16 04:33:03

Left-Handed Cosmic Magnetic Field Could Explain Missing Antimatter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Both the planet we live on and the star we orbit are made up of 'normal' matter, and though it features in many science fiction stories, antimatter seems to be incredibly rare in nature. With this new result, we have one of the first hints that we might be able to solve this mystery. [11] Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles -- something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter. Named Ds3*(2860), the particle, a new type of meson, was discovered by analyzing data collected with the LHCb detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new particle is bound together in a similar way to protons. Due to this similarity, the Warwick researchers argue that scientists will now be able to study the particle to further understand strong interactions. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[614] viXra:1505.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-13 06:56:28

Unified Matter Theory

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 6 Pages. BREAKTHROUGH THEORY OF ASTROPHYSICS

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This is a new theory of cosmology with a concept of unified matter, which created supermatter previously defined as black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the density of space and not that of matter should be comprehended. Accordingly, the assumption that light cannot escape from the “black hole” is wrong, for to emit light, the dark matter must evolve into a bright matter when it reaches its bifurcation point. Moreover, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin accretion discs and the origin of twin relativistic jets in gauge/gravity duality. This concept is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.
Category: Astrophysics

[613] viXra:1505.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-13 07:32:08

The Origin of Bok Globules and Molecular Clouds, Splitting and Pairing Electric Dark Matter Black Holes.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) Theory, all star forming molecular clouds are the result of one or more Herbig Haro systems, equipped with so called dual hotspots which are assumed to be the result of dual new physics “electric dark matter black holes”. Bok globules are small dark clouds of dense cosmic dust and gas in which star formation only seldom takes place. Recently some Bok globules are found with dual and triple density distributions indicating that small Herbig Haro systems could also here be the origin of cloud formation. One of them (ESO 9934) seems to be responsible for fast Infra Red globule production in stead of real stars. These globules discriminate themselves by showing two regular alignments of 5-7 globules. The two rows of globules show a V- shape, pointing to the centre of the small Herbig Haro system.
Category: Astrophysics

[612] viXra:1505.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-09 15:14:26

From Astronomical to Terrestrial Light

Authors: Sjaak UItterdijk
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract- One of the claims that the Special Theory of Relativity is a valid theory is that experiments seem to prove that the velocity of astronomical light reaching the surface of our earth is always c. That inherently means ‘relative to our earth’. This article shows why this conclusion must be wrong and what is really happening when astronomical light reaches earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[611] viXra:1505.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-09 01:30:15

String Theory and Quantum Equation Predicts Universe Has no Beginning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

String theorists Neil Turok of Cambridge University and Paul Steinhardt, Albert Einstein Professor in Science and Director of the Center for Theoretical Science at Princeton believe that the cosmos we see as the result of a Big Bang was actually created by the cyclical trillion-year collision of two universes (which they define as three-dimensional branes plus time) that were attracted toward each other by the leaking of gravity out of one of the universes. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[610] viXra:1505.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-06 15:50:57

HATS-6b Mystery Solved

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper it is presented a comprehensive theory which can explain HATS-6b.
Category: Astrophysics

[609] viXra:1505.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-04 08:56:11

Cosmic Dust’s Source

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Side face rub hit make photons beeline speed converted to spin speed. When photons beeline speed about reduced to 3km/s, it become low-speed-photon. Low-speed-photon only a very small beeline kinetic energy and mass, therefore, low-speed-photon become mankind currently undetectable micro-substance. Electromagnetic force make low-speed-photon maintain three-dimensional reseau orderly arrangement, form electromagnetic field. Photon pass through between three-dimensional reseau, excite low-speed-photon fluctuation, form electromagnetic waves. This situation makes photon show wave-particle duality. Positive collision make low-speed-photons spin speed converted to beeline speed. Low-speed-photons beeline speed acceleration to light speed, it become photon. Side face rub hit make low-speed-photons beeline speed converted to spin speed. When low-speed-photons beeline speed about reduced to 3cm/s, it become micro-speed-photon. Micro-speed-photons beeline speed is very small. So, magnetic force make micro-speed-photons orderly bond into electron or positron. Electron and positron orderly bond into atom. Atoms orderly bond into molecule. Molecules orderly bond into cosmic dust. Photon flying to cosmic every corner. Therefore, low-speed-photon, micro-speed-photon, electron positron, atom, molecule, cosmic dust, floating in cosmic every corner.
Category: Astrophysics

[608] viXra:1505.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-02 14:44:14

Dark Lightning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[607] viXra:1505.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-01 20:06:56

Galactic Charge

Authors: Stephen Reucroft
Comments: 6 Pages.

We investigate the hypothesis that the core of a galaxy has a positive electrical charge with an equal and opposite negative charge distributed over the galactic periphery. We present a determination of the amount of charge needed to explain the apparent anomalous rotation behaviour.
Category: Astrophysics

[606] viXra:1504.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-30 06:25:18

Galaxy Evolution by the Incompatibility Between Dark Matter and Baryonic Matter

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 10 Pages. Published in International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2014, 4, 374-383

The paper derives the galaxy evolution by the non-interacting (incompatibility) between dark matter and baryonic matter in terms of the short-range separation between dark matter and baryonic matter, so dark matter cannot contact baryonic matter. In the conventional CDM (cold dark matter) model, dark matter and baryonic matter are interactive (compatible), so dark matter can contact baryonic matter. However, the conventional CDM model fails to account for the failure to detect dark matter by the contact (interaction) between dark matter and baryonic matter, the shortage of small galaxies, the abundance of spiral galaxies, the old age of large galaxies, and the formation of thin spiral galaxies. The non-interacting (incompatible cold dark matter) model can account for these observed phenomena. The five periods of baryonic structure development in the order of increasing non-interacting (incompatibility) are the free baryonic matter, the baryonic droplet, the galaxy, the cluster, and the supercluster periods.
Category: Astrophysics

[605] viXra:1504.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-29 04:55:04

New Three laws of Planetary Motion

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 7 Pages.

According to improved Newton’s gravitational formula, variable dimension fractal method and steepest descent method, this paper presents the new three laws of planetary motion: (1) Accurate gravitational formula between Sun and planet, and accurate gravitational formula between Sun and photon for problem of light bending around Sun; (2) Two kinds of improved Titius-Bode laws; (3) Relation between planetary average moving speed and its average distance to Sun with variable dimension fractal form. By using the second and third laws to predict the un-found planet outside the Neptune (formerly known as the tenth planet), its average distance to Sun equals 59.54 AU, and its average moving speed equals 3.85km/s.
Category: Astrophysics

[604] viXra:1504.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-28 02:59:28

New Explanation of Advance of Planetary Perihelion and Solar System’s Vortex Motion

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 4 Pages.

Although the explanation of general relativity for the advance of planetary perihelion is reasonably consistent with the observed data, because its orbit is not closed, whether or not it is consistent with the law of conservation of energy has not been verified. For this reason a new explanation is presented: The advance of planetary perihelion is the combined result of two motions. The first elliptical motion creates the perihelion, and the second vortex motion creates the advance of perihelion. In the motion of planet-sun system, under the action of gravity, the planetary orbit is a closed ellipse, and consistent with the law of conservation of energy. Meanwhile, the planet also participates in the vortex motion of solar system taking the sun as center; the long-term trend of the vortex is the further topic, but in the short-term may be considered that due to the inertia the planetary perihelion will run circular motion in vortex and lead to the advance of perihelion, thus also without acting against the law of conservation of energy. Based on the result of general relativity, the approximate angular velocity of advance of perihelion is given; based on accurate astronomical observation, the accurate angular velocity is given. Finally the approximate expression for circular velocity of solar system’s vortex motion is presented. For ordinary vortex motion the circular velocity is inversely proportional to the radius r, but for solar system’s vortex motion, it is inversely proportional to r3/2.
Category: Astrophysics

[603] viXra:1504.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-26 10:45:15

Dark Matter May Feel a “Dark Force”

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Astronomers watching galaxies collide found evidence of nongravitational forces that could suggest dark matter interacts with itself. [13] The main feature of dark matter is that it remains undetectable (invisible) to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t sometimes intermingle with light. Scientists have now studied the prospect that dark matter distributes star light, creating a potentially visible luminosity around galaxies. [12] Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11] A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[602] viXra:1504.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-24 10:29:18

The Effect of a Current Free Double Layer Below the Photosphere on the Acceleration of the Solar Wind

Authors: Robert James Johnson
Comments: 19 Pages. Submission ref. PHYSSCR-102611; submitted 6 Feb 2015; awaiting referee comments 24.4.15

Neither the collisional hydrodynamic nor the collisionless kinetic models have yet been able to fully explain the acceleration of the fast solar wind without ad hoc assumptions of additional energy input or suprathermal electron populations at the base of the models in the lower corona. Separate research has shown that plasma naturally forms a Current Free Double Layer when expanding into a lower-density region, the effect of which is to generate a suprathermal electron population and beams of fast ions on the low potential side. It is suggested that the expansion of the dense plasma in the body of the Sun will form a stationary Current Free Double Layer below the photosphere and thus provide initial ion acceleration together with the type of electron velocity distribution function that kinetic models require as boundary conditions. The turbulence generated by the outflowing particle beams colliding with the low-density plasma in and above the upper chromosphere may contribute to the additional wave energy which the hydrodynamic models require. The implications of the present model for the coronal heating problem are also explored.
Category: Astrophysics

[601] viXra:1504.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-22 08:23:05

Glow in the Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The main feature of dark matter is that it remains undetectable (invisible) to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t sometimes intermingle with light. Scientists have now studied the prospect that dark matter distributes star light, creating a potentially visible luminosity around galaxies. [12] Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11] A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[600] viXra:1504.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-21 12:33:27

LHC, Dark Matter and Planck's Law

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[599] viXra:1504.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-20 08:14:03

Photons Structure

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 5 Pages.

Substance's mass infinitely divisible. Substance mass infinitesimal small objects called magneton. Magneton mass tends to zero, but will never zero. Magnetic and spin are the magneton talent mettle. Magnetic force enables multiple magneton orderly bond together, to form magneton group. Magneton bond into small and simple magneton group. Small and simple magneton group bond into big and complex magneton group. every hue independent magneton group construct every hue material forms. Magneton collide with each other, make its spin speed and magneton's beeline speed transformed into each other. Bond into magneton group the magneton all maintain original characteristics. Magneton group have magneton the same characteristics. speed reach light speed, mass is about 10^-35 kg, such independent magneton group is photon.
Category: Astrophysics

[598] viXra:1504.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-17 05:21:54

Black Hole's Intense Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[597] viXra:1504.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-15 08:01:04

Potential Signs of 'interacting' Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11] A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[596] viXra:1504.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-11 13:30:15

Seeing Dark Matter Without Seeing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[595] viXra:1504.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 12:42:17

White Holes and Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Physicists have theories about white holes: cosmic monsters that overlap the line between tall tale and actuality. Yet to be seen in the space, white holes might be only mathematical giants. But according to recent research, if a speculative theory known as loop quantum gravity is true, white holes could be not just only real but we might have already observed them. A white whole is, somewhat, the reverse of a black hole. [10] That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[594] viXra:1504.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 14:38:40

Supernovae Powered by Magnetars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars -- small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[593] viXra:1504.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 06:38:08

Photons Characteristics

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Photon has beeline kinetic energy and spin kinetic energy. Photons spin axis perpendicular to Photons motion direction. Photon beam frequency is proportional to Photons spin speed. Photons magnetic pole at spin axis both ends. Photons electric charge absolute value is proportional to spin kinetic energy. Depth study Photons characteristics, will be able to crack more universe unsolved mysteries.
Category: Astrophysics

[592] viXra:1504.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 08:12:45

Best Way to Measure Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[591] viXra:1504.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 22:11:43

Fitting Galaxy Rotation Curves Without Dark Matter

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 10 Pages.

The notion is presented that fitting galaxy rotation curves is possible without the invocation of dark matter. Equations of motion similar to those used to describe the internal motions of terrestrial weather systems are applied to the rotation curves of galaxies. However, due to the four-dimensional nature of the equations, additional terms arise. One of these additional terms is particularly useful in matching the rotation curves of galaxies. The extra term presumably describes internal properties of the central galactic black hole. It also determines, in part, the galactic rotation curve, just as the motion of winds in a terrestrial weather system are determined, in part, by the rotation of the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[590] viXra:1504.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 02:38:56

Superfluid Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[589] viXra:1504.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 14:06:34

Possible Explanation for the Flattening of Galaxy Rotation Curves

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Two-page preliminary note

As an explanation for the flattening of galaxy rotation curves, it is proposed hare that: Just as, a photon, while experiencing the ‘gravitational red-shift’, dose not loose its velocity, and chooses to loose its energy, in the form of frequency; so exactly, the luminous stars at the out-skirts of a galaxy, may be loosing their luminosity, in stead of their velocity.
Category: Astrophysics

[588] viXra:1504.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 07:59:12

Black Hole Information Paradox Resolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[587] viXra:1504.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-03 04:15:51

The Rainbow Universe Has no Beginning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

What if the universe had no beginning, and time stretched back infinitely without a big bang to start things off? That's one possible consequence of an idea called "rainbow gravity," so-named because it posits that gravity's effects on spacetime are felt differently by different wavelengths of light, aka different colors in the rainbow. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[586] viXra:1504.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-02 01:53:38

LHC Create a Rainbow Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[585] viXra:1504.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-01 10:26:33

Photon's Births And Deaths

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 7 Pages.

UHT make atomic decomposition into photons. Photon slowdown become low speed photon. ULT make micro speed photons aggregated into atom. Nuclear star make atoms decomposed into photons, jet out distant space. Photon deceleration become low speed photon. Low speed photon deceleration become micro speed photon. Micro speed photons aggregation into atom. Atoms gathered into cosmic dust. Cosmic dust gathered into celestial body. Celestial body eventually integrated into nuclear star. Photon, low speed photon, micro speed photon, is three different motion speed substance. Atomic=>Photon=>Low speed photon=>Micro speed photon=>Atom. Three motion morphology substance cycles alternating converting, maintain universe density homeostasis.
Category: Astrophysics

[584] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-01 08:10:52

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 12 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider here equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtion of R3BP, we derived a Hill-type equation for the motion of moon on the orbits around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies; if the the distance between the moon and the 2-nd of two giant-bodies is negligible in regard to the mutual distance between that two giant-bodies, Hill-type equation above could be reduced to the ordinary differential equation of “free-oscillations”-type, which also could be reduced in the most cases of motions of moons around their planets in Solar system to the simple ODE of 2-nd order, which is proved to have a solution of constant circle orbit or Archimedean spiral-type. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon differs from the constant circle orbit or Archimedean spiral-type’s orbit, it could be associated only with a solutions of “free-oscillations”-type. Such a derivation explain and predict the perturbations of the Moon’s orbit may be rather dangerously unstable at oscillating during the motion around the Earth in a future.
Category: Astrophysics

[583] viXra:1504.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-01 03:27:28

Chameleon Dark Matter and Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Is dark energy a cosmic chameleon that can fade into its surroundings? A recent test brings the mysterious anti-gravitational force down to earth. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[582] viXra:1503.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-31 00:32:03

Redshift of Starlight and the Black Body Radiation

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

An understandable explanation of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[581] viXra:1503.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 13:56:11

Dark Energy or Repulsive Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 7 Pages.

The leading theory to explain the accelerating expansion is the existence of a hypothetical repulsive force called dark energy. But in the new study, Massimo Villata, an astrophysicist at the Observatory of Turin in Italy, suggests the effects attributed to dark energy are actually due to a kind of "antigravity" created when normal matter and antimatter repel one another. [5] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[580] viXra:1503.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 06:44:35

An Integrated Theory of Everything - Revision A

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 43 Pages.

Via a single string theory solution, an Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE) unified all known physical phenomena from the Planck cube to the Super Universe (multiverse). Each of 129 fundamental matter and force particles was defined by its unique closed string in a Planck cube. Any object in the Super Universe was defined by a volume of contiguous Planck cubes containing fundamental matter or force particle strings. Super force string doughnut singularities existed at the center of Planck cubes at the start of the Super Universe, all precursor universes, and all universes including our universe. String theory’s six extra dimensions were the dynamic point particle position and velocity coordinates in a Planck cube. Two reasons for replacing inadequate existing matter and force particle symbols were explicit Higgs particle representation and elimination of ambiguities. Our universe’s 128 matter and force particles were created from the super force. Matter creation was time synchronous with both inflation start time and the one to seven Planck cubes energy to matter expansion. Higgs particles were God particles because they constituted approximately 82% of our universe’s total energy/mass. The sum of eight Higgs force energies associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy. Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurred for 17 matter particles and had two time sequential phases. Decays were a series of evaporations/condensations of matter particles and their associated Higgs forces to and from the super force. Neutrinos oscillated between three flavors via the seesaw model using a neutral heavy lepton. Dark matter consisted of zinos, photinos, and three permanent Higgsinos. There were four types of sequential universe expansions. The product of the non-uniform distribution of matter expansion rate and the graviton’s intergalactic propagation time was string theory’s seventh extra dimension. By the end of matter creation, our universe consisted of atomic/subatomic matter (4.9 %), cold dark matter (27%), and dark energy (68%), and those percentages remained constant for 13.8 billion years (Lamda cold dark matter ΛCDM cosmological model). Messenger particles contained embedded clocks/computers. The relative strengths of gravitational and electromagnetic forces were due to gravitational propagation factor dilution. All 128 matter and force particles were required for conservation of energy/mass accountability. The single vacuum Super Universe consisted of nested parallel precursor and nested parallel universes. Stellar black holes included quark stars (matter) and black holes (energy). The Friedmann metric had three scenarios. The proposed entropy formula for a quark star (matter) was proportional to the quark star’s volume and inversely proportional to a Planck cube’s volume. In our precursor universe, a super supermassive quark star (matter) instantaneously evaporated, deflated, and collapsed to its associated super supermassive black hole’s (energy) which created our universe. The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfied only the third of three laws of physics and should be replaced by “An Integrated TOE” which satisfied all three. Our universe was nested in our precursor universe which was nested in the Super Universe. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was 10exp120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via two advanced optical and gravitational observatory techniques. Intrinsic or structural information was lost in a super supermassive quark star (matter)/black hole (energy) formation and none was emitted as Hawking radiation. Charge, parity, and time violation caused baryogenesis. String theory and an Integrated TOE were identical to quantum gravity theory. Two steps were required for an Integrated TOE mathematical solution, a fundamental physics step and a two part mathematics step. Conclusions: For an Integrated TOE, twenty independent existing theories were replaced by twenty interrelated amplified theories and summarized in Table 5; six Integrated TOE advanced validation techniques and independent analyses/validations by physicists were proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

[579] viXra:1503.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 08:13:45

On a New Pre Big Bang Cosmological Model

Authors: S.Kalimuthu
Comments: 3 Pages. Mathematical formulation of this model will follow soon.

Einstein’s general relativity theory predicts that our universe started from the big bang singularity. In 1929, Edwin Hubble observed this. NASA’s observations and experiments verified this. Recently, Penrose and Gurzadyan proposed pre big bang phenomena.In this short work, the author introduces a new model of pre big bang phenomena.
Category: Astrophysics

[578] viXra:1503.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 19:18:30

Strong Hypothesis for Dark Matter and the Controlled Nuclear Fusion

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages. In portuguese and english

The gravitational absorption appears to be the cause of dark matter. The Nuclear Fusion can be obtained from most highly targeted way. The LHC will not need to use much higher energies than those used to find the Higgs boson to be found "dark matter".
Category: Astrophysics

[577] viXra:1503.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 02:09:55

Lunar Drift Explains Lunar Eccentricity Rate

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Comments Welcome.

In this short letter, we argue that the observed +38 mm/yr secular Lunar drift from the Earth does – to an admirable degree of agreement between theory and observations ; explain the observed secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity. At present, the recession of the Moon from the Earth is not any more considered as an anomaly as this is believed to be well explained by conventional physics of Lunar-Earth tides. However, the same is not true when it comes to the observed increase in the Lunar eccentricity which is considered to be an anomaly requiring an explanation as to what is the cause behind this phenomenon. We not only demonstrate an intimate connection between these two seemingly unrelated phenomenon, but show that the intimate relationship that we deduce fits so well with observations to a point that – logic dictates that, the Lunar drift must surely be the cause of the secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity.
Category: Astrophysics

[576] viXra:1503.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 03:29:24

Dark Matter is Non-Interactive

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[575] viXra:1503.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 08:27:40

Black Holes - The Real Story

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 6 Pages. All rights reserved - Copyright 2013

ABSTRACT This paper addresses the properties of black holes as they relate to unitary symmetry groups. The explanation is given that black holes belong to SU(2) and that they are therefore magnetic in nature not gravitational. The nature of the Schwarzschild radius in relation to unitary symmetry is explained along with an explanation of accretion disks and why information is not actually lost in a black hole. The phenomenon of the three different types of black holes of Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrӧm and Kerr black holes are discussed in the light of unitary symmetry groups. The proposal that black holes operate via the process of magnetic induction is also examined.
Category: Astrophysics

[574] viXra:1503.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 05:51:22

Primordial Dark Matter Black Holes Outside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Universe?

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, or the idea that the universe is “closed“ and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call this a closed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF) model. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new paradigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas. However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes they should be the ultimate origin of universal contraction into a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse. The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes. All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum lattice with a local Planck length extension- as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon. As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources, to be found in particular around merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[573] viXra:1503.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:30:13

Origin Of Coronal High Temperature

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 2 Pages.

In sun center, pressure least direction is ends of sun spin axis. Thus, sun center ultra-high temperature gasification substance jet out along sun's rotation axis, through photosphere, chromosphere, transition, directly reach coronal top. By gravity, thermal diffusion, centrifugal force combined effects, reached corona top high-temperature gasification substance spread into sun equatorial plane, formed temperature up to 1 million K to 20 million K corona.
Category: Astrophysics

[572] viXra:1503.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:34:10

Causes Of Fermi Bubbles

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is a mass very huge star in Milky Way Galactic disk center, known as Milky Way "Nuclear-Star". Nuclear-Star mass exceeds solar mass 9 trillion times. Nuclear-Star center temperature exceed solar center temperature 20.8 thousand times. Nuclear-Star center temperature exceed 275.446 billion K, enough make substances fission into higher frequency gamma photons. Nuclear-Star spin axis ends jet out gamma-ray. Gamma-ray circular arc-shaped trajectory form Fermi bubble.
Category: Astrophysics

[571] viXra:1503.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:15:31

Black Holes Do Not Exist

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 5 Pages.

1. Celestial body center temperature is proportional to cube root of stellar mass. 2. When stellar temperature exceeds boiling point of all elements, stellar density is inversely proportional to cube root of stellar quality. 3. Stellar brightness and light emission frequency is proportional to cube root of stellar quality. Mass super huge stellar is bound to become a tiny density luminous body. Mass super huge, density super huge, no light emission black holes do not exist.
Category: Astrophysics

[570] viXra:1503.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:24:47

Reason Of Stellar Rotation

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 2 Pages.

When stellar center gasification substance thermal expansion force is greater than stellar center minimum pressure, from stellar center, pressure minimal two symmetrical directions, jet out two shares mass same high-temperature gasification substances. In stellar interior, two shares jet out high-temperature gasification substances form two whirlpool. Two swirl size and shape are same. Two swirl tips are outward. Two swirl central shaft are on a straight line. Two swirl drive stellar rotation.
Category: Astrophysics

[569] viXra:1503.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-20 15:29:40

Gravitation Theorem vs. Shell Theorem. Conic Proof.

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 5 Pages.

SUMMARY. The gravitation theorem is based on Newton's Gravitation Law and takes into account that each gravitational object does exert gravitation starting from its very position. The Shell Theorem, on the other hand, sums up all positions of gravitational objects, thus calculations of gravitation are made easier. A spherically symmetric body of equal density can be modelled as an infinite number of cones within a globe, starting from a point A upon the radius of the globe. If one of these cones can be treated as a point mass (i.e. as a single gravitation point), then a system of cones in the shape of a sphere can also be treated as a point mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[568] viXra:1503.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-18 04:33:55

Combined Gravitational Action (V): Extension

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 21 Pages; 6 Tables; 1 Figure; 15 References

In series of papers relative to the Combined Gravitational Action (CGA) as an alternative gravity theory, we have developed the CGA-formalism, which is exclusively based on a new form of velocity-dependent gravitational potential energy. The present paper is actually an additional exploration, exploitation and extension of the CGA with the main aim of showing (1) the Galilean invariance of CGA-equations;(2) that the CGA is in acertain manner a metric gravity theory;(3) the existence of an important similarity between the CGA and General Relativity Theory;(4) a new CGA-formula for perigee and perihelion precession is derived and proved to be in excellent agreement with observations;(5) the CGA-effects on orbital motion inside and outside the Solar System are investigated;(6) the conversion rate of orbital energy into gravitational power radiation is calculated and its effects are studied.
Category: Astrophysics

[567] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-17 11:46:03

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 3 Pages. Under construction

A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids
Category: Astrophysics

[566] viXra:1503.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-13 11:34:38

A Further Step Towards the Fundamental Unit of Mass

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Four page letter

The search towards the fundamental natural units of mass, distance and time began with Weyl [1,2], Eddington [3] and Dirac [4]. Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G [5]. Weinberg proposed a formula for obtaining a unit of mass using the constants: h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant [6]. Tank showed [7] that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle, so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of fundamental-constants, so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different masses. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .
Category: Astrophysics

[565] viXra:1503.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-13 03:25:29

Qauntum FFF Theory, Poster News 4.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages. 26

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. Most posters added with the digital texts are also presented at my Flickr page: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1
Category: Astrophysics

[564] viXra:1503.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 09:20:18

The Pioneer and Cassini Anomalies - A Possible Explanation

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 13 Pages.

Using a recently developed model of gravity that differs from both the Newton and Einstein models, close agreement is achieved between the anomalous accelerations of the Pioneer and Cassini mission vehicles and the predictions of the model. This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field that is the principle mediator of the gravitational and inertial interactions. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. No assertion is made relating properties of the TI field to those of the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. The flux model may offer an explanation for the anomalous accelerations experienced by the Pioneer and Cassini spacecraft.
Category: Astrophysics

[563] viXra:1503.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 09:42:28

Escape From A Black Hole

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 23 Pages.

The proposed flux model of the gravitational and inertial interactions posits the existence of a field that I label the temporal-inertial (TI) field. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. The relation between the Higgs field or the Higgs mechanism and what I designate as the TI field is undefined. The flux model asserts that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. The flux model describes a system in which particles of the TI field fall radially toward the central gravitational mass. Equations defining the acceleration and velocity profiles about a gravitational body are developed for the flux model. Near a massive gravitational body, such as a black hole, the infall velocity of the TI field reaches relativistic speeds. The relativistic mass increase of particles of the field at these speeds resists further acceleration in accord with the Lorentz factor. Accordingly, particles of the TI field approach light speed as they approach the singularity. The event horizon does not exist in this model.
Category: Astrophysics

[562] viXra:1503.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-07 10:53:18

Gravitational Instability Forming Structures is Nonsense

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 reference

It is hypothesized that using the term “gravitational instability” to explain why structures form in the universe is nonsense, as well as empirically false.
Category: Astrophysics

[561] viXra:1503.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-07 11:08:36

Three False Roots Assumptions of Jupiter

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 2 references

It will be pointed out that three false root assumptions exist which invalidate the establishment’s models of Jupiter.
Category: Astrophysics

[560] viXra:1503.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-06 13:45:13

Emission of Gravitational Waves from a Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamo

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 16 Pages.

The failure of the laser-interferometer gravitational wave antennas to measure the tiny changes of lengths many orders of magnitude smaller than the diameter of a proton raises the question of whether the reason for this failure is a large gravitational wave background noise, and if so, where this background noise is coming from. It is conjectured that it comes from gravitational waves emitted from a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo in the center of the sun, with the large magnetic field from this dynamo shielded by thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline. Using the moon as a large Weber bar, these gravitational waves could possibly be detected by the Poisson diffraction into the center of the lunar shadow during a total solar eclipse.
Category: Astrophysics

[559] viXra:1503.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-06 13:57:02

An Advancing Time Hypothesis

Authors: James Arnold
Comments: 15 Pages.

The evolution of the universe is described as an advancement of time, and only collaterally an expansion of space. An interpretation of time as proceeding at the equivalent of c across space, perpendicular to space, per a reconsideration of Minkowski’s spacetime geometry, supports a description of the cosmos as a four-dimensional (hyper)spherical wavefront. By treating space as the surface of a four-dimensional sphere with a current radius of 13.82 billion years (equivalent to 13.82 billion light-years), a Hubble constant of 70.6 (km/s)/Mpc is derived from the measure of the expansion of a megaparsec arc on the surface, independent of empirical measurement or mathematical inversion. It is argued that a close correlation between the advancing temporal cosmic radius and the expansion of the arc subtending a Mpc suggests at least a remarkable coincidence, worthy of further investigation. The hypothesis also has the scientific virtue of economy of explanation, dispensing with the need for the (revived) cosmological constant, cosmic inflation, dark energy, and dark matter as a gravitational constraint on expansion, as well as questions of the shape of the universe and of the influence of gravitation on the rate of expansion. A reexamination of various cosmological parameters in terms of an advancing time hypothesis is expected to provide further confirmation and confer greater simplicity and general coherence to cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[558] viXra:1503.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-06 08:48:37

New Data on the Nature of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[557] viXra:1503.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-03 08:12:08

Compound Universe

Authors: Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe
Comments: 1 Page.

What if our universe was one of many within our own spacial dimensions.
Category: Astrophysics

[556] viXra:1503.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-01 11:41:49

The Flyby Anomalies - A Possible Explanation

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 12 Pages.

Using a recently developed model of gravity that differs from both the Newton and Einstein models, agreement may be achieved between the anomalous velocities of the flyby mission vehicles and the predictions of the model. This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field that is the principle mediator of the gravitational and inertial interactions. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. No assertion is made relating properties of the TI field to those of the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. Thus, again, the flux model may explain the unexpected changes in velocity seen by the so-called flyby spacecraft in their gravity assist maneuvers past Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[555] viXra:1503.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-01 09:09:08

Ionization Chamber Noise Fluctuations During Lunar Eclipse on 15.04.2014

Authors: A. D. Skorbun, M. V. Efetov, G. I. Odinokin, O. A. Kuchmagra
Comments: 7 Pages.

Dynamics of intervals between moments of an ionization chamber КНТ-31-1 background pulses registration during lunar eclipse on 15.04.2014 has been studied. That chamber is intended for neutron registration, but in neutrons absence it has background current, which arises from alpha decay of electrodes materials and noises of electronics, and fluctuations of which were registered. It have been revealed, that for all standard moments of lunar eclipse phases changing, there were typical peculiarity in intervals dynamics. Especially interesting are occurrence of small series of very short intervals. The duration of such intervals are of some microseconds (3 – 4 order smaller than all intervals mean value), and length of series is up to 20 pulses. This is direct and clear observation of lunar eclipse influence on the velocity of physical processes on the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[554] viXra:1502.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-28 13:09:30

Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The brightest object in the sky may be hiding dark matter under its surface. To explain certain discrepancies between solar observations and theory, a new model proposes that a special sort of dark matter accumulates in the Sun and affects the transport of heat within the star. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[553] viXra:1502.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-27 08:19:31

The Mystery of the Origin of Matter in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Most of the laws of nature treat particles and antiparticles equally, but stars and planets are made of particles, or matter, and not antiparticles, or antimatter. That asymmetry, which favors matter to a very small degree, has puzzled scientists for many years. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[552] viXra:1502.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 14:37:15

Tired Light Theory Revisited

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tired light theory is revisited. The revised theory conforms to the time-dilation effect with the stretching of supernova light curves and the Tolman surface brightness test, and can be verified with astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[551] viXra:1502.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 14:01:33

Information Theory Rescue Cosmologists

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Stephen Hawking described it as the most spectacular failure of any physical theory in history. Can a new theory of information rescue cosmologists? [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[550] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 09:57:10

"Earth" Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 5 Pages.

Stellar Metamorphosis is the premier alternative theory of star formation. A hypothesis made for the 21st century dissident thinker who suspects that astronomy's “nebular hypothesis” is grossly unsatisfactory and dated. This is an explication where the theory, discovery narrative and educational, economic and social implications of star/planet formation are presented. The process by which Jeffrey Wolynski came to his revelation that what we mistakenly call “planets” are in fact merely later developments of the stellar formation. This theory should be the main foundation of all modern star science. Star formation is planet formation; they are one process.
Category: Astrophysics

[549] viXra:1502.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-17 07:33:26

Understanding Galaxy Rotation Curves in terms of Interference of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Twelve-page letter

This paper proposes a new way of understanding the difference between observed and predicted velocities of the stars at the out skirts of spiral galaxies, as follows: The massive stars orbiting around the galactic center give rise to gravitational waves, which propagate towards the out skirts at the speed of light. Since the distances involved are so large that it becomes important to think in terms of superposition and interference of gravitational waves, rather than Newtonian gravity. The waves from different radial distances reach at different times at the out skirts giving rise to interference of gravitational waves. The slope of the resultant gravitational field can be different from the expected inverse square law followed by Newtonian gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[548] viXra:1502.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 17:17:59

Possible Scenarios that the New Horizons Spacecraft May Find in Its Close Encounter with Pluto

Authors: Hector Javier Durand-Manterola, Hector Perez-de-Tejada
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this year (2015) the ¨New Horizons¨ spacecraft will have a close encounter with Pluto. In the present study we discuss some possibilities regarding what the spacecraft may encounter during its approach to Pluto. Among them we should include: the presence of geological activity due to heat generated by tides; the unlikely presence of an intrinsic magnetic field; the possibility of a plasmasphere and a plasmapause; the position of an ionopause; the existence of an ionospheric trans-terminator flow similar to that at Venus and Mars; and the presence of a Magnus force that produces a deflection of Pluto’s plasma wake. This deflection oscillates up and down in its orbit around the sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[547] viXra:1502.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 17:33:10

Parity and Chirality as a Base for Quark-Gluon Plasma Creating and Charge Splitting Black Holes.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 19 Pages. 19

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. I am an architect who is interested in the possible FORM and FORM transformation aspects as information medium in micro- and macro physics, as a realistic search for the origin of Matter Space and Time. I believe that OUR COMPLEX WORLD can not be described by FORMULAS ALONE. WHY? Because we don't know why the universe is as it is. An example: “Finetuning”: Why are the "fundamental constants" constant? My suggestion: because the sub-quantum FORM of particles and the Higgs vacuum lattice have a certain form and play a game with us.. So I designed simple convertible shapes for real QUANTUM particle information use. At the same time I realized that black holes should also have some nuclear form and as a result I found that dark matter is related to black holes and Higgs particles have only energetic mass inside an oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice. Multiverse based mirror symmetric consciousness (entanglement) is assumed to be the base for all particle- wave -and human guidance or wavefunction collapse. SEE: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1 and: http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/15306972174/in/photostream
Category: Astrophysics

[546] viXra:1502.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 10:18:43

Cooperstock is Wrong: the Dark Matter is Necessary

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 4 Pages.

"In a series of papers Fred Cooperstock and his collaborators showed that the application of general relativity is sufficient to explain the velocity profile of galaxies. I argue with it."
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[306] viXra:1507.0209 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-29 13:15:47

Comment on the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 7 Pages; 2 Figures; 1 Reference.

More recently, G.G.Nyambuya published anarticle entitled "Azimuthally symmetric theory of gravitation – II. On the perihelion precession of solar planetary orbits" [MNRAS 451(3)3034-3043 (2015)], which considered by the author as an improved version of the "Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (I) – On the Perihelion Precession of Planetary Orbits" [MNRAS403(3)1381- 1391(2010)]. This comment proves that the so-called ASTG-model is physico-mathematically incorrect. Consequently, the said model cannot possibly be a (new) gravity theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[305] viXra:1507.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-28 20:13:16

Time Perspective Bias, Apparent Decreasing of Time Intervals Over Large Scales (TPB

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages.

TPB offers a profoundly unique alternative to ”accelerated expansion”. TPB proposes that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Photons traveling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. However, the difference is minute and only significant over scales measured in LY. TPB is a corollary to the assertion that ”Whatever happens to space happens to time, too”. TPB offers an alternative to ”accelerated expansion”: Receding expansion, with decreasing time intervals, is interpreted as accelerated expansion. TPB also offers alternative explanations to increased rotational velocity, The ”galaxy outer rim rotation problem”, Schrodenger’s wave function probability and the ”double-slit-experiment”.
Category: Astrophysics

[304] viXra:1507.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-26 22:08:55

Time Perspective Bias, Apparent Decreasing of Time Intervals, Over Large Scales (TPB)

Authors: Arthur Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages. Now in REVTeX format.

TPB offers a profoundly unique alternative to "accelerated expansion". TPB proposes that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. However, the difference is minute and only significant over very large scales. TPB is a corollary to the assertion that "Whatever happens to space happens to time, too". TPB offers an alternative to "accelerated expansion": Receding expansion, with decreasing time intervals, is interpreted as accelerated expansion. TPB also offers alternative explanations to increased rotational velocity, The "galaxy outer rim rotation mystery", Schrodenger's wave function probability and the "double-slit-experiment"
Category: Astrophysics

[303] viXra:1507.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-24 04:13:20

Time Perspective Bias, Apparent Decreasing of Time Intervals, Over Large Scales (TPB)

Authors: Arthur Pletcher
Comments: 11 Pages.

TPB proposes that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. However, the difference is minute and only significant over very large scales. TPB is a corollary to the assertion that ”Whatever happens to space happens to time, too”. TPB offers an alternative to ”accelerated expansion”: Receding expansion, with decreasing time intervals, is interpreted as accelerated expansion. TPB also offers alternative explanations to increased rotational velocity, The ”galaxy outer rim rotation mystery”, Schrodenger’s wave function probability and the ”double-slit-experiment”.
Category: Astrophysics

[302] viXra:1507.0103 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-17 12:01:13

Time Perspective Bias, Apparent Decreasing of Time Intervals, Over Large Scales (TPB)

Authors: Arthur Pletcher
Comments: 10 Pages. (c) pletcher 2015,

TPB proposes that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. However, the difference is minute and only significant over very large scales. TPB is a corollary to the assertion that ”Whatever happens to space happens to time, too”. TPB offers an alternative to ”accelerated expansion”: Receding expansion, with decreasing time intervals, is interpreted as accelerated expansion. TPB also offers alternative explanations to increased rotational velocity, The ”galaxy outer rim rotation mystery”, Schrodenger’s wave function probability and the ”double-slit-experiment”.
Category: Astrophysics

[301] viXra:1506.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-25 10:42:43

Main Concepts for Explaining Star Evolution (Planet Formation) According to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 35 Pages. added ways to falsify theory, assumption corrections

Since it is known in alternative scientific communities that planet formation is star evolution itself via the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis, some basic concepts are needed to piece together the puzzle. Negligence of these concepts in application to any model concerning star evolution (planet formation) are more than likely incomplete or false.
Category: Astrophysics

[300] viXra:1506.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-12 15:21:16

Main Concepts for Explaining Star Evolution (Planet Formation) According to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since it is known in alternative scientific communities that planet formation is star evolution itself via the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis, some basic concepts are needed to piece together the puzzle. Negligence of these concepts in application to any model concerning star evolution (planet formation) are more than likely incomplete or false.
Category: Astrophysics

[299] viXra:1506.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-16 05:14:59

Theory of Unified Mater

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 11 Pages.

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This new theory of astrophysics proves that unified matter of coupled superstrings created a supercavity previously thought to be a black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the macroscale density of space and not the microscale density of matter should be examined. What was previously conceived as a “black hole” is a self-gravitating tori disc – a cosmic supercollider of doubly elliptic strings manifold, and this explains the origin of relativistic jets from magnetized accretion disks, as elaborated in this article. In re: the California Institute of Technology in the US came up with a physical model that could explain the existence of the asymmetry in terms of a very large-scale variation in the density of the universe that is observable on a particular distance scale – one which is slightly larger than the size of the observable universe. Accordingly, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin self-gravitating accretion discs by twin superstrings in gauge/gravity duality, where at D = 26 the string dynamics is that of harmonic oscillators, as was predicted earlier by dual theorists. Hence, our new cosmic model is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.
Category: Astrophysics

[298] viXra:1506.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-12 09:03:52

Theory of Unified Matter

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 11 Pages.

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This new theory of astrophysics proves that unified matter of coupled superstrings created a supercavity previously thought to be a black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the macroscale density of space and not the microscale density of matter should be examined. What was previously conceived as a “black hole” is a self-gravitating tori disc – a cosmic supercollider of doubly elliptic strings manifold, as elaborated in this article. In re: the California Institute of Technology in the US came up with a physical model that could explain the existence of the asymmetry in terms of a very large-scale variation in the density of the universe that is observable on a particular distance scale – one which is slightly larger than the size of the observable universe. Accordingly, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin self-gravitating accretion discs by twin superstrings in gauge/gravity duality, where at D = 26 the string dynamics is that of harmonic oscillators, as was predicted earlier by dual theorists. Hence, our new cosmic model is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.
Category: Astrophysics

[297] viXra:1506.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-11 16:41:50

Theory of Unified Matter

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This new theory of astrophysics proves that unified matter of coupled superstrings created a supercavity previously thought to be a black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the macroscale density of space and not the microscale density of matter should be examined. What was previously conceived as a “black hole” is a cosmic supercollider of doubly elliptic strings manifold, as elaborated in this article. In re: in 2008 a team of researchers from the California Institute of Technology in the US came up with a physical model that could explain the existence of the asymmetry in terms of a very large-scale variation in the density of the universe that is observable on a particular distance scale – one which is slightly larger than the size of the observable universe. Moreover, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin self-gravitating accretion discs by twin superstrings in gauge/gravity duality, where at D = 26 the string dynamics is that of harmonic oscillators, as was predicted earlier by dual theorists. Hence, our new cosmic model is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.
Category: Astrophysics

[296] viXra:1506.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-11 04:02:58

Theory of Unified Matter

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 11 Pages.

This article portrays space and time as conformal projections of motion, and reveals the co-relation between the universality of spacetime (relativistic model) and energy-frequency (quantum model). This new theory of astrophysics proves that unified matter of coupled superstrings created a supercavity previously thought to be a black hole, thus negating the assumption of a gravitational collapse of a star to form a black hole. In general, there is no cosmic hole in the fabric of space where the macroscale density of space and not the microscale density of matter should be examined. What was previously conceived as a “black hole” is a cosmic supercollider of doubly elliptic strings manifold, as elaborated in this article. In re: in 2008 a team of researchers from the California Institute of Technology in the US came up with a physical model that could explain the existence of the asymmetry in terms of a very large-scale variation in the density of the universe that is observable on a particular distance scale – one which is slightly larger than the size of the observable universe. Moreover, this article contributes to the understanding of the formation of twin self-gravitating accretion discs by twin superstrings in gauge/gravity duality, where at D = 26 the string dynamics is that of harmonic oscillators, as was predicted earlier by dual theorists. Hence, our new cosmic model is in conformity with the basic principle of duality in nature, where no singular event of the alleged “Big Bang” could have taken place, for there must always be the cause and the effect in a dual interaction, as in the wave-particle duality.
Category: Astrophysics

[295] viXra:1505.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-07-08 07:57:07

A Derivation of the Etherington's Distance-Duality Equation

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Etherington's distance-duality equation is the relationship between the luminosity distance of standard candles and the angular-diameter distance. This relationship has been validated from astronomical observations based on the X-ray surface brightness and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect of galactic clusters. In the present study, we propose a derivation of the Etherington's reciprocity relation in the dichotomous cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[294] viXra:1505.0163 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-12 11:04:05

Resolution of the Vacuum Catastrophe

Authors: David Harding
Comments: 10 Pages.

Described as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." the vacuum catastrophe can best be described as the roughly 120 orders of magnitude difference between measured gravitational values of the vacuum energy density and a theoretical zero-point energy suggested by naïve application of quantum field theory. The nature of vacuum energy continues to be ambiguous. The interacting quantum field, its renormalization, and its interaction with gravity in Minkowski space (that is, in our real universe) is still being debated. Does the vacuum energy gravitate? Walther Nernst questioned the consequences of the huge vacuum energy on gravitation. How does one calculate the vacuum density? Is summing the quantum mechanical zero point energies a valid approach? Is it uniform, or does it reveal varying energy probability with varying local mass? This paper proposes that increasing gravitational effects of a body or group of bodies augment the likelihood of quantum interactions occurring. The reverse of this is also true. The emptier space is, the less likely it becomes to have quantum interactions occurring.
Category: Astrophysics

[293] viXra:1505.0163 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-25 01:25:39

A Resolution of the Vacuum Catastrophe

Authors: David Harding
Comments: 10 Pages. Revised

Described as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." the vacuum catastrophe can best be described as the roughly 120 orders of magnitude difference between measured gravitational values of the vacuum energy density and a theoretical zero-point energy suggested by naïve application of quantum field theory. The nature of vacuum energy continues to be ambiguous. The interacting quantum field, its renormalization, and its interaction with gravity in Minkowski space (that is, in our real universe) is still being debated. Does the vacuum energy gravitate? Walther Nernst questioned the consequences of the huge vacuum energy on gravitation. How does one calculate the vacuum density? Is summing the quantum mechanical zero point energies a valid approach? Is it uniform, or does it reveal varying energy probability with varying local mass? This paper proposes that increasing gravitational effects of a body or group of bodies augment the likelihood of quantum interactions occurring. The reverse of this is also true. The emptier space is, the less likely it becomes to have quantum interactions occurring.
Category: Astrophysics

[292] viXra:1505.0147 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-24 10:49:33

If God Plays Dice, Must We do the Same? Quantum Entanglement as a Deterministic Phenomenon

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 24 Pages.

Entanglement between separate, distant systems, be it pairs of photon, atoms, or molecules, is a well-documented phenomenon. It is the basis for emerging quantum information technologies, including cryptographic secure keys, quantum teleportation and quantum computing. The current consensus among physicists is that the violation of non-locality, prescribed by quantum mechanics, should be accepted as a fact of how nature behaves, even if it conflicts with human reasoning and intuition, including the reasoning and intuitions of Albert Einstein and John Bell. In the present paper, I describe a new relativity theory, termed Information Relativity, and show that it can account, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for entanglement in a bipartite preparation like the one described in the EPR paper. The theory rests on two axioms: The relativity axiom of Special Relativity, plus an axiom designating light as the information carrier. The theory is deterministic, local, and complete, in the sense that each element in the theory is in a one-to-one correspondence with reality. The fact that the theory, with no hidden variables, can make precise predictions of entanglement is in itself sufficient for casting serious doubts on the nonlocality condition imposed by Bell's inequality. More importantly, the theory results demonstrate that entanglement is in fact, a local phenomenon, and that communicating information between entangled systems occurs by local causality, even at long distances. These conclusions imply that quantum theory is incomplete, that entanglement is not spooky, and that the reasoning and worries of Einstein and Bell are intact. The results also demonstrate that although God might be playing dice, we can do otherwise.
Category: Astrophysics

[291] viXra:1505.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-19 09:23:56

Galactic Charge

Authors: Stephen Reucroft
Comments: 6 Pages. comment on galactic magnetic field added, with reference.

We investigate the hypothesis that the core of a galaxy has a positive electrical charge with an equal and opposite negative charge distributed over the galactic periphery. We present a determination of the amount of charge needed to explain the apparent anomalous rotation behaviour.
Category: Astrophysics

[290] viXra:1504.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-19 23:27:25

Fitting Galaxy Rotation Curves Without Dark Matter

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 10 Pages.

The notion is presented that fitting galaxy rotation curves is possible without the invocation of dark matter. Equations of motion similar to those used to describe the internal motions of terrestrial weather systems are applied to the rotation curves of galaxies. However, due to the four-dimensional nature of the equations, additional terms arise. One of these additional terms is particularly useful in matching the rotation curves of galaxies. The extra term presumably describes internal properties of the central galactic black hole. It also determines, in part, the galactic rotation curve, just as the motion of winds in a terrestrial weather system are determined, in part, by the rotation of the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[289] viXra:1504.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-10 12:58:30

Fitting Galaxy Rotation Curves Without Dark Matter

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 10 Pages.

The notion is presented that fitting galaxy rotation curves is possible without the invocation of dark matter. Equations of motion similar to those used to describe the internal motions of terrestrial weather systems are applied to the rotation curves of galaxies. However, due to the four-dimensional nature of the equations, additional terms arise. One of these additional terms is particularly useful in matching the rotation curves of galaxies. The extra term presumably describes internal properties of the central galactic black hole. It also determines, in part, the galactic rotation curve, just as the motion of winds in a terrestrial weather system are determined, in part, by the rotation of the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[288] viXra:1504.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-09 04:56:56

Possible New Explanation for the Flattening of Galaxies Rotation Curves

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Single-page Letter

As an explanation for the flattening of galaxy rotation curves, it is proposed hare that: the centripetal force experienced by the stars at out-skirts of galaxies may be a combination of gravitational-force and electric-force. Since both, the stars and the central-core of a galaxy are in the plasma state, there is always a possibility of charge-imbalance between the core and the stars at out-skirts; and so there is some electric-force between them, in addition to the gravitational attraction. Therefore the astronomical observation of flattening of galaxies rotation-curve need not shake our faith in Newtonian Dynamics.
Category: Astrophysics

[287] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-04 08:45:10

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System in the Restricted Three-Body Problem

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 17 Pages. 3 Figs.; Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumptions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-elliptic orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as non-constant elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[286] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-12 20:34:14

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 16 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumptions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-circle orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as non-constant elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[285] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-08 07:18:05

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 15 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumptions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-circle orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as non-constant elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[284] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-04 05:32:22

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 15 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-circle orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as non-constant elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[283] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-02 18:26:53

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 13 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-circle orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as strictly elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[282] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-02 10:48:31

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 12 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-circle orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as strictly elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[281] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-01 19:55:05

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 10 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider here equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtion of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describes the relative motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with the proper effective mass in the centre of mass of the Moon (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic trajectories). Besides, if the proper dimensionless parameter → 0 equations of motion should describe a quasi-circle motion of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet). But only in case of the Earth’s Moon such a parameter increases to the maximal meaning 0.0055. It means that the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as strictly quasi-elliptic with the proper effective mass placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of such a centre of mass should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ and effective mass placed in the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon).
Category: Astrophysics

[280] viXra:1503.0261 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-02 14:00:24

Redshift of Starlight and the Black Body Radiation

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

An understandable explanation of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[279] viXra:1503.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-08 03:36:49

Lunar Drift Explains Lunar Eccentricity Rate

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Comments welcome.

In this short letter, we argue that the observed +38 mm/yr secular Lunar drift from the Earth does – to an admirable degree of agreement between theory and observations ; explain the observed secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity. At present, the recession of the Moon from the Earth is not any more considered as an anomaly as this is believed to be well explained by conventional physics of Lunar-Earth tides. However, the same is not true when it comes to the observed increase in the Lunar eccentricity which is considered to be an anomaly requiring an explanation as to what is the cause behind this phenomenon. We not only demonstrate an intimate connection between these two seemingly unrelated phenomenon, but show that the intimate relationship that we deduce fits so well with observations to a point that – logic dictates that, the Lunar drift must surely be the cause of the secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity.
Category: Astrophysics

[278] viXra:1503.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-19 05:47:47

Primordial Electric Dark Matter Black Holes Outside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 29 Pages. 29

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, or the idea that the universe is “closed“ and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call this a closed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF) model. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new paradigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas. However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes they should be the ultimate origin of universal contraction into a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse. The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes. All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum lattice with a local Planck length extension- as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon. As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources, to be found in particular around merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies. .
Category: Astrophysics

[277] viXra:1503.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-26 10:21:45

Primordial Dark Matter Black Holes Outside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Universe?

Authors: lEO vUYK
Comments: 21 Pages. Sorry Philip for this failure.

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, or the idea that the universe is “closed“ and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call this a closed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF) model. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new paradigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas. However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes they should be the ultimate origin of universal contraction into a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse. The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes. All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum lattice with a local Planck length extension- as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon. As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources, to be found in particular around merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[276] viXra:1503.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-21 00:36:04

New Hypothesis About Proton-Proton Reaction

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the core of stars the size of the Sun, or smaller, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. Modifications to the first and second parts of this process are proposed. In the first, one of the protons absorbs virtual particles which increase mass and account for its transformation to a neutron. In the second, tritium forms before decaying into helium-3 (allowing increased emission of electron neutrinos to reduce the solar neutrino problem). Tritium has not been discovered in nature but is formed in nuclear reactions – and the Sun uses nuclear reactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[275] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-07 08:58:58

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 10 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[274] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-06 16:35:14

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 10 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[273] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-03 11:09:13

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 9 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[272] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-01 09:02:57

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 8 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[271] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-29 20:29:12

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[270] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-22 11:34:02

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[269] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-21 20:10:38

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[268] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-19 12:19:04

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids
Category: Astrophysics

[267] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-19 07:08:59

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids.

A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids
Category: Astrophysics

[266] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-18 06:49:24

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids
Category: Astrophysics

[265] viXra:1503.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-20 03:42:59

Quantum FFF Theory, Poster News 4.2

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 48 Pages. 48

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The FORM and microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing Mass less Electric Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (Zero Point Energy) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. I am an architect who is interested in the possible FORM and FORM transformation aspects as information medium in micro- and macro physics, as a realistic search for the origin of Matter Space and Time. I believe that our complex world can not be described by FORMULAS ALONE. WHY? Because we don't know why the universe is as it is. An example: “Finetuning”: Why are the "fundamental constants" constant? My suggestion: because the sub-quantum FORM of particles and the Higgs vacuum lattice have a certain form and play a game with us.. So I designed simple convertible shapes for REAL quantum particle information use. At the same time I realized that black holes should also have some nuclear form and as a result I found that dark matter is related to black holes and Higgs particles have only energetic mass inside an oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice. Multiverse based mirror symmetric consciousness (entanglement) is assumed to be the base for all particle- wave -and human guidance or wavefunction collapse. SEE: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1 At last, The Beginning and End of Time. The cyclic Multiverse based on Quantum FFF model is depicted as continuous flow of increasing and decreasing numbers of Higgs particles located inside Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei, or free oscillating in the vacuum lattice or derived as real SM particles. http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/15306972174/in/photostream
Category: Astrophysics

[264] viXra:1503.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-19 08:08:42

Qauntum FFF Theory, Poster News 4.2

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 31 Pages. 31

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. I am an architect who is interested in the possible FORM and FORM transformation aspects as information medium in micro- and macro physics, as a realistic search for the origin of Matter Space and Time. I believe that OUR COMPLEX WORLD can not be described by FORMULAS ALONE. WHY? Because we don't know why the universe is as it is. An example: “Finetuning”: Why are the "fundamental constants" constant? My suggestion: because the sub-quantum FORM of particles and the Higgs vacuum lattice have a certain form and play a game with us.. So I designed simple convertible shapes for real QUANTUM particle information use. At the same time I realized that black holes should also have some nuclear form and as a result I found that dark matter is related to black holes and Higgs particles have only energetic mass inside an oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice. Multiverse based mirror symmetric consciousness (entanglement) is assumed to be the base for all particle- wave -and human guidance or wavefunction collapse. SEE: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1 At last, The Beginning and End of Time. The cyclic Multiverse based on Quantum FFF model is depicted as continuous flow of increasing and decreasing numbers of Higgs particles located inside Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei, or free oscillating in the vacuum lattice or derived as real SM particles. http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/15306972174/in/photostream
Category: Astrophysics

[263] viXra:1502.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-03 15:13:41

The Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave

Authors: Valeri Beck
Comments: 15 pages, 6 figures

According to the planetary origin conceptual model proposed in this paper, the protosun centre of the pre-solar nebula exploded, resulting in a shock wave that passed through it and then returned to the centre, generating a new explosion and shock wave. Recurrent explosions in the nebula resulted in a spherical standing sound wave, whose antinodes concentrated dust into rotating rings that transformed into planets. The extremely small angular momentum of the Sun and the tilt of its equatorial plane were caused by the asymmetry of the first, most powerful explosion. Differences between inner and outer planets are explained by the migration of solid matter, while the Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a spherical internal nebula and an expanding spherical shell of gas. The proposed model can also explain the origin and evolution of exoplanetary systems and may be of use in searching for new planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[262] viXra:1502.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-13 13:11:17

The Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave

Authors: Valeri Beck
Comments: 9 pages, 5 figures

According to the planetary origin conceptual model proposed in this paper, the protosun centre of the pre-solar nebula exploded, resulting in a shock wave that passed through it and then returned to the centre, generating a new explosion and shock wave. Recurrent explosions in the nebula resulted in a spherical standing sound wave, whose antinodes concentrated dust into rotating rings that transformed into planets. The extremely small angular momentum of the Sun and the tilt of its equatorial plane were caused by the asymmetry of the first, most powerful explosion. Differences between inner and outer planets are explained by the migration of solid matter, while the Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a spherical internal nebula and an expanding spherical shell of gas. The proposed model can also explain the origin and evolution of exoplanetary systems and may be of use in searching for new planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[261] viXra:1502.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-25 07:00:34

A Sound Nebula – the Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave

Authors: Valeri Beck
Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures

According to the planetary origin conceptual model proposed in this paper, the protosun centre of the pre-solar nebula exploded, resulting in a shock wave that passed through it and then returned to the centre, generating a new explosion and shock wave. Recurrent explosions in the nebula resulted in a spherical standing sound wave, whose antinodes concentrated dust into rotating rings that transformed into planets. The extremely small angular momentum of the Sun and the tilt of its equatorial plane were caused by the asymmetry of the first, most powerful explosion. Differences between inner and outer planets are explained by the migration of solid matter, while the Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a spherical internal nebula and an expanding spherical shell of gas. The proposed conceptual model can also explain the origin and evolution of exoplanetary systems and may be of use in searching for new planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[260] viXra:1502.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-08 12:08:58

A Sound Nebula. the Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave

Authors: Valeri Beck
Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures

This article proposes a new concept for the origin of the planets, making it possible to explain the majority of observed facts for both the Solar System and for exoplanetary systems. The most widespread nebular hypothesis of Kant-Laplace about the formation of the planets from a rotating pre-solar nebula is not capable of answering many questions about the origin of the Solar System. According to this new concept, when thermonuclear fusion started at the centre of the protosun, an explosion occurred and a shock wave passed through the pre-solar nebula which, when it returned to the centre, caused a new explosion and new wave. As a result of the periodic explosions, a spherical standing sound wave formed in the pre-solar nebula, with a concentration of dust occurring in the antinode of the wave. Subsequently, the dust gathered to form rotating rings from which the planets were formed. The distances between the antinodes of the standing wave are determined by the gas pressure and pull of gravity of the protosun and approximately consistent with the Titius-Bode law, which thus obtains the physical explanation. The very small angular momentum of the Sun (0.5%) and tilt of the equatorial plane (7°) occurred due to the asymmetry of the first very powerful explosion. The division of the planets into inner terrestrial and outer gaseous giant planets is explained by the migration of solid matter from the outer regions of the cloud to the inner regions. The existence of Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a ball-shaped inner cloud and a expanding spherical gaseous shell by the path of the shock wave from the first explosion. The expanding shell gradually slowed down due to the rarified outer gaseous masses and stopped at a distance of approximately 1 light year. Trillions of comets formed from the dust and frozen gases it contains. The orbit and the mass of planet Neptune can be explained as result of the interaction between the returning wave from the Oort cloud and the outer edges of the ball-shaped cloud. According to modern theories, many of the recently discovered exoplanetary systems would not be able to exist; the suggested concept makes it possible to explain their origin and evolution, and even help search for new planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[259] viXra:1502.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-21 08:49:57

Tired-light Theory Revisited

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tired-light theory is revisited. The revised theory conforms to the time-dilation effect with the stretching of supernova light curves and the Tolman surface brightness test, and can be verified with astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[258] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-20 18:08:56

"Earth" Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 6 Pages.

Correcting mistakes
Category: Astrophysics

[257] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-18 16:34:50

"Earth Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 5 Pages. Correcting spelling mistakes

Stellar Metamorphosis is the premier alternative theory of star formation. A hypothesis made for the 21st century dissident thinker who suspects that astronomy's “nebular hypothesis” is grossly unsatisfactory and dated. This is an explication where the theory, discovery narrative and educational, economic and social implications of star/planet formation are presented. The process by which Jeffrey Wolynski came to his revelation that what we mistakenly call “planets” are in fact merely later developments of the stellar formation. This theory should be the main foundation of all modern star science. Star formation is planet formation; they are one process.
Category: Astrophysics

[256] viXra:1502.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-24 11:24:42

Parity and Chirality as a Base for Quark-Gluon Plasma and Dust Creating Black Holes and the Beginning and End of Time..

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages. 24

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, Or the idea that the universe can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call that the cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons the cyclic multiverse. I have tried to translate this idea into the Quantum FFF model Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole ( without Graviton production), able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, in combination with a Chiral vacuum, seems to be able to explain quick Gas and Dust production and Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning.
Category: Astrophysics

[255] viXra:1502.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-12 09:47:59

Parity and Chirality as a Base for Quark-Gluon Plasma Creating and Charge Splitting Black Holes.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 16 Pages. 16

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. I am an architect who is interested in the possible FORM and FORM transformation aspects as information medium in micro- and macro physics, as a realistic search for the origin of Matter Space and Time. I believe that OUR COMPLEX WORLD can not be described by FORMULAS ALONE. WHY? Because we don't know why the universe is as it is. An example: “Finetuning”: Why are the "fundamental constants" constant? My suggestion: because the sub-quantum FORM of particles and the Higgs vacuum lattice have a certain form and play a game with us.. So I designed simple convertible shapes for real QUANTUM particle information use. At the same time I realized that black holes should also have some nuclear form and as a result I found that dark matter is related to black holes and Higgs particles have only energetic mass inside an oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice. Multiverse based mirror symmetric consciousness (entanglement) is assumed to be the base for all particle- wave -and human guidance or wavefunction collapse. SEE: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1 and: http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk
Category: Astrophysics

[254] viXra:1502.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-22 06:59:32

Cooperstock is Wrong: the Dark Matter is Necessary

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 8 Pages.

An example of mind blowing is the Dr. Cooperstock. First his attempt was to deny the Standards of Metrology (within "Energy Localization hypothesis"). I have arguments against his idea. Then he came up with another mind abuse: absence of long detected Dark Matter. In the following I am defending the Dark Matter from the nihilistic aggression of Dr. Cooperstock. Speaking of nihilism, the most grim picture is in Quantum Mechanics of Niels Bohr. In 2015 they have "proved" in elitist "Nature", that Schr"odinger's Cat is real. Thus, the world does not exist: a thing can not both be and not be. It is very convenient now: if even a grain of sand is crazy hallucination (like the "proven" "reality" of undead cat), then this non-existent grain needs no divine (loved, but more often hated) Creator. The reason of delusion: they have missed an intelligent factors, e.g. evil spirits, which very often act on the measuring device. Recall the wrong alarms in atomic armies.
Category: Astrophysics

[253] viXra:1502.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-16 05:02:24

Cooperstock is Wrong: the Dark Matter is Necessary

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 5 Pages.

"In a series of papers Fred Cooperstock and his collaborators showed that the application of general relativity is sufficient to explain the velocity profile of galaxies", wrote Stefan. I argue with it. First, let me say following. In Kerr spacetime is nonzero frame dragging with g_{t phi}=-N, however the coordinates are not co-moving. Thus, the real velocity of observer is zero, however from Cooperstock's formula it would be V=N/r. Thus, the larger is the frame dragging the larger is the difference between Cooperstock's theory and reality. Therefore, the large frame dragging (as it seems from calculations below) is very bad for Cooperstock.
Category: Astrophysics