Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[606] viXra:1504.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-26 10:45:15

Dark Matter May Feel a “Dark Force”

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Astronomers watching galaxies collide found evidence of nongravitational forces that could suggest dark matter interacts with itself. [13] The main feature of dark matter is that it remains undetectable (invisible) to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t sometimes intermingle with light. Scientists have now studied the prospect that dark matter distributes star light, creating a potentially visible luminosity around galaxies. [12] Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11] A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[605] viXra:1504.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-24 10:29:18

The Effect of a Current Free Double Layer Below the Photosphere on the Acceleration of the Solar Wind

Authors: Robert James Johnson
Comments: 19 Pages. Submission ref. PHYSSCR-102611; submitted 6 Feb 2015; awaiting referee comments 24.4.15

Neither the collisional hydrodynamic nor the collisionless kinetic models have yet been able to fully explain the acceleration of the fast solar wind without ad hoc assumptions of additional energy input or suprathermal electron populations at the base of the models in the lower corona. Separate research has shown that plasma naturally forms a Current Free Double Layer when expanding into a lower-density region, the effect of which is to generate a suprathermal electron population and beams of fast ions on the low potential side. It is suggested that the expansion of the dense plasma in the body of the Sun will form a stationary Current Free Double Layer below the photosphere and thus provide initial ion acceleration together with the type of electron velocity distribution function that kinetic models require as boundary conditions. The turbulence generated by the outflowing particle beams colliding with the low-density plasma in and above the upper chromosphere may contribute to the additional wave energy which the hydrodynamic models require. The implications of the present model for the coronal heating problem are also explored.
Category: Astrophysics

[604] viXra:1504.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-22 08:23:05

Glow in the Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The main feature of dark matter is that it remains undetectable (invisible) to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t sometimes intermingle with light. Scientists have now studied the prospect that dark matter distributes star light, creating a potentially visible luminosity around galaxies. [12] Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11] A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[603] viXra:1504.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-21 12:33:27

LHC, Dark Matter and Planck's Law

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can’t… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[602] viXra:1504.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-20 08:14:03

Photons Structure

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 5 Pages.

Substance's mass infinitely divisible. Substance mass infinitesimal small objects called magneton. Magneton mass tends to zero, but will never zero. Magnetic and spin are the magneton talent mettle. Magnetic force enables multiple magneton orderly bond together, to form magneton group. Magneton bond into small and simple magneton group. Small and simple magneton group bond into big and complex magneton group. every hue independent magneton group construct every hue material forms. Magneton collide with each other, make its spin speed and magneton's beeline speed transformed into each other. Bond into magneton group the magneton all maintain original characteristics. Magneton group have magneton the same characteristics. speed reach light speed, mass is about 10^-35 kg, such independent magneton group is photon.
Category: Astrophysics

[601] viXra:1504.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-17 05:21:54

Black Hole's Intense Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[600] viXra:1504.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-15 08:01:04

Potential Signs of 'interacting' Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Astronomers believe they might have observed the first potential signs of dark matter interacting with a force other than gravity. [11] A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[599] viXra:1504.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-11 13:30:15

Seeing Dark Matter Without Seeing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[598] viXra:1504.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 12:42:17

White Holes and Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Physicists have theories about white holes: cosmic monsters that overlap the line between tall tale and actuality. Yet to be seen in the space, white holes might be only mathematical giants. But according to recent research, if a speculative theory known as loop quantum gravity is true, white holes could be not just only real but we might have already observed them. A white whole is, somewhat, the reverse of a black hole. [10] That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[597] viXra:1504.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 14:38:40

Supernovae Powered by Magnetars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars -- small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[596] viXra:1504.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 06:38:08

Photons Characteristics

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Photon has beeline kinetic energy and spin kinetic energy. Photons spin axis perpendicular to Photons motion direction. Photon beam frequency is proportional to Photons spin speed. Photons magnetic pole at spin axis both ends. Photons electric charge absolute value is proportional to spin kinetic energy. Depth study Photons characteristics, will be able to crack more universe unsolved mysteries.
Category: Astrophysics

[595] viXra:1504.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 08:12:45

Best Way to Measure Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[594] viXra:1504.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 22:11:43

Fitting Galaxy Rotation Curves Without Dark Matter

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 10 Pages.

The notion is presented that fitting galaxy rotation curves is possible without the invocation of dark matter. Equations of motion similar to those used to describe the internal motions of terrestrial weather systems are applied to the rotation curves of galaxies. However, due to the four-dimensional nature of the equations, additional terms arise. One of these additional terms is particularly useful in matching the rotation curves of galaxies. The extra term presumably describes internal properties of the central galactic black hole. It also determines, in part, the galactic rotation curve, just as the motion of winds in a terrestrial weather system are determined, in part, by the rotation of the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[593] viXra:1504.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-09 02:38:56

Superfluid Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[592] viXra:1504.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 14:06:34

Possible Explanation for the Flattening of Galaxy Rotation Curves

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Two-page preliminary note

As an explanation for the flattening of galaxy rotation curves, it is proposed hare that: Just as, a photon, while experiencing the ‘gravitational red-shift’, dose not loose its velocity, and chooses to loose its energy, in the form of frequency; so exactly, the luminous stars at the out-skirts of a galaxy, may be loosing their luminosity, in stead of their velocity.
Category: Astrophysics

[591] viXra:1504.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-08 07:59:12

Black Hole Information Paradox Resolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[590] viXra:1504.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-03 04:15:51

The Rainbow Universe Has no Beginning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

What if the universe had no beginning, and time stretched back infinitely without a big bang to start things off? That's one possible consequence of an idea called "rainbow gravity," so-named because it posits that gravity's effects on spacetime are felt differently by different wavelengths of light, aka different colors in the rainbow. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[589] viXra:1504.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-02 01:53:38

LHC Create a Rainbow Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[588] viXra:1504.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-01 10:26:33

Photon's Births And Deaths

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 7 Pages.

UHT make atomic decomposition into photons. Photon slowdown become low speed photon. ULT make micro speed photons aggregated into atom. Nuclear star make atoms decomposed into photons, jet out distant space. Photon deceleration become low speed photon. Low speed photon deceleration become micro speed photon. Micro speed photons aggregation into atom. Atoms gathered into cosmic dust. Cosmic dust gathered into celestial body. Celestial body eventually integrated into nuclear star. Photon, low speed photon, micro speed photon, is three different motion speed substance. Atomic=>Photon=>Low speed photon=>Micro speed photon=>Atom. Three motion morphology substance cycles alternating converting, maintain universe density homeostasis.
Category: Astrophysics

[587] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-01 08:10:52

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 12 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider here equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtion of R3BP, we derived a Hill-type equation for the motion of moon on the orbits around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies; if the the distance between the moon and the 2-nd of two giant-bodies is negligible in regard to the mutual distance between that two giant-bodies, Hill-type equation above could be reduced to the ordinary differential equation of “free-oscillations”-type, which also could be reduced in the most cases of motions of moons around their planets in Solar system to the simple ODE of 2-nd order, which is proved to have a solution of constant circle orbit or Archimedean spiral-type. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon differs from the constant circle orbit or Archimedean spiral-type’s orbit, it could be associated only with a solutions of “free-oscillations”-type. Such a derivation explain and predict the perturbations of the Moon’s orbit may be rather dangerously unstable at oscillating during the motion around the Earth in a future.
Category: Astrophysics

[586] viXra:1504.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-01 03:27:28

Chameleon Dark Matter and Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Is dark energy a cosmic chameleon that can fade into its surroundings? A recent test brings the mysterious anti-gravitational force down to earth. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[585] viXra:1503.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-31 00:32:03

Redshift of Starlight and the Black Body Radiation

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

An understandable explanation of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[584] viXra:1503.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 13:56:11

Dark Energy or Repulsive Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 7 Pages.

The leading theory to explain the accelerating expansion is the existence of a hypothetical repulsive force called dark energy. But in the new study, Massimo Villata, an astrophysicist at the Observatory of Turin in Italy, suggests the effects attributed to dark energy are actually due to a kind of "antigravity" created when normal matter and antimatter repel one another. [5] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[583] viXra:1503.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 06:44:35

An Integrated Theory of Everything - Revision A

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 43 Pages.

Via a single string theory solution, an Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE) unified all known physical phenomena from the Planck cube to the Super Universe (multiverse). Each of 129 fundamental matter and force particles was defined by its unique closed string in a Planck cube. Any object in the Super Universe was defined by a volume of contiguous Planck cubes containing fundamental matter or force particle strings. Super force string doughnut singularities existed at the center of Planck cubes at the start of the Super Universe, all precursor universes, and all universes including our universe. String theory’s six extra dimensions were the dynamic point particle position and velocity coordinates in a Planck cube. Two reasons for replacing inadequate existing matter and force particle symbols were explicit Higgs particle representation and elimination of ambiguities. Our universe’s 128 matter and force particles were created from the super force. Matter creation was time synchronous with both inflation start time and the one to seven Planck cubes energy to matter expansion. Higgs particles were God particles because they constituted approximately 82% of our universe’s total energy/mass. The sum of eight Higgs force energies associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy. Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurred for 17 matter particles and had two time sequential phases. Decays were a series of evaporations/condensations of matter particles and their associated Higgs forces to and from the super force. Neutrinos oscillated between three flavors via the seesaw model using a neutral heavy lepton. Dark matter consisted of zinos, photinos, and three permanent Higgsinos. There were four types of sequential universe expansions. The product of the non-uniform distribution of matter expansion rate and the graviton’s intergalactic propagation time was string theory’s seventh extra dimension. By the end of matter creation, our universe consisted of atomic/subatomic matter (4.9 %), cold dark matter (27%), and dark energy (68%), and those percentages remained constant for 13.8 billion years (Lamda cold dark matter ΛCDM cosmological model). Messenger particles contained embedded clocks/computers. The relative strengths of gravitational and electromagnetic forces were due to gravitational propagation factor dilution. All 128 matter and force particles were required for conservation of energy/mass accountability. The single vacuum Super Universe consisted of nested parallel precursor and nested parallel universes. Stellar black holes included quark stars (matter) and black holes (energy). The Friedmann metric had three scenarios. The proposed entropy formula for a quark star (matter) was proportional to the quark star’s volume and inversely proportional to a Planck cube’s volume. In our precursor universe, a super supermassive quark star (matter) instantaneously evaporated, deflated, and collapsed to its associated super supermassive black hole’s (energy) which created our universe. The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfied only the third of three laws of physics and should be replaced by “An Integrated TOE” which satisfied all three. Our universe was nested in our precursor universe which was nested in the Super Universe. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was 10exp120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via two advanced optical and gravitational observatory techniques. Intrinsic or structural information was lost in a super supermassive quark star (matter)/black hole (energy) formation and none was emitted as Hawking radiation. Charge, parity, and time violation caused baryogenesis. String theory and an Integrated TOE were identical to quantum gravity theory. Two steps were required for an Integrated TOE mathematical solution, a fundamental physics step and a two part mathematics step. Conclusions: For an Integrated TOE, twenty independent existing theories were replaced by twenty interrelated amplified theories and summarized in Table 5; six Integrated TOE advanced validation techniques and independent analyses/validations by physicists were proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

[582] viXra:1503.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-30 08:13:45

On a New Pre Big Bang Cosmological Model

Authors: S.Kalimuthu
Comments: 3 Pages. Mathematical formulation of this model will follow soon.

Einstein’s general relativity theory predicts that our universe started from the big bang singularity. In 1929, Edwin Hubble observed this. NASA’s observations and experiments verified this. Recently, Penrose and Gurzadyan proposed pre big bang phenomena.In this short work, the author introduces a new model of pre big bang phenomena.
Category: Astrophysics

[581] viXra:1503.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 19:18:30

Strong Hypothesis for Dark Matter and the Controlled Nuclear Fusion

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages. In portuguese and english

The gravitational absorption appears to be the cause of dark matter. The Nuclear Fusion can be obtained from most highly targeted way. The LHC will not need to use much higher energies than those used to find the Higgs boson to be found "dark matter".
Category: Astrophysics

[580] viXra:1503.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 02:09:55

Lunar Drift Explains Lunar Eccentricity Rate

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Comments Welcome.

In this short letter, we argue that the observed +38 mm/yr secular Lunar drift from the Earth does – to an admirable degree of agreement between theory and observations ; explain the observed secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity. At present, the recession of the Moon from the Earth is not any more considered as an anomaly as this is believed to be well explained by conventional physics of Lunar-Earth tides. However, the same is not true when it comes to the observed increase in the Lunar eccentricity which is considered to be an anomaly requiring an explanation as to what is the cause behind this phenomenon. We not only demonstrate an intimate connection between these two seemingly unrelated phenomenon, but show that the intimate relationship that we deduce fits so well with observations to a point that – logic dictates that, the Lunar drift must surely be the cause of the secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity.
Category: Astrophysics

[579] viXra:1503.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-27 03:29:24

Dark Matter is Non-Interactive

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

A new study of colliding galaxy clusters has found that dark matter doesn't even interact with itself. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[578] viXra:1503.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 08:27:40

Black Holes - The Real Story

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 6 Pages. All rights reserved - Copyright 2013

ABSTRACT This paper addresses the properties of black holes as they relate to unitary symmetry groups. The explanation is given that black holes belong to SU(2) and that they are therefore magnetic in nature not gravitational. The nature of the Schwarzschild radius in relation to unitary symmetry is explained along with an explanation of accretion disks and why information is not actually lost in a black hole. The phenomenon of the three different types of black holes of Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrӧm and Kerr black holes are discussed in the light of unitary symmetry groups. The proposal that black holes operate via the process of magnetic induction is also examined.
Category: Astrophysics

[577] viXra:1503.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 05:51:22

Primordial Dark Matter Black Holes Outside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Universe?

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages. 21

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, or the idea that the universe is “closed“ and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call this a closed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF) model. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new paradigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas. However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes they should be the ultimate origin of universal contraction into a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse. The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes. All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum lattice with a local Planck length extension- as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon. As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources, to be found in particular around merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[576] viXra:1503.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:30:13

Origin Of Coronal High Temperature

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 2 Pages.

In sun center, pressure least direction is ends of sun spin axis. Thus, sun center ultra-high temperature gasification substance jet out along sun's rotation axis, through photosphere, chromosphere, transition, directly reach coronal top. By gravity, thermal diffusion, centrifugal force combined effects, reached corona top high-temperature gasification substance spread into sun equatorial plane, formed temperature up to 1 million K to 20 million K corona.
Category: Astrophysics

[575] viXra:1503.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:34:10

Causes Of Fermi Bubbles

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is a mass very huge star in Milky Way Galactic disk center, known as Milky Way "Nuclear-Star". Nuclear-Star mass exceeds solar mass 9 trillion times. Nuclear-Star center temperature exceed solar center temperature 20.8 thousand times. Nuclear-Star center temperature exceed 275.446 billion K, enough make substances fission into higher frequency gamma photons. Nuclear-Star spin axis ends jet out gamma-ray. Gamma-ray circular arc-shaped trajectory form Fermi bubble.
Category: Astrophysics

[574] viXra:1503.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:15:31

Black Holes Do Not Exist

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 5 Pages.

1. Celestial body center temperature is proportional to cube root of stellar mass. 2. When stellar temperature exceeds boiling point of all elements, stellar density is inversely proportional to cube root of stellar quality. 3. Stellar brightness and light emission frequency is proportional to cube root of stellar quality. Mass super huge stellar is bound to become a tiny density luminous body. Mass super huge, density super huge, no light emission black holes do not exist.
Category: Astrophysics

[573] viXra:1503.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-23 07:24:47

Reason Of Stellar Rotation

Authors: Wei-Xiong Huang
Comments: 2 Pages.

When stellar center gasification substance thermal expansion force is greater than stellar center minimum pressure, from stellar center, pressure minimal two symmetrical directions, jet out two shares mass same high-temperature gasification substances. In stellar interior, two shares jet out high-temperature gasification substances form two whirlpool. Two swirl size and shape are same. Two swirl tips are outward. Two swirl central shaft are on a straight line. Two swirl drive stellar rotation.
Category: Astrophysics

[572] viXra:1503.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-20 15:29:40

Gravitation Theorem vs. Shell Theorem. Conic Proof.

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 5 Pages.

SUMMARY. The gravitation theorem is based on Newton's Gravitation Law and takes into account that each gravitational object does exert gravitation starting from its very position. The Shell Theorem, on the other hand, sums up all positions of gravitational objects, thus calculations of gravitation are made easier. A spherically symmetric body of equal density can be modelled as an infinite number of cones within a globe, starting from a point A upon the radius of the globe. If one of these cones can be treated as a point mass (i.e. as a single gravitation point), then a system of cones in the shape of a sphere can also be treated as a point mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[571] viXra:1503.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-18 04:33:55

Combined Gravitational Action (V): Extension

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 21 Pages; 6 Tables; 1 Figure; 15 References

In series of papers relative to the Combined Gravitational Action (CGA) as an alternative gravity theory, we have developed the CGA-formalism, which is exclusively based on a new form of velocity-dependent gravitational potential energy. The present paper is actually an additional exploration, exploitation and extension of the CGA with the main aim of showing (1) the Galilean invariance of CGA-equations;(2) that the CGA is in acertain manner a metric gravity theory;(3) the existence of an important similarity between the CGA and General Relativity Theory;(4) a new CGA-formula for perigee and perihelion precession is derived and proved to be in excellent agreement with observations;(5) the CGA-effects on orbital motion inside and outside the Solar System are investigated;(6) the conversion rate of orbital energy into gravitational power radiation is calculated and its effects are studied.
Category: Astrophysics

[570] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-17 11:46:03

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 3 Pages. Under construction

A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids
Category: Astrophysics

[569] viXra:1503.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-13 11:34:38

A Further Step Towards the Fundamental Unit of Mass

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Four page letter

The search towards the fundamental natural units of mass, distance and time began with Weyl [1,2], Eddington [3] and Dirac [4]. Max Planck derived fundamental units purely from fundamental physical constants h, c and G [5]. Weinberg proposed a formula for obtaining a unit of mass using the constants: h , c , G and H0 , where H0 is Hubble’s constant [6]. Tank showed [7] that Planck’s unit of length is a geometric-mean of two un-equal lengths; namely Compton-wavelength and Gravitational-radius of every particle, so the units, obtained by taking square-root of a set of fundamental physical constants, may not be truly fundamental units. Weinberg obtained a unit of mass by taking cube-root of a set of fundamental-constants, so we are not sure whether the multiplication of three masses in Weinberg’s formula are of the same masses or of different masses. Therefore, here we shall derive a unit of mass without taking any square-root or cube-root. There is a possibility of physical existence of a particle with this mass, h H0 / c^2; and it seems that a photon decays into a lighter photon plus this new particle of mass : h H0 / c^2 .
Category: Astrophysics

[568] viXra:1503.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-13 03:25:29

Qauntum FFF Theory, Poster News 4.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages. 26

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. Most posters added with the digital texts are also presented at my Flickr page: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1
Category: Astrophysics

[567] viXra:1503.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 09:20:18

The Pioneer and Cassini Anomalies - A Possible Explanation

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 13 Pages.

Using a recently developed model of gravity that differs from both the Newton and Einstein models, close agreement is achieved between the anomalous accelerations of the Pioneer and Cassini mission vehicles and the predictions of the model. This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field that is the principle mediator of the gravitational and inertial interactions. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. No assertion is made relating properties of the TI field to those of the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. The flux model may offer an explanation for the anomalous accelerations experienced by the Pioneer and Cassini spacecraft.
Category: Astrophysics

[566] viXra:1503.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 09:42:28

Escape From A Black Hole

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 23 Pages.

The proposed flux model of the gravitational and inertial interactions posits the existence of a field that I label the temporal-inertial (TI) field. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. The relation between the Higgs field or the Higgs mechanism and what I designate as the TI field is undefined. The flux model asserts that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. The flux model describes a system in which particles of the TI field fall radially toward the central gravitational mass. Equations defining the acceleration and velocity profiles about a gravitational body are developed for the flux model. Near a massive gravitational body, such as a black hole, the infall velocity of the TI field reaches relativistic speeds. The relativistic mass increase of particles of the field at these speeds resists further acceleration in accord with the Lorentz factor. Accordingly, particles of the TI field approach light speed as they approach the singularity. The event horizon does not exist in this model.
Category: Astrophysics

[565] viXra:1503.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-07 10:53:18

Gravitational Instability Forming Structures is Nonsense

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 reference

It is hypothesized that using the term “gravitational instability” to explain why structures form in the universe is nonsense, as well as empirically false.
Category: Astrophysics

[564] viXra:1503.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-07 11:08:36

Three False Roots Assumptions of Jupiter

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 2 references

It will be pointed out that three false root assumptions exist which invalidate the establishment’s models of Jupiter.
Category: Astrophysics

[563] viXra:1503.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-06 13:45:13

Emission of Gravitational Waves from a Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamo

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 16 Pages.

The failure of the laser-interferometer gravitational wave antennas to measure the tiny changes of lengths many orders of magnitude smaller than the diameter of a proton raises the question of whether the reason for this failure is a large gravitational wave background noise, and if so, where this background noise is coming from. It is conjectured that it comes from gravitational waves emitted from a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo in the center of the sun, with the large magnetic field from this dynamo shielded by thermomagnetic currents in the tachocline. Using the moon as a large Weber bar, these gravitational waves could possibly be detected by the Poisson diffraction into the center of the lunar shadow during a total solar eclipse.
Category: Astrophysics

[562] viXra:1503.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-06 13:57:02

An Advancing Time Hypothesis

Authors: James Arnold
Comments: 15 Pages.

The evolution of the universe is described as an advancement of time, and only collaterally an expansion of space. An interpretation of time as proceeding at the equivalent of c across space, perpendicular to space, per a reconsideration of Minkowski’s spacetime geometry, supports a description of the cosmos as a four-dimensional (hyper)spherical wavefront. By treating space as the surface of a four-dimensional sphere with a current radius of 13.82 billion years (equivalent to 13.82 billion light-years), a Hubble constant of 70.6 (km/s)/Mpc is derived from the measure of the expansion of a megaparsec arc on the surface, independent of empirical measurement or mathematical inversion. It is argued that a close correlation between the advancing temporal cosmic radius and the expansion of the arc subtending a Mpc suggests at least a remarkable coincidence, worthy of further investigation. The hypothesis also has the scientific virtue of economy of explanation, dispensing with the need for the (revived) cosmological constant, cosmic inflation, dark energy, and dark matter as a gravitational constraint on expansion, as well as questions of the shape of the universe and of the influence of gravitation on the rate of expansion. A reexamination of various cosmological parameters in terms of an advancing time hypothesis is expected to provide further confirmation and confer greater simplicity and general coherence to cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[561] viXra:1503.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-06 08:48:37

New Data on the Nature of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[560] viXra:1503.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-03 08:12:08

Compound Universe

Authors: Binyamin Tsadik Bair-Moshe
Comments: 1 Page.

What if our universe was one of many within our own spacial dimensions.
Category: Astrophysics

[559] viXra:1503.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-01 11:41:49

The Flyby Anomalies - A Possible Explanation

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 12 Pages.

Using a recently developed model of gravity that differs from both the Newton and Einstein models, agreement may be achieved between the anomalous velocities of the flyby mission vehicles and the predictions of the model. This conjecture supports the notion of a temporal-inertial (TI) field that is the principle mediator of the gravitational and inertial interactions. The TI field is subject to gravity and, in response to the acceleration of gravity, transmits its own acceleration to massive particles and objects comprising massive particles. No assertion is made relating properties of the TI field to those of the Higgs field. The flux model posits that in a gravitational field, the velocity of the TI field combines with that of gravitons emitted by the gravitational body to increase the flux of gravitons relative to the TI field. Thus the response of the TI field to gravity adds to the force of gravity. Thus, again, the flux model may explain the unexpected changes in velocity seen by the so-called flyby spacecraft in their gravity assist maneuvers past Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[558] viXra:1503.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-01 09:09:08

Ionization Chamber Noise Fluctuations During Lunar Eclipse on 15.04.2014

Authors: A. D. Skorbun, M. V. Efetov, G. I. Odinokin, O. A. Kuchmagra
Comments: 7 Pages.

Dynamics of intervals between moments of an ionization chamber КНТ-31-1 background pulses registration during lunar eclipse on 15.04.2014 has been studied. That chamber is intended for neutron registration, but in neutrons absence it has background current, which arises from alpha decay of electrodes materials and noises of electronics, and fluctuations of which were registered. It have been revealed, that for all standard moments of lunar eclipse phases changing, there were typical peculiarity in intervals dynamics. Especially interesting are occurrence of small series of very short intervals. The duration of such intervals are of some microseconds (3 – 4 order smaller than all intervals mean value), and length of series is up to 20 pulses. This is direct and clear observation of lunar eclipse influence on the velocity of physical processes on the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[557] viXra:1502.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-28 13:09:30

Asymmetric Dark Matter in the Sun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The brightest object in the sky may be hiding dark matter under its surface. To explain certain discrepancies between solar observations and theory, a new model proposes that a special sort of dark matter accumulates in the Sun and affects the transport of heat within the star. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[556] viXra:1502.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-27 08:19:31

The Mystery of the Origin of Matter in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Most of the laws of nature treat particles and antiparticles equally, but stars and planets are made of particles, or matter, and not antiparticles, or antimatter. That asymmetry, which favors matter to a very small degree, has puzzled scientists for many years. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[555] viXra:1502.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 14:37:15

Tired Light Theory Revisited

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tired light theory is revisited. The revised theory conforms to the time-dilation effect with the stretching of supernova light curves and the Tolman surface brightness test, and can be verified with astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[554] viXra:1502.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 14:01:33

Information Theory Rescue Cosmologists

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Stephen Hawking described it as the most spectacular failure of any physical theory in history. Can a new theory of information rescue cosmologists? [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[553] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-18 09:57:10

"Earth" Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 5 Pages.

Stellar Metamorphosis is the premier alternative theory of star formation. A hypothesis made for the 21st century dissident thinker who suspects that astronomy's “nebular hypothesis” is grossly unsatisfactory and dated. This is an explication where the theory, discovery narrative and educational, economic and social implications of star/planet formation are presented. The process by which Jeffrey Wolynski came to his revelation that what we mistakenly call “planets” are in fact merely later developments of the stellar formation. This theory should be the main foundation of all modern star science. Star formation is planet formation; they are one process.
Category: Astrophysics

[552] viXra:1502.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-17 07:33:26

Understanding Galaxy Rotation Curves in terms of Interference of Gravitational Waves

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Twelve-page letter

This paper proposes a new way of understanding the difference between observed and predicted velocities of the stars at the out skirts of spiral galaxies, as follows: The massive stars orbiting around the galactic center give rise to gravitational waves, which propagate towards the out skirts at the speed of light. Since the distances involved are so large that it becomes important to think in terms of superposition and interference of gravitational waves, rather than Newtonian gravity. The waves from different radial distances reach at different times at the out skirts giving rise to interference of gravitational waves. The slope of the resultant gravitational field can be different from the expected inverse square law followed by Newtonian gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[551] viXra:1502.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 17:17:59

Possible Scenarios that the New Horizons Spacecraft May Find in Its Close Encounter with Pluto

Authors: Hector Javier Durand-Manterola, Hector Perez-de-Tejada
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this year (2015) the ¨New Horizons¨ spacecraft will have a close encounter with Pluto. In the present study we discuss some possibilities regarding what the spacecraft may encounter during its approach to Pluto. Among them we should include: the presence of geological activity due to heat generated by tides; the unlikely presence of an intrinsic magnetic field; the possibility of a plasmasphere and a plasmapause; the position of an ionopause; the existence of an ionospheric trans-terminator flow similar to that at Venus and Mars; and the presence of a Magnus force that produces a deflection of Pluto’s plasma wake. This deflection oscillates up and down in its orbit around the sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[550] viXra:1502.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 17:33:10

Parity and Chirality as a Base for Quark-Gluon Plasma Creating and Charge Splitting Black Holes.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 19 Pages. 19

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. I am an architect who is interested in the possible FORM and FORM transformation aspects as information medium in micro- and macro physics, as a realistic search for the origin of Matter Space and Time. I believe that OUR COMPLEX WORLD can not be described by FORMULAS ALONE. WHY? Because we don't know why the universe is as it is. An example: “Finetuning”: Why are the "fundamental constants" constant? My suggestion: because the sub-quantum FORM of particles and the Higgs vacuum lattice have a certain form and play a game with us.. So I designed simple convertible shapes for real QUANTUM particle information use. At the same time I realized that black holes should also have some nuclear form and as a result I found that dark matter is related to black holes and Higgs particles have only energetic mass inside an oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice. Multiverse based mirror symmetric consciousness (entanglement) is assumed to be the base for all particle- wave -and human guidance or wavefunction collapse. SEE: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1 and: http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/15306972174/in/photostream
Category: Astrophysics

[549] viXra:1502.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 10:18:43

Cooperstock is Wrong: the Dark Matter is Necessary

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 4 Pages.

"In a series of papers Fred Cooperstock and his collaborators showed that the application of general relativity is sufficient to explain the velocity profile of galaxies. I argue with it."
Category: Astrophysics

[548] viXra:1502.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-09 14:28:09

Evidence for Dark Matter in Milky Way

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[547] viXra:1502.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-09 10:58:47

Quantum Equation Predicts Universe Has no Beginning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[546] viXra:1502.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-08 10:45:29

Dark-Matter Galaxy Detected?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

"These young stars are likely the signature of this predicted galaxy," said Chakrabarti, assistant professor in RIT's School of Physics and Astronomy. "They can't be part of our galaxy because the disk of the Milky Way terminates at 48,000 light years" referring to a cluster of young, pulsating stars discovered in the far side of the Milky Way may mark the location of a previously unseen dark-matter dominated dwarf galaxy hidden behind clouds of dust. [11] The calling card of dark matter is that it remains invisible to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t occasionally interact with light. Researchers have now examined the possibility that dark matter scatters star light, producing a potentially detectable glow around galaxies. The team found no conclusive evidence of this “light halo,” but they argue that longer wavelength observations could offer an opportunity to “see” dark matter. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[545] viXra:1502.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-04 14:51:48

Dark Matter Probably Not So Dark

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

The calling card of dark matter is that it remains invisible to telescopes. But that doesn’t mean that dark matter can’t occasionally interact with light. Researchers have now examined the possibility that dark matter scatters star light, producing a potentially detectable glow around galaxies. The team found no conclusive evidence of this “light halo,” but they argue that longer wavelength observations could offer an opportunity to “see” dark matter. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[544] viXra:1502.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-04 15:00:42

List, the Structure, and Chemistry of Neutrinium Elements of Light Matter

Authors: Dmitriy Skripachov
Comments: 13 Pages.

Light Matter (LM) is a substance composed of light nuclei of neutrinium (NN) with a mass of 1 to several tens of MeV. It is assumed that neutrinos are able to form short-lived Cooper pairs, some of which quickly decays, and the other part is undergoing fusion, becoming a non-relativistic nuclei of LM. Studying the structure of NN shows that neutrinos can be joined together by 2 types of bonds, alpha and kappa. Chemistry of neutrinium elements (CNE) is studying reactions involving NN, including the synthesis of NE with larger mass number, condensation of NN in molecular aggregations, and annihilation of neutrinium and antineutrinium. CNE allows explain a number of astrophysical phenomena, including sunspots, solar flares and coronal mass ejections, coronal holes, aurora and polar radio emission, Herbig-Haro objects, the radio emission of pulsars, the spiral arms of galaxies and relativistic jets, the emission of quasars, and extragalactic background light.
Category: Astrophysics

[543] viXra:1502.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-02 12:29:08

Les Mystères de L’espace :La Création et le Fonctionnement de L’univers Expliqués Sous un Autre Angle

Authors: Khalid Jerrari
Comments: 150 Pages.

De nombreuses recherches restées infructueuses tentent d’expliquer l’univers qui nous entoure par la présence de matières inconnues et d’énergies mystérieuses toujours introuvables. Mais alors ne serait-il pas temps de considérer d’autres hypothèses ? Dans cet ouvrage pédagogique et à la portée d’un large public visant à expliquer la « Théorie spatiale », l’auteur présente une réflexion philosophique suivie d’une explication scientifique sur l’influence de l’espace sur notre univers, l’espace étant considéré ici comme une substance physique. Pour son premier ouvrage scientifique, Khalid Jerrari s’affiche sans doute comme le premier auteur à « vulgariser » ses propres recherches scientifiques dans le but de les rendre accessibles à un public non scientifique. En reprenant pas-à-pas quelques lois de la physique et en expliquant certains grands principes universels, son livre propose une théorie qui unifie les lois de la cosmologie.
Category: Astrophysics

[542] viXra:1502.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-02 10:49:48

How a Planet with Earth’s Size Can Have a Gravitational Field Much Stronger Than the Neptune

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we show how the gravitational field can be amplified under certain circumstances, and how a planet with Earth's size can have a gravitational field much stronger than the Neptune.
Category: Astrophysics

[541] viXra:1501.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-28 08:18:26

Spiral Galaxies : the Spiral Track of Gravitational Points

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 2 Pages.

SUMMARY. Recent observations show that merging galaxies usually result in a disc structure. The reason for that is explained by the Merging Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[540] viXra:1501.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-27 13:21:48

The Vacuum is the Real Black Hole

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that although all Black hole theories are pseudoscience the concept may be useful for visualizing the vacuum of space. The universe is built inside a black hole called vacuum.
Category: Astrophysics

[539] viXra:1501.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-27 13:34:34

The Origin of the Most Part of Water on the Earth, and the Reason why there is More Water on the Earth than on the other Terrestrial Planets

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

The origin of water on the Earth, and the reason why there is more liquid water on the Earth than on the other terrestrial planets of the Solar System is not completely understood. Here we show that these facts are related to a water vapor cloud formed by the vaporization of part of an ice belt that was formed in the beginning of the Solar System.
Category: Astrophysics

[538] viXra:1501.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 18:35:49

Electromagnetism & Solar System

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 4 Pages.

English (traslation): It is described here as the electric charge is not invariable, but depends on the solar orbit. It also equates with what could be considered as gravitational charge, both by the diamond related parameters. Is also shown, as to vary the frequencies at different orbits, one can conclude the actual temperature of Sol. It is stated that the brightness per unit area is constant. And he concludes that both sunspots and magnetic reversals are caused by the permutation of links between gravitons and sets of stars of matter and antimatter. Spanish (original): Se describe aquí como la carga eléctrica no es invariable, sino que depende de la órbita solar. Se equipara, además, con lo que se podría considerar como carga gravitatoria, relacionadas ambas mediante los parámetros diamante. Se muestra también, como al variar las frecuencias en las distintas órbitas, se puede concluir la temperatura real del Sol. Se expone que la luminosidad por unidad de superficie es constante. Y se concluye afirmando que tanto las manchas solares como las inversiones magnéticas están causadas por la permutación de enlaces entre los gravitones y los conjuntos de estrellas de materia y antimateria.
Category: Astrophysics

[537] viXra:1501.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-23 11:27:17

Black Hole is a Time Machine?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Yes in a way a black hole can act as a time machine. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[536] viXra:1501.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-19 22:01:50

About a Supernova Forming Dust

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 4 Pages.

This was inspired by a Letter to the journal Nature. The letter’s “Rapid formation of large dust grains in the luminous supernova 2010jl” by Christa Gall, Jens Hjorth, Darach Watson, Eli Dwek, Justyn R. Maund, Ori Fox, Giorgos Leloudas, Daniele Malesani & Avril C. Day-Jones. It was published online on July 9, 2014 (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13558.html) My slightly alternative view about dust produced by a supernova includes topics such as E=mc^2, black holes, dark energy, and deletion of the big bang/inflation.
Category: Astrophysics

[535] viXra:1501.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-16 07:32:35

Ether,dark Matter and Topology of the Universe(version 3)

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 23 Pages.

The article is divided in 2 parts. In the 1st part (PART I), we emit the hypothesis that a substance, called ether-substance, fills and constitutes all what is called “vacuum” in the Universe. We assume that it has a mass and consequently it could be the nature of dark matter. Modeling it as an ideal gas, we obtain the flat rotation curve of spiral galaxies. Using a very simple model of thermal transfer between baryonic particles and ether-substance, we obtain the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then we emit the hypothesis of the existence at every point of the Universe, of a particular Referential called “local Ether”. We will see that both previous concepts of ether can be detected experimentally. So we will call “Cosmology based on ether” (CBE) Cosmology based on the previous concepts of ether. In this CBE, topology of the Universe is much simpler than topologies obtained by the Standard Cosmological model (SCM), in particular in the 1st model. Indeed, contrary to MSC, the 1st model of CBE does not need dark energy nor Cosmological constant, nor complicated mathematics based on General Relativity. Nonetheless, it permits to obtain a very simple Hubble’s constant, in 1/t, t age of the Universe, and to predict the different cosmological distances in agreement with observation. CBE permits also to interpret, contrary to MSC, the Referential in which fossil radiation is isotropic. Nonetheless, CBE remains compatible with Special and General Relativity. In the 2nd part (PART II) we will study some problems raised by PART I (motion of galaxies inside the intergalactic ether-substance, concentration of ether-substance around stars..)
Category: Astrophysics

[534] viXra:1501.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-12 18:33:00

The Large Number Correlations and Musical Scales

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is shown that the Large Number Correlations are dramatically tied to the main musical scales of Jeans classification, which implies that the physical parameters are calculation bases in a Computing Arithmetical Cosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[533] viXra:1501.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 10:10:35

Gravity for Warp Speed

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 34 Pages. Equations

Einstein's flawed understanding of gravity has misled modern physics down the wrong path, while his contemporaries held the correct understanding. This paper reviews the concept of gravity in light of Vedic Nuclear Physics, and the understanding of gravity pro- posed by H. A. Wilson, Harold Puthoff, Alcubierre, Davis, Robert Dicke, Hoyle-Narlikar the- ory and others. Finally, this paper explains the “worm hole” or Substratum tunnelling effect which may make interstellar and intergalactic space travel possible. In short, this paper provides the concepts necessary for interstellar travel in the near future.
Category: Astrophysics

[532] viXra:1501.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-08 12:49:26

Higgs Physics Against the University?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

Modeling of conditions soon after the Big Bang suggests the universe should have collapsed just microseconds after its explosive birth, the new study suggests. "During the early universe, we expected cosmic inflation — this is a rapid expansion of the universe right after the Big Bang," said study co-author Robert Hogan, a doctoral candidate in physics at King's College in London. "This expansion causes lots of stuff to shake around, and if we shake it too much, we could go into this new energy space, which could cause the universe to collapse." [3] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[531] viXra:1501.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-07 12:44:58

An Alternate Explanation for the Hubble Constant

Authors: D.G. Taylor
Comments: 27 pages

Presently, the decreasing frequency of Electromagnetic radiation from Galactic/Cluster objects as their distance from the Milky Way [MW] increases is taken as an absolute declaration of their motion away from the Solar system. An alternate explanation would be that the frequency reduction of the signal could be due to interfering effect of inter-Galactic gases. This paper determines the rate of frequency decay in an inter-Galactic scale environment. It also argues against the velocity of Universe expansion demanded by the Big Bang theory. EM frequency shifts downward are evidence of Dark Matter throughout the Universe. A simple parallel to the reddening of solar radiation as it travels through a greater thickness of the atmosphere during both Sunrise and sunset. Support for this alternate supposition is that in current Hubble Theory, the M31 Galaxy and the NGC 300 Galaxy are at distances inconsistent with their recession velocity.
Category: Astrophysics

[530] viXra:1501.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-06 21:58:21

A Refutation of the Eddington-Finkelstein Coordinates

Authors: Ben Steber
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Eddington-Finkelstein as a pair of coordinates have selectively allowed for solutions to the Schwarzschild metric which include singularity as well as a permeable event horizon. The author will demonstrate that the coordinates reduce to identities which remove tortoise coordinates from the field. Special Relativistic and General Relativistic principles will demonstrate the inaccessibility of the Event Horizon by massive particles, resulting in the removal of singularity. The Einstein-Rosen solution will establish a field free of singularities resulting in a drastically new model for the structure of black holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[529] viXra:1501.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 21:52:38

Pioneer and Flyby Anomalies for Almost Decade Later

Authors: M. Pitkänen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Pioneer and Flyby anomalies are astrophysical anomalies in our solar system. Standard physics explanations for Pioneer anomaly have been proposed but certainly fail for Flyby anomalies. In this article I update almost decade old TGD inspired model for these anomalies as direct demonstration about existence of spherical dark matter shells associated with planets and with radii of planetary orbits. The dark matter density would be universal as also the accleration anomaly equal to Hubble acceleration. A possible test for the model is provided by Earth-Moon system.
Category: Astrophysics

[528] viXra:1501.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 12:48:22

Dark Matter-Induced Collapse of Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are extreme bursts of radio emission that last for a few milliseconds. They were discovered in 2013, and, in 2014, the number papers on FRBs skyrocketed. The origin of these transients is still uncertain — we can’t even agree if they are extraterrestrial! Astrobites has already covered two possible origins: stellar flares and neutron star mergers. Today’s paper suggests an even more exotic source: dark matter annihilation of neutron stars. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[527] viXra:1501.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-01-01 01:52:39

Higgs Boson VS Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[526] viXra:1412.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-23 04:44:40

On The Potential Hostility of Alien Species

Authors: Robert Rhodes
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article we discuss the possibility that an extraterrestrial species could be hostile to humanity, and present estimates for the probability that visitors to the Earth will be aggressive. For this purpose we develop a generic model of multiple civilizations which are permitted to interact, and using randomized parameters we simulate thousands of potential worlds through several millenia of their development. By reviewing the species which survive the simulation, we can estimate the fraction of species which are hostile and the fraction which are supportive of other cultures.
Category: Astrophysics

[525] viXra:1412.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-13 08:55:27

Scientists May Finally Have "Seen" Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[524] viXra:1412.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-11 22:19:56

Dynamical Casimir Effect and the Big Bang

Authors: James Conor O'Brien
Comments: 111 Pages. A blog itemizing excerpts from this paper are viewable at http://revolutionmatter.blogspot.com.au/2014/07/an-introduction-to-revolution-of-matter.html

It is proposed in accordance with the Feynman-Stückelberg Interpretation that out of the quantum vacuum the anti-particles of virtual pairs travel backwards along the axis of Time to reflect off the boundaries of a quantum potential of a scalar field at the start of the universe. The scalar field is subject to quantum fluctuations that adiabatically shift the boundaries of the potential which acts as the moving mirror of the Dynamical Casimir effect allowing the production of matter-antimatter pairs. A theorem is proposed, via a mechanism that has its foundation in the Wick Rotation, the virtual particles undergo a quantal adiabatic, geometric phase reflection; and as a consequence of the Pauli Exclusion principle this shift in phase nonholonomically conflates virtual particles under Lorentz Invariance into real particles. It is proposed that this model is consistent with the Hartle-Hawking state; leads directly to Guth's Inflationary model; a mechanism for a modified gravitational field (MOND) is given; and finally the results are shown consistent with the Sakharov conditions for the Big Bang.
Category: Astrophysics

[523] viXra:1412.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-10 10:35:30

Potential-Energy of the Photon Emitted by an Atom: and the Cosmological Red-Shift

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Four-page letter

When an electron in an atom falls from higher orbit to a lower orbit a photon gets emitted. Since the electrostatic potential-energy of the electron is negative, because of the attractive force between the proton and the electron, the fall of electron makes its potential-energy more negative. So it is argued here that the energy of the emitted photon is a chunk of positive potential-energy; and since the photon is electrically neutral, it can feel only the gravitational force. Therefore it is proposed here that the photon emitted by an atom might be feeling a repulsive gravitational force; and so it always moves away from the emitting atom. As this photon moves away from the atom, its potential-energy goes on reducing. Then it is shown here that the loss of energy of the cosmologically red-shifted photon is indeed equal to (G me mp/ e^2) times the loss in electrostatic potential-energy of the electron at the same distance D
Category: Astrophysics

[522] viXra:1412.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-06 03:30:57

Some Interesting Correlations Between Cosmological Red-Shift and the Strength-Ratio of Gravitational and Electric Forces

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: three-page letter

This letter reports interesting correlations between cosmological red-shift and the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces, which may prove to be a clue to deeper understanding of gravitation and cosmology. Cosmological red-shift, smaller than unity, zc = Δ λ / λ0 = [G mp^2 / h c ] times the luminosity-distance measured in the units of a wavelength [ D / λC ] where λC = ( h / mp c), the Compton-wavelength of a fundamental-particle pi-meson. Also, the energy lost by cosmologically red-shifted photon can be viewed as due to deceleration experienced by the photon; Energy lost = mass times the acceleration (H0 c) times the luminosity-distance D ; where the rate of deceleration (H0 c) turns out to be equal to the accelerated-expansion of the universe! Thus this letter provides some interesting correlations for the experts to think further.
Category: Astrophysics

[521] viXra:1412.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2014-12-05 11:11:38

Dark Matter and Relic Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[520] viXra:1411.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-29 09:07:13

Black Body Radiation of Stars as Rate of Plasma Recombination

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that black body radiation of stars is a result of the rate of plasma recombination.
Category: Astrophysics

[519] viXra:1411.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-26 07:32:07

Modelo de Materia Oscura Por Vacío Cuántico Dark Matter Model by Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernández
Comments: 21 Pages.

The idea of the model is quite simple: The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.). Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons. Similarly, the Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) consider the space full of virtual particles, called gluons. Therefore it is easy to think that there is virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons. It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”. The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter. The paper is organised in four parts: The first one explains the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity, which there is not exist yet. The second one studies the spin speed star on galaxies. It is got the density formula for DM.Also it is got the formula, which connects DM density with intensity gravitational field. The third one explains the coherence between the DM model and experimental evidences known about DM. The fourth one proposes five experimental test to check the model with astronomical measures. The purpose this paper is to introduce the model. To show a new origin of DM and try to convince the reader that it is worth to check the model with experimental evidences.
Category: Astrophysics

[518] viXra:1411.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-22 13:23:00

Dark Matter and Other Astrophysical Problems of Alien Civilisations

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two foreign civilisations ask for help on behalf of astrophysical problems. The most urgent problem is called “the missing mass problem“. We should be able to help them.
Category: Astrophysics

[517] viXra:1411.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-21 15:18:07

Cosmic Reonisation in the Accelerating Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

The universe was born in the Big Bang some 13.8 billion years ago. In its earliest epochs, it was filled with a hot 'soup' of charged protons and electrons. As the newborn universe expanded, its temperature decreased uniformly. When the universe was 400,000 years old, conditions were cool enough to allow the protons and electrons to bond and form neutral hydrogen atoms. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[516] viXra:1411.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 18:30:07

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Noise from the Absolute Reference Frame: Will LIGO Have to be Redesigned?

Authors: J. Catania
Comments: 2 Pages. (c) 2014

LIGO attempts to detect gravitational-waves by the effect they have on a Michelson-Morley interferometer. As the waves pass through the interferometer, whose arms are 4 km long, they induce relative length contractions and expansions of the arms which cause fringe-shifts at the detector of the interferometer. The length contractions are “about 10-18 m, less than one-thousandth the charge diameter of a proton.”1 The propagation time of a wave, traveling at c, along the 4 km arm of an interferometer is 4000 / 3 x 108 = 1.33 x 10-5 s. As of this writing (11/19/2014) no gravitational-waves have been detected.
Category: Astrophysics

[515] viXra:1411.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-19 08:27:17

Spooky Alignment of Quasars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

New observations with ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[514] viXra:1411.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-18 19:20:01

Hubble's Law Versus Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It will be explained that Hubble's Law contradicts the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis in reference to determination of quasar distance.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[276] viXra:1504.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-10 12:58:30

Fitting Galaxy Rotation Curves Without Dark Matter

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 10 Pages.

The notion is presented that fitting galaxy rotation curves is possible without the invocation of dark matter. Equations of motion similar to those used to describe the internal motions of terrestrial weather systems are applied to the rotation curves of galaxies. However, due to the four-dimensional nature of the equations, additional terms arise. One of these additional terms is particularly useful in matching the rotation curves of galaxies. The extra term presumably describes internal properties of the central galactic black hole. It also determines, in part, the galactic rotation curve, just as the motion of winds in a terrestrial weather system are determined, in part, by the rotation of the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[275] viXra:1504.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-09 04:56:56

Possible New Explanation for the Flattening of Galaxies Rotation Curves

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Single-page Letter

As an explanation for the flattening of galaxy rotation curves, it is proposed hare that: the centripetal force experienced by the stars at out-skirts of galaxies may be a combination of gravitational-force and electric-force. Since both, the stars and the central-core of a galaxy are in the plasma state, there is always a possibility of charge-imbalance between the core and the stars at out-skirts; and so there is some electric-force between them, in addition to the gravitational attraction. Therefore the astronomical observation of flattening of galaxies rotation-curve need not shake our faith in Newtonian Dynamics.
Category: Astrophysics

[274] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-04 05:32:22

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 15 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-circle orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as non-constant elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[273] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-02 18:26:53

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 13 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-circle orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as strictly elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[272] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-02 10:48:31

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 12 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider the equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass m₃ around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies m₁, m₂ (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtions of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describe the relative mutual motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with additional effective mass placed in that centre of mass. They should be rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic orbits. For negligible effective mass it gives the equations of motion which should describe a quasi-circle orbit of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet) for most of the moons of the Planets in Solar system. But the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as strictly elliptic motion for the effective mass 0.0178m₂ placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of their common centre of masses should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ = 0.0123m₂ and for the effective mass (0.0055+0.0123)m₂ placed in the centre of mass of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[271] viXra:1504.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-01 19:55:05

Stability of the Moons Orbits in Solar System (Especially of Earth’s Moon) in the Restricted Three-Body Problem (R3BP, Celestial Mechanics)

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 10 Pages. Key Words: restricted three-body problem, orbit of the Moon, relative motion

We consider here equations of motion of three-body problem in a Lagrange form (which means a consideration of relative motions of 3-bodies in regard to each other). Analyzing such a system of equations, we consider in details the case of moon’s motion of negligible mass around the 2-nd of two giant-bodies (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s trajectories), the mass of which is assumed to be less than the mass of central body. Under assumtion of R3BP, we obtain the equations of motion which describes the relative motion of the centre of mass of 2-nd giant-body m₂ (Planet) and the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon) with the proper effective mass in the centre of mass of the Moon (which are rotating around their common centre of masses on Kepler’s elliptic trajectories). Besides, if the proper dimensionless parameter → 0 equations of motion should describe a quasi-circle motion of 3-rd body (Moon) around the 2-nd body m₂ (Planet). But only in case of the Earth’s Moon such a parameter increases to the maximal meaning 0.0055. It means that the orbit of Earth’s Moon should be considered as strictly quasi-elliptic with the proper effective mass placed in the centre of mass for the 3-rd body (Moon). The position of such a centre of mass should obviously differ for the real mass m₃ and effective mass placed in the centre of mass of 3-rd body (Moon).
Category: Astrophysics

[270] viXra:1503.0261 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-02 14:00:24

Redshift of Starlight and the Black Body Radiation

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

An understandable explanation of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[269] viXra:1503.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-08 03:36:49

Lunar Drift Explains Lunar Eccentricity Rate

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Comments welcome.

In this short letter, we argue that the observed +38 mm/yr secular Lunar drift from the Earth does – to an admirable degree of agreement between theory and observations ; explain the observed secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity. At present, the recession of the Moon from the Earth is not any more considered as an anomaly as this is believed to be well explained by conventional physics of Lunar-Earth tides. However, the same is not true when it comes to the observed increase in the Lunar eccentricity which is considered to be an anomaly requiring an explanation as to what is the cause behind this phenomenon. We not only demonstrate an intimate connection between these two seemingly unrelated phenomenon, but show that the intimate relationship that we deduce fits so well with observations to a point that – logic dictates that, the Lunar drift must surely be the cause of the secular increase in the Lunar eccentricity.
Category: Astrophysics

[268] viXra:1503.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-26 10:21:45

Primordial Dark Matter Black Holes Outside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Universe?

Authors: lEO vUYK
Comments: 21 Pages. Sorry Philip for this failure.

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, or the idea that the universe is “closed“ and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call this a closed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF) model. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new paradigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas. However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes they should be the ultimate origin of universal contraction into a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse. The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes. All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum lattice with a local Planck length extension- as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon. As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources, to be found in particular around merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[267] viXra:1503.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-21 00:36:04

New Hypothesis About Proton-Proton Reaction

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the core of stars the size of the Sun, or smaller, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. Modifications to the first and second parts of this process are proposed. In the first, one of the protons absorbs virtual particles which increase mass and account for its transformation to a neutron. In the second, tritium forms before decaying into helium-3 (allowing increased emission of electron neutrinos to reduce the solar neutrino problem). Tritium has not been discovered in nature but is formed in nuclear reactions – and the Sun uses nuclear reactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[266] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-03 11:09:13

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 9 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[265] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-01 09:02:57

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 8 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[264] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-29 20:29:12

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[263] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-22 11:34:02

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[262] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-21 20:10:38

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of asteroid belt. Commentaries about Nibiru, asteroids and Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[261] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-19 12:19:04

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids
Category: Astrophysics

[260] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-19 07:08:59

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 5 Pages. A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids.

A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids
Category: Astrophysics

[259] viXra:1503.0142 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-18 06:49:24

Remembering the Law of Titius-Bode

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages.

A hypothesis for the existence of belt of asteroids
Category: Astrophysics

[258] viXra:1503.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-19 08:08:42

Qauntum FFF Theory, Poster News 4.2

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 31 Pages. 31

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. I am an architect who is interested in the possible FORM and FORM transformation aspects as information medium in micro- and macro physics, as a realistic search for the origin of Matter Space and Time. I believe that OUR COMPLEX WORLD can not be described by FORMULAS ALONE. WHY? Because we don't know why the universe is as it is. An example: “Finetuning”: Why are the "fundamental constants" constant? My suggestion: because the sub-quantum FORM of particles and the Higgs vacuum lattice have a certain form and play a game with us.. So I designed simple convertible shapes for real QUANTUM particle information use. At the same time I realized that black holes should also have some nuclear form and as a result I found that dark matter is related to black holes and Higgs particles have only energetic mass inside an oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice. Multiverse based mirror symmetric consciousness (entanglement) is assumed to be the base for all particle- wave -and human guidance or wavefunction collapse. SEE: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1 At last, The Beginning and End of Time. The cyclic Multiverse based on Quantum FFF model is depicted as continuous flow of increasing and decreasing numbers of Higgs particles located inside Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei, or free oscillating in the vacuum lattice or derived as real SM particles. http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/15306972174/in/photostream
Category: Astrophysics

[257] viXra:1502.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-25 07:00:34

A Sound Nebula – the Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave

Authors: Valeri Beck
Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures

According to the planetary origin conceptual model proposed in this paper, the protosun centre of the pre-solar nebula exploded, resulting in a shock wave that passed through it and then returned to the centre, generating a new explosion and shock wave. Recurrent explosions in the nebula resulted in a spherical standing sound wave, whose antinodes concentrated dust into rotating rings that transformed into planets. The extremely small angular momentum of the Sun and the tilt of its equatorial plane were caused by the asymmetry of the first, most powerful explosion. Differences between inner and outer planets are explained by the migration of solid matter, while the Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a spherical internal nebula and an expanding spherical shell of gas. The proposed conceptual model can also explain the origin and evolution of exoplanetary systems and may be of use in searching for new planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[256] viXra:1502.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-08 12:08:58

A Sound Nebula. the Origin of the Solar System in the Field of a Standing Sound Wave

Authors: Valeri Beck
Comments: 7 pages, 6 figures

This article proposes a new concept for the origin of the planets, making it possible to explain the majority of observed facts for both the Solar System and for exoplanetary systems. The most widespread nebular hypothesis of Kant-Laplace about the formation of the planets from a rotating pre-solar nebula is not capable of answering many questions about the origin of the Solar System. According to this new concept, when thermonuclear fusion started at the centre of the protosun, an explosion occurred and a shock wave passed through the pre-solar nebula which, when it returned to the centre, caused a new explosion and new wave. As a result of the periodic explosions, a spherical standing sound wave formed in the pre-solar nebula, with a concentration of dust occurring in the antinode of the wave. Subsequently, the dust gathered to form rotating rings from which the planets were formed. The distances between the antinodes of the standing wave are determined by the gas pressure and pull of gravity of the protosun and approximately consistent with the Titius-Bode law, which thus obtains the physical explanation. The very small angular momentum of the Sun (0.5%) and tilt of the equatorial plane (7°) occurred due to the asymmetry of the first very powerful explosion. The division of the planets into inner terrestrial and outer gaseous giant planets is explained by the migration of solid matter from the outer regions of the cloud to the inner regions. The existence of Oort cloud is explained by the division of the pre-solar nebula into a ball-shaped inner cloud and a expanding spherical gaseous shell by the path of the shock wave from the first explosion. The expanding shell gradually slowed down due to the rarified outer gaseous masses and stopped at a distance of approximately 1 light year. Trillions of comets formed from the dust and frozen gases it contains. The orbit and the mass of planet Neptune can be explained as result of the interaction between the returning wave from the Oort cloud and the outer edges of the ball-shaped cloud. According to modern theories, many of the recently discovered exoplanetary systems would not be able to exist; the suggested concept makes it possible to explain their origin and evolution, and even help search for new planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[255] viXra:1502.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-21 08:49:57

Tired-light Theory Revisited

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tired-light theory is revisited. The revised theory conforms to the time-dilation effect with the stretching of supernova light curves and the Tolman surface brightness test, and can be verified with astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[254] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-20 18:08:56

"Earth" Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 6 Pages.

Correcting mistakes
Category: Astrophysics

[253] viXra:1502.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-18 16:34:50

"Earth Was Once a "Star"

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 5 Pages. Correcting spelling mistakes

Stellar Metamorphosis is the premier alternative theory of star formation. A hypothesis made for the 21st century dissident thinker who suspects that astronomy's “nebular hypothesis” is grossly unsatisfactory and dated. This is an explication where the theory, discovery narrative and educational, economic and social implications of star/planet formation are presented. The process by which Jeffrey Wolynski came to his revelation that what we mistakenly call “planets” are in fact merely later developments of the stellar formation. This theory should be the main foundation of all modern star science. Star formation is planet formation; they are one process.
Category: Astrophysics

[252] viXra:1502.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-24 11:24:42

Parity and Chirality as a Base for Quark-Gluon Plasma and Dust Creating Black Holes and the Beginning and End of Time..

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages. 24

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal, Or the idea that the universe can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever. I will call that the cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons the cyclic multiverse. I have tried to translate this idea into the Quantum FFF model Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole ( without Graviton production), able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, in combination with a Chiral vacuum, seems to be able to explain quick Gas and Dust production and Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning.
Category: Astrophysics

[251] viXra:1502.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-12 09:47:59

Parity and Chirality as a Base for Quark-Gluon Plasma Creating and Charge Splitting Black Holes.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 16 Pages. 16

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS Dark Matter Black Hole, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently, lots of new cosmological information inspired me to react by the production of poster images added with explanatory texts. The result of the latest three months is gathered in this issue. I am an architect who is interested in the possible FORM and FORM transformation aspects as information medium in micro- and macro physics, as a realistic search for the origin of Matter Space and Time. I believe that OUR COMPLEX WORLD can not be described by FORMULAS ALONE. WHY? Because we don't know why the universe is as it is. An example: “Finetuning”: Why are the "fundamental constants" constant? My suggestion: because the sub-quantum FORM of particles and the Higgs vacuum lattice have a certain form and play a game with us.. So I designed simple convertible shapes for real QUANTUM particle information use. At the same time I realized that black holes should also have some nuclear form and as a result I found that dark matter is related to black holes and Higgs particles have only energetic mass inside an oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice. Multiverse based mirror symmetric consciousness (entanglement) is assumed to be the base for all particle- wave -and human guidance or wavefunction collapse. SEE: https://www.flickr.com/photos/93308747@N05/?details=1 and: http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk
Category: Astrophysics

[250] viXra:1502.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-22 06:59:32

Cooperstock is Wrong: the Dark Matter is Necessary

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 8 Pages.

An example of mind blowing is the Dr. Cooperstock. First his attempt was to deny the Standards of Metrology (within "Energy Localization hypothesis"). I have arguments against his idea. Then he came up with another mind abuse: absence of long detected Dark Matter. In the following I am defending the Dark Matter from the nihilistic aggression of Dr. Cooperstock. Speaking of nihilism, the most grim picture is in Quantum Mechanics of Niels Bohr. In 2015 they have "proved" in elitist "Nature", that Schr"odinger's Cat is real. Thus, the world does not exist: a thing can not both be and not be. It is very convenient now: if even a grain of sand is crazy hallucination (like the "proven" "reality" of undead cat), then this non-existent grain needs no divine (loved, but more often hated) Creator. The reason of delusion: they have missed an intelligent factors, e.g. evil spirits, which very often act on the measuring device. Recall the wrong alarms in atomic armies.
Category: Astrophysics

[249] viXra:1502.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-16 05:02:24

Cooperstock is Wrong: the Dark Matter is Necessary

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 5 Pages.

"In a series of papers Fred Cooperstock and his collaborators showed that the application of general relativity is sufficient to explain the velocity profile of galaxies", wrote Stefan. I argue with it. First, let me say following. In Kerr spacetime is nonzero frame dragging with g_{t phi}=-N, however the coordinates are not co-moving. Thus, the real velocity of observer is zero, however from Cooperstock's formula it would be V=N/r. Thus, the larger is the frame dragging the larger is the difference between Cooperstock's theory and reality. Therefore, the large frame dragging (as it seems from calculations below) is very bad for Cooperstock.
Category: Astrophysics

[248] viXra:1502.0019 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-05 05:50:51

Les Mystères de L’espace :La Création et le Fonctionnement de L’univers Expliqués Sous un Autre Angle

Authors: Khalid Jerrari
Comments: 150 Pages.

De nombreuses recherches restées infructueuses tentent d’expliquer l’univers qui nous entoure par la présence de matières inconnues et d’énergies mystérieuses toujours introuvables. Mais alors ne serait-il pas temps de considérer d’autres hypothèses ? Dans cet ouvrage pédagogique et à la portée d’un large public visant à expliquer la « Théorie spatiale », l’auteur présente une réflexion philosophique suivie d’une explication scientifique sur l’influence de l’espace sur notre univers, l’espace étant considéré ici comme une substance physique. Pour son premier ouvrage scientifique, Khalid Jerrari s’affiche sans doute comme le premier auteur à « vulgariser » ses propres recherches scientifiques dans le but de les rendre accessibles à un public non scientifique. En reprenant pas-à-pas quelques lois de la physique et en expliquant certains grands principes universels, son livre propose une théorie qui unifie les lois de la cosmologie.
Category: Astrophysics

[247] viXra:1502.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-05 12:49:51

How a Planet with Earth’s Size Can Have a Gravitational Field Much Stronger Than the Neptune

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we show how the gravitational field can be amplified under certain circumstances, and how a planet with Earth's size can have a gravitational field much stronger than the Neptune. A new interpretation for quasars is here formulated.
Category: Astrophysics

[246] viXra:1501.0162 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-27 10:15:06

Genesis Equation

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 1 Page. replacement, errors corrected

Since the “Drake equation” is a meaningless useless collection of guessing which serve no useful purpose, I have re-written the equation taking into account the new understandings provided by the discovery of the Stellar Metamorphosis theory, also known as the Wolynski hypothesis. This theory, allows us to pin down a Genesis constant and Genesis stage which allows for the intention of the “Drake equation” to be solved for mathematically
Category: Astrophysics

[245] viXra:1411.0565 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-28 15:45:49

Dark Matter Model by Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 43 Pages. The fourth version - It is the best.

The idea of the model is quite simple: The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.). Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons. Therefore it is easy to think that there are virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons. It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”. The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter. The paper is organised in nine parts: The first one shows graphs about measures of spin speed stars on Andromeda galaxy and Milky Way. The second one shows a simple mathematical model for flat galactic disks. Also it is got the density formula The third one studies the NFW model (Navarro, Frenk & White. 1996) for Dark Matter in bulge, disk and halo on galaxies. The fourth one explains the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity, which there is not exist yet. In the fifth one it is proved mathematically there is a function which connects density with gravitational field. The sixth one explains some consequences of Dark Matter Model on galactic haloes, such as radius and spherical or elliptical shape. In the seventh, the Dark Matter model is extended to galactic clusters. Through the model it is justified cluster haloes in a similar way to galactic haloes. Also it is explained the Virial method and gravitational lensing method to measure cluster masses in order to check the model predictions. In the eighth it is shows that there is coherence between DM model and experimental evidences known about DM in Bullet Cluster and other clusters. The ninth one proposes seven experimental tests to check the model through astronomical measures.
Category: Astrophysics

[244] viXra:1411.0565 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-18 13:18:19

Dark Matter Model by Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 31 Pages. Spanish - The third paper version about Dark Matter Model with new ideas.

The idea of the model is quite simple: The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.). Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons. Therefore it is easy to think that there is virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons. It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”. The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter. The paper is organised in eight parts: The first one studies the spin speed star on galaxies and it is got the density formula of total mass in the disk and density formula for DM in the halo. The second one shows some graphics of real rotation curves of Milky Way and Andromeda in order to justify the simple flat rotation curve in the model. The third one explains the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity, which there is not exist yet. In the fourth one it is got the formula, which connects DM density function with intensity of gravitational field. The fifth one explains the coherence between the DM model and experimental evidences known about DM especially DM in Bullet Cluster and other clusters. The sixth one explains some properties of galactic haloes and cluster haloes through the model. The seventh one demonstrates that galactic halo depend on neighbour galaxies. The eighth one proposes eight experimental tests to check the model through astronomical measures. The purpose this paper is to introduce the model. To show a new origin of DM and try to convince the reader that it is worth to check the model with experimental evidences.
Category: Astrophysics

[243] viXra:1411.0565 [pdf] replaced on 2014-12-04 09:06:52

Materia Oscura por Vacío Cuántico

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 22 Pages. Spanish - A new version

Title Dark Matter by Quantum Vacuum The idea of the model is quite simple: The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.). Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons. Therefore it is easy to think that there is virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons. It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”. The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter. The paper is organised in five parts: The first one studies the spin speed star on galaxies and it is got the density formula for DM. The second one explains the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity, which there is not exist yet. In the third one it is got the formula, which connects DM density function with intensity of gravitational field. The fourth one explains the coherence between the DM model and experimental evidences known about DM especially DM in Bullet Cluster and other clusters. The fifth one proposes six experimental tests to check the model with astronomical measures. The purpose this paper is to introduce the model. To show a new origin of DM and try to convince the reader that it is worth to check the model with experimental evidences.
Category: Astrophysics

[242] viXra:1411.0536 [pdf] replaced on 2014-11-22 05:58:11

Cosmic Reionisation in the Accelerating Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

The universe was born in the Big Bang some 13.8 billion years ago. In its earliest epochs, it was filled with a hot 'soup' of charged protons and electrons. As the newborn universe expanded, its temperature decreased uniformly. When the universe was 400,000 years old, conditions were cool enough to allow the protons and electrons to bond and form neutral hydrogen atoms. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[241] viXra:1411.0375 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-02 16:13:21

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Noise from the Absolute Reference Frame: Will LIGO Have to be Redesigned?

Authors: J. Catania
Comments: 7 Pages.

LIGO attempts to detect gravitational-waves by the effect they have on a Michelson-Morley interferometer. As the waves pass through the interferometer, whose arms are 4 km long, they induce relative length contractions and expansions of the arms which cause fringe-shifts at the detector of the interferometer. The length contractions are “about 10-18 m, less than one-thousandth the charge diameter of a proton.”1 The propagation time of a wave, traveling at c, along the 4 km arm of an interferometer is 4000 / 3 x 10^8 = 1.33 x 10^-5 s. As of this writing (4/2/2015) no gravitational-waves have been detected.
Category: Astrophysics