Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[883] viXra:1606.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 10:07:47

Dark Matter Density on Big Galaxies Depend on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 28 Pages.

This paper contain results from six previous paper I have published for different galaxies about dark matter density depending on gravitational field. Galaxies studied are NGC 2841, NGC 7331, NGC 3992, M31. All of them are big galaxies bigger than Milky Way. In addition Milky Way was studied with data coming from two authors. Also were studied two intermediate galaxies M33 (Triangulum galaxy) and NGC 3198 Each paper studied dark matter density depending on gravitational field on each galaxy. Rotation curve and dark matter density function depending on radius were taken from paper published by prestigious astrophysics and I got dark matter density depending on gravitational field through a mathematical method. I found that Dark matter density depend on gravitational field according a power function DM density = A•E^B, where A and B are parameters which depend on each galaxy. In this paper are gathered eight different functions belonging to eight different galactic data set and they are tabulated and plotted in order to compare all of them. Conclusion got is that dark matter density depending on gravitational field is very similar on big galaxies whereas DM density is a great deal bigger on intermediate galaxies. The less massive galaxy is the higher DM density is. Results got for big and intermediate galaxies are consistent with author hypothesis which state that dark matter is generated by the own gravitational field.
Category: Astrophysics

[882] viXra:1606.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 17:00:22

The Principles of Volume and Surface Area in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that stars’ volume and surface area increase during stellar birthing then decrease during stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis, so two principles are provided to further clarify stellar evolution/planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[881] viXra:1606.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 15:44:14

The Plasma to Rock and Metal Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A principle of matter evolution is presented to further explain the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[880] viXra:1606.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:21:14

The Phase Transition Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of thermodynamic phases is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[879] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 04:27:02

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 2 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained qualitatively by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[878] viXra:1606.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 10:21:36

Science in Crisis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 228 Pages.

Abstract: General public regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[877] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 18:38:28

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 4 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravity Wave waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the Sun mass orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics

[876] viXra:1606.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 01:46:35

Supermassive Black Holes Jets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. [15] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[875] viXra:1606.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 14:41:19

LIGO find Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

When an astronomical observatory detected two black holes colliding in deep space, scientists celebrated confirmation of Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves. A team of astrophysicists wondered something else: Had the experiment found the "dark matter" that makes up most of the mass of the universe? [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[874] viXra:1606.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 15:42:27

The Stellar Foundation Structure Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

As stars evolve into stable rocky life hosting structures it is required to define the process of foundation structure formation with a simple principle according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[873] viXra:1606.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:27:04

The Laws of Hot Jupiters

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Five laws of hot Jupiters are given definition so that the reader can properly examine the validity and accuracy of establishment sciences’ claims according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[872] viXra:1606.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 11:55:45

Newton's Shell Theorem and the Deformation of Interacting Galaxies

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 3 Pages.

SUMMARY: On behalf of gravitational effects galaxies are usually considered as spheres. Is it correct to apply Newton's Shell Theorem to galaxies? Will interacting galaxies act like Newtonian spheres? There are exact astronomical observations to be compared with theoretic considerations. Newton's gravitation law is confirmed by a lot of observations of interacting galaxies, but there are severe objections against the validity of the Shell Theorem on behalf of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[871] viXra:1606.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 17:15:14

The Brightness Principle in Galaxy Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to connect stellar metamorphosis to galaxy growth and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[870] viXra:1606.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 21:09:32

Magneton Theory Commentary Universe Mysteries -- 10. Photon Trajectory Bend Experiment

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 4 Pages.

Photon、dark matter、electromagnet wave conduction medium、cosmic dust, between them inner link is a urgent research major issues. Photon characteristics research is bear brunt. In 1919, British scientist Eddington organized a total solar eclipse big observation. Observed data confirm that photon trajectory is arc. From then on, opened the relativity era. Magneton Theory think, photon trajectory bend is photon spin and environmental magnet field combined action result. According to Magneton Theory, conceived a new experiment. This experimental results exact simple proved following conclusions: 1. In most cases, photon trajectory is arc. 2. Photon trajectory curvature radius inversely proportional to beam frequency. 3. Under special conditions, photon trajectory is straight line. 4. Photon trajectory bend has nothing to do with gravity. This experiment would prompt world to re-examine the relativity. This experiment will also open physical theory new era.
Category: Astrophysics

[869] viXra:1606.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 08:39:26

Gravitational Theory of Time

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is many experments to prove the relation between gravitation and time,and the entropy and time have a very close relation,so the gravitation maybe could be explained by entropy.And there is too many theories of gravitation like string theory.But we can't get any prediction which could be observed by experments. I have wrote that:"Only the physical quantity which we have (and will) observed by experments have the really physical significance[1]" in my another paqer “Some views of time trials for fundamental constants”.If we can't prove the string theory is right.It must be wrong,so we need a new theory about gravitation. The context and purpose of the study:I want to make up a new theory about gravitation which could be proved (even maybe it will be proved that it is wrong) by experments.The theory of relativity tell us that the pace of time's increasing and the gravitation have some very big relation.But the thermodynamics tell us that the time and entropy have very close relation.So maybe the gravitation have some effects about entropy.Now we observed many effects about dark mass,maybe them could be explained by entropy.I have finished this paper to explain the relation between the gravitation and time(entropy).We could get theose conclusions: 1,the quasar maybe could decay in one hundred years. 2,The expanansion of universe is speeding up and the vaccum energy is lower than zero point nergy. 3,the dark mass is around the galaxy. 4,the planck constant will change by the gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[868] viXra:1606.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 17:38:15

The Principle of Heat Evolution in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in reference to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[867] viXra:1606.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 13:11:40

The Accretion Principle of Planet Formation and Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided to explain accretion in astrophysics according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[866] viXra:1606.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 13:55:31

The Death of the Nebular Hypothesis and Replacement with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is referenced that the nebular hypothesis was never actually invented to explain planet formation. It was used to try and place entire galaxies as local phenomenon (birthing solar systems) and keep the Milky Way as the entire universe. In this paper it is shown that not only is that hypothesis incorrect, but that it is effectively replaced as a means of planet formation and stellar evolution by the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[865] viXra:1606.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 11:54:19

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way Which Depends on Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 19 Pages. 19 pgs.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. Also were proposed several experimental test to check that theory. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for Milky Way. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW dark matter density profile below 15%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM density profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. [5] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field and finally [7] Abarca, M.2016 A new Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside Milky Way galaxy. These data come from [8] Huang,Y.2016. In fourth chapter, it has been calculated and tabulated gravitational field through Virial theorem, which is a direct calculus having velocity data depending on radius. In this paper, dominion of gravitational E extends from 26 kpc to 100 kpc. In fifth epigraphs it has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [8] Huang, Y.2016. for Milky Way. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is DM density = A• E^B .Where A= 5.1085837 •10^-7 and B= 1.568156686 being regression coefficient r= 0.9886366654 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are below 16% inside main part of dominion. In eighth epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region (26 to 100 kpc) where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r ^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then. M´(r) = 4Pi • r ^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula of D.M = A•E^B. In ninth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 18% for radius lower than 70 kpc. This is a superb result, especially if it is considered that NFW profile come from calculus got through experimental data with important errors. In tenth epigraph are introduced a study of ancient and recent measures of local dark matter also it is calculated local dark matter through power of E formula. Finally it is concluded that the new one value of local dark matter is similar to local dark matter values published currently.
Category: Astrophysics

[864] viXra:1605.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-31 14:22:53

Nikolai Kozyrev Was Right

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

Simple calculation shows early cosmological thoughts of Nikolai Kozyrev (1908-1983) basically correct. A prediction about revolution speeds of Pistol star, Eta Carinae, Mira, Alpha Herculis, 119 Tauri and VY Canis Majoris has been made.
Category: Astrophysics

[863] viXra:1605.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-31 07:39:14

The Principle of Atmospheric Thinning

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to explain what happens to stars as they evolve.
Category: Astrophysics

[862] viXra:1605.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 10:04:38

Loop Quantum Gravity and Event Horizon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In principle, nothing that enters a black hole can leave the black hole. This has considerably complicated the study of these mysterious bodies, which generations of physicists have debated since 1916, when their existence was hypothesized as a direct consequence of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. There is, however, some consensus in the scientific community regarding black hole entropy—a measure of the inner disorder of a physical system—because its absence would violate the second law of thermodynamics. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[861] viXra:1605.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 11:55:33

Dark Matter is Made of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

"These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[860] viXra:1605.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 03:56:44

Circular Galactic Formation

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 2 Pages.

The standing cosmological understanding of the galactic formation is insufficient. Both the Standard Model and the ideas derived from the Einsteinian hypothesis are inconsistent, contradictive and lacks natural logics. The linear cosmological model with the Big Bang almost demands skills of a mathemagician and all kinds of metaphysical speculations thrives in both areas. The natural and universal process of formation is cyclical, circuital and spherical and the formational process is governed by the electromagnetic forces and qualities, building everything together, dissolving it and re-building everything in eternity.
Category: Astrophysics

[859] viXra:1605.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 02:16:32

Shouldn't be at Mars of Secrets from us Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Atmosphere and Water of Mars Have Once Been Forced Out by an Unknown Comet to His Internal Area!

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The atmosphere and water of Mars have once been forced out by an unknown comet to his internal area!
Category: Astrophysics

[858] viXra:1605.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:57:25

Planetesimals in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that the accepted notions of planetesimal formation are philosophically backwards. A simple correction of reasoning is provided via stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[857] viXra:1605.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 08:05:56

Intergalactic and Time Travel Via Black Holes Possible Because E=mc^2 Can Transform Into (E=0) + (M=c^2)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 11 Pages.

For many years, I dismissed the idea of intergalactic and time travel via black holes as science fiction. Then one day, I started playing around with E=mc^2 to see what else could be done with it. One of the results fits in with modern ideas in physics and mathematics. And there seems to be an emphasis here on references to Stephen Hawking. So I have to say thanks for changing my mind, Drs. Einstein and Hawking.
Category: Astrophysics

[856] viXra:1605.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 08:29:13

Some Views Of Time Trials for Fundamental Constants

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the fundamental constants is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time.Some scientists think the vaccum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing,too.I agree them.So I finish this paper to explain those experments and develop those guesses.
Category: Astrophysics

[855] viXra:1605.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-15 09:00:12

Parallax Triangulation from Displacement in Spacetime

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 4 Pages.

By extending the classic concept of parallax as a system to triangulate distant stars, I propose that a displacement in spacetime can be used to triangulate distant galaxies. Such an empirical experiment would also validate, or invalidate, conventional relative Doppler effect theory. The practical procedure would involve measuring SNe1 supernovae data analysis from two separate spacetime reference frames, using two essentially) simultaneous observations, from different inertial reference frames. Both rfs observe the same two supernovae events (a) and (b), such that (b) is twice the distance (x) from the Earth than (a). I named this experiment ”Spacetime Parallax”, because the triangulation of distance x is from a displacement in spacetime and the resulting time dilation is compared. This same format is then used for a quadratic accelerating reference frame, mimicking (g) force on the Earth’s surface. If the difference in wavelengths (∆λ), as measured between the two rfs, is not in proportion to the distance between the two events (x b = 2x a ), it is then justified to assume some error is evident in conventional methods. Correcting for such skewed Doppler shift observations has implications for all parameters of cosmology. This might include: dark energy, accelerated expansion, average density, the cosmic event horizon, as well as rotational velocities in general.
Category: Astrophysics

[854] viXra:1605.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 08:09:22

Estimation of the Physical Parameters of Planets and Stars in the Gravitational Equilibrium Model

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 39 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 94, No. 4, P. 370-379 (2016).

The motion equations of matter in the gravitational field, acceleration field, pressure field and other fields are considered based on the field theory. This enables us to derive simple formulas in the framework of the gravitational equilibrium model, which allow us to estimate the physical parameters of cosmic bodies. The acceleration field coefficient and the pressure field coefficient are a function of the state of matter, and their sum is close in magnitude to the gravitational constant . In the presented model the dependence is found of the internal temperature and pressure on the current radius. The central temperatures and pressures are calculated for the Earth and the Sun, for a typical neutron star and a white dwarf. The heat flux and the thermal conductivity coefficient of the matter of these objects are found, and the formula for estimating the entropy is provided. All the quantities are compared with the calculation results in different models of cosmic bodies. The discovered good agreement with these data proves the effectiveness and universality of the proposed model for estimating the parameters of planets and stars and for more precise calculation of physical quantities.
Category: Astrophysics

[853] viXra:1605.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-13 13:30:04

The Great Oxygenation Event in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 graph

The Great Oxygenation event can be explained inside of stellar metamorphosis. The encompassing theory includes a rapid rise in oxygen due to the star’s evolutionary timeline and physical characteristics.
Category: Astrophysics

[852] viXra:1605.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 18:28:08

Repulsive Force Proportional to Energy Density as an Origin of Dark Energy

Authors: Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha
Comments: 6 Pages.

An X-particle with repulsive force proportional to energy density is postulated as an origin of dark energy. Like photon, the particle has only relativistic mass (zero rest mass), and acts like a particle that has a definite position and momentum. It creates spaces between them by forces of gravitational attraction and repulsion, where the repulsive force is postulated to be proportional to energy density. The model could be applied to explain the Lambda-CDM model of dark energy which is filling space homogeneously or to scalar fields such as quintessence whose energy density can vary in time and space.
Category: Astrophysics

[851] viXra:1605.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 11:15:36

Solution of a Set of Population-Balance Equations for Atomic and Molecular Quantum Levels in Some Particular Cases

Authors: Anton A. Lipovka
Comments: 8 Pages. was published in: Astronomy Reports, V.39, pp. 347-350, (1995)

Recurrent solutions of the population balance equations for some particular cases are suggested. Obtained recurrent solutions are generalizations of the compact and exact recurrent method of Seaton to the some important cases. Namely we have extended the Seaton's method to the following cases: 1) Population is caused by blackbody radiation and formation (recombination) of specie into i-th level. 2) Population is caused by collisions (with temperature Tc) and formation processes. 3) Population of pure rotational levels of diatomic molecule in the arbitrary radiation field out of LTE.
Category: Astrophysics

[850] viXra:1605.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 08:08:13

Nikitin V., Nikitin I.v. You that Water, the Moon Will Fall Down or Something? Moon the Core of the Former Comets that "Brought" Water on Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Moon - the core of the former comets that "brought" water on Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[849] viXra:1605.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 01:30:36

Neutron Structure Hypothesis Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Neutron is the Kernel Having an Electron Shell and Positron Contents

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The neutron is the kernel having an electron shell and positron contents
Category: Astrophysics

[848] viXra:1605.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 01:37:18

Hypothesis of the Reason of Inadequacy of the Parties of the Moon Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v.unilateral Impact of the Sun on Her is the Reason of Inadequacy of the Parties of the Moon.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Unilateral impact of the Sun on her is the reason of inadequacy of the parties of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[847] viXra:1605.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 01:43:15

Hypothesis of Illusion of Abnormal Increase in Speed of the Wind Venery Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Illusion of Abnormal Increase in Speed of the Wind Venery is Created Due to Reduction of Thickness of Her Atmosphere and Existence of a Horizontal Componen

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Illusion of abnormal increase in speed of the wind Venery is created due to reduction of thickness of her atmosphere and existence of a horizontal component of gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[846] viXra:1605.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 01:51:00

The White Hole "HAS Escaped from CAPTIVITY"! Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Horizon of Events of the Black Hole is a Power Cover of the White Hole.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The horizon of events of the Black hole is a power cover of the White hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[845] viXra:1605.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-02 07:03:09

Some View of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the speed of light is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.
Category: Astrophysics

[844] viXra:1604.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 16:13:27

Correcting Wikipedia on Star Systems and Planetary Systems

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Wikipedia has planetary systems as mutually exclusive of star systems and multiple star systems. A simple correction (with options) is provided so that astronomy can be simplified for the 21st century in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[843] viXra:1604.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 15:41:48

The Principle of Stellar Coevolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented a simple principle to explain stars as they evolve in star systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[842] viXra:1604.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 03:42:03

Herbig Haro Hotspots or Bowshocks Are the Origin of Star Formation, not the Result as the Mainstream Suggest.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 15 Pages. 15

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The rigid FORM and Microstructure of elementary particles (strings) , is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing new paradigm Black Holes, seem to be able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy and even matter and explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Stellar Anchor Black Holes (SABHs), Herbig Haro Hotspots ( Bowshocks), down to Sunspots, Comets and even Ball Lightning. Recent observation of a Cosmic Hotspot under the big dipper is reason to assume that this is the location of one of our solar Stellar Anchor Black Hole (the North-SABH), reason to search for the other one: south located. At the same time it is proposed that Galaxies also are supported by dual black hole systems being the former Big Bang splitted primordial black holes. Called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs)
Category: Astrophysics

[841] viXra:1604.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-27 13:23:17

Understanding Flattening of Galaxies' Rotation-Curves Without Dark-Matter and Mond

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Three-page initial draft

This letter attempts to understand the observed flattening of galaxies’ rotation-curves in terms of gravitational-pull of fast-rotating interior-stars on the slow-rotating stars at out-skirts of the galaxy. Due to fast rotation of the interior-stars, the relative-position of the stars vary at different times, adding a sinusoidal-component to the tangential-velocity of the stars at the out-skirts. These sinusoidal-components, caused by different stars in the interior, are of different frequencies, depending upon the tangential-speed of the star. The resultant sum of these sinusoidal components of different frequencies mutually nullify up to a certain radial distance, but then start adding coherently at the out-skirts; causing significant increase in the rotational velocity of the star at the out-skirts. Thus, it may not be necessary to invoke Dark-Matter, or to modify Newtonian Dynamics, as proposed in MOND or scalar-vector-theory of John Moffat.
Category: Astrophysics

[840] viXra:1604.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-22 17:43:43

Correcting the Metallicity Page on Wikipedia

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A passage from the metallicity page on Wikipedia is corrected in this paper. Explanation is provided of the issues.
Category: Astrophysics

[839] viXra:1604.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-23 03:07:31

Certain Axion-Like Particles Excluded

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[838] viXra:1604.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 16:45:01

Correcting Wikipedia’s Exoplanet Page on Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

An update to wikipedia’s page on direct imaging of exoplanets is provided in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The author cannot edit the Wikipedia page to correct it, so an account of what it says will be recorded here, and the correction as well so that editors cannot erase the history.
Category: Astrophysics

[837] viXra:1604.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 05:54:55

Universe Expanding 8 Percent Faster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[836] viXra:1604.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 11:03:33

The Purposes of the Standard Solar Model Versus the Purposes of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The purposes of the Standard Solar Model are compared to the purposes of Stellar Metamorphosis. An explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[835] viXra:1604.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 11:18:12

Dark Matter Through Wormholes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A new paper shows that one of the most popular types of dark matter – the axion – could make wormholes possible if strong electromagnetic fields, like those found around supermassive black holes, are present. Unclear remains how such wormholes would be formed and whether they would be stable. [18] Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[834] viXra:1604.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 04:51:27

Binary Star Challenges Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A team of astronomers at the Friedrich Alexander University led by Péter Németh has discovered a binary star moving nearly at the escape velocity of our galaxy. There are about two dozen so-called hypervelocity stars known to be escaping the galaxy. [18] Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[833] viXra:1604.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-09 19:31:26

Accreting Bodies in Outer Space

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is explained that establishment astrophysical dogma has a gap in understanding concerning the sizes of accreting bodies. A simple correction is provided utilizing the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[832] viXra:1604.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-09 02:06:31

Interferometry for Remote Sensing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In a paper, published in Science Advances today, the researchers demonstrate that for light from a source such as the Sun, random fluctuations of intensity give rise to correlations of twisted light beams. They showed the presence of these correlations by modifying a now classical experiment called Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry to focus on the angular information contained in light, the "twist" in the light. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[831] viXra:1604.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-08 10:44:07

Lighthouses of the Galaxy; Explaining the Overabundance of Transiting Exoplanet Detections in the Keppler Data

Authors: B.T.N. Sijpthjes, G.R.M. Moeyers
Comments: 3 Pages. Email: testkannontest@gmail.com

An overabundance of transiting exoplanets in the Keppler data is observed based on simple estimations from average properties of known exoplanets and stars. This implies that there is larger amount of variable stars than stars with exoplanets. An anomaly which can be elegantly resolved the need for navigational beacons by galactic extraterrestrial civilizations.
Category: Astrophysics

[830] viXra:1604.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-07 22:36:08

Galactic Schumann Resonance Type Waves

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: Four pages

One of the enigmas in astronomy is the cause for stars having varying brightness, and that includes our Sun. The current theory for stars energy does not support fast variations nor the proliferation of different types of variable stars. Variations of the energy output of our Sun have been noted for many centuries and current instruments can record the periodic magnetic field reversal. There is an energy source that can account for many of the variable star actions, but the wavelengths of this energy are not easily measured directly. Sir Arthur Eddington mentioned a suggestion, but dismissed it.
Category: Astrophysics

[829] viXra:1604.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-06 09:21:04

Galaxy Evolution and Mergers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Earth is constantly jostled by low-frequency gravitational waves from supermassive black hole binaries in distant galaxies. Astrophysicists are using pulsars as a galaxy-sized detector to measure the Earth's motion from these waves. [7] Last week's announcement that Gravitational Waves (GW) have been detected for the first time—as a result of the merger of two black holes—is huge news. But now a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) originating from the same place, and that arrived at Earth 0.4 seconds after the GW, is making news. Isolated black holes aren't supposed to create GRB's; they need to be near a large amount of matter to do that. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[828] viXra:1604.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-01 05:08:22

Dark Matter in the Milky Way Halo

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Streams of dark matter interacting with rivers of stars could provide astrophysicists with important information about the distribution and make-up of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way. That's the conclusion of Jo Bovy of the University of Toronto, who has calculated that it should be possible to observe the effects of dark matter on the stellar streams that are known to encircle our galaxy. [17] Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[827] viXra:1603.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 15:16:49

The Principle of Diminishing Solar Abundances

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[826] viXra:1603.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 01:31:45

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. and What, if Expansion of the Universe – Illusion? the Universe is Limited and Ordered, Galaxies Have Arisen in the Course of Galactic Disintegration of the Universe, there Was no Big Bang and there is no Dark Energy.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, there was no Big Bang and there is no dark energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[825] viXra:1603.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-28 14:55:44

Парадоксы расширения вселенной или в действительности все иначе, чем на самом деле.

Authors: A. G. Dyshkant
Comments: 7 Pages. Язык русский. На основе Общей теории отноительности А. Эйнштейна

Новый взгляд на время и пространство в видимой части вселенной.
Category: Astrophysics

[824] viXra:1603.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-28 05:12:44

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Hypothesis of the Origin of Space Whirlwinds Space Whirlwinds (Tornadoes, Tornado) Have the Power Nature.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Space whirlwinds (tornadoes, tornado) have the power nature.
Category: Astrophysics

[823] viXra:1603.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-28 05:25:23

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Hypothesis of Illusion of the Flat Form of the Universe the Universe is Limited and Ordered, Galaxies Have Arisen in the Course of Galactic Disintegration of the Universe, the Universe Can't Have the Flat Form.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, the Universe can't have the flat form.
Category: Astrophysics

[822] viXra:1603.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 12:07:59

Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies May Not Reflect Orbiting Bodies

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 5 Pages.

The rotation curves of spiral galaxies usually display near-constant velocities in their outer regions. This is contrary to an expected continuing decline in the velocities moving away from the galaxies’ centers. The behavior prompted astrophysicists to declare that dark matter must exist and enclose these galaxies to hold the velocities constant. The centrifugal accelerations that the velocities would produce if the bodies were in orbit are small. They imply that the gravitational accelerations toward the centers of the galaxies on the bodies are also small relative to other orbital systems (e.g., the solar system). The accelerations may not be strong enough to hold the bodies in orbits about the galactic center. Consequently, the bodies may not be in orbit around the galactic centers, but moving away from them. That would allow explanations of flat rotation curves without introducing dark matter or altering gravity. However, due to the radii of the orbits (kilo-parsecs) and the assumed orbital velocities of the bodies (hundreds of km/s), the bodies would move only an infinitesimal distance of the length of their presumed orbital paths over many human generations. This makes verification that the bodies are actually in orbit virtually impossible.
Category: Astrophysics

[821] viXra:1603.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-20 06:46:29

Alternative Reflections on Podkletnov's Gravity Experiments

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the 1990s Eugene Podkletnov published results of experiments which in his opinion proved the effect of gravity shielding. The present paper is concerned with the question, what results may be expected from such experiments on the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation", (ARG). The results of these considerations are in excellent agreement with those experiments. There, however, appeared no gravity shielding, but the production of additional, highly focused repulsive forces. Such curious results can hardly be explained on the basis of classical gravitational theories, which deal with attractive forces and their strong decrease with distance.
Category: Astrophysics

[820] viXra:1603.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-19 18:00:03

Newton’s Gravitational Law over Dark Matter

Authors: Cameron Rebigsol
Comments: 22 Pages.

The shape of a gravity body can play a critical role in affecting the movement of an object moving in its vicinity of close range. If the shape is disregarded while the gravity body is regarded as a point mass regardless of the distance between the two bodies, the concept of dark matter may find its chance to surface up in theoretical treatment concerning gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[819] viXra:1603.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-17 20:43:40

The Speed of Light Change

Authors: Zhang Peng
Comments: 9 Pages.

我想到了一个简单的方法证明光速可变与否,根据下文的理论,红移是光子同观测点的相对速度发生变化产生的,也就是在我们看来,发生红移的星的光子的运动速度比光速要慢,也就是说如果两个观测点有距离差的话,他们观测到的红移的星光的时间差应该要大于以光速计算出来的时间差。谁有能力对比验证一下? 或者也就是说,两个存在直线距离的观测点,同一时间观测到的两个红移量不一样的天体的图案是不同和存在时间差的。
Category: Astrophysics

[818] viXra:1603.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-17 01:48:20

The Motion of Celestial Bodies Complies with Conservation of Angular Kinetic Energy

Authors: Chen jun Dr
Comments: 15 Pages.

Application of force accompany with energy consumption is the basic common sense. Based on this common sense, Newtonian mechanics system is studied according to energy transformation and conservation law. A concept of dissipation work is proposed and a calculation formula of dissipation work is derived. Meanwhile, thermal effect of force is obtained through inference, kinetic energy theorem is amended, and supplements of angular kinetic energy theorem and the law of conservation of angular kinetic energy are made. Through these researches, celestial body movement is found to comply with conservation of angular kinetic energy, rather than the conservation of angular momentum or the so-called conservation of mechanical energy. Also, the potential energy, which is superfluous in Newtonian mechanics, is found not to be energy. Therefore, the unity of conservative forces and non-conservative forces is realized. The revised Newtonian mechanics will have a profound influence on subjects and relative research fields of physics, astronomy and astronautics.
Category: Astrophysics

[817] viXra:1603.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-15 10:26:38

New Model for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[816] viXra:1603.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-14 12:07:37

Dark-Matter Frequency

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

" Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[815] viXra:1603.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 11:35:08

The Principle of Spherical Celestial Objects

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of celestial objects is presented to clarify the star sciences.
Category: Astrophysics

[814] viXra:1603.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 11:54:50

The Principle of Diminishing Gravitation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of celestial objects is presented to clarify the star sciences according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[813] viXra:1603.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 12:08:01

The Principle of Stellar Adoption

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of celestial mechanics is presented to clarify the star sciences according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[812] viXra:1603.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-12 21:44:49

The Energy/Mass Dissipation Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution is written to account for the rate of dissipation of energy and mass during stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[811] viXra:1603.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 15:05:49

The Radiation Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[810] viXra:1603.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 11:54:37

An Important Addition to the Venus Wikipedia Page

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since it is well known that establishment astrophysics/astrochemistry experts are confused concerning the formation and evolution of Venus and everything physical in outer space, a simple addition is made on Venus page concerning its formation and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[809] viXra:1603.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 00:38:46

Mercury "HAS COVERED" Venus?

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Mercury – a kernel of the former comet which tail "has covered" Venus.
Category: Astrophysics

[808] viXra:1603.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 00:56:44

And What, if Expansion of the Universe – Illusion?

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Universe is limited and ordered, galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of the Universe, there was no Big Bang and there is no dark energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[807] viXra:1603.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-09 12:14:15

Simulated Expansion of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have developed a new code of numerical simulations that offers a glimpse of the complex process of the formation of structures in the Universe. Based on Einstein's equations, they were able to integrate the rotation of space-time into their calculations and calculate the amplitude of gravitational waves, whose existence was confirmed for the first time on February 12, 2016. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[806] viXra:1603.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-06 05:47:27

Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe (V4)

Authors: Thierry DELORT
Comments: 46 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). We then study according to our theory of dark matter and dark energy the different possible distributions of dark matter around galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters. Then we expose a new model of expansion of the Universe based on the new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new model of expansion. The 1st proposed mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd proposed mathematical model is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[805] viXra:1603.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 13:48:34

Correcting Another Wikipedia Page Concerning Presolar Dust Grain Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustration

Since it is well known that establishment astrophysics/astrochemistry experts are confused concerning the formation of Earth and everything physical in outer space, a simple correction is made on the formation of their presolar dust grain page.
Category: Astrophysics

[804] viXra:1602.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-28 11:03:36

The Relation of Mass to Youth in Stellar Evolution/Planet Formation According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple relation of youth to mass is given concerning stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis. Youth and mass are directly proportional for young stars, and become less proportional as they age depending on how much matter was accreted during the star’s evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[803] viXra:1602.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-28 11:05:38

Correcting Wikipedia Again Concerning Stars’ Evolutionary Paths

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since Wikipedia will revert edits to their pages to account for incorrect theories simply because they are status quo, it is suggested a simple edit so that future scientists can see where they made grave mistakes in theory, preventing our understanding of the stars. This paper also serves as a warning to future scientists to always be aware of how powerful group think and the perception of scientific authority can be. Think for yourself! Do not trust authority! Authorities have led us astray multiple times in history, it is up to us to correct them!
Category: Astrophysics

[802] viXra:1602.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-26 13:51:14

Correcting the Exoplanet Page on Wikipedia Concerning their Formation and Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since Wikipedia will revert edits to account for status quo, regardless if status quo is incorrect, it is presented a correction to the exoplanet page to account for superior theory. The main purpose is to provide a timestamp of the events which are transpiring, as well provide an alternative to the dogma. The new theory is called stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[801] viXra:1602.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-25 13:58:30

An Explanation of Mercury's Perihelion Shift by Asteroid Impact

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 4 Pages.

SUMMARY: Heavy asteroid impacts can explain the perihelion shift of Mercury. As the kinetic energy of both Mercury and any asteroid is known, vector analysis of the deviation may be carried out. Pendulum experiments are bearing out vector analysis.
Category: Astrophysics

[800] viXra:1602.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-25 08:55:53

Astronomical Evidence for an Alternative to Dark Matter and a Re-Interpretation of Spatial Curvature

Authors: Alphonsus J. Fagan
Comments: 21 pages

Unexplained gravitational potentials in deep space have been generally attributed to dark matter. This paper explores an alternative that unites the concepts of dark matter, dark energy, time and gravity. Spatial curvature is reinterpreted as the spatial variation in dark energy density. The passage of time is interpreted as a manifestation of the rate at which quantized space is created and expands. Dark matter is interpreted as arising from congenital dark energy variations introduced by quantum/inflationary effects at, or near, the Big Bang, and from the presence of large quantities of antimatter which is proposed to experience and produce antigravity. Combining these conjectures leads to possible explanations for a number of poorly understood phenomena, including: the antimatter cloud; the structure of certain ring galaxies; the dark matter halo; the vacuum catastrophe; the distance to the cosmic horizon; and, large scale cosmic features. Although the ideas are mainly discussed at a conceptual level, the proposed model makes a number of testable predictions.
Category: Astrophysics

[799] viXra:1602.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 13:00:23

How a Massive Planet Can Affect Human Consciousnesses When Passing Nearby the Sun

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 6 Pages.

Evidences of a giant planet orbiting our sun, in an orbit whose period would last approximately of 15 thousand years it seems to have been found. The orbit of the new planet is gigantic, never coming closer to the Sun than 30.5 billion kilometers. The discovery of planets whose orbits go beyond Pluto is not new. We know Sedna, Haumea and Makemake, and also Eris, which is more massive than Pluto. But all these planets have much less mass than the giant planet that was recently found orbiting our sun. Here we show how massive planets like these can affect the human consciousnesses, when they approach the Sun, and pass nearby the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[798] viXra:1602.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 14:18:25

Discovery Finds Missing Matter in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[797] viXra:1602.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 10:08:21

The Astrochemical Principle of Planet Formation and Stellar Evolution According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented a rule of thumb or principle with regards to astrochemical understanding in explaining planet formation and stellar evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[796] viXra:1602.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-24 10:18:55

The Soul’s Thoughts as Dark Energy

Authors: Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir
Comments: 10 Pages.

The great mystery concerning our Universe is Dark Energy, which is introduced to explain the acceleration of the expanding galaxies. In the contemporary cosmology, Dark Energy is modeled by a perfect fluid having a very simple equation of state; pressure is proportional to Dark Energy density. The acceleration of the expansion clearly implies the existence of some force that acts to push galaxies apart, and the source of this force is what we have dubbed Dark Energy. However, we have little idea of what the nature of Dark Energy might actually be. None of the four known forces in nature could provide a force to oppose gravity. The main objective of this theory is to derive new equation of state of Dark Energy considering with its Nature. Its Nature has been assumed to be an unknown kind of force generated from our thoughts. First of all, our soul is assumed to be the nature of our thoughts and dreams. More precisely, it has been assumed and described that, respectively, Imaginary fields of the Soul’s thoughts are based on the fact that they are only produced when we are thinking or dreaming about everything and everyone and the main difference between the Imaginary fields of the Soul’s thoughts and the electromagnetic fields. Then it has been explained that a negative mass with negative gravity behavior in the space, like the Soul, produces perpendicular Imaginary fields which provide a force to oppose gravity and accelerate the expansion of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[795] viXra:1602.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-23 07:43:07

The Refractory Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is provided a simple principle of planet formation in light of needing refractory material to melt iron and nickel into alloy in any amount. These alloys are called taenite and kamacite.
Category: Astrophysics

[794] viXra:1602.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-22 09:13:49

What is Time?

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 8 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s explanation of Time Dilation, along with “The Twin Paradox” explained by Paul Langevin, pose two scientific questions: (1) ”What IS Time if it can be dilated?” and (2) “HOW is Time dilated by velocity and gravity?” The answers in this paper may be only a revisualization of what has been known for over a century, but it appears the topic has never before been explained by a layman in layman’s terms. This paper is an expansion of an observation about Time Dilation described in my previous paper: “Time Dilation Re-Visualized.”
Category: Astrophysics

[793] viXra:1602.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-21 10:06:01

Last and Final Historic Statement from Hasmukh K. Tank

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Single-page Note

Through my write-ups I have been trying, most politely, to convince the influential readers, that Big-Bang Model of Cosmology needs reconsideration, because, there are many possibilities, some of them pointed out by me, that the intergalactic photon can loose its energy. Now, I declare my final words: 1. The Big Bang Model of Cosmology is an illusion, arisen from the mathematical model, of space-time-continuum. Because, time is not a physical entity. 2. Big banger's belief that time too began with the big bang, and there was no time before the bang, is an incorrect out-come of the mathematical model. Time is actually a dimension of our consciousness, our mind, that we use for perceiving and understanding. 3. Correct theory is that in which the photon looses its energy, and gets red shifted. 4. Similarly, the anthropic-principle is also not correct, nor the many-world interpretation of the quantum mechanics. 5. There was a reason why Einstein was not awarded the Nobel Prize for any of his Relativity Theory. Physics is not mathematics. A model may predict some thing, but it does not mean that it describes the real physical process. Scientific community should choose, whether they are ready to consider Hasmukh K. Tanks views, or want to remain deluded for centuries to come. Yours faithfully, Hasmukh K. Tank
Category: Astrophysics

[792] viXra:1602.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-21 10:15:34

The Principle of Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is outlined a basic principle to stellar evolution/planet formation regarding gravitational collapse.
Category: Astrophysics

[791] viXra:1602.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-20 06:17:11

Gamma Ray Accompany Gravity Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Last week's announcement that Gravitational Waves (GW) have been detected for the first time—as a result of the merger of two black holes—is huge news. But now a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) originating from the same place, and that arrived at Earth 0.4 seconds after the GW, is making news. Isolated black holes aren't supposed to create GRB's; they need to be near a large amount of matter to do that. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[790] viXra:1602.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-19 20:44:15

What Ligo Experiment Actually Detected?

Authors: Mihai Grumazescu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Spacetime distortion by matter is a purely abstract concept. Consequently, spacetime elusive ripples are unlikely to have been detected in the natural world. In a proposed gravitational model, it is assumed that a net linear momentum is constantly generated in the direction of each nucleon's spin due to an asymmetric vibration of the quarks and gluons. The atomic nucleus is a kinetic dipole and a neutrino transceiver. Nucleons generate the whole package contributing to the phenomenon of gravity: the self-propelling force through the kinetic dipole and the information on their instant position in space through neutrinos carrying it. Gravitational lensing could be just a neutrino-photon interaction. Instead of gravitational waves, the LIGO experiment may have detected a form of gravitational lensing due to an increased flux of high energy neutrinos produced by the alleged gravitational event.
Category: Astrophysics

[789] viXra:1602.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-19 08:39:37

A Two-Step Integrated Theory of Everything - Revision A

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 45 Pages.

A Two-Step Integrated Theory of Everything (TOE) – Revision A consisted of a fundamental physics step followed by a mathematics step. Via a single string theory solution, a Two-Step Integrated TOE unified all known physical phenomena from the Planck cube to the Super Universe (multiverse). Each of 129 fundamental matter and force particle types was defined by its unique closed string in a Planck cube. Any object in the Super Universe was defined by a volume of contiguous Planck cubes containing fundamental matter or force particle strings. Super force string doughnut physical singularities existed at the center of Planck cubes at the start of the Super Universe, all precursor universes, and all universes including our universe. String theory’s six extra dimensions were the dynamic point particle’s position and velocity coordinates in a Planck cube. Two reasons for replacing inadequate existing matter and force particle symbols were explicit Higgs particle representation and elimination of ambiguities. Our universe’s 128 matter and force particle types were created from the super force. Matter creation was time synchronous with both inflation start time and the one to seven Planck cubes energy to energy/matter expansion. Super force particles were God particles because they constituted 100% of our universe’s energy/mass. Higgs particles were associate God particles because they constituted approximately 82% of our universe’s total energy/mass. The sum of eight Higgs force energies associated with eight permanent matter particles was dark energy. Extremely high temperatures caused spontaneous symmetry breaking. The latter occurred for eight permanent matter particles and three permanent Higgsino types. Decays were a series of evaporations/condensations of matter particles/Higgs forces to and from the super force. Neutrinos oscillated between three flavors via the seesaw model using a neutral heavy lepton. Dark matter consisted of zinos, photinos, and three permanent Higgsino types. There were four types of sequential universe expansions. The product of the non-uniform distribution of matter expansion rate and the graviton’s intergalactic propagation time was string theory’s seventh extra dimension. By the end of matter creation, our universe consisted of atomic/subatomic matter (5%), cold dark matter (26%), and dark energy (69%), and those percentages remained constant for 13.8 billion years (Lamda cold dark matter ΛCDM cosmological model). Messenger particles contained embedded clocks/computers. The relative strengths of gravitational and electromagnetic forces were due to gravitational propagation factor dilution. All 128 matter and force particle types complied with conservation of energy/mass accountability. The single vacuum Super Universe consisted of nested parallel precursor and nested parallel universes. Stellar black holes included quark stars (matter) and black holes (energy). The Friedmann metric had three scenarios. The proposed entropy formula for a quark star (matter) was proportional to the quark star’s volume and inversely proportional to a Planck cube’s volume. In our precursor universe, a super supermassive quark star (matter) instantaneously evaporated, deflated, and gravitationally collapsed to its associated super supermassive black hole’s (energy) which created our universe. The prevailing cosmology theory “The Ultimate Free Lunch” satisfied only the third of three laws of physics and should be replaced by “A Two-Step Integrated TOE” which satisfied all three. Our universe was nested in our older precursor universe which was nested in the still older Super Universe. The cosmological constant problem existed because the Super Universe’s volume was 10exp120 larger than our universe. Proof of the Super Universe’s parallel universes was via an existing multi-wavelength and advanced gravitational observatory technique. Intrinsic or structural information was lost in a super supermassive quark star (matter)/black hole (energy) formation and none was emitted as Hawking radiation. Charge, parity, and time violation caused baryogenesis. String theory and an Integrated TOE were identical to quantum gravity theory. A Two-Step Integrated TOE had a fundamental physics step and a two part mathematics step. Twenty independent existing theories were replaced by twenty interrelated amplified theories and summarized in Table V. Six Integrated TOE advanced validation techniques and independent analyses/validations by physicists were proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[383] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 12:06:16

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. One reference added.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[382] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-24 15:12:11

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. One reference added and text expanded. Comments welcomed.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[381] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 06:32:02

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Text expanded, typos corrected.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[380] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 05:53:17

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[379] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 14:31:02

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravitational Waves waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass G-star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the main G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics

[378] viXra:1603.0269 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-20 11:18:51

Newton’s Gravitational Law over Dark Matter

Authors: Camerorn Rebigsol
Comments: (1) Add page number to the previous submission; (2) delete the following text from the previous submission: (See appendix for detailed calculation development)

The shape of a gravity body can play a critical role in affecting the movement of an object moving in its vicinity of close range. If the shape is disregarded while the gravity body is regarded as a point mass regardless of the distance between the two bodies, the concept of dark matter may find its chance to surface up in theoretical treatment concerning gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[377] viXra:1603.0204 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-30 07:34:34

The Principle of Spherical Celestial Objects

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 Picture

A new principle of celestial objects is presented to clarify the star sciences.
Category: Astrophysics

[376] viXra:1602.0314 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-13 06:10:47

How a Massive Planet Can Affect Human Consciousnesses When Passing Nearby the Sun

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 9 Pages.

Evidences of a giant planet orbiting our sun, in an orbit whose period would last approximately of 15 thousand years it seems to have been found. The orbit of the new planet is gigantic, never coming closer to the Sun than 30.5 billion kilometers. The discovery of planets whose orbits go beyond Pluto is not new. We know Sedna, Haumea and Makemake, and also Eris, which is more massive than Pluto. But all these planets have much less mass than the giant planet that was recently found orbiting our sun. Here we show how massive planets like these can affect the human consciousnesses, when they approach the Sun, and pass nearby the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[375] viXra:1602.0314 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-30 13:08:18

How a Massive Planet Can Affect Human Consciousnesses When Passing Nearby the Sun

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

Evidences of a giant planet orbiting our sun, in an orbit whose period would last approximately of 15 thousand years it seems to have been found. The orbit of the new planet is gigantic, never coming closer to the Sun than 30.5 billion kilometers. The discovery of planets whose orbits go beyond Pluto is not new. We know Sedna, Haumea and Makemake, and also Eris, which is more massive than Pluto. But all these planets have much less mass than the giant planet that was recently found orbiting our sun. Here we show how massive planets like these can affect the human consciousnesses, when they approach the Sun, and pass nearby the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[374] viXra:1602.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-19 09:39:42

What is Time?

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 8 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s explanation of Time Dilation [1], along with “The Twin Paradox” explained by Paul Langevin [2], pose two scientific questions: (1) ”What IS Time if it can be dilated?” and (2) “HOW is Time dilated by velocity and gravity?” The answers in this paper may be only a revisualization of what has been known for over a century, but it appears the topic has never before been explained by a layman in layman’s terms. This paper is an expansion of an observation about Time Dilation described in my previous paper: “Time Dilation Re-Visualized.[3]”
Category: Astrophysics