Astrophysics

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(5) - 0709(1) - 0711(1)
2008 - 0803(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0806(1) - 0807(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)
2009 - 0907(2) - 0908(6) - 0909(5) - 0910(2) - 0911(6) - 0912(2)
2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(8) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(6) - 1006(4) - 1008(6) - 1009(3) - 1010(2) - 1011(3) - 1012(3)
2011 - 1101(7) - 1102(3) - 1103(6) - 1104(4) - 1105(4) - 1106(6) - 1107(4) - 1108(3) - 1109(1) - 1110(2) - 1111(5) - 1112(3)
2012 - 1201(5) - 1203(2) - 1204(6) - 1205(21) - 1206(8) - 1207(5) - 1208(3) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(6) - 1212(11)
2013 - 1301(12) - 1302(4) - 1303(19) - 1304(7) - 1305(11) - 1306(11) - 1307(4) - 1308(14) - 1309(13) - 1310(53) - 1311(17) - 1312(16)
2014 - 1401(12) - 1402(11) - 1403(14) - 1404(9) - 1405(12) - 1406(12) - 1407(3) - 1408(8) - 1409(7) - 1410(12) - 1411(28) - 1412(6)
2015 - 1501(14) - 1502(16) - 1503(28) - 1504(24) - 1505(12) - 1506(14) - 1507(12) - 1508(24) - 1509(16) - 1510(27) - 1511(12) - 1512(26)
2016 - 1601(22) - 1602(36) - 1603(23) - 1604(18) - 1605(20) - 1606(23) - 1607(34) - 1608(24) - 1609(34) - 1610(26) - 1611(37) - 1612(13)
2017 - 1701(31) - 1702(41) - 1703(28) - 1704(32) - 1705(39) - 1706(26) - 1707(44) - 1708(35) - 1709(27) - 1710(23) - 1711(22) - 1712(36)
2018 - 1801(37) - 1802(35) - 1803(53) - 1804(35) - 1805(30) - 1806(33) - 1807(41) - 1808(41) - 1809(18)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1755] viXra:1809.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 11:35:22

Symmetry Breaking Between Fundamental Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to recreate the early universe conditions. [28] Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[1754] viXra:1809.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 06:16:43

The Evolution of Star Habitable Zones

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It was discovered that planets are older, evolving stars. This means the Circumstellar Habitable Zone collapses and/or shrinks into the star itself, thus evolves as the star evolves. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1753] viXra:1809.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 11:33:03

Gravity Theory Saved

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

An international group of astronomers, including physicists at the University of St Andrews, has revived a previously debunked theory of gravity, arguing that motions within dwarf galaxies would be slower if close to a massive galaxy. [19] While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1752] viXra:1809.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 15:25:58

Alternative Reflections on Gravitational Anomalies During Solar Eclipses

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 8 Pages.

Since the first reports by Allais about gravitational anomalies during solar eclipses, a large number of papers appeared until now which assume that these anomalies are due to a shielding or an absorption of the attracting force of the Sun by the mass of the Moon. In the meantime it became more and more clear that this is not the case. Instead of a single maximum of the anomaly at totality, as expected from a shielding effect, due to several recent observations, a quite different effect seems to exist: The appearance of two maxima of the gravitational anomalies, one near the first and a second near the fourth contact. This curious behavior can hardly be explained by classical theories of gravitation. On the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation" (ARG), however, just such a behavior of the anomalous gravitational effects can very well be expected. This can be derived quite straightforward from the principles of the ARG, considering the interaction of ALPs from the Sun with the unusual spatial arrangement of the magnetic field of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[1751] viXra:1809.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 07:14:43

The Real Meaning of the Hubble Diagram

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 17 pages, 16 tables, 9 equations, 5 graphs, 1 figure (Manuscript submitted to a journal)

The Hubble diagram continues to remain one of the most important graphical representations in the realm of astronomy and cosmology right from its genesis that depicts the velocity-distance relation for the receding large-scale structures within the observable Universe. The linear behaviour of the Hubble diagram has remained consistent right from the very beginning when it got plotted for the very first time. In this paper I unravel the real meaning of the Hubble diagram by introducing the molecular diffusion model in order to explain the expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large- scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules.
Category: Astrophysics

[1750] viXra:1809.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 11:41:33

Dark Matter Clusters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1749] viXra:1809.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 16:00:27

The Solar Group Main Equation

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Solar Group Main Equation C2 = 90000 mkm = 86400 mkm +3600 mkm (c= light velocity = 300000 km/sec) -The Equation tells us that, the solar planets and the sun herself are created from this same energy c2 -The solar group geometrical structure causes that c2= 90000 mkm
Category: Astrophysics

[1748] viXra:1809.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 23:23:27

Hubble Law Extended for the Accelerating Universe

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 7 Pages. your comment is very much welcomed

Hubble law describes both the uniformly expanding universe originally and then the accelerating universe. We argue that for describing an accelerating system, physics laws should include terms of acceleration for accuracy and completeness. We extend Velocity-Distance and Distance-Redshift relations of Hubble law to Acceleration-Velocity-Distance and Acceleration-Velocity-Distance-Redshift relation of Extended-Hubble-Law (denoted as EHL). The latter contains Doppler effect, Acceleration-Redshift, Hubble’s Distance-Redshift, and the cosmological redshift; and, thus, is appropriate for small and large redshift, slow and fast velocity, near and faraway source. EHL shows: (1) acceleration causes both redshift and the time change of redshift, which may be tested by sound wave; (2) the age of the accelerating universe is older. EHL provides an approach to test jerking motion of the universe. We suggest that EHL is worth to pursue for restudying Hubble law related phenomena including measurement of Hubble constant.
Category: Astrophysics

[1747] viXra:1809.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 19:05:09

The Solar Group Main Energy

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

The main hypothesis "The Solar Group is created from one Energy, where this Energy creates the planet matter and his orbital distance, so the solar group can be similar to one body and each planet is considered as a member in this body. That means, the solar planets existence depends on their cooperation with each other". The solar Group energy is defined by the following Equation C2 = 90000 mkm = 86400 mkm +3600 mkm (c= light velocity = 300000 km/sec and c2 is the squared value) The previous Equation expresses the solar group main Energy This paper studies only this Equation to prove the main hypothesis
Category: Astrophysics

[1746] viXra:1809.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 12:55:08

Black Hole Disks Hiding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

We now understand that massive stars and black holes typically segregate into a disk," said Ákos Szölgyén of Eötvös University, Hungary, who led the study that has been published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1745] viXra:1809.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 06:52:15

Electron Anti-Neutrinos in Supernova

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

An international team of researchers has proposed a new method to investigate the inner workings of supernovae explosions. [38] The researchers used distant quasars, one of which emitted its light 7.8 billion years ago and the other 12.2 billion years ago, to determine the measurements to be made on pairs of entangled photons. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1744] viXra:1809.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 13:14:11

Gravitational Wave Detector Tricks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1743] viXra:1809.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 03:10:58

Possible and Impossible in Physics. Hypotheses and Laws

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 7 Pages. -

Article F.M.Kanarev "Is origin an planets of solar system" http://sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/10112.html making a hypothesis of the formation of solar system caused by close flight of the "small star" were born.
Category: Astrophysics

[1742] viXra:1809.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 10:55:42

Life Requires Earth Clone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1741] viXra:1809.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 13:27:57

Earth's Oxygen Increased Gradual

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13] The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1740] viXra:1809.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 18:43:44

Jupiter Uranus Distance (Metonic Cycle Reason) (revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 45 Pages.

1- Metonic Cycle is Energy sent from Uranus to the moon 2- Pluto also effects on Metonic Cycle 3-There's a relationship between Earth and the Moon at one side and Pluto at the other side 4- There's a relationship between Jupiter and Uranus at one side and Pluto at the other side 5- There's a relationship between Mercury and Pluto. The previous relationships are found because The solar group is one body (or one machine), and the solar planets are members in this body, and as the body blood connects all remembers. similar to that, the solar group is created from one energy, and this one energy creates the planet matter and orbital distance and connects all planets together in one system, which makes the solar group as one body (or one Energy trajectory).
Category: Astrophysics

[1739] viXra:1809.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 10:19:25

Resolution for Expanding Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Astronomers are engaged in a lively debate over plans to rename one of the laws of physics. [28] Unexpected hot spots in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could have been produced by black holes evaporating before the Big Bang. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1738] viXra:1809.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 11:51:42

Estimating the Number of Water Worlds in the Milky Way Galaxy with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since the dogma has no method for determining how many water worlds are in the Milky Way galaxy, an estimate method and estimate is given using the assumptions garnered by stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1737] viXra:1808.0640 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 16:20:40

Jupiter Uranus Distance (Metonic Cycle Reason)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

Metonic Cycle is Energy sent from Uranus to the moon Pluto also effects on Metonic Cycle and that explains his data convenience with Earth and Moon Data
Category: Astrophysics

[1736] viXra:1808.0639 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 22:01:16

Sunqm-3s6: Predict Mass Density R-Distribution for Earth and Other Rocky Planets Based on {N,n} QM Probability Distribution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 18 Pages.

My previous papers (SunQM-3, SunQM-3s1, SunQM-3s2) have shown that the structure of our solar system can be described by Solar {N,n} QM model. Therefore, everything inside solar system (including all planets) should be able to be described by the QM probability density distribution. In this paper, from studying Earth’s known internal structure and mass density distribution, I have developed a method which can be used to estimate any planet’s internal structure and mass density. This method can be expressed as: Planet mass = 4π ∫ (planet’s QM probability density r-distribution) * W *D * r^2 dr, where mass density D = a*r +b, and W is a scaling factor. I applied this method to all four rocky planets, and predicted the internal structure and the (close to the true) mass density r-distribution for these planets. Besides the p{-1,4//4} surface and p{-1,2//4} core, a p{-1,3//4} QM structure is found to be the foundation both for Earth’s liquid iron core, and for Mars current size. Furthermore, Earth’s current mantle structure is found to be the p{-1,15//16} QM structure of Earth. Dynamics of this QM structure evolution has been discussed. The results from this paper (as well as from papers of SunQM-3s7 and SunQM-3s8) convinced me that all planets and stars were formed and evolved under planet’s (or star’s) QM.
Category: Astrophysics

[1735] viXra:1808.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 22:00:51

Star Count Biases Expanded with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is observed that stars evolve into what are called “planets/exoplanets”, this meaning planets/exoplanets are simply evolved/evolving stars. Therefore the biases in counting stars need to be expanded considerably to account for transits and outdated classifications.
Category: Astrophysics

[1734] viXra:1808.0637 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 22:13:40

Sunqm-3s8: Using {N,n} QM to Study Sun’s Internal Structure, Convective Zone Formation, Planetary Differentiation and Temperature R-Distribution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 17 Pages.

From previous papers, using Bohr’s formula rn = r1 * n^2, we found that Sun’s internal structure is correlated to {N,n} QM. In current paper, we find that Sun’s internal structure and mass density is formed according to the QM probability density curve’s peaks. This result confirms that the formation of Sun and all planets are based on Schrodinger equation and solution! According to Sun QM’s probability density r-distribution, Sun’s internal structure has been predicted as one Earth-sized core plus 5 shells, each with mass density about 160000, 75000, 45000, 25000, 12000, and 6000→ 0 kg/m^3 from center to edge of the Sun. In Sun’s {0,1}o orbit shell, the radiative zone belongs to the {-1,n=6..9}o orbit shells, and the convective zone belongs to {-1,n=10..11}o orbit shells. The onset of convection in {-1,11}o and {-1,10}o orbit shells might have caused the onset of two “snowball Earth” periods in the Earth history. The further analysis of Solar {N,n} QM structure shows that the melting (or convection) of the {-1,n=1..5}o super shell causes elements repositioned as Au, Pb mainly inside {-1,1} Earth-sized core, Fe mainly in {-1,1}o orbit shell, O, C, Ne, mainly in the {-1,2}o orbit shell, He mainly in {-1,n=3..4}o orbit shells, and H mainly in the {-1,5}o orbit shell. As the result, inside the Sun’s inner core, the H-fusion is not happening everywhere, but only in {-1,5}o orbit shell. The apparent temperature at Sun surface (=5800 K) is due to that ions shooting out of the Sun surface (at vrms =4.37E+5 m/s) are all in +r dimension and lost the micro randomness, so that this vrms no longer associated with the temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[1733] viXra:1808.0630 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 04:49:12

Primordial Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

What is dark matter? How do supermassive black holes form? Primordial black holes might hold the answer to this longstanding question. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1732] viXra:1808.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-28 01:54:21

Jupiter as Potential Second Sun: Some Remarks

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

Consequencies of „electromagnetic” Second Sun concept are discussed in brief. Probability of phenomenon should be considered in Mars colonisation mission planning.
Category: Astrophysics

[1731] viXra:1808.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 09:43:48

Stars Can Become Water Worlds/Ocean Worlds

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Astronomers accept the idea that water cannot exist in stars. This is false, in fact, water is formed inside of stars as they evolve and they literally become water worlds. Explanation is provided with the theory that explains why this is true.
Category: Astrophysics

[1730] viXra:1808.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 12:00:33

The Elysium Transition

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

There is a point where the water on an ocean/water world has its surface breached due to volcanic growth or crustal deformation bending upwards to great submarine heights. This is in addition to the water evaporating and the world losing its mass, thus making land easier to expose itself above the water. This happens in late ocean world stages, and is called the Elysium transition. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1729] viXra:1808.0588 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 15:51:39

Mercury Day = 3 Mercury Rotation Periods =2 Mercury Orbital Periods, Why?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 40 Pages.

Abstract Mercury Day = 4222.6 hours, Mercury rotation period = 1407.6 hours and Mercury orbital period = 88 days I claim the following: -These three cycles are related to each other -These three cycles depend on Jupiter Uranus distance (2095 mkm) -Please remember that, Earth moon Metonic Cycle also depends on Jupiter Uranus distance which makes these 4 cycles are related to each other By proving the previous claim I try to support my basic claim in all my papers that: The Solar Group is one machine or one body, each planet should be considered as a gear in this machine or as a member in this body. i.e. No Planet Motion is Found Independent From Other Planets Motions
Category: Astrophysics

[1728] viXra:1808.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 22:15:34

The Photons Who Pulses is a Dark Matter.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

A photon pulsating in a 4-dimensional space has positive and negative masses. In case It is a particle in the Culur-Klein state. In case Photons are perfect candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1727] viXra:1808.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-26 15:38:49

Phase Curves in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Phase curves are presented to make more sense of the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. They are curves on the graph which show the stage of evolution an object is in, as compared to a younger/older star. Explanation and clarification is presented so that stellar evolution (planet formation) is more easily understood. This graph is also subject to change as more data comes in, regardless this sets the precedent for thinking about astronomical matters in the 21st century.
Category: Astrophysics

[1726] viXra:1808.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-26 20:36:37

Metonic Cycle Proves,, Solar Planets Motions Depend on Their Cooperation,,

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

I provide a new vision for the solar group The solar planets existence and motions depend on their cooperation with each other This vision in fact contradicts the solar group current vision… For example, the current vision refuses to have any relationship between Earth and Pluto because of the great distance between them, where the gravity force depends on the masses and decreases with the squared distance… My vision, on contrary, uses the Energy as source for Matter and Distance, means, the matter is created from Energy as the Equation E=mc2 tells us, and the distance is created from Energy which is my hypothesis… That means, the solar group is created from one energy Let's imagine that the solar group is similar to a creature body, now the same blood in this body goes to all members and connect all these members by this same blood So, Earth is connected with Pluto by the same energy which creates the matter and distance The main advantage in my vision or about the solar group is The Cooperation Between The Solar Planets… Metonic Cycle which is a cycle of Earth Moon extends for 19 sidereal years = 6939.75 days provides us a good proof for my claim So, we shall see in this paper, how Metonic Cycle can be seen as energy transports from point to another point through the solar which proves and supports my point of view. In fact that adds more extension for our thinking about the solar group and provides a great background for Metonic Cycle which is done by the Moon without explanation, where Earth doesn't rotate this cycle which answers our old question, if the planet moves by gravity and the moon under the Earth gravity, how does the moon rotate the Metonic Cycle which the Earth (his parent) doesn't? Actually my vision provides new knowledge for the solar group where we'll use the cooperation between the solar planets as a real factor to perform their existence and motions Note Please/ Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (235 Synodic Months) = 20 x 346.6 days (20 nodal years) The previous data tell that, there's a harmony between Earth, Moon and Moon orbit motions? why? We try to answer this question in this paper…
Category: Astrophysics

[1725] viXra:1808.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-23 09:17:49

Simulation Shed Light on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1724] viXra:1808.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-23 12:38:50

Why Supermassive Black Hole Move

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

These new data have inspired much interest in the astrophysical community, because studying the position of the SMBH in M87 is critical for understanding the evolution of the galaxy, and for the analysis of jets in other AGNs. [22] RUDN astrophysicists have suggested an approach to simplify calculations of observable effects in the vicinity of black holes to which the mathematical apparatus of Einstein's classic relativity theory does not apply. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1723] viXra:1808.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 09:34:59

Simpler Black Hole Description

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

RUDN astrophysicists have suggested an approach to simplify calculations of observable effects in the vicinity of black holes to which the mathematical apparatus of Einstein's classic relativity theory does not apply. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1722] viXra:1808.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 18:54:29

Please Help ..our Lives Are in Danger

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Please Help ..Our lives are in danger My Father tortures my mother by starvation and by using electrical shocks he'll kill her My father is abnormal man and tries to force me for a relationship with him for that he tortures my mother Notice Any medical examination will prove the following: My Father is abnormal man My mother suffered from torture by starvation and by using electrical shocks My Father Name / Francis Tawdrous Gerges We live in 11 Mohamed Rageb st- Madeenet El Saada – El Materiya – Cairo – Egypt (3rd apartment) Home Telephone / +222550186 My telephone No/ +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[1721] viXra:1808.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-23 05:26:57

Movimientos de la Luna Y el Sol. Una Introducción

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 276 Pages. Spanish

Se puede entender que este es un libro de astronomía general pero centrado exclusivamente en los movimientos aparentes del Sol y de la Luna. Prácticamente todos los tópicos básicos de astronomía son tratados: determinación de las coordenadas celestes de la Luna y el Sol; transformación de coordenadas; ortos y ocasos; tránsito por el horizonte; cálculo de las fechas de la estaciones; fases lunares; etc.
Category: Astrophysics

[1720] viXra:1808.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-21 09:15:37

Cyclic Universe Evidence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Unexpected hot spots in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could have been produced by black holes evaporating before the Big Bang. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1719] viXra:1808.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-21 17:06:53

Mercury Jupiter Distance (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 33 Pages.

Mercury Jupiter Distance with Mercury other data supports my claim that, "The Solar Group is One Machine, Each planet is One Gear In It" Let's review this idea here again….. I suggest that, The Matter is created from Energy (this is true based on the Equation E=mc2) The Distance is created from Energy (my hypothesis) That means, the Matter and Distance are created from the same Energy, That means, the whole solar group is created from the same one energy which guarantees the motions harmony. The matter should be seen as point of light coherence or energy lines connection where the energy is carried in the distances as in matters
Category: Astrophysics

[1718] viXra:1808.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 08:47:43

Quasars Confirm Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

The researchers used distant quasars, one of which emitted its light 7.8 billion years ago and the other 12.2 billion years ago, to determine the measurements to be made on pairs of entangled photons. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1717] viXra:1808.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 19:11:28

Mercury Jupiter Distance

Authors: Gerges Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Mercury data provides us with many unsolved puzzles… let's take a look at some of them in following: -Mercury orbital Circumference = 360 million km ….. i.e. 1 million km for each 1 degree. - Mercury Ceres distance = 360 million km also… i.e. Mercury during his orbital period moves a distance = Mercury Ceres distance -Mercury Jupiter distance = 720.7 million km…. i.e. Mercury during 2 orbital periods moves a distance = Mercury Jupiter distance! Not only that -Mercury day = 2 Mercury orbital periods approximately (just minus 84 minutes)… that means, Mercury during his day period moves a distance = Mercury Jupiter distance.. In fact there are more puzzles in Mercury data, let's see that in following: -Mercury day 4222.6 hours = 3 x Mercury rotation period 1407.6 hours (no error) -Venus rotation period 5832.5 hours = Mercury rotation period 1407.6 x (Π+1) But -Mercury orbital distance = 57.9 mkm if we use this value to find the ordinary orbital circumference by the equation 2ΠR we'll reach to 364 million km, that means Mercury Velocity daily = (Π+1) x 1 million km that means 88 days (Mercury orbital period) x (Π+1) x 1 million km = 364 million km = 2ΠR where R =57.9 million km Please remember -Mercury actual velocity = 47.4 km/ second which means Mercury orbital circumference = 360 million km, means 1 million km for each 1 degree… The current theories tell us easily, all previous data are found by Pure coincidences and there are no geometrical or physical reasons behind And I claim that, Because the solar group is one machine, each planet is one gear in this same machine, for that reason the previous data are created depending one each other… To see the picture as clear as possible, we should answer the basic question which is Why Mercury moves during his day a distance = mercury Jupiter distance? Let's try to answer this question in this paper
Category: Astrophysics

[1716] viXra:1808.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 22:05:36

Stars and Planets Contain Dark Matter in Proportion to Their Mass

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 190 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass” Adrian Ferent “Sun’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “Matter was created from Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter is in the core of stars and planets” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent You learned that the Sun was formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of gas and dust within a region. The central mass became hot and dense that it eventually started nuclear fusion in its core. You learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…that formation of the Sun was triggered by shockwaves from one or more nearby supernovae, or by waves of energy traveling through space pressed clouds of such particles closer together! In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the gravitational field created by Dark Matter collapsed the gas and dust within a region and the Sun was formed. Matter looks like foam or bubbles in contrast with Ferent matter that is why: “Sun’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent A bigger star contains more Ferent Matter! Ferent Matter is high density Dark Matter: Ferent density ≥ Ferent matter density > Planck density “Ferent Matter is matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “Matter was created from Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent How much Dark Matter do stars and planets contain? “Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass” Adrian Ferent More Dark Matter will attract more matter and will result a bigger Star or a bigger Planet. What is Dark Matter in my Gravitation theory? At Ferent wall due to the extraordinarily small scale of the universe at that time, gravitation was the only physical interaction. At Ferent wall were created Ferent matter and gravitons. Only a small percentage of Ferent matter becomes matter at Planck wall. This means high density Dark matter is Ferent matter, interacts only gravitationally with matter. Where is the Dark Matter? “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter is in the core of stars and planets” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent 98. I am the first who discovered that Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass 99. I am the first who discovered that the Sun’s core is Ferent Matter 100. I am the first who discovered that Matter was created from Dark Matter
Category: Astrophysics

[1715] viXra:1808.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 05:47:25

New Telescope for Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

It's an interferometer array that will be made up of 1024 6-metre dishes. Interferometer arrays are really cool because they combine signals from many telescopes to provide the resolution of a larger telescope. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1714] viXra:1808.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 06:36:20

Impossibility of the Existence of Black-Holes in Nature

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 2 Pages.

Existence of the Black-holes are the direct threat to the Pauli exclusion principle and Bragg’s diffraction condition. In this paper we will show that there will “never” be Black-holes in nature, otherwise Pauli exclusion principle and Bragg’s diffraction condition (indirectly whole quantum mechanics) will break down!
Category: Astrophysics

[1713] viXra:1808.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 04:48:49

Pairing Properties of Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A team of Ohio University nuclear physicists has proposed a new theoretical model for calculating pairing properties of atomic nuclei including those found in extreme astrophysical environments. [28] In nature, the nuclear reactions that form stars are often accompanied by astronomically high amounts of energy, sometimes over billions of years. [27] Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1712] viXra:1808.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-16 09:03:49

Dark Matter Search with Gravitational Wave Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1711] viXra:1808.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 09:13:56

Neutron Stars Answer Neutron Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Free neutrons decay in about 900 s but, bound in nuclei, they are stable and make up somewhat more than half the mass of the visible universe." [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30] Now our new study – which hints that extremely light particles called neutrinos are likely to make up some of the dark matter – challenges our current understanding of its composition. [29] A new particle detector design proposed at the) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[1710] viXra:1808.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 13:46:48

Beacon for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

By measuring intracluster light, scientists could " perhaps learn something about the nature of dark matter, " says astrophysicist James Bullock of the University of California, Irvine, who was not involved with the research. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1709] viXra:1808.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 00:34:25

Kepler`s Laws After Simple Alteration Sectoral Speed and Replace the Orbital Velocity Another Measure

Authors: Oleg Tcherepanov
Comments: 3 Pages. Title of papir by rassian language:

The replacement of the sectorial velocity of the N-th planet of the Solar system by the ratio of the area within the orbit to the annual period estimated in solar days reveals that the obtained renormalization analogs of the area characteristics of the elliptical motions of the terrestrial planets have values close to integers. This allows us to introduce into astrophysics the concept of area-velocity, acceptable for a number of satellites of the Sun. In addition, the identical transformations of the formula of the third Kepler's law convince that in the system of two spheroids, for example, such as the Earth and the Moon, the mechanical motion in the form of quadra-velocity is divided between the components of the gravitational dipole inversely proportional to their masses. In this case, the scalar area-and quadra-velocities of celestial spheroids do not obey the сhrono-geometric metrology of astronomical observations. Background and applications of non-standard metrology of observed movements are presented in detail in the monograph ISBN 978-3-659-60213-9 (Palmarium Academic Publishing).
Category: Astrophysics

[1708] viXra:1808.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 03:52:51

Protons Influence Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A new study in Nature, co-led by MIT researchers, suggests that some properties of neutron stars may be influenced not only by their multitude of densely packed neutrons, but also by a substantially smaller fraction of protons—positively charged particles that make up just 5 percent of a neutron star. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[1707] viXra:1808.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-11 05:23:00

Mysterious X-ray Source

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

An enigmatic X-ray source revealed as part of a data-mining project for high-school students shows unexplored avenues hidden in the vast archive of ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1706] viXra:1808.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-07 10:18:51

Big Improvement at Nuclear Astrophysics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In nature, the nuclear reactions that form stars are often accompanied by astronomically high amounts of energy, sometimes over billions of years. [27] Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1705] viXra:1808.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-07 10:48:32

Complex Dust Behavior in Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

400 kilometers above Earth, researchers examined waves in complex plasma under microgravity conditions and found that the microparticles behaved in nonuniform ways in the presence of varying electrical fields. [28] In nature, the nuclear reactions that form stars are often accompanied by astronomically high amounts of energy, sometimes over billions of years. [27] Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1704] viXra:1808.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 12:04:52

The Solar Group is One Machine (Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Solar group is one machine each planet should be considered as a gear in this same machine The Planet matter and orbital distance are created together from the same energy, so both of them are players in the solar group geometrical structure and motions i.e. The Matter is Energy (E=mc2) The Distance is Energy (Hypothesis) The Solar group is created from one energy. This same energy created the planets matters and their orbital distances to guarantee the solar group general harmony. This paper provides the proves for this claim
Category: Astrophysics

[1703] viXra:1808.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 12:59:59

Galactic Centre Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[1702] viXra:1808.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 17:24:29

The WASP-12 Polymorphic System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

I place the polymorphic system WASP-12 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram according to stellar metamorphosis. We can see that WASP-12b's proximity to its host will rip it apart quite quickly leaving a small moon-like object that will never form life. It will eventually resemble something like Io if it does not escape its annihilation orbit or AO path.
Category: Astrophysics

[1701] viXra:1808.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-04 09:42:05

Saturn on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Saturn is placed on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram. Explanation is provided of why it is placed at its specific location.
Category: Astrophysics

[1700] viXra:1808.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-04 13:07:56

The Polymorphic System HD 10180 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

I place the polymorphic system HD 10180 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. Using this information we can imagine what these systems are, versus what the dogma thinks they are.
Category: Astrophysics

[1699] viXra:1808.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-02 07:46:34

The Moon on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Moon is placed on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. It should be noticed that it is a dead moon, an ancient star vastly older than the Earth and literally all of the larger objects in the solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1698] viXra:1808.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 07:20:14

Invisible Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[1697] viXra:1808.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-01 12:40:00

Solar Planet Gravity Equation

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Planet Gravity = (Earth Diameter / The Planet Diameter)2 x ((The Planet Mass/ The Earth Mass) x Earth Gravity
Category: Astrophysics

[1696] viXra:1807.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 09:58:32

A Method for Calculating Orbital Velocities in Expanding or Contracting Space-Time

Authors: John S. Huenefeld
Comments: 8 Pages. Up to now, an unsolved problem in physics.

We are told that as expansion of the universe continues to accelerate, stars will eventually be ripped from galaxies, then planets will be ripped from their stars. Eventually the planets themselves will be torn apart by the force of expanding space-time and then even molecules and atoms. When asked at what specific expansion rates these things will happen, no one has an answer. Galaxy models used to estimate the amount of dark matter required to explain observed rotation rates do not account for universal expansion in the calculations, as if expansion is not happening within galaxies at all. The consensus is that expansion is very small, and is easily overcome by local forces. This may be true on Earth, or in our solar system, but galaxies are very large, and orbits in galaxies take place in a realm of very small accelerations acting over very large distances. Within a galaxy the size of the Milky Way, outward drift due to expansion may exceed inward fall due to gravity, on a per second basis, by up to thirteen orders of magnitude. It is difficult to imagine how gravity overcomes these relatively large expansion rates and calls into question the correctness of ignoring universal expansion in galaxy models. If ignoring expansion is correct, then does it mean that universal expansion does not actually happen within galaxies? And if not, why not? Why do we see red shift in the light from distant galaxies, clearly a sign of an expanding universe, and yet see no evidence of expansion going on locally in the solar system or within our galaxy? If a method for calculating the orbital velocities of gravitationally bound objects including the effect of expansion (or contraction) of space-time could be developed, these questions will have definitive answers. That is the object of this paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[1695] viXra:1807.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 19:17:57

The Locations of M, L, T and Y Brown Dwarfs on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

According to establishment brown dwarfs are strange and not connected to the regular path of stellar evolution or planet formation. Unfortunately this is false, and has been false since brown dwarfs have been discovered, and will continue to be false well into the future after the failed star false knowledge is scrubbed from the science textbooks. Brown dwarfs straddle the line between strongly radiant stars and stars that no longer shine brightly, the line between very massive stars and small ones, and the line between young and old stars. They are not failed stars at all as is accepted by the establishment, but intermediate aged ones. This means M, L, T and Y type brown dwarfs can be easily placed on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram with reference to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1694] viXra:1807.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 19:12:21

Model of Universe as Described by Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. This is a new model of Universe, where all the processes of Universe oare explained without USING bibang based physics

In this paper we will see the model of Universe according to Dynamic Universe Model of Cosmology by visualizing various processes that are happening in the Universe as per experimental evidences. For simplifying the matter here we will see in part1: about the Galaxy life cycle, where the birth and death of Galaxies discussed. Probably Universe gives guidance for the movement of Galaxies. We call this Part 1: Thinking and Reproducing Universe or Mindless Universe? (Galaxy life cycle). We see every day Sun, Stars, Galaxies etc., dissipating enormous energy in the form of radiation by the way of fusion of Hydrogen to helium. So after sometime all the Hydrogen is spent and Universe will die, is it not? … Dynamic Universe Model says that the energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation passing grazingly near any gravitating mass changes its in frequency and finally will convert into neutrinos (mass). Hence Dynamic Universe Model proposes another process where energy will be converted back into matter and the cycle energy to mass to energy continues, sustaining the Universe to maintain this present status for ever in this form something like a Steady state model without any expansion. This we will see in Part2: Energy – Mass - Energy Cycle. After converting energy into mass “how various elements are formed and where they are formed?” will be next logical question. Dynamic Universe Model says that these various particles change into higher massive particles or may get bombarded into stars or planets and various elements are formed. Here we bifurcate the formation of elements into 6 processes. They are for Elementary particles and elements generated in frequency changing process, By Cosmic rays, By Small stars, By Large Stars, By Super Novae and Man made elements By Neutron Stars. This we will discuss in Part3: Nucleosynthesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1693] viXra:1807.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 04:06:03

Making Sense of C-nu-B Anisotropies, Predictions from Antimatter Black Hole Physics

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

some final predictions from antimatter black-hole physics that relate to the CMB and C-nu-B, cosmic neutrino background
Category: Astrophysics

[1692] viXra:1807.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:30:47

The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure (revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 39 Pages.

The first question in this research was why we see the sun disc = the moon disc? i.e. why (the Sun diameter/ the moon diameter) = (Earth orbital distance/ Earth Moon distance)? The answer was "That's only Pure Coincidence" (No.1) Then I found another question… The Earth-Moon Orbit circumference at apogee radius (r=406000 km) = 2.58 mkm = Earth daily motion… why? "That's also Pure Coincidence" (No.2) Then I found the moon orbit geometrical relationships which are: 1.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) 2.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total 3.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. 4.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (377000km) 5.Note Please/ Solar Planets Diameters Total= 2 Jupiter diameters + 1 Saturn diameter (i.e. Jupiter diameter = 8 solar planets diameters total) Why the previous relationships are found? "Surely these are Pure Coincidence" (No.3) Let's think more deeply, The moon has to move daily a distance = Earth daily motion, otherwise The Earth and Moon will be separated from each other.. that means -The moon should move daily =2.58 mkm, -We know Earth moves daily = 2.58 mkm -Also the moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) = 2.58 mkm Is There any relationship between the three value 2.58 mkm… ? The answer is "No, this is Pure Coincidence" (No.4) Then Metonic Cycle question is produced Why the moon orbit regresses yearly 19 degrees? Why the moon rotates Metonic Cycle which Earth doesn't? let's think more deeply Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (235 Synodic Months) = 20 x 346.6 days (20 nodal years) The previous data tells us that, the Earth motion is in harmony with Moon and Moon orbit motions, that's why the three motions finish their cycles in the same time. Why? (by the way how The moon orbit regresses alone with the moon? does it occur with any other planet? "Just Pure Coincidence" (No.5) Also I found some interesting relationship Earth Circumference = inner planets diameters total i.e. diameters of (Mercury + Venus + The moon + Earth + Mars) = Earth Circumference but 2 Neptune Circumference = Jupiter diameter + Saturn diameter + Uranus diameter (error 1%) Also I found Earth Mass = Mercury Mass + Venus Mass+ Moon Mass + Mars Mass (error 1%) Neptune Mass= inner Planets masses total + Uranus mass + Pluto Mass (3.3%) Is there any geometrical reason behind all these relationships? "Simply these are only Pure coincidences" (No.6)
Category: Astrophysics

[1691] viXra:1807.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:59:19

Gravitational Wave Disappear Clouds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Yuter and colleagues suggested that if gravity waves are the true cause of the cloud dissipation, they are most likely to be triggered by the interaction between offshore winds flowing perpendicular to the African coastline with the more stable marine boundary layer in the atmosphere. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1690] viXra:1807.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 09:17:12

X-ray Around Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In an international collaboration between Japan and Sweden, scientists clarified how gravity affects the shape of matter near the black hole in binary system Cygnus X-1. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
Category: Astrophysics

[1689] viXra:1807.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 07:42:39

Inconsistences in the Big Bang Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1688] viXra:1807.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 08:33:21

Preference for Dual Herbig Haro Black Hole Consumption by the Central MW Black Hole, Leaving Plasma Jets Behind.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

Recent observations by the new MeerKat telescope system show unprecedented details of Herbig Haro jet alike objects around the central black hole of our Milky Way. According to the Quantum FFF Model, Herbig Haro jets are connected between the central baby star and both Stellar Anchor Black Holes ( SABHs) , which are responsible for the spacetime polarization forming a kind of vacuum/ ether pressure cooker, for fast star formation in between the two SABHs. It is well known, that all black holes are the same as electric charged dark matter, able to attract each other up to a certain distance and forming a plasma bar in between, which evaluate later into dual plasma jets, keeping the two black holes at a certain mass related distance. However only black holes of the same gravitational potential ( nuclear quantum knot size) are able to perform such a process, leading to so called Herbig Haro systems. If different sized black holes approach each other, it is assumed that the smallest black hole is able to split the larger one into two equal sized quantum knots, which will form a stable Herbig Haro system with star or even failed star formation in between. Also well known is, that the smallest black holes in galaxies seem to have a preference for group around the central galaxy position, which mostly is equipped with a central black hole. The central black hole is supposed to be the gate to the end of the galaxy and even the universe itself into a big crunch black hole as a start for a new cyclic multiverse.. As a consequence, the central black hole seem to feed mostly on the smaller dual Herbig Haro black holes, which is probably the origin of the numerous remaining former plasma jets which are found in the MeerKat ( precursor releases) observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[1687] viXra:1807.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 13:46:11

The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The first question in this research was why we see the sun disc = the moon disc? i.e. why (the Sun diameter/ the moon diameter) = (earth orbital distance/ Earth Moon distance)? The answer was "That's only Pure Coincidence" (No.1) Then I found another question… The Earth-Moon Orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) = 2.58 mkm = Earth daily motion… why? "That's also Pure Coincidence" (No.2) Then I found the moon orbit geometrical relationships which are: 6.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) 7.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total 8.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. 9.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (377000km) Why the previous relationships are found? "Surely these are Pure Coincidence" (No.3) Let's then with more depth, the moon has to move daily a distance = Earth daily motion, otherwise they will be separated from each other.. that means the moon should move daily =2.58 mkm, but we know that the moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) also 2.58mkm ..why? "We all know this is Pure Coincidence" (No.4) Then Metonic Cycle question is produced Why the moon orbit regresses daily 19 degrees? Why the moon rotates Metonic Cycle which Earth doesn't? let's think with some deep vision Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (Synodic Month) = 20 x 346.6 days (nodal year) The previous data tells us that, the Earth motion is in harmony with Moon and Moon orbit motions, that's why the three motions finish their cycles in the same time \ Why? "Just Pure Coincidence" (No.5) I found we need to find some logical and physical explanation behind all these data, I can't accept any of these as Pure coincidences…
Category: Astrophysics

[1686] viXra:1807.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 13:58:21

84 Minutes Are Required for Mercury Day

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 29 Pages.

Mercury Day needs 84 = 5040 seconds minutes to be 176 days This Data analysis supports my claim that "The Matter and Distance are created together by the Same Energy" i.e. The Matter is Energy The Distance is Energy The Space (distance) is a complementary to the Matter, Means the matter can't be created without Space Imagine a classroom The classroom is NOT a space will be filled with desks.. It's mistaken Each desk is brought inside the classroom, brought with it a part of the classroom floor Now, the classroom floor is created with the desks and NOT without.. That's the concept I want to suggest The matter and distance are complementary to each other … no one of both can found alone This idea can easily be concluded from Matter Theory of Creation Where the Theory supposes that the Matter is bright fringes and the distance is dark fringes We can see that the matter is created as a rate to its complementary distance.. This meaning we concluded easily from the Equation Planet orbital distance = Planet diameter * 1092 Note Please: 84 minutes = 5040 seconds but (71)2 = 5041
Category: Astrophysics

[1685] viXra:1807.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 22:36:03

Star System Polymorphism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All star systems are polymorphic/polymorphous. This means they contain stars in various stages to their own metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1684] viXra:1807.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 04:27:14

Black Holes and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Leiden physicists have now found a surprising connection with auxiliary black holes. [32] For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Astrophysics

[1683] viXra:1807.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 12:16:10

Eternal Sun

Authors: Moninder Singh Modgil
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper seeks to explain three solar puzzles - namely - (1) Solar Neutrino Problem, (2) Coronal Temperature Problem, and (3) Ion and electron teperature discrepancy. It considers a hypertoroidal cosmological model, in which space time have the toplogy $S^3 \times S^1$ - which have also been explored by Segal and Guillemin. The retarded fluxes, emanating from the sun, interact with the advanced fluxe returning to their origin - provide solution.
Category: Astrophysics

[1682] viXra:1807.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 10:10:29

Naturally Occurring Haber Process During Stellar Metamorphosis, or How to Find Water Worlds in Exoplanet Data

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams

Ammonia is found in late stage stars such as Neptune and Uranus. It is also present in intermediate aged stars such as Jupiter and Saturn. Given the sheer amount of hydrogen and nitrogen available to chemically combine into ammonia, it is clear that production of ammonia is a natural process in stellar evolution/metamorphosis, and we can mimic this with the Haber Process. A naturally occurring Haber process runs counter to the establishment's false worldview that stars can not cool down enough to form huge amounts of organic and non-organic molecules. We know it happens because we have direct and indirect observational evidence of it happening.
Category: Astrophysics

[1681] viXra:1807.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 06:22:23

Pluto was "The Mercury Moon"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Pluto was "The Mercury Moon" I claim the following: 1-Pluto was – The Mercury Moon- 2-Pluto had to immigrate from his original point to his new point at orbital distance =5870 mkm because of Mars immigration 3-Mars original orbital distance = 84 mkm and he immigrated from this point to his current point at orbital distance = 227.9 mkm 4-Mercury day was 176 days and decreased by 84 minutes = 5040 seconds because of Mars Immigration 5-The solar planets, found before Mars Immigration were: Pluto – Mercury- Mars – Earth- Jupiter – Uranus – Neptune (the order is incorrect) 6-The solar planets, created after Mars Immigration were: Venus – Saturn – The Earth Moon – the Sun "Pluto was The Mercury Moon" is a claim aims to supports the relationship between planet diameter and his orbital distance which supports the concept that "the Matter and distance are created together from the same Energy"
Category: Astrophysics

[1680] viXra:1807.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 08:04:47

Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1679] viXra:1807.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 09:19:07

Gravitational Lensing Study

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1678] viXra:1807.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 06:11:38

Super-Cool Kit for Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A huge U.K.-built titanium chamber designed to keep its contents at a cool-100C and weighing as much as an SUV has been shipped to the United States, where it will soon become part of a next-generation dark matter detector to hunt for the long-theorised elusive dark matter particle called a WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle). [32] An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[1677] viXra:1807.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 13:57:41

Saturn Data Proves Mars Immigration

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract Saturn Data proves that, Saturn is created after Mars Immigration Saturn Data Analysis provides us the following conclusions: -The Planets were found before Mars Immigration: Mercury – Pluto – Mars – Earth – Jupiter- Uranus – Neptune (7 planets) -The Planets were found after Mars Immigration: Venus – Saturn – The Earth Moon - (and the sun) Please Note: I claimed Mars immigrated from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm Please review "Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)" http://vixra.org/abs/1807.0268
Category: Astrophysics

[1676] viXra:1807.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 16:41:14

Neo-Heraclides Model, Part 2

Authors: John Roach
Comments: Pages.

Neo-Heraclides Model, Part 2 Dedicated to the memory of Dr. Russell Arndts. "The Truth Will Win Out"
Category: Astrophysics

[1675] viXra:1807.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 17:36:01

The Cosmic Thread

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

Think of a tennis net - if you pulled on opposite diagonal corners of the net: the threads would fold-up into a thick section. That is what is happening with a cosmic thread.
If a section of space compresses and flattens in 2 directions it will become a thread or string-like object approximately the thickness of a proton.
Category: Astrophysics

[1674] viXra:1807.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 03:49:01

Antimatter Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1673] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 07:34:37

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure is mainly proportional to T/(lnT) at the given particle number N and volume V. The Fermi electron gas is about 4.343 times at 108 K larger than it at 107 K. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=0.02716 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star.
Category: Astrophysics

[1672] viXra:1807.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 13:13:38

Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

The solar planets order tells us clearly that there's a relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance… this conclusion we get easily from the following planets order: Mercury – Venus – Earth.. The previous planets order tells us a clear rule "Planet Greater Diameter has A Greater Orbital Distance" Something was happened with Mars After Mars this rule is reversed as we see in the following planets: Jupiter – Saturn - Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The rule became "Planet Greater Diameter has A Shorter Orbital Distance" (Please Note/ Uranus greater in diameter and less in Mass from Neptune that tells us the planets order depends on their diameters and NOT on their Masses) What happened with Mars? Mars immigration from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm Let's return Mars to his original point at orbital distance = 84 mkm What the solar planets order will be: Mercury – Mars - Venus – Earth.. This follows completely the rule "Planet Greater Diameter has A Greater Orbital Distance" Based on this description there are 2 planets at least immigrated from their original points: 1-Mars immigrated from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm 2-Pluto who belonged before to the solar inner planets (my hypothesis) and had to move to the End of the solar group because the rule became reversed… \ This paper tries to prove these facts To do that we have to prove the following: 1-Mars moved from his original point (Mars is exceptional Planet) 2-Pluto belonged before to the solar inner planets.. This paper contains 2 points 3- Mars Original orbital distance was 84 mkm 4- An Alternative Solar Group Description
Category: Astrophysics

[1671] viXra:1807.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 14:03:42

Mars Immigration Proves

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

I claim that Mars immigrated from his original Point at orbital distance =84 mkm to dwell in his point at orbital distance 227.9 mkm.. And this immigration causes the following results: 1- A disturbance for the planet diameter and orbital distance relationship (which is proven clearly from the solar planets order) 2- Pluto Immigration, because Pluto had to move to the Solar group End where he before belonged to the inner planets. This study tries to prove these facts Also I provide in this Study my suggested description for the solar group.
Category: Astrophysics

[1670] viXra:1807.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 10:39:56

Dark Matter Interact with Ordinary Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[1669] viXra:1807.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 14:26:31

Solar Planet Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Theory of Matter Creation supposes that, the matter is bright fringes and the distance is dark fringes.. i.e. The planet is bright fringes and his orbital distance is dark fringes both of them are created from the same light coherence that explains the planet diameter and his orbital distance relationship… Please review Solar Group Geometrical Structure http://vixra.org/abs/1805.0081 This study tries to answer the question "How does the planet move?" let's summarize the answer in following: -The planet is created and connected with a light beam.. -So this light beam moves firstly -Then the Planet moves following this light beam with different rate of time (the planet original motion) -This motion (action) has a reaction (another motion) which =99% of the original one i.e. -The planet motion contains 3 motions together (the light beam motion- the planet original motion and the planet reacted motion which =99% of the original one) (hypothesis) -Do these 3 motions of the solar planet interpret the planet 3 cycles (Planet rotation cycle – Planet day – Planet orbital period)? This paper discusses this idea trying to prove it…
Category: Astrophysics

[1668] viXra:1807.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 20:37:00

Stages of Iron Absorption and Deposition in a Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Stars deposit iron in three basic levels. First they form the core in a very pure form alloyed with nickel. Secondly once that inner core is formed, material then deposits that is chemically combined with the iron forming molecules. Third, anymore deposited iron lands on the surface as meteorites. This shows how different the star was throughout its metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1667] viXra:1807.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 13:30:35

Mercury Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Solar Data Analysis tells us that…… Mercury has 2 velocities 1st Velocity = 47.4 km/sec which is registered in NASA Planetary Fact Sheet 2nd Velocity= 47.8 km/sec which is necessary velocity to cover Mercury Orbital Circumference 57.9 mkm x 2π= 364 mkm in Mercury Orbital Period 88 days The difference between both velocities = 1% Why are there 2 velocities for the same Planet? And how that can be possible? This question is similar to the old question concerning Newton 3rd Law "why for Each Action there's reaction equal in value and opposite in direction? In brief… why the forces are created in double?
Category: Astrophysics

[1666] viXra:1807.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 23:29:39

Anti-Neutron Stars Within the Milky Way

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief article about them
Category: Astrophysics

[1665] viXra:1807.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 14:18:52

Solar Planet Diameter Creation Rule

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 34 Pages.

Abstract D =R *1092 Where D= Planet Orbital Distance R= Planet Diameter This equation can be concluded easily from Mercury Data Where Mercury Orbital distance 57.9 million km = Mercury Diameter 4879 km * 1092 The previous Equation works perfectly with Mercury, Earth and Saturn only But doesn’t work with the rest planets data… Why? Because Mars immigrated from his original point at 84 mkm to the sun and dwell in his current point in 227.9 mkm to the sun I claim Mars immigration causes the planet diameter and orbital distance relationship disturbance This paper tries to prove that, Mars immigration causes the following results: 1-The planet diameter and orbital distance relationship disturbance 2-Metonic Cycle 3-A Cycle happened once each 2737 years
Category: Astrophysics

[1664] viXra:1807.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 11:07:56

Dark Matter Effect on Early Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the " dark photon " and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1663] viXra:1807.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 11:53:54

PDS 70 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. It is suggested to abandon the nebular hypothesis and all disk theories.

PDS 70 and its companion PDS 70b are claimed to be a new born star at ~10 million years old, with a companion new born planet. This is replaced with stellar metamorphosis and a diagram shows why. PDS 70 is a normal orange dwarf star that is slightly less massive than the Sun at about 130 million years old, and PDS 70b is a low mass brown dwarf about 330-350 million years old.
Category: Astrophysics

[1662] viXra:1807.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 17:00:18

Pregeologic Time or Pregeology, a Bridge for Geology and Astronomy

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

Earth predates its own prescribed geological record. The case is made that Earth was too hot and energetic in its past to have even formed crystalline structure such as rocks/minerals, much less allowed them to be in their molten state. This is not a fact that disregards the geological history, it just shows that the geological record can only draw conclusions from rocks and minerals, long after the majority of the primary processes that formed them have ceased. As well, it shows that the assumption of Earth having always been solid/liquid material is flawed, due to overwhelming observational evidence of stars in all stages of evolution. A simple graph is provided showing the issue.
Category: Astrophysics

[1661] viXra:1807.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 01:43:49

Shapiro Delay, A Frequency Dependent Transit Time Effect, Not A Space Time Effect

Authors: Ghanzanshahi, Shahin, Dowdye, Edward H.
Comments: 9 Pages. The Shapiro Delay has been very much misinterpreted as having something to do with Space Times or a Relativistic Effect. In fact, it is very much frequency dependent, which totally separates its effect from that of Relativity.

Irvin L. Shapiro first noticed in 1964 that the transit time required for a microwave signal to propagate through space, arrive at a satellite orbiting Venus or Mercury and then return back to the earth by the sun to be received at the observatory, had a measurable time delay that varied as a function of the impact parameter of the microwave beam relative to the sun. The delays were observed to be in the order of 100's of microseconds when the impact parameter of the microwave beam was at a minimum. These measurements permitted a precise determination of the electron density profile of the solar wind as a function of the radial distance r from the sun. The electron density profile of the solar wind is found to behave very nearly as an inverse square of the radial distance r from the sun. The solar wind is found to engulf the outmost planets of the solar system. The bulk of all the measurements were done using microwave frequencies from 500 MHz to 8.8MHz. Significant findings of this research reveal that, for all microwave signals propagating in the solar wind atmosphere of the solar system, the waves are subjected to a frequency dependent plasma index of refraction n that exceeds unity, i.e., n > 1.0. For optical, IR and UV wavelengths, the plasma index of refraction n is 1.0000000000 for these wavelengths which are virtually unaffected by the solar wind electron density. As a consequence of these findings, the Shapiro delay cannot be related to a space-time effect of General Relativity which is independent of frequency.
Category: Astrophysics

[1660] viXra:1807.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 09:39:12

Gauss's Law of Gracvity and Observational Evidence Reveal no Solar Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space

Authors: Edward H Dowdye
Comments: 10 Pages. Supporting references pertaining to the Author of this original work are found on the Website: http://www.extinctionshift.com

Findings show that the rays of star light are lensed primarily in the plasma rim of the sun and hardly in the vacuum space just slightly above the rim. Since the lower boundary of this vacuum space is only a fraction of a solar radius above the solar plasma rim, it is exposed to virtually the same gravitational field. The thin plasma atmosphere of the sun appears to represent an indirect interaction involving an interfering plasma medium between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of star light. The very same light bending equation obtained by General Relativity was derived from classical assumptions of a minimum energy path of a light ray in the plasma rim, exposed to the gravitational gradient field of the sun. The resulting calculation was found to be independent of frequency. An intense search of the star filled skies reveals a clear lack of lensing among the countless numbers of stars, where there are many candidates for gravitational lensing according to the assumptions of General Relativity. Assuming the validity of the light bending rule of General Relativity, the sky should be filled with images of Einstein rings. Moreover, a lack of evidence for gravitational lensing is clearly revealed in the time resolved images of the rapidly moving stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*. Subject headings: black hole – gravitational lensing – galaxy center – plasma atmosphere – Gauss’s law
Category: Astrophysics

[1659] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 12:47:52

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 8 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is treated at the temperature of absolute zero. In this research, first we estimate the temperature effect and find the correction only about 1/100 at 107 K but about 1/10 at 108 K. Some parts of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons. Then we consider that some electrons can escape the gravity resulting in a positive charged star. These rest positive charges produce strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. This positive-charged effect makes the upper mass limit higher than previous value. One demonstration shows that when the rest positive charges is 1.406x104 C and the radius of the white dwarf star is the same as Earth, its upper mass limit can be 1.98 times as large as our sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[1658] viXra:1807.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 16:00:14

The Mesogranulation Convective Power Spectrum

Authors: Laurence J. November
Comments: 17 Pages.

Some authors have pointed out that the observed spectrum of long-lived solar horizontal velocity shows only a single peak at wavelength ≃35 Mm, ‘supergranulation’. However the corresponding verticalvelocity spectrum looks very different with power shifted to higher wavenumber in a broad divided peak representing a range of plume sizes or half wavelengths from 4–12 Mm, i.e. ‘mesogranulation’. Vertical-velocity spectra derived from the Hathaway et al. (2000) SOHO-MDI 62 day full-disk Dopplervelocity spectrum and based upon the Koutchmy (1994) granulation intensity spectrum show expected Kolmogorov-inertial and eddy-noise power-law wavenumber subranges, giving evidence for energy injection into the vertical flow around three coherent length scales &1.01, 5.4, and 10.5 Mm, i.e. granulation, and ‘mesogranular’ and ‘supergranular’ subsurface counterparts. The three energy-injection scales correspond reasonably to interior-model convective mixing lengths for H I, He I, and He II 50% ionization depths, respectively. The two larger scales are nearly one-to-two also suggestive of a possible resonant overtone structure. The horizontal supergranulation flow seems evident as a distinct scale of eddy noise without energy injection around wavelength 45.3 Mm, consistent with the first subharmonic of the supergranular subsurface counterpart.
Category: Astrophysics

[1657] viXra:1807.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 09:09:05

Heavier Elements Made in the Cosmos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Nuclear binding energies of several rare-earth isotopes have been measured for the first time. [9] Analyses of the gravitational waves from the neutron star merger observed by LIGO and Virgo improve models describing the dense nuclear matter inside a neutron star. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1656] viXra:1807.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 23:53:20

Gravitational Effect on the Final Stellar to Planetary Mass Ratio

Authors: Steven Suan Zhu
Comments: 35 Pages. This is the 2nd version originally published on Feb 26th, 2018 on Researchgate, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32829.77288

The discovery of exoplanets and possible future detection of exomoons led to the question if any relationship holds between the mass of its host star and mass of its planets. That is, if the mass of planets is constrained by the final mass of the hosting star. If relationship such as this exists, then several key questions can be answered. First of all, based on the mass of the star, what is the upper limit mass budget available for the creation of terrestrial planets. Secondly, if we know the mass budget availability, then what is the upper limit of the mass budget for the water in the system. Thirdly, finding the probability of the formation of exomoons with sizes comparable to earth around Jovian planets. Fourthly, explaining the rare occurrence of Jupiter sized planets around red dwarf systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[1655] viXra:1806.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 12:51:17

The Black Hole With A Finite-Size Nucleus Based On The Conservation of Energy And Asymptotic Freedom

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 15 Pages.

From analysis of light geodesic along the radial direction, an infinite time for light passing through the event horizon in the black hole seems to be an unreasonable physical solution. The same situation is also for the massive particle. To compress all particles to a singularity also causes another energy problem because the black hole is evolutional from a star which only has finite mass and stored energy. From the viewpoint of the gravitation self-energy, we deduct that the black hole should have a finite-size nucleus. Then the black hole with finite-size nucleus is proposed and satisfies the gravitational criteria of the black hole. According to the successful theorem of the asymptotic freedom in the strong interaction, several possible structure models are considered in the high-density quark matter phases. Then using the Kerr-Newman metric, light propagating along the radial direction demonstrates finite speed forwardly and backwardly at any position larger than the Schwarzschild radius and no mathematical singularity at r=0 and θ=π/2. This very important fact shows that light can propagate from the outer space into a black hole and vice versa. The proposed structure model for the black hole is either rotational or charged and its nucleus can have strong magnetic dipole that causes the relativistically charged mass ejection from the black hole as happened in GRS 1915+105 and Galaxy M87. In thermal equilibrium, the nucleus of the black hole should have temperature higher than the cosmic microwave background temperature of 2.726 K. The entropy increases and the second law of thermodynamics should be still useful.
Category: Astrophysics

[1654] viXra:1806.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 15:06:46

The Variable Rate of Mass Loss Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 2 references

A new principle of stellar metamorphosis is introduced to clarify the star sciences even more period. Stars lose mass at variable rates throughout their metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1653] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 02:36:01

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written both in English and in Italian.

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[1652] viXra:1806.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 22:36:39

Martian Papers 1

Authors: Greg Orme
Comments: 211 Pages.

A series of published papers on possible Martian artifacts.
Category: Astrophysics

[1651] viXra:1806.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 23:19:02

Evolution of the Ring of Gravitating Bodies with and Without the Central Body and Properties of Their Chaotic Behavior

Authors: A.V. Melkikh, E.A. Melkikh, V.A. Kozhevnikov
Comments: 35 Pages.

The time dependence of distribution function for the system composed of material points having circular orbits at initial moment of time with and without massive central body is obtained. As a result of chaotization of orbits, a part of material points evaporates (acquires positive total energy). Dependence of the fraction of evaporated material points on the width of the disk, their mass and initial distance to the central body is obtained. Wherein, the maximum fraction of evaporated particles for the case with central body is equal to 0.4. Initial stage of evaporation of a ring of particles with a central body is a subdiffusion with the dependence of the mean square bias on time =Kαt^α, where α = 0.27. For the case without a central body, the fraction of evaporated particles is obtained as a function of the number of particles in the ring and virial ratios. The dependence of the fraction of particle pairs leaving the system on the number of particles in the ring is obtained. The average fraction of pairs for the virial ratio K = -U turned out to be 0.2. Power spectra characterizing the evaporation of particles, approximated by a power-law dependence on frequency, are obtained.
Category: Astrophysics

[1650] viXra:1806.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 04:41:12

Size of Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Astrophysicists at the Goethe University Frankfurt and the FIAS have now succeeded in determining the size of neutron stars to within 1.5 kilometres by using an elaborate statistical approach supported by data from the measurement of gravitational waves. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[1649] viXra:1806.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 05:16:45

Residual Annual and Diurnal Periodicities of the Pioneer 10 Acceleration Term Resolved in Absolute CMB Rest Frame

Authors: Roland Pabisch
Comments: 6 Pages.

The phenomenon of the residual, so far unexplained annual and diurnal tracking signal variations on top of the constant acceleration term Anderson & Laing & Lau & et al. (2002), is resolved by applying the general, classical Doppler formula (CMB-Doppler formula) of first order for two-way radio Doppler signals in the fundamental rest frame of the isotropic cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) between earthbound Deep Space Network stations (DSN), and the Pioneer 10 space probe (P 10). The anomalous annual and diurnal variations of the constant acceleration term vanish, if instead of the relativistic Standard-Doppler formula (SRT-Doppler formula) of first and second order the CMB-Doppler formula is used. That formula contains the absolute velocities ue of Earth, and upio of P 10, derived from the absolute velocity usun of the solar system barycenter in the CMB, with usun = 369.0 ± 0.9 km/s, and the relative revolution velocity ve of Earth, and the relative velocity vpio of P 10 in the heliocentric frame from January 1987 until December 1996. The flyby radio Doppler and the proportional ranging data anomalies can be resolved as well by using the CMB-Doppler formula with the absolute, asymptotic velocities of the inbound and outbound flights during a gravity assist maneuver, which have usually slightly different magnitudes, inducing the so far unexplained frequency shift, and the unexplained difference in the ranging data, although the relative velocities are equal.
Category: Astrophysics

[1648] viXra:1806.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 08:49:09

A Fifth Force Vacuum Dipole Repeller, Needed to Create All Attraction Forces Even Around Black Holes in Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory is a Rigid String Theory which states, that there are no singular string based attraction forces. The vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Axion/Higgs particles, oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in wavelength bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local (mass related) speed of light and the origin of the so called Dark Energy observed e.g. in the Casimir effect. As a consequence there are no singular attraction forces on rigid stringy knots of propeller shaped Fermions. Only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses with the local vacuum oscillation spectrum coming from all directions on Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena in the universe. At the same time we may call this force a fifth force as it opposes and interacts or compensates all Photon/Gluon pressure effects on fermions in the universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1647] viXra:1806.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 11:19:37

Fundamental Connection Between the Planck and Hubble Constants (Eng)

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 8 Pages.

This article claims that there is a fundamental relationship between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics the Hubble constant H, which states the material and energy unity of our world.
Category: Astrophysics

[1646] viXra:1806.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 07:16:18

The Milky Way and the Electron

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 1 Page.

In our galaxy (the Milky Way) the Sun is at a distance of 8,5kpc from the centre and should have a rotation speed of 160 km/s, if it were due only to baryonic matter, that is that of the stars and of all visible matter. But we know that, on the contrary, the Sun speed is 220 km/s. So we have a discrepancy Δv of 60 km/s: (Δv=220-160=60 km/s). The laws about such discrepancies are astonishing, as we will see.
Category: Astrophysics

[1645] viXra:1806.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-25 01:57:27

N e U T R O N N e W M O D e L

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 35 Pages.

Initially the neutron (N) was considered made by the very close union of a proton (P) and an electron (e), i.e. a doublet:〔P, e〕. This is the electron capture process, which involves also an electronic neutrino (e): e+ P  N + e. This neutronization reaction occurs continuously in reality: in the Neutron Stars, or in the stellar and explosive nucleosynthesis, creating all the elements of the Periodic Table. Later it was found that some principles of Quantum Mechanics did not allow the presence of e in the nucleus, since e acquiring an energy of ~140 MeV immediately goes away. However, it was not considered that the electron capture occurs just because the e involved is provided with a relativistic energy: ~200 MeV. This explains why this bond lasts for hundreds of millions of years, as in the Neutron Stars. Then it emerged that the Spin Statistics categorically imposed that the N was a fermion, rather than a boson (if it was a doublet). However, if we considered the N as a multiplet, made of 3 particles with half-integer spin, the N would continue to be a fermion safeguarding, likewise, the Spin Statistics and making exhaustive and much more congruous the electron capture equation. It is therefore necessary to integrate the photoannihilation processes (γe+ῡe) to the neutronization, so that: e+P+γe+P+ῡe+eN+e; as we can see, N is equivalent to the multiplet [e, P, ῡe]. However, the N decay (N P+e+ῡe) is energetically unbalanced, since the mass of a ῡe is  5.8eV, against an energy gap between 0.7828-0.511MeV. The only possible solution to solve this striking mass gap problem could be given by a possible neutral electron (e°), or rather its anti-particle: the ē°. Thus the N multiplet (or neutral compound P) would be balanced too: N = [e, P, ē°].
Category: Astrophysics

[1644] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 04:11:30

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Newtonian Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov
Comments: 5 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macrophysics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the laking point n = 30 is observed to be directly related to the time defined from the mean cosmic mass density and the Fermi constant, which is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 1057 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 10^61 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a Newtonian absolute Space-Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[1643] viXra:1806.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 11:46:28

Is a Black Hole a Neutron Star?

Authors: Arieh Sher
Comments: 4 Pages.

The connection between a black hole and a neutron star is shown. I postulate that both bodies have the same physical structure, namely, the nucleons of both bodies are so packed that their densities are the maximum possible in the Universe. It is interesting to note that the density of the nucleus of the atom has the same structure and the same density. Neutron stars have been observed in the Universe, whereas black holes were not. The existence of black holes is deduced from observing motion of stars around an invisible object that has a huge mass. I postulate that the reason why neutron star is visible whereas a black hole is not, is the ratio between the physical radius of the body and its Schwarzschild radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[1642] viXra:1806.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-14 05:42:11

Neutron Star Mergers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[1641] viXra:1806.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 09:45:10

Expanding Earth, by Growing Water based Crashed Comet core.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 33 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Electric dark matter black holes, even in the form of microscopic, produced by magnetic quantum interference, produce plasma and water and are proliferated through stellar systems, such as unstable Ball Lightning up to stable Comets and Sunspots (crashed Comets). As a consequence, crashed comets in the earth are responsible for the volcanism and the base for so called “growing Earth” by its growing compressed water core, as a base for quarks and as such H2 and O and more complex atoms. Comet 67P CG, (Churyumov-Gerasimenko) seems to be a unique test bed for this theory. Recent measurements and photos are already suggesting that a large variety of atoms are ejected by the Comet and surface changes seem to be the origin of local crack shaped colour changes. The magnetic field of the comet seems to ring or sing 3 times every minute by the internal tectonic shocks. The dusty jets observed from the so called “Neck” of the comet seem to be a sign for a central Birkeland Alfven current circuit effect on dust acceleration and violating the solar heat erosion theory. If sunspots are former comet nuclei splashed into the sun, than we may assume that sunspots are also the creators of new solar plasma. Secondly, if Comet nuclei can survive the sun they also must be able to survive the crash into planets like earth or moons. As a consequence we may assume that all energetic and plasma (new matter) related production processes found around planets and moons could be based on the same process. Examples are found in the water vapor plumes of geysers observed on Jupiters moon Europa. Recent findings of water inclusions in volcanic diamonds are an extra support. The peculiar shape of the continents on earth has been a constant reason for discussion of the origin of the expanding earth. If these crashed comets also act as gravity point sources, then even the so called Flyby anomaly and the P-wave anomaly could be explained
Category: Astrophysics

[1640] viXra:1806.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-15 07:38:58

Dark Matter with Radio Pulsars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. [29] CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1639] viXra:1806.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-17 13:02:43

Reinterpretation of the Robertson-Walker Metric, the Shapes of the Cosmos, and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Robertson-Walker metric has been recognized for describing the global space-time Universe which could be one of the three models: flat ( = 0), closed ( = 0) or open ( = −0). This paper reinterprets the Robertson-Walker metric, which actually describe the geometrical shapes of the global space-time Universe and two local space-time. The global space-time is the “infinite” hyper-sphere of the Universe without boundary (open sphere). The two forms of local space-time caused by the agglomeration of matter into stars and stellar systems, which appeared as sphere (or ellipsoid) and flat. The shapes of spheres range from small elementary particles in quantum physics to planets, stars and giant objects such as globular nebulae in cosmological physics. The flat shapes are disk like galaxies, and the solar system in its infancy, etc. In last chapter, the cosmological constant was derived from the volume of the five dimension hyper-sphere. The cosmological constant is relevant with the Gaussian curvature 1/R^2 of the Universe. The value of the cosmological constant is: = 5(Ho^2)/(2πc^2)
Category: Astrophysics

[1638] viXra:1806.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-19 15:23:09

Uranus Position In The Sky

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Uranus and Neptune are perpendicular on Saturn level i.e. Saturn Orbital Distance locates at horizontal level with all planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) – let's call it (Saturn level) Uranus and Neptune are on vertical level related to Saturn level - let's call it ( Uranus level) So Uranus level is perpendicular on Saturn level
Category: Astrophysics

[1637] viXra:1806.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 02:12:20

The Sun Data shows Relativistic Effects (revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 47 Pages.

Abstract -The Sun Data shows Relativistic Effects. i.e. -There's a physical point in the solar group moves with c velocity relative to another physical point in the solar group. and this high velocity causes the relativistic effects which are observed and recorded in this paper -The Solar Planets Data Analysis shows that, Mars Original Orbital Distance was = 84 million km. but because of the relativistic effects, Mars had to immigrate from his original point to his new point at orbital distance = 227.9 million km. -This paper provide analyzed data and explanations to prove these 2 facts which are: 1.There's motion with c velocity inside the solar group 2.Mars immigrated from his original point at orbital distance 84 million km to his new orbital distance 227.9 million km
Category: Astrophysics

[1636] viXra:1806.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 20:36:01

Ganymede on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram: No Life Now or in the Past

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 diagram

Ganymede is a unique remnant. The variables need to be worked out more in depth. It is proposed as a challenge for future developers of stellar metamorphosis to figure out if life formed on Ganymede based on first principles, or even principles that have yet to be discovered. It is suggested to follow the work of Daniel Archer and Jeremy L. England to further refine these conclusions. It is important to write about these matters, because as of 2018 there exists not a single theory that comes close to explaining how and why life should form on evolving stars, except for GTSM. I place Ganymede as moving too quickly to ocean world stages.
Category: Astrophysics

[1635] viXra:1806.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-10 12:11:23

Earth Motion Produces the Moon Orbit

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 28 Pages.

Abstract Earth Motion Energy produces the Moon Orbit based on The relativistic Motion Example for Explanation: In Lorentz Length contraction Equation If -Lo = Earth Daily Motion = 2.58 million -v= 0.99 c (Earth hidden velocity- Hypothesis) -L = 363000 km (the distance between Earth and moon at Perigee Point) -Lo= 7.09 L That means Earth Energy Motion moves toward the moon and builds the moon orbit by this Energy (that proves Earth has a hidden velocity =0.99c) The Basic Concept The Solar Group is consisted of one unified Energy, which passes and transports from point to another through the solar group This unified Energy creates the solar planets matters, orbital distances and motions Means the whole group is connected together by the same line of Energy, that's why we should consider the solar group as one body So if the moon orbit is built by Earth motion energy (as we'll study in this paper) That will be an example for the whole solar group, the solar group can be similar to a river has many canals, each canal effects on the others also the solar group can be similar to group of gears, each gear effects on the others motions, In Brief I claim, The Solar groups is an integrated and cooperated system The components of this system are created by an unified Energy, where this same unified Energy is transported from point to another through the solar group to cause the creation and motion of all these components and no solar component is found out of this Energy (Solar components means the solar planets masses, orbital distances …and all other data)
Category: Astrophysics

[1634] viXra:1806.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-10 00:11:50

Balloon Inside Balloon Theory.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 3 Pages. PHYSICS BEYOND STANDARD MODEL.

NEGATIVE TIME DESCRIBED BY FEYNMAN HAS A PROFOUND MEANING IN ADDITION TO ITS MATHEMATICAL TRICK EFFECT. OUR CONCEPT OF MIRROR UNIVERSES PUBLISHED BY ME IN YEAR 2002 AS A COMMENT IN ASTRONOMY .NET IS BECOMING RELEVANT DAY BY DAY.
Category: Astrophysics

[1633] viXra:1806.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 08:06:19

Neutron Stars Quark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1632] viXra:1806.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 05:51:05

Dark Matter Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Fusion may have a dark side. A shadowy hypothetical process called “dark fusion” could be occurring throughout the cosmos, a new study suggests. [28] A recent astronomical observation that the ordinary matter in the early universe was much cooler than expected could be explained if a small proportion of dark matter has a tiny electric charge. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1631] viXra:1806.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 04:43:09

Thermodynamics and the Virial Theorem, Gravitational Collapse and the Virial Theorem: Insight from the Laws of Thermodynamics

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages.

Application of the virial theorem, when combined with results from the kinetic theory of gases, has been linked to gravitational collapse when the mass of the resulting assembly is greater than the Jeans mass, MJ. While the arguments appear straightforward, the incorporation of temperature into these equations, using kinetic theory, results in a conflict with the laws of thermodynamics. Temperature must always be viewed as an intensive property. However, it is readily demonstrated that this condition is violated when the gravitational collapse of a free gas is considered using these approaches. The result implies star formation cannot be based on the collapse of a self-gravitating gaseous mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[1630] viXra:1806.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 01:07:32

Primordial Electric Dark Matter Black Holesoutside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Multi-Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal,or the idea that the universe is “closed“and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever.I will call this aclosed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF)model.The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a newparadigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas.However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes theyshould be the ultimate origin of universal contractioninto a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse.The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes.All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum latticewith a local Planck length extension-as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon.As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources,to be found in particulararound merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies.. (1) Primordial Electric Dark Matter Black Holes outside Galaxies responsible for the creation and contraction of a Cyclic Universe.. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276916753_Primordial_Electric_Dark_Matter_Black_Holes_outside_Galaxies_responsible_for_the_creation_and_contraction_of_a_Cyclic_Universe [accessed Jun 07 2018].
Category: Astrophysics

[1629] viXra:1806.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 09:35:07

Galaxy Clusters Upend Einstein

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

It will be possible to use new astronomical mappings of hundreds of thousands of cosmic voids and galaxy clusters to test Einstein's theory of relativity by looking for small deviations in gravity at vast distances – a possible explanation for the dark energy that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. [30] By comparing different types of remote atomic clocks, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have performed the most accurate test ever of a key principle underlying Albert Einstein's famous theory of general relativity, which describes how gravity relates to space and time. [29] "As crazy as all this looks, there appears to be strong reliability in these behaviors that could even be predictably and practically manipulated," Landman said. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[1628] viXra:1806.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 21:33:10

Some Parameters of 4D Matter

Authors: Valery P. Skorobogatov
Comments: 7 Pages. The Russian version was put on my site 30.04.18

The some corrections of the parameters of 4D matter is given. Also the procedure for calculation of the planet distances is proposed that rather well corresponds for some cases. But this method fails to explain the Titius-Bode rule. On basis of the parameters obtained the so name legnth of electron is calculated. It is compared with the life time of neutron. On my opinion it tells in favor of the model of 4D matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1627] viXra:1806.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 00:54:14

Documentation of the Solar Activity Variations and It's Influence on Climate

Authors: Dimitris Poulos
Comments: 5 Pages. Global Journal of Physics

The four planets that influence the most the solar surface through tidal forcing seem to affect the Earth climate. A simple two cosine model with periods 251 years, of the seasonality of the Earth – Venus syzygies, and 265.4 years, of the combined syzygies of Jupiter and Mercury with Earth when Earth is in syn od with Venus, fits well the Northern Hemisphere temperatures of the last 1000 years as reconstructed by Jones et al (1998). The physical mechanism proposed is that planetary gravitational forces drive solar activity that in turn drives temperature variations in earth. The sun is in a boundary balance state at one hand collapsing due to gravity and at the other hand expanding due to fus ion, and as such it should be heavily influenced by minimal external forcings such as planetary gravity. Sound waves in the solar mass, created from the planetary movement, are responsible for the formation of solar corona and sun spots. The Earth-Venus 251 year resonance is resonant to a near surface solar layer's thermal natural frequency that “e xplodes” to form solar wind. The calculated solar wind properties match the observed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1626] viXra:1806.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 00:57:28

A Note on the Solar Activity and Solar Wind Mechanisms and an Answer to the Critique that Tidal Forces from Orbiting Planets Are Very Weak to Produce Any Visible Effect to Sun

Authors: Dimitris Poulos
Comments: 1 Page.

Tidal forcing of the solar atmosphere and the solar activity variability it produces, isn’t in fact a high scale phenomenon. The solar temperature varies by some 6000 K at surface to some millions K at core. So if only you dig into some kilometers into the ultra low density gas solar atmosphere by tidal perturbation, you can have some 1000 K increase in temperature. This is not a high scale phenomenon. It is only perceived as high scale because it influences our lives.
Category: Astrophysics

[1625] viXra:1806.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 08:14:18

Solar Wind Boundary

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

NASA has selected a science mission planned for launch in 2024 that will sample, analyze, and map particles streaming to Earth from the edges of interstellar space. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1624] viXra:1806.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 11:45:07

The Dimensionless Quantity Connecting Sun-like Stars to Red Dwarfs on a Mass-Radii Diagram: The Cassandra Ratio

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages. 2 graphs, 1 data set, 1 picture

It is presented a dimensionless quantity that predicts the radii of G, K and M type stars between 1/2 and 1 Solar mass. That quantity is 9.6/1000, or ~1/100. So if you have a G, K or M type star with the radii of 5-10 Jupiters, you can multiply that radii by 100 to find its mass in Jupiter masses. The dimensionless quantity and graph shows that the Sun will not become a red giant, it will lose its size due to mass loss via the mass loss principle at a rate of ~1/100 per unit mass. Data is taken from the Kepler data set and is listed, as well as a line of best fit on the graph. The line on the graph is the location of the Cassandra Ratio.
Category: Astrophysics

[1623] viXra:1805.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-31 05:47:39

Charged Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A recent astronomical observation that the ordinary matter in the early universe was much cooler than expected could be explained if a small proportion of dark matter has a tiny electric charge. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[1622] viXra:1805.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 06:54:45

Tidal Star Disruption Events (TDE) by Fermion Repelling Black Holes in Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, all Black Holes (BHs) repel all Fermionic matter, by the Fermionic rigid string shaped propeller based spin flip at all black hole horizons, even around ball lightning BHs. A tidal disruption event (TDE), is a bright flare of radiation around the central Black Hole (BH) assumed to be the interaction with a local star.. However, according to Q-FFF Theory, the star will not be consumed by the black hole, but torn apart and ejected into two jets and a plasma disc. Only other smaller black holes like Super nova BHs are postulated to be consumed by the central growing black hole. New physics black holes are also supposed to be responsible for dual BH Herbig Haro systems, with a third growing BH in the center in case of Galaxy formations. In Quantum FFF Theory, ( Function Follows Form at the quantum scale), it is assumed, that all Black holes repel Fermionic matter! by their propeller based (Fermion propeller rigid string) spin flip at all black hole horizons even ball lightning micro BHs seem to repel Fermions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1621] viXra:1805.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-29 19:41:42

The Time Definition

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 47 Pages.

Abstract -The Solar Planets motions are relativistic motions -Earth real Velocity = 0.99 c -The time is an Energy -Based on Relativistic Motions, the distances values can be seen as time values i.e. -The time is equivalent for the distance (a development for the Special Theory of Relativity made by me) -The Solar group geometrical structure depends on the time and Distance equivalence (based on relativistic motions), to create different rates of time, which enables the system to accumulate the Energy Let's summarize this idea in following: -Based on the solar group relativistic motions, time and distances values are equivalence -The solar geometry uses unified distances to create different values of time, which are seen by different cycles -The time different values depend on each other to create different rates of time -By this different rates of time the Energy can be accumulated to produce huge energy from average one. -Based on this description, the solar planets motions produce the sun light beams
Category: Astrophysics

[1620] viXra:1805.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-29 20:39:44

Radio Astronomy Below 1 Hz

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is multi-century visual evidence that extremely long wavelength electromagnetic emissions are present in the universe. The megawalls of galaxies in both directions from Earth identify the presence of extremely long cyclic processes. Many long period events have been detected with instruments and visual observations, but never associated with electromagnetic waves. Optical and radio telescopes can maintain a constant celestial reference point for a fraction of a day, but this duration is sufficient to detect signals that are below 1 Hz. The electromagnetic emissions that are generated at or near our galactic core would be those that we should be able to detect directly. As lower frequency antenna/sensors become available the spectrum that needs to be scanned will gradually increase.
Category: Astrophysics

[1619] viXra:1805.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 03:46:16

Stringent Limit on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Experimental results from the XENON1T dark matter detector limit the effective size of dark matter particles to 4.1X10-47 square centimeters—one-trillionth of one-trillionth of a centimeter squared—the most stringent limit yet determined for dark matter as established by the world's most sensitive detector. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[1618] viXra:1805.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-27 06:43:22

Particle in Rotating Spacetime

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1617] viXra:1805.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-26 10:33:07

Dark Matter's Hidden Valley

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[1616] viXra:1805.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-26 11:18:26

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis 1

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 17 Pages.

Technische Anwendungen zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie in Theorie und Praxis
Category: Astrophysics

[1615] viXra:1805.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-25 13:45:04

The `constant Lagrangian' Fit of Galaxy Rotation Curves as Caused by Cosmic Space Expansion Under Energy Conservation Conditions.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 6 Pages.

In my opinion, the problem of the galaxy rotation curves can be solved on the basis of the combined and competing principles of space expansion and energy conservation on the one hand and gravitational contraction and the virial theorem on the other hand. Thus far it has been assumed that the existence of galaxies is proof of the dominance of gravitational contraction in galaxies. In this paper I present arguments in favor of my conviction that this assumption is wrong and that space expansion is one of the two dominating and competing principles active in galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[1614] viXra:1805.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 15:48:32

The Neo-Heraclides Model

Authors: John Roach
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this essay, the Neo-Heraclides Model offers new paradigms in Astronomy, Gravity & Global Warming/Climate Change. In Astronomy, a Geocentric Model with Heliocentric features is offered. In Gravity, both the Hidden Attractant Force (Isaac Newton)& Geometric Gravity(Albert Einstein) is dismissed & replaced. In Global Warming, a cyclical climate change & its causal agency is offered. Also, the mystery that surrounds the photosynthesis reaction is solved.
Category: Astrophysics

[1613] viXra:1805.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 22:55:49

Dark Photons, Ferent Particles FTL

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 160 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Dark Photons, Ferent Particles FTL The photons mediate electromagnetic interactions between particles in the Standard Model (baryonic matter); in the same way dark radiation, Dark Photons mediate interactions between Dark Matter particles. Dark Photons have zero rest mass. “Ferent equation for Dark Photons energy: E = a × f ” Adrian Ferent Dark Photons are Dark Matter particles. “Dark Photons are Ferent Particles” Adrian Ferent What is Dark Matter in my Gravitation theory? At Ferent wall due to the extraordinarily small scale of the universe at that time, Gravitation was the only physical interaction. At Ferent wall were created Dark Matter and Gravitons. “Black holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent What is Ferent Matter? Ferent Matter is high density Dark Matter: Ferent density ≥ Ferent matter density > Planck density The majority of Ferent Matter is the core of the supermassive black hole, in the center of each galaxy. Ferent Matter plays a central role in galaxy formation and evolution. “The primordial black holes in the early universe are Ferent matter” Adrian Ferent 3. I am the first who explained what Black holes are: Black holes are Ferent matter 4. I am the first who discovered that the majority of dark matter is in the core of the supermassive black holes 5. I am the first who discovered another wall, the Ferent wall, beyond the Planck wall “Dark Matter is in my Gravitation theory, not in Einstein’s gravitation theory, String theory, LQG…” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right and Einstein’s gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories. I am the first who explained what Black holes are: “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Multiple universes: Subuniverses in my Gravitation theory: “Because there are 2 walls, there are 2 subuniverses: Ferent universe and Planck universe” Adrian Ferent Here is the proof that I was the first who explained that Black Holes are Dark Matter: ‘Ferent Matter is Dark Matter’ on YouTube: “The momentum operator for Dark Matter particles:” Adrian Ferent “Total energy operator for Dark Matter particles:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent time-dependent equation for Dark Matter particles:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Particles are Faster Than Light” Adrian Ferent Conservation of Energy The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot change in time. Planck energy is nature’s maximum allowed matter energy for point-energy (quanta). During the Big Bang this means: “The Ferent energy at Ferent wall, is equal with the Planck energy.” Adrian Ferent From here I calculated the speed of Ferent Particles! The speed of the Ferent Particles: The speed of Ferent Particles vp , where a=a/2π Ferent constant a = 1.590511178×10^(-76) J•s From this equation the speed of Ferent Particle is vp = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s much faster than the speed of light! This vp = 1.001762 × 10^17m/s is closed to the speed of light squared (3 × 10^8)^2 m/s! “The speed of Dark Photons is vp = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books that nothing can travel faster than light. My Gravitation theory explains: “The Gravitons and the Dark Photons are faster than light” Adrian Ferent “Dark Energy is Gravitons” Adrian Ferent My quantum gravity theory shows that the Gravitons and the Dark Photons are too small to be detected by today’s technology. In my Gravitation theory Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist. “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent 70. I am the first who discovered Dark Photon energy: E = a × f 71. I am the first who discovered the momentum operator for Dark Matter particles: 72. I am the first who discovered the total energy operator for Dark Matter particles: ” 73. I am the first who discovered the Ferent time-dependent equation for Dark Matter Particles: 74. I am the first who discovered that the Gravitons and the Dark Photons are faster than light. 75. I am the first who explained that Dark Matter is in my Gravitation theory, not in Einstein’s gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… 76. I am the first who explained that the primordial black holes in the early universe are Ferent matter 77. I am the first who explained that the Ferent energy at Ferent wall, is equal with the Planck energy 78. I am the first who calculated the speed of Dark Photons: vp = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s 79. I am the first who explained that because there are 2 walls, there are 2 subuniverses: Ferent universe and Planck universe
Category: Astrophysics

[1612] viXra:1805.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 14:15:55

A Categorization and Analysis of the `constant Lagrangian' Fits of the Galaxy Rotation Curves of the Complete Sparc Database of 175 Galaxies.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 117 Pages.

In this paper I categorize and analyze the `constant Lagrangian' model fits I made of the complete SPARC database of 175 galaxies. Of the 175 galaxies, 45 allowed a single fit rotation curve, so about 26 percent. Another 9 galaxies could almost be plotted on a single fit. Then 30 galaxies could be fitted really nice on crossing dual curves. The reason for the appearance of this dual curve, in its two versions, could be given and related to the galactic constitution and dynamics. Another 25 galaxies could be fitted on parallel transition dual curves. This appearance could also be related to galactic dynamics and galactic mass distribution. Then there were the 19 multiple fit galaxies, complex extended galaxies, the complexities of which could be analyzed on the basis of the 4 types of dual fits. In total 128 of the 175 galaxies could be fitted and analyzed very well to reasonably well within the error margins. That is a 73 percent success rate. This amazing result rules out stochastic coincidence as an explanation of those fits. In my opinion, the success of the `constant Lagrangian' approach indicates that the problem of the galaxy rotation curves can be solved on the basis of the principle of conservation of energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1611] viXra:1805.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 08:20:13

Convincing Confirmation of Exclusive Model of the Proton Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. in Atomic Measurement the Proton Can be Presented as a Positron Kernel with an Electron Shell.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In atomic measurement the proton can be presented as a positron kernel with an electron shell.
Category: Astrophysics

[1610] viXra:1805.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-20 10:57:33

Island of Stellar Stability

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 7 Pages. 1 graph

It is presented a graph where the radii and mass of over 200 stars is presented as an island of evolutionary stability. Stars that are stable and evolve normally becoming "planets" fit on this island. The stars move towards the origin, (0,0). The idea for this is from the isotope island of stability, where elements are stable, versus where they can fly apart during radioactive decay.
Category: Astrophysics

[1609] viXra:1805.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-18 11:00:06

A `constant Lagrangian' Fit of the Galaxy Rotation Curves of the Complete Sparc Database of 175 Galaxies.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 195 Pages.

In this paper I apply the `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic dynamics to the complete SPARC database of 175 galaxies. For twenty five percent, 43 out of 175, of the galaxies of the series, a single fit model already remains nicely within the error margins. Fifteen galaxies are more complicated and clearly need a threefold fit. One exceptional galaxy justified five fits. So 116 galaxies, 66 percent, have a dual fit. The multiple fit appears to follow the mass composition of galaxies as composed of a bulge, possibly a disk and mostly extended gas clouds. As in previous papers, I will first repeat a presentation of the `constant Lagrangian' approach. The original part of this paper is the fit of the complete set of the SPARC database and a first categorization of the result in single, dual, triple or multiple fit galaxies. Through the extensive database fit, the `constant Lagrangian' approach can be inverted from a deductive to an inductive result: huge stretches of all galaxies can be fitted on a constant Lagrangian curve, while remaining within the empirical margin of errors. This paper's galaxy fits prove this restricted claim beyond doubt. The issue then becomes to explain this empirical, inductive result.
Category: Astrophysics

[1608] viXra:1805.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-15 01:47:44

What is the Space?

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 5 Pages.

By the unified theory of dynamic space has been there a forecast of the follow observation that, parallel moving photons of different frequency, reduce locally the cohesive pressure of space, resulting to move with different speeds. So, the photons with higher frequency slow down against parallel moving photons with lower frequency, as on delay in gamma rays from galaxy Markarian 501 was observed. This observation proves that space contains unseen forces, which are evident as deformations of space, such as in the above theory are described. Accordingly, for the great problem of Physics and Philosophy, "What is the space?", there is the answer-solution: "The dynamic space".
Category: Astrophysics

[1607] viXra:1805.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-13 12:29:17

WASP-107b, a Star that Will Never Form Life

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is hypothesized that WASP-107b is a middle aged star that has fallen below the Taylor Threshold. Size is replace by mass of the WT Diagram on the Y-axis as well. Other atmospheric thresholds will need to be designed inside of the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1606] viXra:1805.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-13 13:36:04

Space Gardening

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

But NASA has decided that gardening in space will be crucial for the next generation of explorers, who need to feed themselves on missions to the Moon or Mars that may last months or years. [9] Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1605] viXra:1805.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-14 04:09:25

Dark Matter in Multiverse

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[1604] viXra:1805.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-14 10:43:51

Laser Systems for Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

JOKARUS experiment on sounding rocket successfully completed. Corner stone for laser ranging measurements with the highest precision and precursor for optical satellite navigation systems. [13] Exploding stars lit the way for our understanding of the universe, but researchers are still in the dark about many of their features. [12] A team of scientists from Russia and China has developed a model explaining the nature of high-energy cosmic rays (CRs) in our galaxy. These CRs have energies exceeding those produced by supernova explosions by one or two orders of magnitude. [11] On August 14, 2017, a groundbreaking University of Maryland-designed cosmic ray detector will travel to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the SpaceX-12 Commercial Resupply Service mission. [10] It was because of these characteristics that it was proposed to give this new class of variable stars the acronym BLAPS, i.e. Blue Large-Amplitude Pulsators. [9] Researchers at the University of Southampton have cast doubt over established explanations for certain behaviours in pulsars-highly magnetised rotating neutron stars, formed from the remains of supernovae. [8] Installed on the International Space Station, by mid-July it will commence its scientific work – to study the exotic astrophysical objects known as neutron stars and examine whether they could be used as deep-space navigation beacons for future generations of spacecraft. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1603] viXra:1805.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-12 04:01:53

Binaries Detectable by LISA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1602] viXra:1805.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-10 01:09:25

ФИЗИЧЕСКАЯ ИЛЛЮЗИЯ ЧИСЛА ПИ Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. Гипотезы, исключающие возможность физического существования числа Пи.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Гипотезы, исключающие возможность физического существования числа Пи.
Category: Astrophysics

[1601] viXra:1805.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-08 05:21:44

To and Fro Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. in the Present We Observe a Projection of Surrounding Space on an Information Field of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the present we observe a projection of surrounding space on an information field of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1600] viXra:1805.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-08 10:35:45

A `constant Lagrangian' Fit of the Galaxy Rotation Curves of the `F-Series' from the Sparc Database.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this paper I apply the `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic dynamics to the F-series of the SPARC database. I will fit the experimental rotation curves of the $16$ `F' galaxies from this database using the dual fit approach. This means that one fit is made for the stars dominated region of one galaxy. Another fit is added for the gas dominated region of the same galaxy. The dual fit approach results in a rotation curve fit that mostly remains within the observational error margins. For some galaxies of the series a single model already remains nicely within the error margins and then doesn't really justify a dual fit. Some galaxies are more complicated and problably need a threefold fit. This dual fit approach follows the mass composition of galaxies as composed of a bulge, possibly a disk and mostly extended gas clouds.
Category: Astrophysics

[1599] viXra:1805.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-08 15:00:29

Percentage Ratios for Life in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Barrington Taylor, Jeffrey Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The time scales and percentage rates involved in stellar evolution cannot be emphasized enough. Explanation to show this is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1598] viXra:1805.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-07 10:34:33

Most Sensitive Dark Matter Experiments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31] The Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX) at the University of Washington in Seattle has finally reached the sensitivity needed to detect axions if they make up dark matter, physicists report today in Physical Review Letters. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[1597] viXra:1805.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-02 14:27:42

Solar Group Geometrical Structure

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 70 Pages.

-The rate 1.0725 is found frequently between many solar planets orbital and internal distances (a constant rate) -I suggest this rate is found because of Lorentz Contraction Phenomenon i.e. -There's a difference in velocities = "light velocity" between 2 motions in the solar group (even if we can't measure or notice this velocities difference) i.e. There's More Than One Frame In The Solar Group This paper suggests a clear argument as following: 1.The solar group is created by light beams, but we see these light beams in different forms (as matters and distances) 2.We see the light as matter (Specifically, bright fringes produced by light coherence we see as matters, where dark fringes we see as distances) 3.We see bright fringes as matters because our mind works by light velocity (Mind Thinking Process), so the whole matter around us is found because of the human mind effect. 4.to enable us to see the sun rays, Earth has to move with light velocity relative to the sun, to create a difference in velocities = c velocity 5.So, the sun creation depends on the difference in Earth and Sun motions = c velocity. 6.That's why Lorentz contraction phenomenon is seen in the solar orbital and internal distances, specifically with the constant rate = 1.0725, (which equals 7.25%), where the sun obliquity to ecliptic (7.25 degrees). 7.means, the sun creation process contains Lorentz Phenomenon Effect on the solar orbital and internal distances (and on many other values) 8.The Distance can be defined as "A Form Of Energy", which is proved by the moon orbit regression yearly 19 degrees (Metonic Cycle) (otherwise how distance can move?) (that supports the claim that, distances are dark fringes produced by light coherence) This Paper Consists Of 2 Parts 1st Part : Theory Of Matter Creation 2nd Part : Application on the theory (the solar group creation from the light) Starting From The Solar Group First Energy Explaining The Energy Coherence (light coherence) Discovering The Matter Creation Providing The Solar Group Motions Harmony Reasons
Category: Astrophysics

[1596] viXra:1805.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-03 10:30:34

Secrets of Dense Nuclear Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

New insights into the properties of neutron stars have come from two independent analyses of gravitational waves from the GW170817 neutron-star merger. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1595] viXra:1805.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 09:21:31

A New Vision of Our Universe.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 7 Pages. A new vision in modern physics.

A new vision beyond standard model to understand our universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1594] viXra:1805.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 11:27:05

A Stars-Gas Dual Fit Result in the `constant Lagrangian' Model for Galactic Dynamics When Applied to the Sparc Database

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 41 Pages.

In this paper I apply the `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic dynamics to a subset of the SPARC database. I will fit $25$ galaxies from this database using the dual fit approach. This means that one fit is made for the stars dominated region of one galaxy. Another fit is added for the gas dominated region of the same galaxy. Both are presented in one single graph. The switch from stars dominated to gas dominated is sometimes visible as a ``wiggle'' in the total rotation velocity, as for exampe in the rotation curve of NGC 1560. I will demonstrate that this more or less visible``wiggle'' is part of the rotation velocity curve of almost every galaxy in the sample. The dual fit approach results in a rotation curve fit that mostly remains within the observational error margins.
Category: Astrophysics

[1593] viXra:1804.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-29 15:00:44

The Location of Titan on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

One of Saturn's moons, Titan, is placed on the WT Diagram. Explanation of what we should expect from this placement is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1592] viXra:1804.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 10:21:20

The Timeless Universe

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the unified theory of dynamic space the phenomenon of motion has been described as a form of space deformation, that is identical to time. The motion force is deducted from the dynamic space and is accumulated on the spherical zone of the particle, due to the difference of cohesive pressure in front of and behind it. Cosmic journey of galaxies becomes at a Universal constant timeless speed. Also, timeless speed of light is a Universal constant, while light speed is a local constant. The gravity tail of galactic systems is one of moreover causes for their chaotic motion. So, the search for an unknown form of dark matter and energy is no longer necessary.
Category: Astrophysics

[1591] viXra:1804.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-25 18:35:25

Fitting Some Galaxy Rotation Curves Using the `constant Lagrangian' Model for Galactic Dynamics.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 10 Pages.

The velocity rotation curves of the SPARC database present an opportunity to test the `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic dynamics. The fits of the rotation curves from thirteen different galaxies are presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[1590] viXra:1804.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 09:36:54

Dense Nuclear Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Analyses of the gravitational waves from the neutron star merger observed by LIGO and Virgo improve models describing the dense nuclear matter inside a neutron star. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1589] viXra:1804.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 09:58:25

General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9] Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1588] viXra:1804.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 08:03:57

Top Five Dark Matter Candidates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

What if the universe we know is just one runty part of a larger, mostly invisible universe, and the only way we can interact is via gravity? [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1587] viXra:1804.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-24 09:11:00

Fitting the NGC 1560 Rotation Curve and Other Galaxies in the `constant Lagrangian' Model for Galactic Dynamics.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 25 Pages.

The velocity rotation curve of NGC 1560 has a peculiar wiggle around 4.5 kpc. This makes it a favorable galaxy to test the diverse models trying to explain galactic dynamics, as for example CDM and MOND. I will fit NGC 1560 using the GR-Schwarzschild based `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic dynamics and compare it to other results. But first I will give a brief expose of the `constant Lagrangian' approach. At the end, I present same other fitting curves: those of galaxies F583-1, F579V1 and U11648.
Category: Astrophysics

[1586] viXra:1804.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-23 07:45:40

Dwarf Galaxies Big Picture

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

EPFL scientists have completed the fastidious task of analyzing 27 dwarf galaxies in detail, identifying the conditions under which they were formed and how they've since evolved. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1585] viXra:1804.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 05:44:24

Why Baryonic Matter Appears Insufficient in Spiral Galaxies?

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 2 pages, 3 figures

Considering the presence of dark matter or modifying the Newtonian laws of gravity are the most dominant scientific methods that we come across when it comes to explaining the mysterious, non-declining, non-Keplerian rotation curves exhibited by spiral galaxies. Considering the presence of baryonic matter only in order to solve the galaxy rotation problem has been explained by me in my previous papers. In this paper I present a practical approach to explain why the baryonic matter present within a spiral galaxy appears to be insufficient to account for the anomalous galaxy rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[1584] viXra:1804.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-22 08:41:26

A `constant Lagrangian' Model for Galactic Dynamics in a Geodetic Approach Towards the Galactic Rotation Dark Matter Issue.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 26 Pages.

I start with a historical note on the galactic rotation curves issue. The problem with the virial theorem in observed galactic dynamics, lead to the Dark Matter hypothesis but also to Modified Newtonian Dynamics or MOND. Then I move (away) from MOND towards a relativistic, Lagrangian approach of orbital dynamics in a curved Schwarzschild metric. I propose a `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic scale geodetic dynamics. I shown with four rotation fitting curves to what extend my proposed model galaxies `constant Lagrangian' postulate works in these limited number of situations. The fitted galaxies are NGC 2403, NGC 3198, UGC 6614 and F571-8. In the paper I present a theoretical context in which the `constant Lagrangian' postulate might replace the classical virial theorem on a galactic scale. But the proposed postulate isn't a `general law of nature' because in the solar system and in the GNSS relativistic context, the classical virial theorem is proven accurate. Due to the limitations of the proposed postulate, a statement regarding Dark Matter can't be made. But the model might achieve within the GR-Schwarzschild paradigm what MOND achieves within the Newtonian paradigm, fitting the experimental galactic rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[1583] viXra:1804.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 14:48:35

Afterglow from the Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1582] viXra:1804.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 10:40:26

Dark Matter of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

CfA astronomer Qirong Zhu led a group of four scientists investigating the possibility that today's dark matter is composed of primordial black holes, following up on previously published suggestions. If galaxy halos are made of black holes, they should have a different density distribution than halos made of exotic particles. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[1581] viXra:1804.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:28:47

Herbig Haro Object Mystery Solved by Dual/Triple New Physics Dark Matter Black Hole Pairing, the Origin of Quick Star/Galaxy Formation.

Authors: ieo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages.

Function Follows Form in Quantum FFF Theory. The rigid FORM and Microstructure of elementary particles (rigid strings), is supposed to be the origin of functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a new splitting, accelerating and pairing new paradigm Dark Matter Black Hole, (DMBH) seem to be able to convert vacuum particle energy (ZPE) into real plasma which could explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, by so called Galaxy- or Stellar Anchor Black Holes (GABHs respectively SABHs). These Anchor Black Holes can be observed as Herbig Haro ( HH) Hotspots or Bowshocks. Recent observation of two High Energy Cosmic Ray Hotspots, (HECRHs) at solar polar locations, ( Big Dipper and Southern cross) is reason to assume in accord with new physics of Quantum FFF Theory, that these hotspots represents the locations of our Solar Anchor Black Hole (the North-and South SABHs). At the same time in the Quantum FFF model, it is proposed that early Galaxies also are created by dual black hole ( HH) systems being former Big Bang black hole splintered primordial dark matter black holes. They will be called Galaxy Anchor Black Holes ( GABHs) As a consequence, the standard Hot Big Bang with Hot plasma and Hydrogen as the base for everything has to be rejected. Recent observation of a faint galaxy without a dark matter content (NGC 1052 DF2) seems to be created by the star forming capacity even by triple pairing dark matter black hole nuclei of the surrounding globular star clusters assumed to have a triangular topology.
Category: Astrophysics

[1580] viXra:1804.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 09:52:22

Anything Unusual Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. the Nature of Emergence of the Stationary and Moving Funnels Same Are the Power Educations in a Cloak Which Are a Consequence of Climate Change of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The nature of emergence of the stationary and moving funnels same are the power educations in a cloak which are a consequence of climate change of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1579] viXra:1804.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:46:43

To Shed Light on the Eclipse Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. the Exclusive Hypothesis that the Moon is the Comet Rest, "Delivered Water" to Earth, and the Reason of Global Terrestrial Cataclysms, Eliminates the Existing Contradictions of Scientists on the ma

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The exclusive hypothesis that the Moon is the comet rest, "delivered water" to Earth, and the reason of global terrestrial cataclysms, eliminates the existing contradictions of scientists on the matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1578] viXra:1804.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:48:23

From One Test Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Disk Galaxies do One Turn Approximately for the Same Time Because Have Resulted from Galactic Disintegration of the Universe by Béla Dyry.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Disk galaxies do one turn approximately for the same time because have resulted from galactic disintegration of the Universe by Béla Dyry.
Category: Astrophysics

[1577] viXra:1804.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 10:49:45

International "RED" Station Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Emergence of Red Fog on Earth and in Space is Logical and Will be Coordinated with Exclusive Hypotheses of on-Stage Performance Group of "NIKI"

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Emergence of red fog on Earth and in space is logical and will be coordinated with exclusive hypotheses of on-stage performance group of "NIKI"
Category: Astrophysics

[1576] viXra:1804.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:03:11

Concerning Relativity Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. in the Universe Everything Concerning Space of Anything, God's Love and Time.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the Universe everything concerning space of Anything, God's Love and Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[1575] viXra:1804.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:33:34

Not so Look for Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Astronomers Have Found the Amazing Galaxy Which Doesn't Contain Anti-Matter. All Galaxies in the Universe Have Arisen Owing to Galactic Disintegration of the Universal White Hole.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Astronomers have found the amazing galaxy which doesn't contain anti-matter. All galaxies in the Universe have arisen owing to galactic disintegration of the Universal White Hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[1574] viXra:1804.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-18 11:41:28

The Big Illusion of the Big Bang Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe is Limited and Ordered. Galaxies Have Arisen in the Course of Galactic Disintegration of a Universal White Hole and Move to Suburbs of the Universe.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Our Universe is limited and ordered. Galaxies have arisen in the course of galactic disintegration of a universal White Hole and move to suburbs of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1573] viXra:1804.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-17 08:58:55

Gravity with Black Hole Shadows

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1572] viXra:1804.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 13:35:09

A Clear Trend in the Mass-Radius Relationship Concerning Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Data was obtained from the Kepler Space Telescope and through various media to plot the trend in the mass-radius relationship of stars as they evolve. The trend is that as they lose mass and evolve, they shrink in diameter. This is predicted by stellar metamorphosis, as stellar evolution is planet formation itself.
Category: Astrophysics

[1571] viXra:1804.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-14 21:10:15

Dark Matter is Negative Mass

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 10 Pages.

The fundamental properties of negative mass can explain important characteristics of dark matter. 1) additional centripetal effects, 2) explanations derived from fundamental principles about the reason why dark matter does not have electromagnetic interaction, 3) repulsive gravity ensuring almost even distribution and lower interaction of dark matter, 4) accelerating expansion of the universe can be explained with negative mass. Therefore, we should seriously examine the negative mass model.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[578] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 01:15:10

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. However, the pressure of the Fermi electron gas should have something to do with temperature at 10^7 K. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure depends on temperature weakly at the given particle number N and volume V. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=34.75 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star. The lowest limit of M/R^3 depends on neutron mass, electron mass, and temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[577] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-23 00:24:02

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 10 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. However, the pressure of the Fermi electron gas should have something to do with temperature at 10^7 K. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure depends on temperature weakly at the given particle number N and volume V. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=34.75 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. Because the temperature effect is weak at 10^7 K, the relationship between mass M and radius R of the white dwarf star mainly depends on Fermi energy and neutron mass. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star. The lowest limit of M/R^3 depends on neutron mass, electron mass, and temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[576] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-20 10:52:10

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 10 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. However, the pressure of the Fermi electron gas should have something to do with temperature at 10^7 K. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure depends on temperature weakly at the given particle number N and volume V. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=69.50 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. Because the temperature effect is weak at 10^7 K, the relationship between mass M and radius R of the white dwarf star mainly depends on Fermi energy and neutron mass. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star. The lowest limit of M/R3 depends on neutron mass, electron mass, and temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[575] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-17 00:34:34

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure is mainly proportional to T/(lnT) at the given particle number N and volume V. The Fermi electron gas is about 4.343 times at 10^8 K larger than it at 10^7 K. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=0.01975 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star.
Category: Astrophysics

[574] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 22:06:48

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 14 Pages.

The explanation for the pressure against gravity in the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas at the temperature of absolute zero. It predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ. However, more conditions have to be considered like temperature and charges. In this research, first we use the grand partition function in statistical mechanics to build the expressions of the electron gas pressure and the particle number depending on temperature. At 10^7 K, there is about 1.50x10^(-4) of total electrons exceeding the Fermi energy. Because some of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons, then we consider that some of them can escape the gravity resulting in a positively charged star. These rest positive charges produce the strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. Furthermore, due to the quantum effect, some electrons can tunnel the potential barrier even their energy is less than the maximal potential. By theoretical analysis, it is possible to be a positively charged star with 2.708x10^20 C as long as the attraction force is strong enough. The increases pressure is almost the same as that of the Fermi electron gas.
Category: Astrophysics

[573] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-22 22:39:06

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 15 Pages.

The explanation for the pressure against gravity in the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas at the temperature of absolute zero. It predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ. However, more conditions have to be considered like temperature and charges. In this research, first we use the grand partition function in statistical mechanics to build the expressions of the electron gas pressure and the particle number depending on temperature and find the electron gas pressure is weakly temperature dependence at 10^7 K. At this temperature, there is about 1.50x10^(-4) of total electrons exceeding the Fermi energy. Because some of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons, then we consider that those relativistic electrons can escape the gravity resulting in a positively charged star. These rest positive charges produce the strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. Furthermore, due to quantum effect, some electrons can tunnel the potential barrier even their energy is less than the maximal potential. From theoretical calculations, the 75 GeV electrons escaping to infinity can gradually accumulate through 5 billion years resulting in 2.067x10^20 C positively charged star as long as the attraction force is strong enough. This positive-charged effect makes the upper mass limit higher than the previous value to 4.073 Mʘ when the radius of the white dwarf star is twice that of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[572] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-08 07:12:28

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 times as large as our sun although the Fermi electron gas is treated at the temperature of absolute zero. In this research, first we estimate the temperature effect and find the correction only about 1/100 at 10^7 K and about 1/10 at 10^8 K. Because some parts of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons, then we consider that some electrons can escape the gravity resulting in a positive charged star. These rest positive charges produce strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. This positive-charged effect makes the upper mass limit higher than the previous value. One demonstration shows that when the rest positive charges is 1.406x10^4 C and the radius of the white dwarf star is the same as Earth, its upper mass limit can be 1.98 times as large as our sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[571] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-28 11:59:25

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 23 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[570] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-14 16:11:58

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 22 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[569] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-05 12:18:07

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 21 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[568] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-31 16:01:14

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 21 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[567] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 03:23:14

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 21 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[566] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 11:36:49

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 21 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[565] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-21 09:19:41

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 20 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1juTqJlAoKinDr5tbMUke81hxC47cfFJ0 , -- https://drive.google.com/open?id=1NNqhGJF6mLLht01DZMhLsBpMJsh_4Rt9 .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[564] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-18 03:11:03

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 20 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS , -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[563] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-17 03:38:11

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 20 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS , -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[562] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-13 10:54:29

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 19 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS , -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[561] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-10 10:42:10

The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 19 Pages.

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patterns, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. One explanation about Galaxies Distribution, Rotation galaxies, Dark Matter and Universe Evolution in general. Also applied to human relations, temporals events, and a long etcetera. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. ""If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy...."" Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. ----------------------------------------- Richard Feymann: "MATHEMATICS. To those who do not know mathematics it is difficult to get across a real feeling as to the beauty, the deepest beauty, of nature. If you want to learn about nature, to appreciate nature, it is necessary to understand the language that she speaks in." Albert Einstein: "Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better." ----------------------------------------- I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. ----------------------------------------- Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS , -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN .Linkedin Pag: -- https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Astrophysics

[560] viXra:1806.0443 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-08 10:40:43

The Black Hole With A Finite-Size Nucleus Based On The Conservation of Energy and Asymptotic Freedom

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 15 Pages.

From analysis of light geodesic along the radial direction, an infinite time for light passing through the event horizon of the black hole seems to be an unreasonable physical solution. The same situation is also for the massive particle. To compress all particles to a singularity also causes another energy problem because the black hole is evolutional from a star which only has finite mass and stored energy. From the viewpoint of the gravitation self-energy, we deduct that the black hole should have a finite-size nucleus. Then the black hole with finite-size nucleus is proposed and satisfies the gravitational criteria of the black hole. According to the successful theorem of the asymptotic freedom in the strong interaction, several possible structure models are considered in the high-density quark matter phases. Next, using the Kerr-Newman metric, light propagating along the radial direction demonstrates finite speed forwardly and backwardly at any position larger than the Schwarzschild radius and no mathematical singularity at r=0 and θ=π/2. This very important fact shows that light can propagate from the outer space into a black hole and vice versa. The proposed structure model for the black hole is either rotational or charged and its nucleus can have strong magnetic dipole that causes the relativistically charged mass ejection from the black hole as happened in GRS 1915+105 and Galaxy M87. In thermal equilibrium, the nucleus of the black hole should have temperature higher than the cosmic microwave background temperature of 2.726 K. The entropy increases and the second law of thermodynamics should be still useful.
Category: Astrophysics

[559] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 04:14:13

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages.

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[558] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-19 10:13:27

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written in English, but at the end there is Italian translation

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[557] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-13 15:23:15

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written in English, but at the end there is the translation in Italian

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[556] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-11 09:55:42

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written both in english and in italian

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[555] viXra:1806.0433 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-05 09:58:53

A Potential Way to Unify Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Roberto Napolitano
Comments: 163 Pages. The paper is written both in english and in italian

In the present work, by moving from the assumption that the Sun (and all the massive bodies) produces, starting from a certain distance from it, attractive and repulsive gravitational forces at the same time, giving life to the movement of the planets around the Sun according to the same principle of pendulum, I managed to derive a perihelion precession formula, a black hole radius formula and, above all, a formula of atomic nuclear radius, which was missing until now, all in excellent agreement with the observation and in a completely independent way of the Einstein’s theory of relativity. I have also found — always through the same principles that allowed me to achieve the above results, in particular through the modification of the Newtonian gravitational potential, in turn due to the different modus-operandi of gravity force — a formula of the non-decreasing orbital velocity of galactic stars, without considering dark matter. Then I have demonstrated the black hole is composed only of protons, and that it’s similar to the atomic nucleus and, analogously, the galaxy is similar to the atom, since the stars moving around the central nucleus in the same way as the electrons move around the atomic nucleus. I have also found another similitude between atomic nucleus and black hole, by having demonstrate that in the first we have that energy is E = Mc2, and in the second we have that energy is E = Qc2. From the mathematical findings obtained in the present work, it has also emerged the existence, both at the microscopic and the macroscopic level, of the gravito-electric force (or, if you prefer, electro-gravitational force), resulting from the merging of the gravitational force with the electric one, and working exactly in accordance with Newtonian mechanics, although modified by the introduction of a repulsive force in addition and in opposition to the attractive one, that makes us understand the universe works always in the same way, both in macro and in micro. Then I have also demonstrated that in the universe the principle of conservation of energy is always satisfied, since we having shown what is the function of nuclear energy E = Mc2 (i.e. to make the electrons orbit the atomic nucleus), and what is the function of the energy E = Qc2 possessed by the protons of the blacks holes (i.e. to make the stars orbit the black hole itself). In this perspective, the present work can represent a potential unifying way between the macrocosm and microcosm mechanics.
Category: Astrophysics

[554] viXra:1806.0357 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-05 06:49:32

Neutron New Model

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 35 Pages.

Initially the neutron (N) was considered made by the very close union of a proton (P) and an electron (e), i.e. a doublet:〔P, e〕. This is the electron capture process, which involves also an electronic neutrino (e): e+ P  N + e. This neutronization reaction occurs continuously in reality: in the Neutron Stars, or in the stellar and explosive nucleosynthesis, creating all the elements of the Periodic Table. Later it was found that some principles of Quantum Mechanics did not allow the presence of e in the nucleus, since e acquiring an energy of ~140 MeV immediately goes away. However, it was not considered that the electron capture occurs just because the e involved is provided with a relativistic energy: ~200 MeV. This explains why this bond lasts for hundreds of millions of years, as in the Neutron Stars. Then it emerged that the Spin Statistics categorically imposed that the N was a fermion, rather than a boson (if it was a doublet). However, if we considered the N as a multiplet, made of 3 particles with half-integer spin, the N would continue to be a fermion safeguarding, likewise, the Spin Statistics and making exhaustive and much more congruous the electron capture equation. It is therefore necessary to integrate the photoannihilation processes (γe+ῡe) to the neutronization, so that: e+P+γe+P+ῡe+eN+e; as we can see, N is equivalent to the multiplet [e, P, ῡe]. However, the N decay (N P+e+ῡe) is energetically unbalanced, since the mass of a ῡe is  5.8eV, against an energy gap between 0.7828-0.511MeV. The only possible solution to solve this striking mass gap problem could be given by a possible neutral electron (e°), or rather its anti-particle: the ē°. Thus the N multiplet (or neutral compound P) would be balanced too: N = [e, P, ē°].
Category: Astrophysics

[553] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-27 23:24:00

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Quantized Absolute Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov, M. Grosmann
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macro-physics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise (10^-6) relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the point n = 30 is observed to be directly obtained by two different mandatory methods, and is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 10^57 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 10^61 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a quantized absolute Space-Time, where the reshift period 72 km/s takes a central place.
Category: Astrophysics

[552] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-26 23:37:26

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Quantized Absolute Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov, M. Grosmann
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macro-physics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise (10-6) relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the point n = 30 is observed to be directly obtained by two different mandatory methods, and is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 1057 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 1061 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a quantized absolute Space-Time, where the reshift period 72 km/s takes a central place.
Category: Astrophysics

[551] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-26 04:38:57

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Quantized Absolute Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macro-physics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise (10^-6) relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the point n = 30 is observed to be directly related to the time defined from the mean cosmic mass density and the Fermi constant, which is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 10^57 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 10^61 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a quantized absolute Space-Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[550] viXra:1806.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-25 03:10:28

Holographic Permanent Cosmology in Quantized Absolute Space-Time

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, V.A. Kotov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Using the electron wavelength as unity, and writing the Large Number Correlation in a micro-macrophysics symmetric way, this leads to the Topological Axis, showing the string characteristic series n = 2 + 4p exhibiting the Cartan-Bott periodicity connecting gauge bosons. This permits to observe very precise relations involving basic free-parameters of Particle Physics, tied to the Kotov's period. The associated time to the point n = 30 is observed to be directly related to the time defined from the mean cosmic mass density and the Fermi constant, which is directly related to the Kotov's period and the Monster order. This time 5.48 × 10^57 s could be a large cosmic period. This lacking point n = 30 would correspond to a symmetry between a holon, a gauge boson with the Universe mass, and the Holographic Grandcosmos: string theory could be revisited on this basis with a quantified time 10^61 smaller than the Planck time. The Holic Principle, the arithmetical form of Holography, applies to cosmology. This means the ultimate physics laws are arithmetic, in a quantized absolute Space-Time.
Category: Astrophysics

[549] viXra:1806.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-05 07:31:11

Is a Black hole a Neutron star?

Authors: Arieh Sher
Comments: 5 Pages.

The connection between a Black hole and a Neutron star is shown. I postulate that both bodies have the same physical structure, namely, the nucleons of both bodies are so packed that their densities are the maximum possible in the Universe. It is interesting to note that the density of the nucleus of the atom has the same structure and the same density. Neutron stars have been observed in the Universe, whereas Black holes were not. The existence of Black holes is deduced from observing motion of stars around an invisible object that has a huge mass. I postulate that the reason why a Neutron star is visible whereas a Black hole is not, is the ratio between the physical radius of the body and its Schwarzschild radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[548] viXra:1806.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-05 15:54:58

Reinterpretation of the Robertson-Walker Metric, the Shapes of the Cosmos, and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 9 Pages. Correct some typing errors in abstract.

The Robertson-Walker metric has been recognized for describing the global space-time Universe which could be one of the three models: flat ( = 0), closed ( = +1) or open ( = −1). This paper reinterprets the Robertson-Walker metric, which actually describe the geometrical shapes of the global space-time Universe and two local space-time, which explains why galaxies are disk shaped. The global space-time is the “infinite” hyper-sphere of the Universe without boundary (open sphere). The two forms of local space-time caused by the agglomeration of matter into stars and stellar systems, which appeared as sphere (or ellipsoid) and flat. The shapes of spheres range from small elementary particles in quantum physics to planets, stars and giant objects such as globular nebulae in cosmological physics. The flat shapes are disk like galaxies, and the solar system in its infancy, etc. In last chapter, the cosmological constant was derived from the volume of the five dimension hyper-sphere. The cosmological constant is relevant with the Gaussian curvature 1/R^2 of the Universe. The theoretical value of the cosmological constant is: = 5(Ho)^2/2πc^2 .
Category: Astrophysics

[547] viXra:1806.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-23 12:48:31

Reinterpretation of the Robertson-Walker Metric, the Shapes of the Cosmos, and the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Robertson-Walker metric has been recognized for describing the global space-time Universe which could be one of the three models: flat (k=0), closed (k=0) or open (k=-0). This paper reinterprets the Robertson-Walker metric, which actually describe the geometrical shapes of the global space-time Universe and two local space-time. The global space-time is the “infinite” hyper-sphere of the Universe without boundary (open sphere). The two forms of local space-time caused by the agglomeration of matter into stars and stellar systems, which appeared as sphere (or ellipsoid) and flat. The shapes of spheres range from small elementary particles in quantum physics to planets, stars and giant objects such as globular nebulae in cosmological physics. The flat shapes are disk like galaxies, and the solar system in its infancy, etc. In last chapter, the cosmological constant was derived from the volume of the five dimension hyper-sphere. The cosmological constant is relevant with the Gaussian curvature 1/R^2 of the Universe. The value of the cosmological constant is: Λ= (5Ho^2)/(2πc^2 )
Category: Astrophysics

[546] viXra:1806.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-08 03:51:48

Primordial Electric Dark Matter Black Holes Outside Galaxies Responsible for the Creation and Contraction of a Cyclic Multi-Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

For years, Stephen Hawking (and Hartle) has been applying the No Boundary Proposal,or the idea that the universe is “closed“and can have a beginning, and an end, however still exist forever.I will call this aclosed cyclic universe and for symmetry reasons a cyclic entangled raspberry shaped multiverse based on my proposal for the Quantum Function Follows Form (FFF)model.The Form and Microstructure of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of Functional differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a newparadigm splitting, accelerating and pairing massless Dark Matter Black Hole (without Graviton production) is able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease and quark electron positron production at the black hole horizon. Secondly, a Chiral dark energy Higgs vacuum lattice, is able to explain quick Gas and Dust production without large annihilation at the black hole horizon and Galaxy- and Star formation. Even microscopic black holes like Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning seem to produce gas.However only the largest Primordial Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs) located far outside galaxies, are supposed to stop gas and dust production and by merging with other black holes theyshould be the ultimate origin of universal contractioninto a Big Crunch and a cyclic multiverse.The Hubble redshift, in contrast with the mainstream, is supposed to originate local vacuum lattice dilution created by local dark matter black holes.All black holes eat the Higgs vacuum latticewith a local Planck length extension-as the result and the base for frequency decrease of a passing photon.As a result, GABHs are only observable by their background lensing effect and as quasi-soft x-ray sources,to be found in particulararound merger galaxies, due to swirling gas and dust expelled from the galaxies.. (1) Primordial Electric Dark Matter Black Holes outside Galaxies responsible for the creation and contraction of a Cyclic Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[545] viXra:1806.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-09 00:00:55

Some Parameters of 4D Matter

Authors: Valery P. Skorobogatov
Comments: 8 Pages. some corrections are used

Certain corrections to the parameters of 4D matter that was given earlier are obtained by other method. Also, a procedure for calculation of a planet’s distance from the sun is proposed, and it in several cases it corresponds well with observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[544] viXra:1805.0455 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-30 10:22:44

The `constant Lagrangian' Fit of Galaxy Rotation Curves as Caused by Hubble Space Expansion Under Baryonic Energy Conservation Conditions.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 8 Pages.

In my opinion, the problem of the galaxy rotation curves can be solved on the basis of the combined and competing principles of space expansion and energy conservation on the one hand and gravitational contraction and the virial theorem on the other hand. Thus far it has been assumed that the existence of galaxies is proof of the dominance of gravitational contraction in galaxies. In this paper I present arguments in favor of my conviction that this assumption is wrong and that space expansion is one of the two dominating and competing principles active in galaxies. I propose to reset, rethink and rescale the presupposed boarder between Newtonian gravitational contraction and Hubble space expansion. This effectively identifies Dark Matter attributed effects in galaxies as Dark Energy manifestations.
Category: Astrophysics

[543] viXra:1805.0455 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-27 10:59:12

The `constant Lagrangian' Fit of Galaxy Rotation Curves as Caused by Cosmic Space Expansion Under Energy Conservation Conditions.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 8 Pages.

In my opinion, the problem of the galaxy rotation curves can be solved on the basis of the combined and competing principles of space expansion and energy conservation on the one hand and gravitational contraction and the virial theorem on the other hand. Thus far it has been assumed that the existence of galaxies is proof of the dominance of gravitational contraction in galaxies. In this paper I present arguments in favor of my conviction that this assumption is wrong and that space expansion is one of the two dominating and competing principles active in galaxies. Compared to the hypothesis of a revolutionary and mysterious Dark Matter particle, WIMP or otherwise, my approach is rather conservative. All I propose to reset, rethink and rescale is the presupposed boarder between Newtonian gravitational contraction and Hubble space expansion. This effectively identifies Dark Matter attributed effects in galaxies as Dark Energy manifestations. In the Standard Cosmology Pie, this might lead to a great simplification.
Category: Astrophysics

[542] viXra:1805.0455 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-26 08:49:38

The `constant Lagrangian' Fit of Galaxy Rotation Curves as Caused by Cosmic Space Expansion Under Energy Conservation Conditions.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 8 Pages.

In my opinion, the problem of the galaxy rotation curves can be solved on the basis of the combined and competing principles of space expansion and energy conservation on the one hand and gravitational contraction and the virial theorem on the other hand. Thus far it has been assumed that the existence of galaxies is proof of the dominance of gravitational contraction in galaxies. In this paper I present arguments in favor of my conviction that this assumption is wrong and that space expansion is one of the two dominating and competing principles active in galaxies. Compared to the hypothesis of a revolutionary and mysterious Dark Matter particle, WIMP or otherwise, my approach is rather conservative. All I propose to reset, rethink and rescale is the presupposed boarder between Newtonian gravitational contraction and Hubble space expansion.
Category: Astrophysics

[541] viXra:1805.0402 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-02 18:57:12

A Categorization and Analysis of the `constant Lagrangian' Fits of the Galaxy Rotation Curves of the Complete Sparc Database of 175 LTG Galaxies.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 47 Pages.

In this paper I categorize and analyze the `constant Lagrangian' model fits I made of the complete SPARC database of 175 LTG galaxies. Of the 175 galaxies, 45 allowed a single fit rotation curve, so about 26 percent. Another 2 galaxies could almost be plotted on a single fit. Then 36 galaxies could be fitted really nice on crossing dual curves. The reason for the appearance of this dual curve, in its two versions, could be given and related to the galactic constitution and dynamics. Another 25 galaxies could be fitted on parallel transition dual curves. This appearance could also be related to galactic dynamics and galactic mass distribution. Then there were the 19 multiple fit, complex extended galaxies, the complexities of which could be analyzed on the basis of the 4 types of dual fits. In total 128 of the 175 galaxies could be fitted and analyzed very well to reasonably well within the error margins. That is a 73 percent positive rate. This result rules out stochastic coincidence as an explanation of those fits. In my opinion, the success of the `constant Lagrangian' approach indicates that the problem of the galaxy rotation curves, perceived as a virial theorem problem, can be solved solely on the basis of the Lagrangian formulation of the principle of conservation of energy, when applied to this domain existing in between Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[540] viXra:1805.0402 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-30 10:14:19

A Categorization and Analysis of the `constant Lagrangian' Fits of the Galaxy Rotation Curves of the Complete Sparc Database of 175 LTG Galaxies.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 47 Pages.

In this paper I categorize and analyze the `constant Lagrangian' model fits I made of the complete SPARC database of 175 LTG galaxies. Of the 175 galaxies, 45 allowed a single fit rotation curve, so about 26 percent. Another 2 galaxies could almost be plotted on a single fit. Then 36 galaxies could be fitted really nice on crossing dual curves. The reason for the appearance of this dual curve, in its two versions, could be given and related to the galactic constitution and dynamics. Another 25 galaxies could be fitted on parallel transition dual curves. This appearance could also be related to galactic dynamics and galactic mass distribution. Then there were the 19 multiple fit, complex extended galaxies, the complexities of which could be analyzed on the basis of the 4 types of dual fits. In total 128 of the 175 galaxies could be fitted and analyzed very well to reasonably well within the error margins. That is a 73 percent positive rate. This result rules out stochastic coincidence as an explanation of those fits. In my opinion, the success of the `constant Lagrangian' approach indicates that the problem of the galaxy rotation curves, perceived as a virial theorem problem, can be solved solely on the basis of the Lagrangian formulation of the principle of conservation of energy, when applied to this domain existing in between Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[539] viXra:1805.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-17 13:06:49

What is the Space?

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 5 Pages.

By the unified theory of dynamic space has been there a forecast of the follow observation that, parallel moving photons of different frequency, reduce locally the cohesive pressure of space, resulting to move with different speeds. So, the photons with higher frequency slow down against parallel moving photons with lower frequency, as on delay in gamma rays from galaxy Markarian 501 was observed. This observation proves that space contains unseen forces, which are evident as deformations of space, such as in the above theory are described. Accordingly, for the great problem of Physics and Philosophy, "What is the space?", there is the answer-solution: "The dynamic space".
Category: Astrophysics

[538] viXra:1805.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-16 10:45:18

What is the Space?

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 5 Pages.

By the unified theory of dynamic space has been there a forecast of the follow observation that, parallel moving photons of different frequency, reduce locally the cohesive pressure of space, resulting to move with different speeds. So, the photons with higher frequency slow down against parallel moving photons with lower frequency, as on delay in gamma rays from galaxy Markarian 501 was observed. This observation proves that space contains unseen forces, which are evident as deformations of space, such as in the above theory are described. Accordingly, for the great problem of Physics and Philosophy, "What is the space?", there is the answer-solution: "The dynamic space".
Category: Astrophysics

[537] viXra:1804.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-23 16:59:23

A `constant Lagrangian' Model for Galactic Dynamics in a Geodetic Approach Towards the Galactic Rotation Dark Matter Issue.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 26 Pages.

I start with a historical note on the galactic rotation curves issue. The problem with the virial theorem in observed galactic dynamics, lead to the Dark Matter hypothesis but also to Modified Newtonian Dynamics or MOND. Then I move (away) from MOND towards a relativistic, Lagrangian approach of orbital dynamics in a curved Schwarzschild metric. I propose a `constant Lagrangian' model for galactic scale geodetic dynamics. I will show with four rotation fitting curves to what extend my proposed model galaxies `constant Lagrangian' postulate works in these limited number of situations. The fitted galaxies are NGC 2403, NGC 3198, UGC 6614 and F571-8. In the paper I present a theoretical context in which the `constant Lagrangian' postulate might replace the classical virial theorem on a galactic scale. But the proposed postulate isn't a `general law of nature' because in the solar system and in the GNSS relativistic context, the classical virial theorem is proven accurate. Due to the limitations of the proposed postulate, a statement regarding Dark Matter can't be made. But the model might achieve within the GR-Schwarzschild paradigm what MOND achieves within the Newtonian paradigm, fitting the experimental galactic rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[536] viXra:1804.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-18 21:28:30

A Clear Trend in the Mass-Radius Relationship Concerning Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 8 Pages. More stars are added due to accusations of cherry-picking data.

Data was obtained from the Kepler Space Telescope and through various media to plot the trend in the mass-radius relationship of stars as they evolve. The trend is that as they lose mass and evolve, they shrink in diameter. This is predicted by stellar metamorphosis, as stellar evolution is planet formation itself.
Category: Astrophysics

[535] viXra:1804.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-23 11:38:07

Dark Matter is Negative Mass

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 12 Pages.

Negative mass is an object whose existence is required by the law of the conservation of energy. The fundamental properties of negative mass can explain important characteristics of dark matter. 1) additional centripetal effects, 2) explanations derived from fundamental principles about the reason why dark matter does not have electromagnetic interaction, 3) repulsive gravity ensuring almost even distribution and lower interaction of dark matter, 4) gravitational lens effect, 5) accelerating expansion of the universe can be explained with negative mass. Therefore, we should seriously examine the negative mass model.
Category: Astrophysics

[534] viXra:1804.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-30 02:38:44

Dark Matter is Negative Mass

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 11 Pages.

Negative mass is an object whose existence is required by the law of the conservation of energy. The fundamental properties of negative mass can explain important characteristics of dark matter. 1) additional centripetal effects, 2) explanations derived from fundamental principles about the reason why dark matter does not have electromagnetic interaction, 3) repulsive gravity ensuring almost even distribution and lower interaction of dark matter, 4) gravitational lens effect, 5) accelerating expansion of the universe can be explained with negative mass. Therefore, we should seriously examine the negative mass model.
Category: Astrophysics