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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[779] viXra:1602.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-06 10:04:47

Bright Light on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Bright Light on Dark Matter Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [18] The XENON1T Experiment hopes to finally detect and prove the existence of dark matter particles with the help of much, much more sensitive equipment. [17] Dark matter has never been seen directly, but scientists know that something massive is out there due to its gravitational effects on visible matter. One explanation for how such a large amount of mass appears to be right in front of our eyes yet completely invisible by conventional means is that the dark matter is hiding in the centers of stars. [16] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be m = 2.3 * 10-6 eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter. [15] Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[778] viXra:1602.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-04 12:09:29

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 18 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for Milky Way. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 15%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. [5] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside Milky Way galaxy. These data come from [6] Sofue,Y.2015. In fourth epigraph, velocity data has been fitted as power function depending on radius. In fifth chapter, it has been calculated and tabulated gravitational field through Virial theorem, which it is got as a direct calculus having velocity data depending on radius. In this paper, dominion of gravitational E extends from 30 kpc to 200 kpc. In sixth epigraphs it has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [6] Sofue, Y.2015. for Milky Way. In seventh epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B .Where A = 7.310686 •10-7 B= 1,59883364 and correlation coefficient r = 0,9997776774 into I.S. of units. In eighth epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are almost everywhere below 6%. In ninth epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region (30 to 200 kpc) where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then. M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density of D.M = A•E^B. In tenth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 16% for radius bigger than 60 kpc, and below 18% in the whole dominion, from 30 kpc to 200 kpc. This is a superb result, specially if it is considered that Do parameter of NFW profile has 40 % as relative error and velocity measures of rotation curve have error bigger than 15% in the whole dominion.
Category: Astrophysics

[777] viXra:1602.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-03 13:25:01

Dark Matter in Milky Way's Center?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy (shown above) are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, one from a team based at Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and another based in the Netherlands. [16] Recent research conducted by scientists from the University of Granada can contribute to determine the nature of dark matter, one of the most important mysteries in physics. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[776] viXra:1602.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-02 10:43:21

Asymmetric Dark Matter Particle Models

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[775] viXra:1602.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 02:57:03

Mac's Principle Based Explanation for the 'Cosmological Red Shift' and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Two page preliminary note

This paper proposes a new, Mac's principle based explanation for the 'cosmological red-shift', that every object is expected to feel cosmic gravitational force, and a constant value of acceleration H0 c , when it tries to move in any direction. Strikingly, the anomalous deceleration experienced by Pioneer-10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses spacecrafts match perfectly with the numerical value of H0 c, providing supportive evidence of our hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[774] viXra:1601.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-31 20:12:19

Photon is a Promising Candidate for Dark Matter.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 16 Pages.

The hypothesis of subatomic particles. photon is a promising candidate for dark matter. Light has a mass in four-dimensional space, could become a candidate for dark matter. In the physics of current light propagates at the speed of light, the mass is zero; That is the equivalent in mass and energy according to the equation E = mc2, and. So, say that E/c2 = m, energy has mass. Full of outer-space according to the principle of dark energy pulsating light (Photon Group) are pulsating at the Planck time in 4-dimensional space. Observation of three-dimensional space represented as a horizontal line of mass zero, zero, zero is the mass of light pulsates, Photon Group, was up and down from the horizontal component is ±0. represents a mass having mass m and light in 4-dimensional space is the. If has been zero mass and light mass, would be good candidates for dark matter. Found total out as dark matter mass discovery of the neutrino recently became the subject of the Nobel Prize in neutrinos have been expected as a prime candidate for dark matter, but as a result account for 23% of the universe, dark matter. Total mass of the photon of light has mass, then filled in space would be enough as a dark matter;
Category: Astrophysics

[773] viXra:1601.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-31 12:09:57

Hypothesis of Pulsation Principle

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 15 Pages.

Hypothesis of Pulsation principle. The physics of dark energy (2) The discovery of the new 4-d space. Four dimensional space is not Carter Klein space advocate. Pulsating hypothesis) The density of dark energy in the vacuum space filled with horizontal lines. The horizontal setting and zero. Energy wave picture showed changes in the energy density, 3D space we are aware horizontal line. Set the upper and lower parts of the horizon is 4-dimensional space. In repeatedly Planck time period pulsating particle oscillation hypothesis is a hypothesis. Assuming the wave of changes in the density of dark energy and matter waves that propagate at the speed of light. theoretical evidence supporting the existence of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[772] viXra:1601.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-30 07:16:03

The Differences Between Wormholes and Black-Holes

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the differences between wormholes and black-holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[771] viXra:1601.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-26 08:29:50

Measuring the Acceleration of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[770] viXra:1601.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-22 14:27:11

The Spectrums of the Most Ancient Stars According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A non-contradictory statement concerning the measurement of the spectral characteristics of the most ancient stars is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[769] viXra:1601.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-22 12:05:45

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 16 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. Also were proposed several experimental test to check that theory. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for M31. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 10%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside M31 galaxy. These data come from [5]Sofue,Y.2015. In fourth epigraph, considering rotation curve of M31 from Sofue data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field inside a wide region of halo, from 40 kpc to 300 Kpc. In fifth epigraphs has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [5] Sofue, Y.2015. for M31. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B Where A = 0,0012004275 B= 1.878838501 and correlation coefficient r = 0,9996041653 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are mainly below 6%. In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density of D.M = A•E^B. In nineth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 10% for radius bigger than 100 kpc, and below 12% from 40 kpc to 100 kpc. This is a superb result, speciallly if it is considered that Do parameter of NFW profile has 10,7 % as relative error.
Category: Astrophysics

[768] viXra:1601.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-20 12:46:32

Dark Matter Speed Test

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Analyzing the motion of X-ray sources could help researchers identify dark matter signals. [15] Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[767] viXra:1601.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 17:52:15

Magnetic Flux Amplification and Magnetosphere Evolution During Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

An alternative type of magnetochronology as applied to stellar evolution is hypothesized in light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The presence of a core structure can be determined by whether the star has a strong global magnetic field, as well as other inferences.
Category: Astrophysics

[766] viXra:1601.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 10:14:55

Dynamic Gravitational Red-Shift Experienced by Intergalactic-Photons Possibly-Observed as the ‘Cosmological Red-Shift'

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Single page preliminary note

Photon is a chunk of energy h f where h is Planck’s constant, and f the frequency. Every chunk of energy has to produce a gravitational field around it. The ‘particle’ photon travels in the manner of ‘quantum jumps’; whereas the field travels in the manner of ‘waves’. Therefore, when the photon jumps to a new position from ‘a’ to ‘b’ at a distance, say equal to its ‘wavelength’, the gravitational-field produced by its previous position ‘a’ is present there; so the ‘photon’ experiences the ‘gravitational red-shift’. By this time the gravitational-field around the position ‘a’ collapses and new field at the position ‘b’ gets established; so when the photon jumps to a new position ‘c’, it has to ‘climb’ the gravitational potential-well produced at ‘b’; and so it again experiences the gravitational red-shift. This process continues for every jump of the photon, reducing its frequency at every step. It is proposed here that the ‘cosmological red-shift’, first observed by Edwin Hubble, is possibly caused by this mechanism, termed here as ‘dynamic gravitational red-shift’.
Category: Astrophysics

[765] viXra:1601.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-16 10:40:18

On Modified Keplerian Dynamics (Mokd)

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 10 Pages.

Orbits are parameterized with the space−time dimensions of the gravitational constant. Novel solutions for the flyby anomaly, dark matter, and the gravitational lensing effect are deduced from first principles. Observable evidence is provided with several experimental predictions to test the modified Keplerian dynamics (MoKD) hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[764] viXra:1601.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-15 18:18:38

The Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 reference

Anthony Abruzzo hypothesized the foundational understanding that planets are by-products of stellar evolution, and not the by-products of their formation. The principle is described below. The title of Abruzzo's paper is misleading, as this is a new understanding and requires that a considerable amount of discernment be used.
Category: Astrophysics

[763] viXra:1601.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-15 03:26:31

Dark Energy in Supercomputers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Next-generation telescopic surveys will work hand-in-hand with supercomputers to study the nature of dark energy. [15] Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[762] viXra:1601.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-14 11:30:46

The Astrodynamics and Mechanics of Orbital Spaceflight

Authors: Vedant Chandra
Comments: 11 Pages.

The study of orbital mechanics is vast and fascinating, but requires a prerequisite knowledge of some basic concepts. This paper aims to be a formal introduction into the field of astrodynamics. It teaches the tools and measures used to describe spaceflight, and will give the reader a strong base upon which to pursue further study.
Category: Astrophysics

[761] viXra:1601.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-13 08:08:20

The Mass Loss Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[760] viXra:1601.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-13 09:19:43

The Phase Transition Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution/planet formation is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[759] viXra:1601.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-08 03:20:32

Galaxy Quakes and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A trio of brightly pulsating stars at the outskirts of the Milky Way is racing away from the galaxy and may confirm a method for detecting dwarf galaxies dominated by dark matter and explain ripples in the outer disk of the galaxy. [16] A recent uptick in the discovery of the smallest, oldest galaxies benefits studies of dark matter, galaxy formation and the evolution of the universe. [15] Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[758] viXra:1601.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-07 06:55:25

Evidence for New State of Hydrogen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Scientists have recreated an elusive form of the material that makes up much of the giant planets in our solar system, and the sun. [10] Stephen Hawking described it as the most spectacular failure of any physical theory in history. Can a new theory of information rescue cosmologists? [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[757] viXra:1601.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-06 11:30:46

Dark Matter of Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A recent uptick in the discovery of the smallest, oldest galaxies benefits studies of dark matter, galaxy formation and the evolution of the universe. [15] Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[756] viXra:1601.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-06 10:11:52

Gravity-Based Explanation for the 'Cosmological Red-Shift' and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Eight-page Letter

We first find here that the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 leading us towards a possibility that ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be due to gravitational effect. So we consider three different possibilities how the reduction in energy of the photon can be understood in terms of gravitational effects; namely: (i) absorption and re-emission of intergalactic photons by the ‘virtual particles’ in space, (ii) photons have to climb the gravitational potential well produced by their own energy, and (iii) the quantum jumps of the photons causing repeated productions and collapses of gravitational fields giving rise to gravitational waves or ripples. Then it is argued that if such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. et. al. match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for the simple explanation proposed here.
Category: Astrophysics

[755] viXra:1601.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-05 21:44:29

"Rings of a Super Saturn" as Published in Scientific American Vs. Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

An overview of an article published in the January, 2016 issue of Scientific American in opposition to stellar metamorphosis theory is presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[754] viXra:1601.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-03 19:33:50

Gravitational Casimir Modeling of Dark Energy

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The essence of the Casimir effect is the confinement by a physical system of a part of the ground-state energy of a quantum field; for the classic Casimir effect, the system is a conducting cavity and the quantum field is electromagnetic. The actual amount of ground-state quantum field energy the physical system confines varies with the system's details; in particular the variation with the system's size of the quantum field ground-state energy it confines is manifested as a spontaneous pressure exerted on the system. Here we take the system to be a uniform-density dust ball (in lieu of the universe), and the quantum field to be that of any positive-mass stable fundamental particle. Such a particle gravitationally confined within the dust ball will be in a discrete quantum state of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator with a negative energy offset. The amount of ground-state quantum field energy confined within the dust ball is half of the sum of the offset oscillator energy eigenvalues, up to a maximum beyond which particles are capable of egress from the dust ball. The magnitude of the resulting negative energy gently increases with dust ball radius, flagging the repulsive pressure signature of dark energy. This repulsive pressure is inversely proportional to the 5/2 power of the dust ball radius, i.e., dust ball expansion dilutes this pressure only slightly less than it dilutes ordinary matter density, a big improvement over the cosmological constant's implausible imperviousness to expansion dilution.
Category: Astrophysics

[753] viXra:1601.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-03 11:40:45

Dark Matter Detection Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[752] viXra:1601.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-03 12:15:23

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field.

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 17 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated and supported, with several experimental evidences, that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. That paper studied six big galaxies whose velocity in flat area of rotation curve is bigger than 200 km/s. Current paper studies a similar law for M33, which is an intermediate satellite galaxy of M31, it is 850 kpc away from Earth and its velocity in flat area of rotation curve is approximately 120 km/s. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for M33. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with Burket ones below 2%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to Burket DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about DM density inside halo of M33 galaxy. These data come from [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. In fourth epigraph, considering rotation curve of M33 from Corbelli data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field inside a wide region of halo, from 8 kpc to 22 Kpc. In fifth epigraphs has been tabulated and plotted data of Burket DM density profile published by [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. for M33. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of Burket DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B. Where A= 29,02219371 and B= 2,242193511 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and Burket profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are mainly below 5%. In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density. Considering that Density D.M = A•E^B then M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density D.M = A•E^B. In nineth epigraph Bernoulli and Burket DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 2% for radius bigger than 10 kpc, which is a superb result. Last chapter makes a comparison between DM densities as power of E for M33 and NGC 3198 galaxies. The goal is to show a general law for galaxies: the more massive galaxy is the less DM density at a specific value of E.
Category: Astrophysics

[751] viXra:1601.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-02 13:05:02

Wormholes are Quantum Entangled Black Holes?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Two separate research groups, one of which is from MIT, have presented evidence that wormholes — tunnels that may allow us to travel through time and space — are “powered” by quantum entanglement. Furthermore, one of the research groups also postulates the reverse — that quantum entangled particles are connected by miniature wormholes. [6] A collaboration of physicists and a mathematician has made a significant step toward unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics by explaining how spacetime emerges from quantum entanglement in a more fundamental theory. [5] Time is an emergent phenomenon that is a side effect of quantum entanglement, say physicists. And they have the first experimental results to prove it. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Astrophysics

[750] viXra:1512.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-31 08:14:31

The Nice Model Versus Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

According to the Nice Model gas giant planets were formed closer to the Sun and migrated outwards. This differs from stellar metamorphosis considerably. An explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[749] viXra:1512.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-28 12:59:48

Correcting the Gross Misinterpretation of Black Dwarf Stars with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Black dwarf stars are grossly misinterpreted by establishment astrophysics. Their hypothetical, unseen, unverified theoretical black dwarf is pitted against real black dwarfs as presented inside of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[748] viXra:1512.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-28 07:21:24

Magnetic Fields in Central Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the “brightest beacons” in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar’s center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[747] viXra:1512.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-27 16:25:18

The Absence of Refractory Material, Fuel and Gravitation Needed to Melt Iron/Nickel in Outerspace

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is well known to industry that refractory (heat blocking) material is needed so that iron and nickel can be melted from their ore in blast furnaces, as well as superheated air at high pressures and gravitation to provide direction for the iron to flow as well as a fuel such as coke. It is posed as a challenge to the astronomers to explain how iron/nickel melt without refractory material, without superheated air (vacuum is absent air), without strong gravitation or high pressure (provided there is air and gravity), or fuel as in coke, to form meteoritic material.
Category: Astrophysics

[746] viXra:1512.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-25 21:17:08

Determination of the Neutrino Mass

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 10 Pages. 10 p., 2 fig.

The neutrino mass in four different independent formulations has been successfully calculated on the basis of the mechanistic interpretation of J.Wheeler‘s geometrodynamics concept. Mechanical analogue of the weak interaction is presented. Its adequacy is confirmed by the various variants for calculating the neutrino mass. The calculated mass agrees well with the indirect estimation of the neutrino mass obtained on the basis of cosmological data. It has been established that neutrinos can change its structure and properties, in particular, a magnetic moment, that leads to changes in the power of detected neutrinos flow (neutrino oscillations). The time constant of neutrino oscillations is calculated.
Category: Astrophysics

[745] viXra:1512.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-22 11:38:40

Gravitation and Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[744] viXra:1512.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-21 14:03:07

An Expansion to the Thermo-dielectric Effect Concerning Stellar Weather

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The discoverer of the thermo-dielectric effect, Joaquim da Costa Ribeiro, found that matter when undergoing a phase transition produces charge separation and electric current. This discovery was applied to solid to liquid phase transitions. In this paper it will be reasoned that charge separation and electric current can also occur in other phase transitions as well, and is a central concept to stellar evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[743] viXra:1512.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-20 15:27:58

A Review of False Astrophysical Assumptions in Light of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages.

On December 3, 2015 a short online article was published on Carnegiecience.edu. The title was, "What Kind of Stars form Rocky Planets?". In light of 21st century science provided by the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis, it can be shown that a multitude of false assumptions are kept which place rational analysis of the wanted answer in jeopardy. Asking the wrong questions will not lead the right answers, you must ask the right questions to get the right answers. A short review of the article with the author's writing in purple is provided below.
Category: Astrophysics

[742] viXra:1512.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-19 11:10:25

Natural Gas and Petroleum Production via the Fischer-Tropsch Process During Late Astron Evolution as Hypothesized via the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is hypothesized that Earth (an old astron) formed its petroleum and natural gas during earlier stages of its evolution by abiogenic processes. This means coal is the only true fossil fuel, not natural gas or petroleum. The processes that are required to study are currently occurring inside the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus and can be studied. This means we must reverse engineer the Earth's composition to account for the reactions currently happening inside of much younger Earths.
Category: Astrophysics

[741] viXra:1512.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-19 06:02:04

Gravitorotational Dragging

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 7 Pages; 1 Tables; 16 References.

Previous work on the concept of gravitorotational acceleration field (GRAF) and its dynamical role is surveyed, with main emphasis on the GRAF's influence exerted on a test-body in orbital motion around a rotating gravitational source (heavy central mass). Such an influence is typically interpreted as a ʻgravitorotational draggingʼ, this phenomenon is very similar to the so-called Lense-Thirring effect (frame dragging) in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). Some applications are considered include (i) the orbital plane dragging of artificial satellites LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES; (ii) the effect of the Earth's GRAF on the orbital motion of the Moon; (iii) the effect of the Sun's GRAF on the orbital motion of Mercury. Also, it is shown that the conceptual existence of ʻgravitorotational draggingʼ and its quantitative agreement with GRT-predictions should imply, among other things, that the geometrization of gravity is unnecessary for physics.
Category: Astrophysics

[740] viXra:1512.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-17 11:14:18

Simple Explanation for the Cosmological Red-Shift and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Two-page preliminary note

Photon is a chunk of energy h f, where h Planck’s constant, and f is frequency. Every chunk of energy or mass must produce a gravitational field around it. Now, when this chunk of energy moves from one to another position, in the manner of ‘quantum jumps’, the gravitational-field around the previous position has to collapse, and new field should keep getting established around the new positions. These productions and collapses of gravitational field should give rise to gravitational waves or ripples. These ripples must carry certain amount of energy with them, and this energy can come only from the kinetic energy of the photon. So the energy of the photon should keep on reducing, which we have been observing as the ‘cosmological red-shift’. And we can express this reduction in kinetic-energy of the photon as deceleration of the photon. If such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. et. Al., match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for this simple explanation.
Category: Astrophysics

[739] viXra:1512.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-15 08:02:22

Dark Matter and Supermassive Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

"There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[738] viXra:1512.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-14 06:59:46

LUX Dark Matter Detector News

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved the detector's sensitivity. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[737] viXra:1512.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-13 14:17:00

Time Runs Backwards Inside Black Holes?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

A new research paper published in Physical Review Letters has brought forward a significant new understanding of general relativity laws, and has found some strange physics taking place inside black holes. Specifically, that the direction of time could be reversed within them. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[736] viXra:1512.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-13 12:05:39

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for NGC 3198 to Demonstrate that D.M. is Generated by Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 16 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated and supported, with several experimental evidences, that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field, according to an Universal law for big galaxies. Current paper studies the same law for NGC 3198, which is an intermediate galaxy belong to Ursa Major cluster, 14 Mpc away. In this work has been fitted a new function for DM density as power of E. Reader could think, why disturb me with another DM density profile whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 5%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Ttherefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to observational data of DM and NFW profile as well then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum and [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about DM density inside halo of NGC 3198 galaxy. These data come from [3] E.V. Karukes, 2015. Despite the fact that data begin at radius of 2 kpc, in this paper it has been considered radius bigger than 18 Kpc, because it is the halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible in comparison with DM density. In fourth epigraph, starting from speed data it is right to calculate gravitational field E, so from Karukes data, it is possible to tabulate gravitational field and density of dark matter from 18 kpc to 48 kpc. In fifth epigraph has been fitted data of DM density as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,99. Particularly formula found is Den. D.M. = A• E^B where A= 2,8•10^-5 and B = 1,69 In sixth epigraph it has been compared DM density data, DM density as power of E and DM density NFW profile. Tables and plots show clearly that DM density power of E adjust better to density data than NFW profile. In seventh epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible. As consequence M´(r) = 4Pi•r^2• Den.D.M. = 4Pi•r^2 • A• E^B If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution is a new DM density profile. To integrate differential equation has been taken four different values for gravitational field at four different radius to check accuracy of integration parameter. In eighth epigraph power of E, Bernoulli and NFW DM profiles have been tabulated and plotted to show clearly that power of E agree very well with Bernoulli but both are a bit different of NFW profile. In ninth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM profiles has been compared with DM density data. Tables and plots show clearly that Bernoulli profile fits better observational data DM density data than NFW profile.
Category: Astrophysics

[735] viXra:1512.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-13 00:03:56

1st Brain Impulse Interpretation for Super Fluid Matrix Theory

Authors: Sudhanva joshi
Comments: 5 Pages.

This are series of papers I intend to publish in order for full collection of a theory(neurobiological implication of super fluid matrix theory).This is 1st installment of the same.
Category: Astrophysics

[734] viXra:1512.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-11 13:06:15

LISA Pathfinder for Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

The European Space Agency (ESA) has launched a concept mission to test the technology required for a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. Sent into space today at 04:15 GMT (05:15 CET) on a Vega rocket from Kourou in French Guiana, LISA Pathfinder will now make its way to "Lagrange Point 1". Lying about 1.5 million kilometers from Earth in the direction of the Sun, this point in space provides a very stable environment to control the precision of the instruments on the satellite. The launch of LISA Pathfinder marks the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. [6] We are more than ready to hear the plucked strings of space-time. Last Friday, the revamped LIGO took its first observations – a step towards picking up the ripples that Einstein predicted should come from exotic cosmic collisions. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[733] viXra:1512.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-08 14:56:21

Fermionic Dark Matter and Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Gamma-ray observations of dark matter spikes near supermassive black holes provide a test of fermionic dark matter models. [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[732] viXra:1512.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-06 11:57:00

On the Theory of Gamma-ray and Fast Radio Bursts

Authors: Dmitriy Skripachov
Comments: 11 Pages.

Gamma-ray bursts are characterized by energy comparable to the rest mass of stars and duration comparable to the time of passage of light of several diameters of star. It means GRBs signal the flares occur when stars fall on supermassive neutron collapsars (SMNC) located at the centers of galaxies. Long, short, very short and weak GRBs are matched the fall of main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars (NS) and rogue planets, respectively. GRB is the result of heating of star caused by the action of three factors: transverse compression of angular convergence to SMNC, friction of light matter (LM), volumetric compression of the entry into gravitationally distended space. GRB is a circular flare in the stellar corona. GRB lasts until the star will be hidden under the π-horizon, on which the angle of gravitational deflection of beams is 180°. Multiple peaks are caused by the fall of binary stars and stars with planets, as well as by consecutive bursts of stellar core and overlying layers. Early afterglow is due to the annihilation, and later (x-ray and radio) due to aurora and remanence of LM. FRB precedes very short GRB. Milliseconds before GRB arises "magnetic lightning" – reconnection of magnetic field lines from NS anterior pole to SMNC. Magnetic dipoles of LM nuclei are aligned along the magnetic lines of force. This is accompanied by radio emission generated strictly perpendicular magnetic tube connecting NS and SMNC. Gravitation bends the plane of FRB in the hyperboloid with the cone angle of 40°
Category: Astrophysics

[731] viXra:1512.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-04 04:24:46

Missing Matter of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Matter known as ordinary, which makes up everything we know, corresponds to only 5% of the Universe. Approximately half of this percentage still eluded detection. Numerical simulations made it possible to predict that the rest of this ordinary matter should be located in the large-scale structures that form the 'cosmic web' at temperatures between 100,000 and 10 million degrees. A team led by a researcher from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, observed this phenomenon directly. The research shows that the majority of the missing ordinary matter is found in the form of a very hot gas associated with intergalactic filaments. The article reporting this discovery is published in the journal Nature. [7] Astronomers in Germany have developed an artificial intelligence algorithm to help them chart and explain the structure and dynamics of the universe around us with unprecedented accuracy. The team, led by Francisco Kitaura of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics in Potsdam, report their results in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[730] viXra:1512.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-02 08:15:50

Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 45 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we will theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. Then we will give a physical interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF). With the new model of dark matter, we will be naturally led to propose a new geometric model of the Universe, finite and not proposed by the Standard Cosmological model (SCM). We then will propose a first mathematical model of expansion of the Universe, based on General Relativity as the SCM, and in which the CMB rest frame plays an important role. This 1st model leads to the same mathematical predictions as the SCM. But we will propose also a 2nd mathematical model of expansion of the Universe, which is mathematically much simpler than General Relativity, but with theoretical predictions in agreement with the experimental data given by astronomical observations. Moreover this 2nd mathematical model does not need the existence of a dark energy, and consequently brings a solution to the enigma of dark matter. After this we will study according to the new proposed theory the different models of distribution of dark matter in galaxies. Then we will study the velocities of galaxies in clusters according to this distribution of dark matter, the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we will make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter and to the expansion of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[729] viXra:1512.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-02 08:17:34

A New Addition to the Stellar Metamorphsis. the Merlin Hypothesis

Authors: Ben S. Dover, Micheal T Hunt, Christopher S Peacock
Comments: 4 Pages.

Assumptions are the basis of astrophysical processes. The fitting of microscopic-theories such as nuclear and quantum physics into macro processes like stellar evolution is akin to modelling wood to describe the basic function of a garden shed. Recently a new model of planet formation has been proposed by Amrinder Singh which helps do away with baseless assumptions of modern physics. Here we propose a new addition to the hypothesis which we've nicknamed the MERLIN hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[728] viXra:1512.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-02 06:40:43

The Algorithm Simulation of the Orbits of Objects Differential Equation Second-Order Curves

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 13 Pages.

In this paper we consider the algorithm for calculation of motion of bodies, using the coherent graph. The graph is built through solving a differential equation of second order curves , using theorem of the center of mass and transition from a consecutive number of relative coordinates to absolute system of coordinates.
Category: Astrophysics

[727] viXra:1512.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-01 21:00:32

The Electromagnetic Wave Electric Field Force Thruster

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 6 Pages.

We know that on the electromagnetic wave propagation path, the direction of electric field at a point changes periodically. If there is a charged object at the point also changes its charge property periodically with the same frequency, then the electric field force direction on the object will not change. Therefore, the object will do directional movement. Based on this, it is possible to design a spacecraft without propellant. And the calculation suggests that the thrust can be much higher than radiation pressure.
Category: Astrophysics

[726] viXra:1512.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-01 01:39:39

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Well, Why You Such Accurate? at Last We "Got to the Core" and Estimated All Beauty and Elegance of Galaxies! Unfortunately, Scientists Should Curtail the Software Developments to Creation of the Mystical Space Elevator and More

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

At last we "got to the core" and estimated all beauty and elegance of galaxies! Unfortunately, scientists should curtail the software developments to creation of the mystical space elevator and more actively to be engaged in quantum gravitation! Gravitation is dynamic
Category: Astrophysics

[725] viXra:1511.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-26 07:03:25

So How Many We Still Needed "To Wind Off" God's Term? Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Surface of Earth is a Location of One of Colonies the Bogoneposlushnykh of Individuals of the Universe!

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The surface of Earth is a location of one of colonies the bogoneposlushnykh of individuals of the Universe!
Category: Astrophysics

[724] viXra:1511.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-22 23:07:57

The Rate That the Earth Is Getting Further Away From the Sun

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 4 Pages.

The mass of the Sun is reduced due to the radiation of the Sun, which causes that the planets are getting further away from the Sun. According to theoretical derivation, the rate that the planet is getting further away from the Sun equals the rate of solar mass reduction. Currently the rate that the Earth is getting further away from the Sun equals 1.02m per century, for Mercury it equals to 0.40m per century, and for Pluto it equals 40.32m per century. Key words: Sun, planet, Earth, rate, get further away from
Category: Astrophysics

[723] viXra:1511.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-22 15:16:03

Globular Clusters vs. Open Clusters Age According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

According to establishment astronomy globular clusters are older than open clusters. This is based on false reasoning rooted in the myth called "Big Bang" which determines the stars' ages based on how much metal they have absorbed. Four rational explanations are provided as to why globular clusters are younger than open clusters.
Category: Astrophysics

[722] viXra:1511.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-22 11:25:28

CGA-Effective (Radial) Potential Energy

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 15 Pages; 1Table; 17 References

The main conceptual foundation of previous work on the Combined Gravitational Action is briefly surveyed. Next, we derive a general expression for the CGA-effective (radial) potential energy in order to investigate the behavior and shape of the orbits of a test-body during its orbital motion inside the vicinity of the principal gravitational source. And as direct consequences, two expressions for the concepts of gravitational momentum and dynamic gravitational force are derived. Starting from the concept of the combined gravitational potential energy and using only the familiar tools of Newtonian mechanics, the classical Binet's orbital equation is combgravactionalized and its physico-mathematical expression is exactly identical to that already found in the context of general relativity theory, which enables us to calculate, among other things, the secular perigee precession of the Moon; the secular perihelion advance of the planets and the angular deflection of light passing near the massive object.
Category: Astrophysics

[721] viXra:1511.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-19 17:05:30

Gravitational Warpage

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

The stretched rubber bed sheet and the bowling ball aren't an accurate model of the gravitational warpage of space... that implies the area nearer the sunken ball is higher density and other masses are attracted to it.
The reverse happens, particles seek a lower density, as in (something like) pressure. You can't say the higher mass or density has a higher gravity because you are using gravity in the example (the explanation) and you can't because in this case it's the question
Category: Astrophysics

[720] viXra:1511.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-20 02:57:00

Multiverse Space-Antispace Dual Calabi-Yau ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ Particle Creatio

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso
Comments: 4 Pages.

controversy within each model such as Static, Steady-state, Big Bang or Multiverse Continuous-State. In this paper we present only a brief primitive introduction to a new form of ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ dual space-antispace vacuum Particle Creation applicable especially to Big Bang alternatives which are well-known but ignored; Hubble discovered ‘Redshift’ not a Doppler expansion of the universe which remains the currently popular interpretation. Holographic Anthropic Multiverse cosmology provides viable alternatives to all seemingly sacrosanct pillars of the Big Bang. A model for Multiverse Space-Antispace Dual Calabi-Yau ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ particle creation has only become possible by incorporating the additional degrees of freedom provided by the capacity complex dimensional extended Yang-Mills Kaluza-Klein correspondence provides.
Category: Astrophysics

[719] viXra:1511.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-18 13:26:37

Shedding Light on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

The XENON1T Experiment hopes to finally detect and prove the existence of dark matter particles with the help of much, much more sensitive equipment. [17] Dark matter has never been seen directly, but scientists know that something massive is out there due to its gravitational effects on visible matter. One explanation for how such a large amount of mass appears to be right in front of our eyes yet completely invisible by conventional means is that the dark matter is hiding in the centers of stars. [16] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Preliminary evidence of solar axions in XMM-Newton observations has quite recently been published by Fraser et al. These authors also estimate the axion mass to be m = 2.3 * 10-6 eV. Since an axion with this mass behaves as a cold dark matter particle, the considered preliminary detection directly concerns cold dark matter as well. So, it would be a revolutionary discovery if confirmed. Unfortunately, we have identified three distinct flaws in the analysis by Fraser et al. which ultimately make it totally irrelevant both for axions and for cold dark matter. [15] Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[718] viXra:1511.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-11 23:06:12

Thomas Scott Zolotor Predicted the Brightest Supernova Yet Back in 2013

Authors: Thomas Scott Zolotor
Comments: 1 Page. Thomas Scott Zolotor predicted the brightest supernova yet back in 2013.

Thomas Scott Zolotor predicted the brightest supernova yet back in 2013.
Category: Astrophysics

[717] viXra:1511.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-10 09:50:59

Light Propagation in Cosmic Space

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing the state of Light propagation in cosmic space.
Category: Astrophysics

[716] viXra:1511.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-06 02:07:14

Demystifying Black holes - A New Rational Explanation on the Workings of Central Core Regions of Galaxies

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 10 Pages. Versio1 06 Nov 2015

Current mainstream understanding of the galaxies is that they have super-massive black holes in their centre’s which are mired in mystery in regards to their actual operations and various theoretical models have been invented to describe their behaviour. Most of these Theoretical/Mathematical models are based upon many vague assumptions and are really difficult to understand in a rational manner (i.e. cannot be conceived by one’s senses to exist in reality). A more rational explanation is provided in this paper for describing the workings of the inner regions (cores) of galaxies without using any vague mathematical assumptions and using the well understood phenomenon’s of electromagnetism as the material inside the core of the galaxies is highly luminous plasma (ionised matter) moving at high speeds and will therefore have strong electromagnetic processes in its workings. The phenomenon of radio type galaxies, Quasars type objects, birth of galaxies and the question of what powers the galaxies are also discussed and a hypothesis proposed for the existence of a fifth state of matter in certain extreme conditions inside the AGN’s (in addition to Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma state).
Category: Astrophysics

[715] viXra:1511.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-01 00:50:19

Greatest Overlooked Idea in Modern Astronomy of Stars Cooling and Becoming Planets (Stellar Metamorphosis)

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 14 Pages. Version1 1st Nov 2015

Modern astronomy proposes its planet formation theory with highly questionable assumptions as the basis for formation of planets( in the form of accretion disk model of protoplanetary disks). It also proposes models (again using questionable assumptions) for the stars nearing the end of their life’s (which share similar internal structure to all the planets in existence) to end in either explosions(supernovae) or becoming Black holes, Neutron stars or Dwarf stars. Another more rational explanation on how planets form has been provided first by Anthony Abruzzo expanding on Descartes original Idea of stars transforming to become planets by a series of papers followed by a comprehensive explanation by Jeffery Wollynski in the form of his Stellar Metamorphosis theory. Stellar Metamorphosis theory provides detailed explanation of the actual mechanics of how this process takes place step by step. Some additional observations are offered in this paper on the mechanism of the process of planet formation by Stellar Metamorphosis as well as some new ideas on the question of why planets stay at similar temperature ranges over millions of years despite continuously cooling during the evolution/propagation of life and observations on the comparison of relative mass of a star at the start of its life versus when it is cooled to a solid planet like structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[714] viXra:1510.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-31 09:28:06

11-22 Years Cycle of the Sun and Blazar oj 287: a Cosmic Origin? le Cycle de 11-22 Ans du Soleil et du Blazar oj 287: Origine Cosmique?

Authors: V. A. Kotov, F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 15 Pages. with partial translation in French

Abstract. The saw-edged profile of the 22-year evolution of the general magnetic field of the Sun (1968–2014) is attributed to a cosmic origin. The same conclusion is made about 11–12 years periodicity seen in the blazar OJ 287. The Coherent Cosmology (Sanchez et al, 2011), with overall quantization, which assumes the permanent Big Bang-Big Crunch oscillation (10104 Hz) hypothesis and an existence of Grandcosmos with superspeed C >> c for a transfer of information (c is speed of light), is drawn for an explanation. Dramatic relations confirm the diophantian Holic Principle (Sanchez 1994).
Category: Astrophysics

[713] viXra:1510.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-31 05:22:07

An Exact Solution of Riccati Form of Boltzmann Equation with Mathematica

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

The Boltzmann equation is often used to calculate relic density of non-baryonic dark matter. The main idea is that particles were in thermal equilibrium with the early universe. There are many solutions for Boltzmann equation in the form of software packages, such as MadDM. This paper discusses an exact computational solution of Riccati form of Boltzmann equation with Mathematica. While in literature there is already another presentation of Mathematica routine to compute relic density, to our best knowledge, this solution has never been presented elsewhere before.
Category: Astrophysics

[712] viXra:1510.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-29 22:48:47

One Genuine Wormhole or Einstein-Rose Bridge

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract:a discovery about the Wormhole or Einstein–Rosen Bridge.
Category: Astrophysics

[711] viXra:1510.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-29 03:25:33

New Theory of Nuclear Fusion Processes in Sun and other Stars

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 8 Pages. Version1 29th Oct 2015

Currently accepted theory about the sun holds that it is a giant nuclear fusion reactor powered by its hot core having extremely high pressures and temperatures (~ 15MK). Even though this theory accounts for energy generation of the sun and elements formation by fusion processes from a hot plasma of Hydrogen and Helium, the theory fails to explain many of the observed phenomenon in a rational manner. Its chief shortcomings being its inability to fully explain the actual process of fusion in the core region rationally without using vague assumptions, high temperatures of corona (~ 1-2 MKelvin) around the sun whilst surface sun temperatures being less than 6000K, failure to account for the formation of coronal loop structures, failure to adequately explain the activity we observe on the sun in the form of CME’s and sun spots, unable to explain the causes of fast and slow solar winds among others. A new Theory is proposed which explains all the observed phenomenon of the sun including explanations of all the above mentioned shortcomings of the old fusion model and fits all the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle together(of the workings of sun) using our current understanding of the forces of electromagnetism. This theory provides a direct rational explanation of all observed phenomenon of the sun without resorting to any vague assumptions.
Category: Astrophysics

[710] viXra:1510.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:18:58

Nonlinear Analysis and Characterization of the B1933 Pulsar Time Series Signal

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

Radio astronomy plays a crucial role in revealing vital information about the early universe and celestial structures. A novel nonlinear analysis technique using the polar and phase plane plots for analyzing radio astronomical data is proposed, and the analysis for a pulsar B1933 is performed. It is observed that the analysis reveals information regarding the angle of emissions/ beaming of 30 degrees, and this forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Astrophysics

[709] viXra:1510.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 09:20:48

Accelerated Expansion and Type ia Supernovae Resolved, in TPB

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages.

TPB postulates that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Accelerated expansion is therefore an illusion (of perspective). Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. However, the difference is minute and only significant over scales, measured in LY. Note: TPB does not contradict time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPB, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true length. Subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated.. TPB also provides a simple alternative explanation for: millisecond pulsars, the "galaxy outer rim rotation problem", wavefunction and the "double slit experiment"
Category: Astrophysics

[708] viXra:1510.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 00:42:17

Hypothesis of Existence of Gravitational Polarization of Objects of the Universe Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Solar System and Its Planets Are Internal Gravitational Dipoles of a Galaxy "Milky Way".

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The solar system and its planets are internal gravitational dipoles of a galaxy "Milky Way".
Category: Astrophysics

[707] viXra:1510.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 01:50:05

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The horizontal component of gravitation of the Sun is the reason of existence of a precession of orbits of objects of Solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[706] viXra:1510.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-26 13:34:50

Expanding Mond with Baryon Intrinsic Dark Matter, Helmholtz Work, an Entropic Force and a New Dimension Parameter

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 29 Pages.

In this paper I present a baryon intrinsic Dark Matter halo model. The model gives a correct first order galactic rotation curve, leads to the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and to the MOND force for the weak acceleration regime. Then I show that the MOND force can be derived from the combination of my model's potential and the first law of thermodynamics in the Helmholtz energy A = U - TS formulation. In my model the MOND work is identical to the Helmholtz work. The entropy connected to the intrinsic Dark Matter halo allows the derivation of the Dark Matter force, the deviation from Newton, as an entropic force. The definition of the entropy leads to a new parameter, of dimensional degrees of freedom, added to MOND. This new parameter solves the galaxy cluster mass discrepancy problem of MOND and produces and exact relationship between the MOND acceleration and the Hubble acceleration, with cosmological implications. In my model the cosmic structure formation degree of freedom value $N = \sqrt{cH_0/a_0}=2.1$, is also the minimum mass discrepancy in the MOND cluster analysis. The realization that MOND is a theory based on Helmholtz work shifts the question regarding its relativistic formulation towards the larger problem of a relativistic formulation of thermodynamics, a highly discussed and accepted problem in physics.
Category: Astrophysics

[705] viXra:1510.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-26 08:28:17

Nonlinear Analysis in Radio Astronomy

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.

One of the exciting prospects in radio astronomy is the observation of the ‘sounds’ of the universe, owing to the fact that radio signals recorded largely falling within the audible frequency range. To this end, the present work purports to the proposal and implementation nonlinear analysis of such radio astronomical data, using qualitative techniques such as time series, spectrum, bispectrum, phase portrait, Poincare section, polar plot, spatiotemporal analysis, wavelet analysis and distance plots, as well as quantitative analysis techniques including the Lyapunov exponent, Kolmogorov entropy and fractal dimension. The analyses results are illustrated for a select assortment of the radio astronomical signals. The analysis techniques and results presented here, coupled with theory backed rigorous investigations into the astronomical mechanisms may serve as a valuable tool for unlocking the secrets of the universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[704] viXra:1510.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-25 20:23:42

Millisecond Rotational Velocity and Gravitational Radiation Resolved, in TPB

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages. Also relevant to cosmology and high energy physics. Thank you.

TPB postulates that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Time intervals appear to decrease with distant events. Pulsar flashes will, as a result, appear to occur more frequently over distance. The contradiction between gravitational radiation and rotational velocity is resolved, as millisecond spin rates are simply an illusion (of skewed perspective). Note: TPB does not contradict time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPB, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true length: (t ⊥). Subsequently, all classical and relative physics (t') are then calculated using (t ⊥), instead of t. TPB also provides a simple alternative explanation for: accelerated expansion, the ”galaxy outer rim rotation problem", wavefunction and the "double slit experiment".
Category: Astrophysics

[703] viXra:1510.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-24 15:00:34

Star and Planet: Stages of Astron Evolution

Authors: Michal Zajaczkowski
Comments: 1 Page.

As it becomes understood that stars and planets are evolutionary stages of the same object, it becomes necessary to assign a name for that object. Proposed by this author is to adapt the Ancient Greek word Astron.
Category: Astrophysics

[702] viXra:1510.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-23 16:26:58

The New Parameter for Mond and the Mond Cosmic Structure Formation Entropic Degree of Freedom

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 5 Pages.

In a previous paper I showed how a new parameter added to MOND, the entropic degree of freedom N, exactly solved the MOND galaxy cluster mass discrepancy problem. In this paper I show that the same entropic degree of freedom produces an exact interpretation of Milgrom's approximate 5.a_0= c.H_0. The new relation gives N^2.a_0 = c.H_0. With present day values, N = 2.13, the cosmic degree of freedom of the entropic force in relation to cosmic structure formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[701] viXra:1510.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-22 18:07:49

A Thermodynamic Degree of Freedom Solution to the Galaxy Cluster Problem of Mond

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I discus the degree of freedom parameter of the emergent Dark Matter force. I show how this degree of freedom parameter N results in a possible difference between observed mass and apparent mass, in cases where N is larger than one. This might solve the galaxy cluster mass discrepancy of MOND. In my model the degrees of freedom of galaxies in clusters influences their number of microstates inside the cluster and thus their entropy. And then it also influences the apparent baryonic mass in the emergent Dark Matter force, a mass that will appear a factor in between two or three bigger than can be directly observed.
Category: Astrophysics

[700] viXra:1510.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-23 01:48:45

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v., Nikitin V. N. You "FIRMLY" Will Hold on Like Grim Death …, the Earth! Today there is no the Finished Uniform Theory or a Hypothesis not Only Concerning Processes of Emergence and Evolution of the Universe, But Even Its Separat

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitin V. N.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Today there is no the finished uniform theory or a hypothesis not only concerning processes of emergence and evolution of the Universe, but even its separate objects and substances. The made attempts of scientists somehow to open or prove secrets of the Universe aren't perceived at all and aren't logical, and without "the beginning and the end". Persistent attempts of "impact" on human consciousness by some strange theories like strings, a set of measurements, neopredelennost etc. become even more dangerous. Also persistently and unsubstantially scientists don't want to leave alone GOD and to use his fruits. The above methods of "tests and mistakes" only take away towards effort of scientists, and also bring additional chaos in process of knowledge of ALL. The purpose of our work is attempt of establishment of interrelation of the major physical properties of objects of the Universe with their structure and stages of evolution. Questions of a structure and evolution of planets on the basis of an exclusive hypothesis of a structure and evolution of planets are considered.
Category: Astrophysics

[699] viXra:1510.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-22 02:06:35

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V., Nikitin V. N. Hypothesis of the Structure and Evolution of Planets

Authors: ikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V., Nikitin V. N.
Comments: 1 Page. The hypothesis BEFORE THE - JUST jerk! Explanatory note. We created an independent creative team «NIKI» proactively engaged in solving actual problems in the fundamental areas of science and technology. Our results are clear and do not require any assumpt

SOLID-STATE PLANETS AT THE FINAL STAGE OF EVOLUTION BECOME HOLLOW, AND GASEOUS – SOLID-STATE!BELT OF ASTEROIDS ARE SPLINTERS OF THE COVER OF THE PHAETON, WHICH KERNEL – CERES!
Category: Astrophysics

[698] viXra:1510.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-20 15:03:17

The Dark Matter Entropic Force and Newtons Energetic Force as a Complete First Law of Thermodynamics Set of Gravitational Forces

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper I derive an emergent Dark Matter force using the virial theorem in the context of the Dark Matter halo model. This emergent force is then used to inductively derive a Dark Matter entropy S and a Dark Matter number of microstates W. I then show that this emergent force can be interpreted as an entropic force. Using the first law of thermodynamics a set of two forces can be derived from my model's potential function, with the Newtonian force of gravity derived from the energy as the first one and the emergent Dark Matter force derived from entropy as the second one.
Category: Astrophysics

[697] viXra:1510.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-20 01:51:14

Four Applications of a Navier-Stokes Cosmology

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has just been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper I presented a possible route from an exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations to Navier-Stokes Cosmology on Cantor Sets. But that was just an outline or a view that there is coherent hydrodynamics picture for everything in this Universe, from smallest scales to galaxies and beyond. Therefore in the present paper I will review four applications of a Navier-Stokes Cosmology: a. Active Galactic Nuclei, b. Oceanography, c. Relativistic Hydrodynamics, and d. Vortex model of elementary particles. While I borrow most of these applications from some existing literature, but to my present knowledge there is no attempt so far to view these applications under a unified theme of Navier-Stokes cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[696] viXra:1510.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-18 16:35:46

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Intensity of Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 40 Pages.

The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes. Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841 The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum. Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then DDM(P) = DDM (Q). In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculate E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem. In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E. Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential on DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal: Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies Density DM = 1,26 • 10-6 • EB where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500 Where Unit for DD.M. is 10-3 /pc3 and Unit for E is Km2/s/Kpc I think that it has been justified properly that results could confirm DM density as universal law, specially if it is considered experimental error in rotation curves and error in calculus of DM density functions. Unfortunately this law is wrong for intermediate galaxies, whose flat region in rotation curve is under 150 Km/s. Specifically have been studied NGC 3198 (Ursa Major), NGC 2403 (M81 group of galaxies) and M33 (Local group). In these galaxies density of dark matter is more than four times bigger that density of dark matter inside big galaxies although this result has not been published in this paper. However, I think that these results can not discard this model because DM density function inside an intermediate galaxy may be influenced by gravitational field its nearby giant galaxy. In other words, gravitational field of a giant neighbour galaxy might generate DM inside an intermediate galaxy placed near a big galaxy. In addition, a nearby giant galaxy may break significantly the spherical symmetry of gravitational field inside an intermediate galaxy and therefore calculus made through Virial Theorem become wrong. The author think that it may be worth to study a bigger number of galaxies in order to check or reject results got in this paper because Dark matter nature is one of the most important challenges for astrophysics science nowadays.
Category: Astrophysics

[695] viXra:1510.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-18 18:12:42

Fly me to the Moon - For all Mankind

Authors: Julius Birch
Comments: 51 Pages.

Apollo flights represent one of the most remarkable achievements of science and technology in the last millennium. Yet, to this day, there are people who are unconvinced that we as a species have set foot on the Moon. This disbelief finds a way to popular culture through movies like ``Interstellar'' (2014), in which a character claims that ``... the flights to the Moon were faked to bankrupt the Soviets,'' or the upcoming movie ``The Martian,'' in which the main character ridicules Apollo 11 exclaiming ``... take that Neil Armstrong!'' In this report we consider some of the most criticized features of the Apollo 11 and 17 Missions that have surfaced in public in the last 45 or so years. We interpret these features in terms of the opposite underlying physical models. One applies if the action were taking place on the way to the Moon, and the other if everything were staged on Earth and perhaps scaled down. What follows may help us decide whether we indeed flew to the Moon - for all mankind. Or not.
Category: Astrophysics

[694] viXra:1510.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 07:53:54

About What is Happening with Weather: Punching Hypothesis of Astrophysics

Authors: Valery Nikitin, Igor Nikitin
Comments: 1 Page.

We have suggested just a few fragments of the project we had created, and, in the case of further development of the direction of research suggested by us, scientists will discover the history and predict the future of our planet and the entire Universe!
Category: Astrophysics

[693] viXra:1510.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-15 21:37:17

Polarized Light from the Sun: Unification of the Corona and Analysis of the Second Solar Spectrum – Further Implications of a Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille, Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 10 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2015, v. 11(3), 236-256.

In order to account for the slight polarization of the continuum towards the limb, proponents of the Standard Solar Model (SSM) must have recourse to electron or hydrogen based scattering of light, as no other mechanism is possible in a gaseous Sun. Conversely, acceptance that the solar body is comprised of condensed matter opens up new avenues in the analysis of this problem, even if the photospheric surface itself is viewed as incapable of emitting polarized light. Thus, the increased disk polarization, from the center to the limb, can be explained by invoking the scattering of light by the atmosphere above the photosphere. The former is reminiscent of mechanisms which are known to account for the polarization of sunlight in the atmosphere of the Earth. Within the context of the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM), molecules and small particles, not electrons or hydrogen atoms as required by the SSM, would primarily act as scattering agents in regions also partially comprised of condensed hydrogen structures (CHS). In addition, the well-known polarization which characterizes the K-corona would become a sign of emission polarization from an anisotropic source, without the need for scattering. In the LMHSM, the K, F, and T-coronas can be viewed as emissive and reflective manifestations of a single coronal entity adopting a radially anisotropic structure, while slowly cooling with altitude above the photosphere. The presence of “dust particles”, advanced by proponents of the SSM, would no longer be required to explain the F and T-corona, as a single cooling structure would account for the properties of the K, F, and T coronas. At the same time, the polarized “Second Solar Spectrum”, characterized by the dominance of certain elemental or ionic spectral lines and an abundance of molecular lines, could be explained in the LMHSM, by first invoking interface polarization and coordination of these species with condensed matter in the chromosphere. The prevalence of polarized signals from the Rare Earth metals, a chemically unique group of the periodic table, provides powerful evidence, based on the “Second Solar Spectrum”, that chemical reactions and coordination are taking place in the atmosphere of the Sun. This concept is also supported by the polarized signal from lithium, an element previously hypothesized to assist in stabilizing metallic hydrogen structures. The possibility that some atoms are coordinated with CHS implies that the relative abundance of elements cannot be simply ascertained through the analysis of emission or absorption lines in the solar atmosphere.
Category: Astrophysics

[692] viXra:1510.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-14 09:05:59

Гипотеза галактического распада нашей Вселенной

Authors: Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin
Comments: 1 Page.

Галактическая эволюция нашей Вселенной – это результат галактического распада Белой дыры и превращение её в Чёрную дыру.
Category: Astrophysics

[691] viXra:1510.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-14 09:08:42

Гипотеза существования гравитационной оболочки у Солнечной системы

Authors: Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin
Comments: 1 Page.

Наличие гравитационной «оболочки» у Солнечной системы является причиной замедления движения комических аппаратов и изменения их курса!
Category: Astrophysics

[690] viXra:1510.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-14 09:10:03

Гипотеза природы гравитации в Солнечной системе

Authors: Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin
Comments: 1 Page.

Все планеты Солнечной системы находятся во власти гравитационного поля чёрной дыры! Ничего существенного с ними и с их орбитами не произойдёт даже в том случае, если просто «убрать» Солнце.
Category: Astrophysics

[689] viXra:1510.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-14 09:11:03

ГИПОТЕЗА СУЩЕСТВОВАНИЯ ГАЛАКТИКИ «ВСЕЛЕННАЯ»

Authors: Valeriy Nikolaevich Nikitin, Igore Valereevich Nikitin
Comments: 1 Page.

Наша Вселенная – это одна из галактик Мультивселенной, которая ограничена гравитационной оболочкой. В центре нашей Вселенной расположена чёрная дыра.
Category: Astrophysics

[688] viXra:1510.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-08 05:05:45

Measurement Method to Determine the Speed of Gravity

Authors: Borchin Ovidiu
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present a method by which we can determine directly the propagation speed of the sun gravitational field. We propose as to attain this objective, to compare the lengthiness of two cosmic distances through direct measurements. The first distance is given by the length between a planet and the sun, while the other distance is caused by the movement of the Solar System, including the sun and planet, within its trajectory around the galactic center of the Milky Way. Since cosmic distances have to be crossed by the gravitational field of the sun and planet as well we show that one of them has to be neglected. This fact creates a retarded gravitational field of the sun which falls at an acute angle on the planet. This angle is determined by the fact that the gravitational field suffers a composed movement in two directions simultaneously and transport phenomenon occurs. We show that the measured angle aperture depends directly on the speed of gravity of the sun. Further investigation is made regarding the identification of the “Privileged directions” in the solar system, which probably shape the planetary elliptic movement due to the motion of the whole solar system around the galaxy on the galactic circle.
Category: Astrophysics

[687] viXra:1510.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-07 15:09:27

The Generalized Bode's Law

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper introduces a generalized Bode's Law. This law predicts the mean distances of all the planets (including the asteroid/dwarf planet Ceres) from the sun with a maximum relative error of, approximately 16% corresponding to Mars. For the rest of the planets the error is, approximately, 10 % or less. Thus, the new formula eliminates the inaccuracies of the original Law with respect to Neptune and Pluto. The formula also works extremely well for Mercury with n = -1, eliminating the need of using arbitrary numbers such as n = -∞. The generalized formula is suitable to predict the existence of undetected exoplanets.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[368] viXra:1602.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-05 00:46:51

The Initially Searches of Galaxies Merger

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the cause and process of small galaxies merger.
Category: Astrophysics

[367] viXra:1602.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-02 04:15:34

Mach's Principle Based Explanation for the Cosmological Red Shift and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Six page full paper

We first find here that the ratio of: (loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon) and (loss in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D) remains equal to the famous ratio (G me mp) / e2 leading us towards a possibility that ‘cosmological red-shift’ may be due to gravitational effect. Also the ratio h H0 / me c^2 = (G me mp) / e^2. Starting with Mach’s principle, that ‘mass’ of an object is because of its ‘cosmic gravitational potential energy’, we arrive at a possibility that every chunk of matter and energy should experience a fixed value of acceleration H0 c. For the purpose of comparison we express the ‘cosmological red shift’ as deceleration of the photon, and find that the deceleration experienced by the photon matches perfectly with the expected value H0 c. Then it is argued that if such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. ET. Al. match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for the explanation proposed here.
Category: Astrophysics

[366] viXra:1601.0020 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-19 06:34:47

Gravitational Casimir Modeling of Dark Energy

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

The essence of the Casimir effect is the confinement by a physical system of a part of the ground-state energy of a quantum field; for the classic Casimir effect, the system is a conducting cavity and the quantum field is electromagnetic. The actual amount of ground-state quantum field energy the physical system confines varies with the system's details; in particular the variation with the system's size of the quantum field ground-state energy it confines is manifested as a spontaneous pressure exerted on the system. Here we take the system to be a uniform-density dust ball (in lieu of the universe), and the quantum field to be that of any positive-mass stable fundamental particle. Such a particle gravitationally confined within the dust ball will be in a discrete quantum state of a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator with a negative energy offset. The amount of ground-state quantum field energy confined within the dust ball is half of the sum of the offset oscillator energy eigenvalues, up to a maximum beyond which particles are capable of egress from the dust ball. The magnitude of the resulting negative energy gently increases with dust ball radius, flagging the repulsive pressure signature of dark energy. This repulsive pressure is inversely proportional to the 5/2 power of the dust ball radius, i.e., dust ball expansion dilutes this pressure only slightly less than it dilutes ordinary matter density, a big improvement over the cosmological constant's implausible imperviousness to expansion dilution.
Category: Astrophysics

[365] viXra:1601.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-10 10:09:54

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 32 Pages. Contains new chapters where have been shwon that it is possible to extrapolate the new DM profile outside dominion data.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated and supported, with several experimental evidences, that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. That paper studied six big galaxies whose velocity in flat area of rotation curve is bigger than 200 km/s. Current paper studies a similar law for M33, which is an intermediate satellite galaxy of M31, it is 850 kpc away from Earth and its velocity in flat area of rotation curve is approximately 120 km/s. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for M33. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with Burket ones below 2%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to Burket DM profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about DM density inside halo of M33 galaxy. These data come from [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. In fourth epigraph, considering rotation curve of M33 from Corbelli data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field inside a wide region of halo, from 8 kpc to 22 Kpc. In fifth epigraphs has been tabulated and plotted data of Burket DM density profile published by [4] E. Corbelli, 2014. for M33. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of Burket DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is Density of D.M = A•E^B. Where A= 29,02219371 and B= 2,242193511 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and Burket profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are mainly below 5%. In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r^2•D.M Density. Considering that Density D.M = A•E^B then M´(r) = 4Pi • r^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula Density D.M = A•E^B. In nineth epigraph Bernoulli and Burket DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 2% for radius bigger than 10 kpc, which is a superb result. The tenth chapter makes a comparison between DM densities as power of E for M33 and NGC 3198 galaxies. The goal is to show a general law for galaxies: the more massive galaxy is the less DM density at a specific value of E. In the eleven chapter it is fitted DM density as power of E for a reduced data set, and it is studied its behaviour outside dominion regression. In chapter twelve DM Bernoulli profile is extrapolated up to 70 kpc and it is compared with Burket profile.
Category: Astrophysics

[364] viXra:1512.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-23 08:52:57

Gravitorotational Dragging

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 7 Pages; 1 Table; 16 References.

Previous work on the concept of gravitorotational acceleration field (GRAF) and its dynamical role is surveyed, with main emphasis on the GRAF's influence exerted on a test-body in orbital motion around a rotating gravitational source (heavy central mass). Such an influence is typically interpreted as a ʻgravitorotational draggingʼ, this phenomenon is very similar to the so-called Lense-Thirring effect (frame dragging) in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT). Some applications are considered include (i) the orbital plane dragging of artificial satellites LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES; (ii) the effect of the Earth's GRAF on the orbital motion of the Moon; (iii) the effect of the Sun's GRAF on the orbital motion of Mercury. Also, it is shown that the conceptual existence of ʻgravitorotational draggingʼ and its quantitative agreement with GRT-predictions should imply, among other things, that the geometrization of gravity is unnecessary for physics.
Category: Astrophysics

[363] viXra:1512.0352 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-02 08:12:02

Simple Explanation for the 'Cosmological Red-Shift' and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Five-page final version

Photon is a chunk of energy h f, where h Planck’s constant, and f is frequency. Every chunk of energy or mass must produce a gravitational field around it. Now, when this chunk of energy moves from one to another position, in the manner of ‘quantum jumps’, the gravitational-field around the previous position has to collapse, and new field should keep getting established around the new positions. These productions and collapses of gravitational field should give rise to gravitational waves or ripples. These ripples must carry certain amount of energy with them, and this energy can come only from the kinetic energy of the photon. So the energy of the photon should keep on reducing, which we have been observing as the ‘cosmological red-shift’. And we can express this reduction in kinetic-energy of the photon as deceleration of the photon. If such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. et. Al., match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for this simple explanation.
Category: Astrophysics

[362] viXra:1512.0352 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-29 12:48:39

Simple Explanation for the 'Cosmological Red-Shift' and It's Evidence

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Four-page detailed version

Photon is a chunk of energy h f, where h Planck’s constant, and f is frequency. Every chunk of energy or mass must produce a gravitational field around it. Now, when this chunk of energy moves from one to another position, in the manner of ‘quantum jumps’, the gravitational-field around the previous position has to collapse, and new field should keep getting established around the new positions. These productions and collapses of gravitational field should give rise to gravitational waves or ripples. These ripples must carry certain amount of energy with them, and this energy can come only from the kinetic energy of the photon. So the energy of the photon should keep on reducing, which we have been observing as the ‘cosmological red-shift’. And we can express this reduction in kinetic-energy of the photon as deceleration of the photon. If such a deceleration is true for a chunk of energy called photon, then it must be true for every particle of matter too. Strikingly, the decelerations experienced by the space-probes Pioneer-10, Pioneer-11, Galileo and Ulysses, as carefully measured by Anderson J.D. et. Al., match perfectly with the deceleration of the ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’; thus providing supportive evidence for this simple explanation.
Category: Astrophysics

[361] viXra:1512.0348 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-23 03:18:08

Dark Matter and Weak Field Limit of General Relativity

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 6 Pages.

Followed the Dr. Cooperstock (the emeritus professor) idea to solve Dark Matter problem by means of Einstein's General Relativity. Then is discovered, what the problem of galaxies (even with help of the proposed novel numerical algorithm) do not converge into needed solution. The reason is obvious: the small factors as the non-azimuthal motion of stars have been neglected. But the exact, the non-approximative, equations are simple enough for the stationary rotating dust cylinder of huge height. Turns out, what weak fields limit of the General Relativity fully coincides with the Newton Gravity
Category: Astrophysics

[360] viXra:1512.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-19 16:41:06

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for NGC 3198 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 16 Pages. Calculus has been made with bigger accuracy.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated and supported, with several experimental evidences, that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field, according to an Universal law for big galaxies. Current paper studies a similar law for NGC 3198, which is an intermediate galaxy belong to Ursa Major cluster, 14 Mpc away. In this work has been fitted a new function for DM density as power of E. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW ones below 5%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to observational data of DM and NFW profile as well then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum and [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about DM density inside halo of NGC 3198 galaxy. These data come from [3] E.V. Karukes, 2015. In fourth epigraph, starting from spin speed from Karukes data, it is right to calculate gravitational field E, through Virial theorem. So in this epigraph has been tabulate gravitational field and density of dark matter inside a wide region of halo, from 18 kpc to 46 Kpc. In fifth epigraph has been fitted data of DM density as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,99. Particularly formula found is Density Dark matter = A • E^B Where A= 4,04598703 •10^-5 and B= 1,70654481 In sixth and seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density data, DM density as power of E, NFW & Burket profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that DM density power of E adjusts better than the other ones. In eight epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational in halo region where density of baryonic matter is negligible. As consequence M´(r ) = 4 pi r^2 • Density Dark matter (r) and considering that Dark matter = A • E^B then M´(r ) = 4 pi r^2 • A • E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution is a new DM density profile. To integrate differential equation has been taken four different values for gravitational field at four different radius to check accuracy of integration parameter. In nineth epigraph Bernoulli, NFW and Burket DM density profiles have been compared to Karukes data of DM density. Results show clearly that Bernoulli profile fits better than the other ones. Paper finish concluding that results supports clearly hypothesis about DM nature defended by the autor.
Category: Astrophysics

[359] viXra:1512.0245 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-06 09:26:59

On the Theory of Gamma-ray and Fast Radio Bursts

Authors: Dmitriy Skripachov
Comments: 11 Pages.

Gamma-ray bursts are characterized by energy comparable to the rest mass of stars and duration comparable to the time of passage of light of several diameters of star. It means GRBs signal the flares occur when stars fall on supermassive neutron collapsars (SMNC) located at the centers of galaxies. Long, short, very short and weak GRBs are matched the fall of main sequence stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars (NS) and rogue planets, respectively. GRB is the result of heating of star caused by the action of three factors: transverse compression of angular convergence to SMNC, friction of light matter (LM), and volumetric compression of the entry into gravitationally distended space. GRB is a circular flare in the stellar corona. GRB lasts until the star will be hidden under the π-horizon, on which the angle of gravitational deflection of beams is 180°. Multiple peaks are caused by the fall of binary stars and stars with planets, as well as by consecutive bursts of stellar core and overlying layers. Early afterglow is due to the annihilation, and later (x-ray and radio) due to aurora and remanence of LM. FRB precedes very short GRB. Milliseconds before GRB, "magnetic lightning" arises, which is a reconnection of magnetic field lines from NS anterior pole to SMNC. Magnetic dipoles of LM nuclei are aligned along the magnetic lines of force. This is accompanied by radio emission generated strictly perpendicular magnetic tube connecting NS and SMNC. Gravitation bends the plane of FRB in the hyperboloid with the cone angle of 40°. Double FRB is due to gravitational lensing, emerging with a small angle between the axis of cone and the direction to us. In this case, the linear polarization of adjacent pulses will not coincide.
Category: Astrophysics

[358] viXra:1512.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-08 21:44:49

The Electromagnetic Wave Electric Field Force Thruster - Vacuum Tensor Drive

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 9 Pages.

As we know that Newton's law considers vacuum as empty, force between objects passing through action at a distance. But in Electromagnetism, vacuum is not considered as empty but considered as continuum, force between objects passing through vacuum. It means that Newton's law may not work if vacuum must be considered. We know that on the electromagnetic wave propagation path, the direction of electric field at a point changes periodically. If there is a charged object at the point also changes its charge property periodically with the same frequency, then the electric field force direction on the object will not change. Therefore, the object will do directional movement. Based on this, it is possible to design a spacecraft does not follow Newton's law. And the calculation suggests that the thrust can be much higher than radiation pressure. With the Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation, this paper proved that in a limited space, Newton's second law may not work although it still work in the whole universe. Also with the Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation, this paper explained why in quantum mechanics at the particle level, particles usually do not follow Newton's second law.
Category: Astrophysics

[357] viXra:1512.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-25 00:58:52

The Electromagnetic Wave Electric Field Force Thruster with The New Understanding of Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 8 Pages.

We know that on the electromagnetic wave propagation path, the direction of electric field at a point changes periodically. If there is a charged object at the point also changes its charge property periodically with the same frequency, then the electric field force direction on the object will not change. Therefore, the object will do directional movement. Based on this, it is possible to design a spacecraft without propellant. And the calculation suggests that the thrust can be much higher than radiation pressure. With the Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation, this paper also proved that in a limited space, momentum can be not conserved although it is still conserved in the whole universe. Also with the Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation, this paper explained why in quantum mechanics at the particle level, particles usually do not follow Newton's second law.
Category: Astrophysics

[356] viXra:1512.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-20 21:14:08

The Electromagnetic Wave Electric Field Force Thruster with The New Understanding of Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 7 Pages.

We know that on the electromagnetic wave propagation path, the direction of electric field at a point changes periodically. If there is a charged object at the point also changes its charge property periodically with the same frequency, then the electric field force direction on the object will not change. Therefore, the object will do directional movement. Based on this, it is possible to design a spacecraft without propellant. And the calculation suggests that the thrust can be much higher than radiation pressure. With the Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation, this paper also proves that in a limited space, momentum can be not conserved although it is still conserved in the whole universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[355] viXra:1512.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-09 05:35:18

The Electromagnetic Wave Electric Field Force Thruster with The New Understanding of Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 7 Pages.

We know that on the electromagnetic wave propagation path, the direction of electric field at a point changes periodically. If there is a charged object at the point also changes its charge property periodically with the same frequency, then the electric field force direction on the object will not change. Therefore, the object will do directional movement. Based on this, it is possible to design a spacecraft without propellant. And the calculation suggests that the thrust can be much higher than radiation pressure. With the Electromagnetic Momentum Conservation Equation, this paper also proves that in a limited space, momentum can be not conserved although it is still conserved in the whole universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[354] viXra:1511.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-23 13:03:29

CGA-Effective (Radial) Potential Energy

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 15 Pages; 1 Table; 17 References

The main conceptual foundation of previous work on the Combined Gravitational Action is briefly surveyed. Next, we derive a general expression for the CGA-effective (radial) potential energy in order to investigate the behavior and shape of the orbits of a test-body during its orbital motion inside the vicinity of the principal gravitational source. And as direct consequences, two expressions for the concepts of gravitational momentum and dynamic gravitational force are derived. Starting from the concept of the combined gravitational potential energy and using only the familiar tools of Newtonian mechanics, the classical Binet's orbital equation is combgravactionalized and its physico-mathematical expression is exactly identical to that already found in the context of general relativity theory, which enables us to calculate, among other things, the secular perigee precession of the Moon; the secular perihelion advance of the planets and the angular deflection of light ray passing near a massive object.
Category: Astrophysics

[353] viXra:1511.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-03 11:54:56

Multiverse Space-Antispace Dual Calabi-Yau ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ Particle Creation

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 4 Pages.

Modeling the ‘creation/emergence’ of matter from spacetime is as old as modern cosmology itself and not without controversy within each model such as Static, Steady-state, Big Bang or Multiverse Continuous-State. In this paper we present only a brief primitive introduction to a new form of ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ dual space-antispace vacuum Particle Creation applicable especially to Big Bang alternatives which are well-known but ignored; Hubble discovered ‘Redshift’ not a Doppler expansion of the universe which remains the currently popular interpretation. Holographic Anthropic Multiverse cosmology provides viable alternatives to all seemingly sacrosanct pillars of the Big Bang. A model for Multiverse Space-Antispace Dual Calabi-Yau ‘Exciplex-Zitterbewegung’ particle creation has only become possible by incorporating the additional degrees of freedom provided by the capacity complex dimensional extended Yang-Mills Kaluza-Klein correspondence provides.
Category: Astrophysics

[352] viXra:1511.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-01 18:02:00

Spatial Expansion & Dark Energy :: Singularity Compression & Tension

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 4 Pages.


Spatial Expansion / Dark Energy
Can a particle field push or pull matter?
It would have to be pushing or pulling on all sides

Compression / Singularity
Stuff cannot compress to infinity or infinite density.
Matter is particles. Whatever gravity is... it is also connected particles.

Tension / Vacuum of Space
There are supposedly 100 billion stars in the galaxy. So that means there are 100 billion things pulling on a common center. There actually doesn't have to be anything there.
Category: Astrophysics

[351] viXra:1511.0155 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-18 16:39:50

Spatial Expansion :: Compression & Tension

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 3 Pages.


Spatial Expansion
Can a particle field push or pull matter?
It would have to be pushing or pulling on all sides

Compression
Stuff cannot compress to infinity or infinite density.
Matter is particles. Whatever gravity is... it is also connected particles.

Tension
There are supposedly 100 billion stars in the galaxy. So that means there are 100 billion things pulling on a common center. There actually doesn't have to be anything there.
Category: Astrophysics

[350] viXra:1511.0081 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-11 03:16:04

The Light Propagation in Universe Space

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing the state of the light propagation in universe space.
Category: Astrophysics

[349] viXra:1511.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-20 01:42:06

Demystifying Black holes - A New Rational Explanation on the Workings of Central Core Regions of Galaxies

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 13 Pages. Version2 20th Nov 2015

Current mainstream understanding of the galaxies is that they have super-massive black holes in their centre’s which are mired in mystery in regards to their actual operations and various theoretical models have been invented to describe their behaviour. Most of these Theoretical/Mathematical models are based upon many vague assumptions and are really difficult to understand in a rational manner (i.e. cannot be conceived by one’s senses to exist in reality). A more rational explanation is provided in this paper for describing the workings of the inner regions (cores) of galaxies without using any vague mathematical assumptions and using the well understood phenomenon’s of electromagnetism as the material inside the core of the galaxies is highly luminous plasma (ionised matter) moving at high speeds and will therefore have strong electromagnetic processes in its workings. The phenomenon of radio type galaxies, Quasars type objects, birth of galaxies and the question of what powers the galaxies are also discussed and a hypothesis proposed for the existence of a fifth state of matter in certain extreme conditions inside the AGN’s (in addition to Solid, Liquid, Gas and Plasma state).
Category: Astrophysics

[348] viXra:1511.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-20 05:40:19

Greatest Overlooked Idea of Modern Astronomy - Stars Cooling Down and Becoming Planets

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 19 Pages. Version5 20th Nov 2015

Modern astronomy proposes its planet formation theory with highly questionable assumptions as the basis for formation of planets (in the form of accretion disk model of protoplanetary disks). It also proposes models (again using questionable assumptions) for the stars nearing the end of their lives (which share similar internal structure to all the planets in existence) to end in either explosions (supernovae) or becoming Black holes, Neutron stars or Dwarf stars. Another more rational explanation on how planets form has been provided first by Anthony Abruzzo expanding on Descartes’s original Idea of stars transforming to become planets by a series of papers followed by a comprehensive explanation by Jeffery Wollynski in the form of his Stellar Metamorphosis theory. Stellar Metamorphosis theory provides detailed explanation of the actual mechanics of how this process takes place step by step. Some additional observations are offered in this paper on the mechanism of the process of planet formation by Stellar Metamorphosis as well as some new ideas on the question of why planets stay at similar temperature ranges over millions of years despite continuously cooling during the evolution/propagation of life, observations on the comparison of relative mass of a star during its transition from star to a planet and some thoughts on the nature of space and time.
Category: Astrophysics

[347] viXra:1511.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-03 18:31:54

Greatest Overlooked Idea of Modern Astronomy - Stars Cooling Down and Becoming Planets

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 19 Pages. Version4 4th Nov 2015

Modern astronomy proposes its planet formation theory with highly questionable assumptions as the basis for formation of planets (in the form of accretion disk model of protoplanetary disks). It also proposes models (again using questionable assumptions) for the stars nearing the end of their lives (which share similar internal structure to all the planets in existence) to end in either explosions (supernovae) or becoming Black holes, Neutron stars or Dwarf stars. Another more rational explanation on how planets form has been provided first by Anthony Abruzzo expanding on Descartes’s original Idea of stars transforming to become planets by a series of papers followed by a comprehensive explanation by Jeffery Wollynski in the form of his Stellar Metamorphosis theory. Stellar Metamorphosis theory provides detailed explanation of the actual mechanics of how this process takes place step by step. Some additional observations are offered in this paper on the mechanism of the process of planet formation by Stellar Metamorphosis as well as some new ideas on the question of why planets stay at similar temperature ranges over millions of years despite continuously cooling during the evolution/propagation of life, observations on the comparison of relative mass of a star during its transition from star to a planet and some thoughts on the nature of space and time.
Category: Astrophysics

[346] viXra:1511.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-02 19:25:21

Greatest Overlooked Idea of Modern Astronomy - Stars Cooling Down and Becoming Planets

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 16 Pages. Version3 3rd Nov 2015

Modern astronomy proposes its planet formation theory with highly questionable assumptions as the basis for formation of planets (in the form of accretion disk model of protoplanetary disks). It also proposes models (again using questionable assumptions) for the stars nearing the end of their lives (which share similar internal structure to all the planets in existence) to end in either explosions (supernovae) or becoming Black holes, Neutron stars or Dwarf stars. Another more rational explanation on how planets form has been provided first by Anthony Abruzzo expanding on Descartes’s original Idea of stars transforming to become planets by a series of papers followed by a comprehensive explanation by Jeffery Wollynski in the form of his Stellar Metamorphosis theory. Stellar Metamorphosis theory provides detailed explanation of the actual mechanics of how this process takes place step by step. Some additional observations are offered in this paper on the mechanism of the process of planet formation by Stellar Metamorphosis as well as some new ideas on the question of why planets stay at similar temperature ranges over millions of years despite continuously cooling during the evolution/propagation of life and observations on the comparison of relative mass of a star at the start of its life versus when it is cooled to a solid planet like structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[345] viXra:1511.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-01 16:36:46

Greatest Overlooked Idea of Modern Astronomy - Stars Cooling Down and Becoming Planets

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 15 Pages. Version2 2nd Nov 2015

Modern astronomy proposes its planet formation theory with highly questionable assumptions as the basis for formation of planets (in the form of accretion disk model of protoplanetary disks). It also proposes models (again using questionable assumptions) for the stars nearing the end of their lives (which share similar internal structure to all the planets in existence) to end in either explosions (supernovae) or becoming Black holes, Neutron stars or Dwarf stars. Another more rational explanation on how planets form has been provided first by Anthony Abruzzo expanding on Descartes’s original Idea of stars transforming to become planets by a series of papers followed by a comprehensive explanation by Jeffery Wollynski in the form of his Stellar Metamorphosis theory. Stellar Metamorphosis theory provides detailed explanation of the actual mechanics of how this process takes place step by step. Some additional observations are offered in this paper on the mechanism of the process of planet formation by Stellar Metamorphosis as well as some new ideas on the question of why planets stay at similar temperature ranges over millions of years despite continuously cooling during the evolution/propagation of life and observations on the comparison of relative mass of a star at the start of its life versus when it is cooled to a solid planet like structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[344] viXra:1510.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-31 09:14:24

A Genuine Wormhole or Einstein-Rosen Bridge

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: a discovery about the Wormhole or called Einstein–Rosen Bridge.
Category: Astrophysics

[343] viXra:1510.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-30 01:52:08

A Genuine Wormhole or Einstein-Rosen Bridge

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract:a discovery about the Wormhole or Einstein–Rosen Bridge.
Category: Astrophysics

[342] viXra:1510.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-29 18:51:05

New Theory of Nuclear Fusion Processes in Sun and other Stars

Authors: Amrinder Singh
Comments: 8 Pages. Version2 29th Oct 2015

Currently accepted theory about the sun holds that it is a giant nuclear fusion reactor powered by its hot core having extremely high pressures and temperatures (~ 15MK). Even though this theory accounts for energy generation of the sun and elements formation by fusion processes from a hot plasma of Hydrogen and Helium, the theory fails to explain many of the observed phenomenon in a rational manner. Its chief shortcomings being its inability to fully explain the actual process of fusion in the core region rationally without using vague assumptions, high temperatures of corona (~ 1-2 MKelvin) around the sun whilst surface sun temperatures being less than 6000K, failure to account for the formation of coronal loop structures, failure to adequately explain the activity we observe on the sun in the form of CME’s and sun spots, unable to explain the causes of fast and slow solar winds among others. A new Theory is proposed which explains all the observed phenomenon of the sun including explanations of all the above mentioned shortcomings of the old fusion model and fits all the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle together(of the workings of sun) using our current understanding of the forces of electromagnetism. This theory provides a direct rational explanation of all observed phenomenon of the sun without resorting to any vague assumptions
Category: Astrophysics

[341] viXra:1510.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-07 09:51:12

Time Perspective Bias (TPB). Apparent Decreasing Time Intervals, Over Macrocosm

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages.

Time Perspective Bias (TPB) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Accelerated expansion is therefore an illusion (of perspective). Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. However, the difference is minute and only significant over scales, measured in LY. Note: TPB does not contradict time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPB, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true length: (t⊥). Subsequently, all classical and relative physics (t') are then calculated using (t⊥), instead of t. TPB also provides a simple alternative explanation for: millisecond pulsars, the ”galaxy outer rim rotation problem”, wavefunction and the ”double slit experiment”.
Category: Astrophysics

[340] viXra:1510.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-05 11:38:05

Time Perspective Bias (TPB). Apparent Decreasing Time Intervals, Over Macrocosm, Explains Type la Supernovae.

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages.

Time Perspective Bias (TPB) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Accelerated expansion is therefore an illusion (of perspective). Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals. However, the difference is minute and only significant over scales, measured in LY. Note: TPB does not contradict time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPB, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true length: (t⊥). Subsequently, all classical and relative physics (t' ) are then calculated using (t⊥), instead of t. TPB also provides a simple alternative explanation for: millisecond pulsars, the ”galaxy outer rim rotation problem”, wavefunction and the ”double slit experiment”.
Category: Astrophysics

[339] viXra:1510.0401 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-29 03:53:01

Expanding Mond with Baryon Intrinsic Dark Matter, Helmholtz Work, an Entropic Force and a New Dimension Parameter

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 32 Pages.

In this paper I present a baryon intrinsic Dark Matter halo model. The model gives a correct first order galactic rotation curve, leads to the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and to the MOND force for the weak acceleration regime. Then I show that the MOND force can be derived from the combination of my model's potential and the first law of thermodynamics in the Helmholtz energy A = U - TS formulation. In my model the MOND work is identical to the Helmholtz work. The entropy connected to the intrinsic Dark Matter halo allows the derivation of the Dark Matter force, the deviation from Newton, as an entropic force. The definition of the entropy leads to a new parameter, of dimensional degrees of freedom, added to MOND. This new parameter solves the galaxy cluster mass discrepancy problem of MOND and produces and exact relationship between the MOND acceleration and the Hubble acceleration, with cosmological implications. In my model the cosmic structure formation degree of freedom value $N = \sqrt{cH_0/a_0}=2.1$, is also the minimum mass discrepancy in the MOND cluster analysis. The realization that MOND is a theory based on Helmholtz work shifts the question regarding its relativistic formulation towards the larger problem of a relativistic formulation of thermodynamics, a highly discussed and accepted problem in physics. It touches upon the arrow of time issue.
Category: Astrophysics

[338] viXra:1510.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-29 17:53:30

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Intensity of Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 76 Pages. In this version it has been got a Bernouilli differential equation for gravitational field which allows to calculate DM density depending on radius.

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Gravitational Field as Universal Law The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes. Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841 The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum. Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then Density DM(P) = Density DM (Q). In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculated E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem. In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E. Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential function to DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal for big galaxies. I have considered a big galaxy if its velocity inside its flat region of rotation curve is up to 200 Km/s. Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies Density DM = 1,26 • 10^ - 6 • E^ B where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500 Where Unit for Density D.M. is 10^ -3 MSUN /pc^3 or m MSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is Km^ 2 / s^ 2 / Kpc The same function with other suitable system of units is Density DM = 3,7323 • 10^ 17 • E^ B being B = 1,74 Where Unit for Density D.M. is mMSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is m/s^2. In chapter 12 it is calculated Local DM density (Sun region). Recent measures of Sun are Radius = and Sun Velocity = With such values, intensity of gravitational field in Sun Region ESUN = Km^2/s^2/ Kpc and Density DM in Sun region = 6,45 mMSUN / pc^3 = 0,245 GeV/cm^3 . This value agrees with direct measures of Local DM density. In chapter 14, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in Milky Way and it has been found that agreement between both curves are mainly under 10 % inside the whole dominion up to 375 Kpc which is an excellent agreement in astrophysics¡. In chapter 15, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in M31.Although the agreement between both functions is not so good as in Milky Way case, relative error is enough small to accept that M31 supports DM density potential function. In chapter 16, density potential function is written depending on radius x, and it is clearly showed that this function is equivalent to NFW, relative error inside the whole dominion are enough small that they could be considered come from error in astronomical measures. Finally in chapter 17 has been got a Bernoulli differential equation for gravitational field which allows to calculate potential density function depending on radius. In addition potential function has been compared with NFW density function through halo region and it has been found that relative differences are below 13% in Milky Way and below 16% in M31 galaxy. This is a superb result as can understand any astrophysicist ¡ In my opinion, it has been justified properly that results could confirm DM density as universal law, especially if it is considered experimental error in rotation curves and error in calculus of DM density functions. The author think that it may be worth to study a bigger number of galaxies in order to check or reject results got in this paper because Dark matter nature is one of the most important challenges for astrophysics science nowadays.
Category: Astrophysics

[337] viXra:1510.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-09 13:46:33

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 69 Pages. This new version Potential Density is written depending on radius to demonstrate its equivalence with NFW density.

The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes. Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841 The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum. Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then Density DM(P) = Density DM (Q). In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculated E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem. In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E. Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential function to DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal for big galaxies. I have considered a big galaxy if its velocity inside its flat region of rotation curve is up to 200 Km/s. Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies Density DM = 1,26 • 10^ - 6 • E^ B where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500 Where Unit for Density D.M. is 10^ -3 MSUN /pc^3 or m MSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is Km^ 2 / s^ 2 / Kpc The same function with other suitable system of units is Density DM = 3,7323 • 10^ 17 • E^ B being B = 1,74 Where Unit for Density D.M. is mMSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is m/s^2. In chapter 12 it is calculated Local DM density (Sun region). Recent measures of Sun are Radius = and Sun Velocity = With such values, intensity of gravitational field in Sun Region ESUN = Km^2/s^2/ Kpc and Density DM in Sun region = 6,45 mMSUN / pc^3 = 0,245 GeV/cm^3 . This value agrees with direct measures of Local DM density. In chapter 14, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in Milky Way and it has been found that agreement between both curves are mainly under 10 % inside the whole dominion up to 375 Kpc which is an excellent agreement in astrophysics¡. In chapter 15, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in M31.Although the agreement between both functions is not so good as in Milky Way case, relative error is enough small to accept that M31 supports DM density potential function. Finally in chapter 16, density potential function is written depending on radius x, and it is clearly showed that this function is equivalent to NFW, relative error inside the whole dominion are enough small that they could be considered come from error in astronomical measures. In my opinion, it has been justified properly that results could confirm DM density as universal law, especially if it is considered experimental error in rotation curves and error in calculus of DM density functions. The author think that it may be worth to study a bigger number of galaxies in order to check or reject results got in this paper because Dark matter nature is one of the most important challenges for astrophysics science nowadays.
Category: Astrophysics

[336] viXra:1510.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-03 10:15:08

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 63 Pages. In this new version potential function has been checked with DM density NFW profile in Milky Way and M31 galaxy. Both tests have been successful.

The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes. Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841 The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum. Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then Density DM(P) = Density DM (Q). In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculated E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem. In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E. Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential function to DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal for big galaxies. I have considered a big galaxy if its velocity inside its flat region of rotation curve is up to 200 Km/s. Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies Density DM = 1,26 · 10^ - 6 · E^ B where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500 Where Unit for Density D.M. is 10^ -3 MSUN /pc^3 or m MSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is Km^ 2 / s^ 2 / Kpc The same function with other suitable system of units is Density DM = 3,7323 · 10^ 17 · E^ B being B = 1,74 Where Unit for Density D.M. is mMSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is m/s^2. In chapter 12 it is calculated Local DM density (Sun region). Recent measures of Sun are Radius = 8,3 Kpc and Sun Velocity = 244 Km/s With such values, intensity of gravitational field in Sun Region ESUN =7173 Km^2/s^2/ Kpc and Density DM in Sun region = 6,45 mMSUN / pc^3 = 0,245 GeV/cm^3 . This value agrees with direct measures of Local DM density. In chapter 14, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in Milky Way and it has been found that agreement between both curves are mainly under 10 % inside the whole dominion up to 375 Kpc which is an excellent agreement in astrophysics¡. Finally in chapter 15, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in M31.Although the agreement between both functions is not so good as in Milky Way case, relative error is enough small to accept that M31 supports DM density potential function. I think that it has been justified properly that results could confirm DM density as universal law, especially if it is considered experimental error in rotation curves and error in calculus of DM density functions. The author think that it may be worth to study a bigger number of galaxies in order to check or reject results got in this paper because Dark matter nature is one of the most important challenges for astrophysics science nowadays.
Category: Astrophysics

[335] viXra:1510.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-02 07:55:13

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 60 Pages. Function postulated has been ckecked with DM density NFW profile in Milky Way and M31 galaxy and both tests have been a success

The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes. Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841 The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum. Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then DDM(P) = DDM (Q). In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculate E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem. In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E. Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential function to DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal: Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies Big galaxy set considered in this paper have their flat speed region in rotation curve above 200 Km/s. Density DM = 1,26 • 10^ - 6 • E^ B where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500 Where Unit for DD.M. is 10^ -3MSUN /pc^3 or m MSUN /pc^3 and Unit for E is Km^ 2 / s^ 2 / Kpc In chapter 11 DM density function is expressed by I.S. of units and another hybrid system of units. In chapter 12 it is calculated Local DM density. Recent measures of Sun are RSUN = VSUN = With such values, ESUN Km^2/s^2/ Kpc and Density DM-SUN = 6,45•10^ -3 MSUN /pc^3 = 6,45 m MSUN /pc^3 = 0,245 GeV/cm^3 . This value agree with current direct measures of Local DM density. In chapter 14, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in Milky Way and it has been found that agreement between both curves are mainly under 10% inside the whole dominion up to 375 Kpc which is an excellent agreement in astrophysics¡. Finally in chapter 15, DM density potential function has been checked with NFW profile in M31.Although agreement between both functions is not so good as in Milky Way case, relative error is enough small to accept that M31 supports DM density potential function. The author think that it may be worth to study a bigger number of galaxies in order to check or reject results got in this paper because Dark matter nature is one of the most important challenges for astrophysics science nowadays.
Category: Astrophysics

[334] viXra:1510.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-28 15:11:06

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Intensity of Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 49 Pages. In this version is calculated Local DM density and it is compared with recent measures. Both values are very close.

The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes. Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841 The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum. Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then DDM(P) = DDM (Q). In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculate E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem. In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E. Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential function to DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal: Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies Density DM = 1,26 • 10^ - 6 • E^ B where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500 Where Unit for DD.M. is m /pc^3 and Unit for E is Km^ 2 / s^ 2 / Kpc Big galaxy set considered in this paper have their flat speed region in rotation curve above 200 Km/s. In chapter 12 it is calculated Local DM density. From Solar parameters and it is got Km2/s2/ Kpc and Density D.M. = 4,8 m /pc3 = 0,182 GeV/cm3. In chapter 12 are quoted data about recent Local DM density measures and it is concluded that Density LOCAL-DM calculated in this paper is included inside interval defined by Density LOCAL-DM measures published in recent papers. I think that it has been justified properly that results could confirm DM density as universal law, especially if it is considered experimental error in rotation curves and error in calculus of DM density functions.
Category: Astrophysics

[333] viXra:1510.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-24 17:31:34

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca
Comments: 46 Pages. V3 Contain table & Graph of DM Density Function as Universal Law

The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes. Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841 The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum. Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then DDM(P) = DDM (Q). In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculate E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem. In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E. Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential function to DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal: Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies Density DM = 1,26 • 10^ - 6 • E^ B where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500 Where Unit for DD.M. is 10^ -3 /pc^3 and Unit for E is Km^ 2 / s^ 2 / Kpc Big galaxy set considered in this paper have their flat speed region in rotation curve above 200 Km/s I think that it has been justified properly that results could confirm DM density as universal law, especially if it is considered experimental error in rotation curves and error in calculus of DM density functions. Unfortunately this law is wrong for intermediate galaxies, whose flat region in rotation curve is under 150 Km/s. Specifically have been studied NGC 3198 (Ursa Major), NGC 2403 (M81 group of galaxies) and M33 (Local group). In these galaxies density of dark matter is more than four times bigger that density of dark matter inside big galaxies although this result has not been published in this paper. However, I think that these results can not discard this model because DM density function inside an intermediate galaxy may be influenced by gravitational field its nearby giant galaxy. In other words, gravitational field of a giant neighbour galaxy might generate DM inside an intermediate galaxy placed near a big galaxy. In addition, a nearby giant galaxy may break significantly the spherical symmetry of gravitational field inside an intermediate galaxy and therefore calculus made through Virial Theorem become wrong. The author think that it may be worth to study a bigger number of galaxies in order to check or reject results got in this paper because Dark matter nature is one of the most important challenges for astrophysics science nowadays.
Category: Astrophysics

[332] viXra:1510.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-20 14:34:31

Dark Matter Density Function Depending on Intensity of Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca
Comments: 44 Pages. Second version has a bit improved presentation. Some graphs has been enlarged

The purpose this work is to study density function of Dark Matter (D.M.) depending on E, total intensity of gravitational field, in a group of six big spiral galaxies and try to explore a possible Universal law between both magnitudes. Galaxies selected are the following ones: Milky Way, M31, NGC 3031, NGC 3992, NGC 7331, NGC 2841 The reason why it has been made this work is to check the model of DM proposed by the author in his previous paper [5] Abarca,M.2014 viXra. Dark Matter model by quantum vacuum. Briefly, in that work was exposed a original theory of DM. This new theory defends that DM is generated by the own gravitational field according an unknown quantum gravitational mechanism. In other words, Density of Dark Matter in a point P of space, depend on E, according a Universal law. Therefore if two different points P and Q belonging different galaxies had the same E, intensity of gravitational field, then they should have the same density of DM. In short, If E(P) = E(Q) then DDM(P) = DDM (Q). In the present paper, for each galaxy it will be calculate E, total intensity of gravitational field, depending on R. This calculus is carry out through the Rotational Curve and the Virial Theorem. In addition, for each galaxy it is considered a Dark matter density function, which is tabulated depending on R. After, it is plotted DM density depending on E. Data of eight galactic set are studied statistically and it is concluded that its coefficient correlation is enough high to fit a potential function to DM density depending on E. Statistical process has been carefully detailed through the paper, so I have found plausible to postulate this function as Universal: Dark matter function Density as Universal law for big galaxies Density DM = 1,26 • 10^ - 6 • E^ B where B = 1,74 inside a dominion 100 < E < 6500 Where Unit for DD.M. is 10^ -3 /pc^3 and Unit for E is Km^ 2 / s^ 2 / Kpc Big galaxy set considered in this paper have their flat speed region in rotation curve above 200 Km/s I think that it has been justified properly that results could confirm DM density as universal law, especially if it is considered experimental error in rotation curves and error in calculus of DM density functions. Unfortunately this law is wrong for intermediate galaxies, whose flat region in rotation curve is under 150 Km/s. Specifically have been studied NGC 3198 (Ursa Major), NGC 2403 (M81 group of galaxies) and M33 (Local group). In these galaxies density of dark matter is more than four times bigger that density of dark matter inside big galaxies although this result has not been published in this paper. However, I think that these results can not discard this model because DM density function inside an intermediate galaxy may be influenced by gravitational field its nearby giant galaxy. In other words, gravitational field of a giant neighbour galaxy might generate DM inside an intermediate galaxy placed near a big galaxy. In addition, a nearby giant galaxy may break significantly the spherical symmetry of gravitational field inside an intermediate galaxy and therefore calculus made through Virial Theorem become wrong. The author think that it may be worth to study a bigger number of galaxies in order to check or reject results got in this paper because Dark matter nature is one of the most important challenges for astrophysics science nowadays.
Category: Astrophysics

[331] viXra:1510.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-20 12:35:20

Fly Me to the Moon - For All Mankind

Authors: Julius Birch
Comments: 52 Pages. In ver.5 second section on Apollo 11 landing is finalized. Also fourth section is corrected for the effects of yaw rate.

NASA programme Apollo landed men on the Moon and returned them safely to Earth. In support of their achievements NASA presented, among others, two pieces of evidence which are subject of this report, namely, the photographs of the Apollo 11 landing site; and, the video-recording of the Apollo 17 lift-off. Starting from post-landing NASA documents, the Apollo 11 landing sequence is proposed in which the Lunar Module cruises at the height of the Lunar Surface Sensing Probes (LSSP, some $1.7$~m above the ground) for as much as ten seconds before touchdown, and it is the -Y/Left and +Y/Right landing gears that touched the surfrace first. This is then compared to pre-landing NASA experimental investigation, % of landing gear performance in simulated lunar conditions according to which the deformation energy $\mbox{DE} \gsimeq \mbox{KE}$, the impact kinetic energy, while the potential energy from settling is the smallest, $\mbox{PE} \ll \mbox{KE}$; and that the one or two gears touching the surface first, absorb most of KE. Contrary to expectations, NASA reported that -Z/Aft landing gear absorbed as much energy as all the other gears combined, and that $\mbox{DE} \simeq \frac12\,\mbox{KE}$. It is shown that this outcome is consistent with the dry Lunar Module being lowered to an uneven surface at near-zero vertical velocity and then released to settle down in Earth-like gravity. Next, we examine the behavior of the LSSPs in the 360\deg~yaw that the Apollo 11 Lunar Module performed during the Inspection and Separation Stage in the lunar circular orbit. Contrary to NASA's own reference drawings of the fully deployed LSSPs, we find that during the maneuver the LSSPs are always flexed mildly-inwards, as if the Lunar Module were suspended in the presence of gravity, and not weightless in the lunar orbit. Lastly, detailed analysis of the Apollo 17 lift-off video recording is presented. It is shown that the vessel trajectory implies an additional propulsion in form of an explosion, while the video frames flicker at 5~Hz and 10~Hz rate and carry an artefact strongly resembling an edge of film stock. An analysis of illumination of the ascending Lunar Module is also presented, which suggests that the vessel is approaching near-by light source rather then being lit by the Sun (at infinity). A discussion of the entire scene follows, and an explanation for the explosion is proposed. Overall, it is concluded that the photographs and the video recording depict scenes that were staged here on Earth, rather then on the way to the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[330] viXra:1510.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-30 18:40:00

Fly Me to the Moon - For All Mankind

Authors: Julius Birch
Comments: 56 Pages. In version 3 of the report, Section 2 is updated after NASA technical notes TN D-5029 and TN D-6850, while Section 4 is updated with data from TN D-6850.

NASA programme Apollo landed men on the Moon and returned them safely to Earth. In support of their achievements NASA presented, among others, two pieces of evidence which are subject of this report, namely, the photographs of the Apollo 11 landing site; and, the video-recording of the Apollo 17 lift-off. Starting from post-landing NASA documents, the Apollo 11 landing sequence is proposed in which the Lunar Module cruises at the height of the Lunar Surface Sensing Probes (LSSP, some 1.7 m above the ground) for as much as ten seconds before touchdown, and it is the -Y/Left and +Y/Right landing gears that touched the surface first. This is then compared to pre-landing NASA experimental investigation, DE = KE, the impact kinetic energy, while the potential energy from settling is the smallest, PE << KE; and that the one or two gears touching the surface first, absorb most of KE. Contrary to expectations, NASA reported that -Z/Aft landing gear absorbed as much energy as all the other gears combined, and that DE=1/2 KE. It is shown that this outcome is consistent with the dry Lunar Module being lowered to an uneven surface at near-zero vertical velocity and then released to settle down in Earth-like gravity. Next, considering the NASA-documented yaw rate the outward bending and tangential lagging of the LSSPs is calculated to be substantial in a 360\deg~yaw that the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (supposedly) performed during the Inspection and Separation Stage in the circular orbit around the Moon. Contrary to expectations, the photographs of (supposedly) spinning Lunar Module show the LSSPs fixed in mildly flexed-inward position consistent with the Lunar Module being stationary and suspended in the presence of gravity. It is concluded that it was the camera and the operator who circled around the Lunar Module while taking the photographs at irregular intervals. Lastly, detailed analysis of the Apollo 17 lift-off video recording is presented. It is shown that the vessel trajectory implies an additional propulsion in form of an explosion, while the video frames flicker at 5~Hz and 10~Hz rate and carry an artefact strongly resembling an edge of film stock. An analysis of illumination of the ascending Lunar Module is also presented, which suggests that the vessel is approaching near-by light source rather then being lit by the Sun (at infinity). A discussion of the entire scene follows, and an explanation for the explosion is proposed. Overall, it is concluded that the photographs and the video recording depict scenes that were staged here on Earth, rather then on the way to the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[329] viXra:1510.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-27 07:20:23

Fly Me to the Moon - For All Mankind

Authors: Julius Birch
Comments: 56 Pages.

NASA programme Apollo landed men on the Moon and returned them safely to Earth. In support of their achievements NASA presented, among others, two pieces of evidence which are subject of this report, namely, the photographs of the Apollo 11 landing site; and, the video-recording of the Apollo 17 lift-off. Starting from post-landing NASA documents, the Apollo 11 landing sequence is proposed in which the Lunar Module cruises at the height of the Lunar Surface Sensing Probes (LSSP, some 1.7 m above the ground) for as much as ten seconds before touchdown, and it is the -Y/Left and +Y/Right landing gears that touched the surface first. This is then compared to pre-landing NASA experimental investigation, according to which the deformation energy DE=KE, the impact kinetic energy, while the potential energy from settling is the smallest, PE << KE; and that the one or two gears touching the surface first, absorb most of KE. Contrary to expectations, NASA reported that -Z/Aft landing gear absorbed as much energy as all the other gears combined, and that DE = 1/2 KE. It is shown that this outcome is consistent with the dry Lunar Module being lowered to an uneven surface at near-zero vertical velocity and then released to settle down in Earth-like gravity. Next, considering the NASA-documented yaw rate the outward bending and tangential lagging of the LSSPs is calculated to be substantial in a 360\deg~yaw that the Apollo 11 Lunar Module (supposedly) performed during the Inspection and Separation Stage in the circular orbit around the Moon. Contrary to expectations, the photographs of (supposedly) spinning Lunar Module show the LSSPs fixed in mildly flexed-inward position consistent with the Lunar Module being stationary and suspended in the presence of gravity. It is concluded that it was the camera and the operator who circled around the Lunar Module while taking the photographs at irregular intervals. Lastly, detailed analysis of the Apollo 17 lift-off video recording is presented. It is shown that the vessel trajectory implies an additional propulsion in form of an explosion, while the video frames flicker at 5 Hz and 10 Hz rate and carry an artifact strongly resembling an edge of film stock. An analysis of illumination of the ascending Lunar Module is also presented, which suggests that the vessel is approaching near-by light source rather then being lit by the Sun (at infinity). A discussion of the entire scene follows, and an explanation for the explosion is proposed. Overall, it is concluded that the photographs and the video recording depict scenes that were staged here on Earth, rather then on the way to the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics