Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[495] viXra:1410.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-29 17:40:19

Dark Matter Model by Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Manuel Abarca
Comments: 20 pages

The idea of the model is quite simple: The physical vacuum is a quantum system with a minimum energy when it is in his ground state. When the space has a gravitational field the space state increase his energy levels and the mass of the space begin to increase as well. The mass of the space would be the dark matter (D.M.). Model refers to the same conception about ‘vacuum’ as the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), which consider the space full of virtual electrons and virtual positrons. Similarly, the Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) consider the space full of virtual particles, called gluons. Therefore it is easy to think that there is virtual particles which feel the gravitational forces named virtual gravitons. It is logical to think that the gravitational field excites the vacuum states in a way that “the vacuum would be heavier, the more intense gravitational field”. The hypothesis of this DM model is that virtual gravitons are Dark Matter. With this paper, the author try to explain his theory in a qualitative way, because the final theory will be the Quantum gravity (QG) which there is not exist yet. The paper is organised in four parts: The first one explain the model theoretically in a simple way because in my opinion the ultimate theory of DM will be explain by the Quantum Gravity. The second one study the spin speed star on galaxies. It is got the density formula for DM. ? and the formula ? , which connects DM density with intensity field. The third one explain the coherence between the DM model and experimental evidences known about DM. The fourth one propose six experimental test to check the model with astronomical measures. The purpose this paper is to introduce the model. To show a new origin of DM and try to convince the reader that it is worth to check the model with experimental evidences.
Category: Astrophysics

[494] viXra:1410.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-29 18:24:25

The Weather of Evolving Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is theorized that ancient stars' differentiation (evolution) can be witnessed as basic weather patterns. Weather patterns undergo thermodynamic phase transitions which can be tested in a laboratory environment.
Category: Astrophysics

[493] viXra:1410.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-28 18:07:29

The Composition of Ancient Stellar Cores

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is theorized that ancient stellar cores are comprised of two main types of minerals. These minerals are abundant in outer space and fall to the Earth on a regular basis.
Category: Astrophysics

[492] viXra:1410.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-27 20:20:46

Black Hole Poly-Entanglement Using a Nonsingular Model

Authors: Ben Steber
Comments: 5 Pages. An early drafr of my Galactic clustering and rotation hypothesis

The geometry of the Einstein-Rosen bridge presents the possibility of entanglement of nonlocal black hole event horizons. The historical difficulty in the nature of these hypersurface bridges has been singularity which was shown to destabilize the spacetime throat, preventing their prolonged existence. Singularity is based upon the Eddington-Finkelstein coordinate system and is exclusively reliant upon such a transformation of the Schwarzschild metric to be viable. Comparisons between specially and generally relativistic event horizons can demonstrate that such a transformation is not necessary to define a gravitationally bound event horizon and that a field free of singularity may yield negatively curved hypersurface geometry unbounded by eminent singularity collapse. The concept of quantum foam when applied to the principle of the Einstein-Rosen bridge may produce multiple hypersurfaces from a single such black hole. This bears the possibility that Poly-Entanglement may occur between clusters of black holes. Such physical behavior, while beyond conventional detection shows potential as an explanation for the galactic clustering and rotation behavior currently thought to be the result of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[491] viXra:1410.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-28 04:51:33

Some Alternative Possibilities in Cosmology

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Five-page letter

The observations of: Paal (1992), Perlmutter(1999) and Riess (1998) led to the possibility of accelerated expansion of the universe and the ‘dark energy’, but after fifteen years of search no trace of ‘dark energy’ is observed ; so this is time we start considering alternative possibilities of interpretations of the observations. Some arguments and alternative interpretations considered here include: (i) If the expansion of space can stretch the wavelength of the photon, then its gradual entry from expanding extra-galactic space into the non-expanded space within our milky-way galaxy should shrink the wavelength of the photon back to its original length. (ii) According to Einstein, if photons are point particles then expansion of space should only increase the path-length of photons without reducing their energy. (iii) The ‘cosmic-coincidence’, that the ratio of radius-of-the-universe and classical-radius-of-the-electron, and ratio of ‘total-mass-of-the-universe’ and ‘mass-of-the-proton’, matching strikingly with the ratio of electric-forces and gravitational forces, has happened only in the current epoch, is a very-very improbable coincidence; raising doubt about expansion of the universe (iv) the ratio of: energy lost by the cosmologically red shifted photons and the electrostatic potential energy lost by the electron at that distance is directly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces. Can the big-bang be so precise? (iv) Cumulative phase alteration of galactic light passing through cosmic microwave background.
Category: Astrophysics

[490] viXra:1410.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-27 07:28:17

Stellar Electrochemistry

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is proposed that stars are electrochemical in nature, not thermonuclear
Category: Astrophysics

[489] viXra:1410.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-26 13:19:25

Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[488] viXra:1410.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-23 07:01:35

Astronomical Phenomena Disprove Einstein's Special Relativity Theory

Authors: A. V. Mamaev
Comments: 10 Pages. ISSN 2311-2158. The Way of Science.2014. No.5 (5).

This article shows that many astronomical phenomena can be explained by existence in nature of quadratic dependence of light speed upon speed of the light source motion. If such a dependence exists in the nature, the following effects can emerge in addition to the known Doppler effect: an effect of spacious grouping or ungrouping of photons and an effect of spacious deformation (compression or extension) of electromagnetic trains corresponding to photons. Using the effect of spacious grouping or ungrouping of photons it is possible to explain such phenomena as «novae», «supernovae», «hypernovae», pulsars and the object SS 433. Using the effect of spacious deformation (compression or extension) of electromagnetic trains corresponding to photons it is possible to explain such astronomical phenomena as bursts of cosmic X rays and gamma rays, red shift of far star spectrums increasing with growth of distances to stars, microwave background radiation, Olbers’s paradox.
Category: Astrophysics

[487] viXra:1410.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-23 05:16:24

Black Holes, Thermodynamics and Entropy

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 10 Pages.

Black holes, thermodynamics and entropy are three topics which both separately and together raise several quite deep and serious questions which need to be addressed. Here an attempt is made to highlight some of these issues and to indicate a possible linkage between the accepted entropy expression for a black hole and the paradox linked to black holes and information loss.
Category: Astrophysics

[486] viXra:1410.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-22 08:21:52

Arguments For a Magneto-genesis of Universe

Authors: Stefan Mehedinteanu
Comments: 22 Pages. a new discovery related to the origin of Universe

A spectrum for blackbody radiation of temperature when photon creation takes place has been proposed at the end of Inflation, when opacity (equilibrium photons- ) begins to be very thick, that means no photons radiation (escape) as before, and when remain available only two photons pairs to collide in order to obtaining the first (quark) pair which generates an electrical field , for a time period corresponding to Hubble’s lengths of . This field of string type being supercritical , it captures the vacuum monopoles pairs, thus, generating the first primordial electromagnetic magnetic ( ) vortex called as . By using a simple QCD analytical model are calculated its components. Thus, in the model the Inflaton potential viewed as , by Schwinger effect at the end of the reheating period , it generates all kinds of particles of precise number as: bosons, fermions (quarks), gluons with structure of monopoles (abelian in extra-core and nonabelian in core), magnetic monopoles themselves. Immediately, at confinement, the quarks pairs forms Coulomb flux tubes , thesis capturing gluons organized in monopole type structures (hedgehog), in order to form nucleons. The primordial magnetic field is expected to scale with Robertson-Walker scale factor, as resulting at value of , which is near identically with that of the literature. By using this value, we can obtain the imprints as B-curl type due of Faraday rotation at time of .
Category: Astrophysics

[485] viXra:1410.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-18 07:17:43

Axions, Hidden Photons as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun’s core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[484] viXra:1410.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-17 09:20:32

Hidden Photons as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[483] viXra:1410.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-16 11:56:40

The Characteristic Planet

Authors: Branko Zivlak
Comments: 6 Pages. 9 Formulas, 1 Table

I have calculated a relation significant for planets from a logical starting point that a whole and its parts are immanently depandant on each other.
Category: Astrophysics

[482] viXra:1410.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-09 10:27:40

Evidence for Electric Dark Matter Black Hole Dust Production Inside Comets Like 67P,C-G.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 24 Pages. 24

Recent turmoil around the foundation of Black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about black holes and adjacent subjects. As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a Black Hole alternative already prepacked in my Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped Preons, responsible for pair production. Two Preons are able to change form into two entangled Fermion propeller strings by an overflow of energetic opposite collision. This energy overflow is supposed to be present at the black hole event horizon. Thus the FORM of all particles is based on real joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons, however all particles are instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. That dual oscillating Higgs particles are the same as Preons and are responsible for the Casimir Dark Energy of 126 GeV recently observed in the LHC at CERN. That the oscillating Higgs vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon information and Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Higgs particles, compressed by the oscillating Higgs vacuum. The vacuum energy flow around such a Black hole indicates that different sized globular horizons are needed, an event or Photon horizon and two Fermion repulsion horizons. Such horizons are supposed to include even pair production (e-and e+) and compound quarks out of the Higgs vacuum. Pair production as a base for quarks and as such H2 and O and more complex atoms. Comet 67P CG, (Churyumov-Gerasimenko) seems to be a unique test bed for this theory. In the near future we will probably become aware of these phenomena by the 67P measurements of the Rosetta mission. Recent measurements and photos are already suggesting that a large variety of atoms are ejected by the Comet and surface changes seem to be the origin of local crack shaped colour changes.
Category: Astrophysics

[481] viXra:1410.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-02 09:33:28

Cosmological Redshift and Gravitational Waves

Authors: Valery Zhukov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Gravitational waves cause the curvature of space. The curvatures of space lead to the conclusion that the nature of cosmological redshift and time dilation, is the same effect as the gravitational redshift and time dilation in a gravitational field. This is confirmed by the fact that the ratio between redshift and time dilation is the same for both gravitational and cosmological redshifts.
Category: Astrophysics

[480] viXra:1409.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-30 04:57:48

Some Clues to Understand Mond and the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: A three-page letter published in Astrophysics and Space Science

This letter points out that the values of ‘critical-acceleration’ of MOND, and the ‘accelerated-expansion’ of the universe are just two of the fourteen strikingly equal values of accelerations recurring in different physical situations. Alternative expressions for the cosmological red-shift, the ‘critical-acceleration’ of MOND and Newton’s law of universal gravitation are also presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[479] viXra:1409.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-30 05:04:01

Some Expressions of Gravity Without the Big G and Their Possible Wave Theoretical Explanation

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: A seven-page paper

This letter presents some new expressions for gravity without the big G and proposes their possible wave-theoretical-explanation. This attempt leads to some insight that: (i) We need the proportionality-constant G because we measure masses and distances in our arbitrarily-chosen units of kg. and meters; but if we measure ‘mass’ as a fraction of ‘total-mass of the universe’ M0 and measure distances as a fraction of ‘radius-of-the-universe’R0 then there is no need for the proportionality-constant G. However, large uncertainties in the M0 and R0 limit the general application of this relation presently. (ii) The strength of gravity would be different if the total-mass of the universe were different. Then this possibility is supported with the help of wave-theory. (iii) This understanding of G leads to an insight that Planck’s-length, Planck-mass and Planck’s unit of time are geometric-mean-values of astrophysical quantities like: total-mass of the universe and the smallest-possible-mass h H0 / c^2. (iv) There appears a law followed by various systems-of-matter, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe; that their ratio Mass / Radius^2 remains constant. This law seems to be more fundamental than the fundamental-forces because it is obeyed irrespective of the case, whether the system is bound by strong-force, electric-force, or gravitational-force.
Category: Astrophysics

[478] viXra:1409.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-26 08:55:52

About Incorrect Application of the Equations in Cosmology (Including the Theory Big Bang).

Authors: Valery Zhukov
Comments: 2 Pages.

The application of the Poisson’s equation solutions in the Neumann-Seeliger paradox for an infinite universe is incorrect. Also it is incorrect to use the metric and all the equations of the Big Bang theory for distances greater than the age of the universe, i.e. outside the event horizon for any point of the universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[477] viXra:1409.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-25 14:39:47

Population III Supernovae as the Origin of the Most Iron-Poor Stars

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The origin of the most iron-poor stars is very important to understand the early Universe. The origin was described by team led by Miho N. Ishigaki. Here, within the lacking part of ultimate theory, i.e. the scale-symmetric physics, I described the weak points in the presented model. The incompleteness follows from the fact that we cannot neglect influence of the dark energy on evolution of the Population III supernovae. There as well should appear the dark matter. But the initial assumption that the origin of the most iron-poor stars is associated with evolution of the Population III supernovae is correct. Moreover, the final conclusions are correct as well.
Category: Astrophysics

[476] viXra:1409.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-20 08:04:07

On the Luminosity Distance and the Hubble Constant (Revised)

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 3 Pages.

By differentiating the luminosity distance with respect to time using its standard formula we find that the equation is inconsistent with light propagation. Therefore, a new definition of the luminosity distance is provided for an expanding Universe. From supernovae observations, using this definition we find that the Hubble parameter is a constant of physics equal to H0 = 63.2 km/s/Mpc.
Category: Astrophysics

[475] viXra:1409.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-08 16:42:03

Stars and Planets Are “one Object” Hiding in Plain Sight

Authors: Charles Nunno
Comments: 11 Pages.

STELLAR METAMORPHOSIS is an alternative theory of planet formation. A hypothesis which stands in opposition to the Nebular hypothesis currently held by mainstream science. This is an explication of the theory where the arguments, discovery narrative and implications of this understanding of star/planet formation are presented, along with star origins and the natural philosophy of science which leads to this conclusion.
Category: Astrophysics

[474] viXra:1409.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-06 20:38:08

Scale Independent Quantum Black Hole Cosmology

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 4 Pages.

Considering the subject of black hole cosmology as a key branch of the quantum gravity, many fundamental issues of theoretical and observational cosmology can be understood.
Category: Astrophysics

[473] viXra:1409.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-06 03:54:54

A Possibility of Vanishing Accelerated Expansion of the Universe When Newtonian Formula for Doppler Shift is Used

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Two page priliminary note

In a paper titled: Explanation of the anomalous Doppler observations in Pioneer-10 and 11 Renshaw, C. (Aerospace Conference, 1999, Proceedings IEEE, Vol-2) finds that: “The value of the anomalous shift is shown to equal the difference between the calculated values for Newtonian and Special Relativistic Doppler expressions. The anomalous signals seem to indicate a preference for the Newtonian values.” This value of anomalous acceleration (8.0 x 10-8 cm/s2) is now known to equal H0 c, the value of accelerated expansion of the universe. It implies that if we use Newtonian formula for Doppler shift, then there is a possibility of vanishing the ‘accelerated expansion’ of the universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[472] viXra:1409.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-02 15:37:23

Concept of Gravitorotational Acceleration Field and Its Consequences for the Compact Stellar Objects

Authors: M.E.Hassani
Comments: 8 Pages; 2Tables; 15 References

In previous papers [1,2] relating to the Combined Gravitational Action (CGA), we have exclusively studied the orbital motion without spin. In the present paper we apply the CGA to any self-rotating material body, i.e., axially spinning massive object, which itself may be locally seen as a gravitorotational source because it is capable of generating the gravitorotational acceleration field, which seems unknown in the previously existing gravity theories. The consequences of such an acceleration field are very interesting particularly for the compact stellar objects.
Category: Astrophysics

[471] viXra:1408.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-27 09:43:48

Are the Extreme Fields of Magnetars Due to Gravitational Waves and Photon Decoupling

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages. submitted to "Astronomy & Astrophysics"

In our Milky Way galaxy's Westerlund 1 star cluster, there's a magnetar - neutron star with an extremely strong magnetic field - whose progenitor was a star about 40 times the mass of the Sun. This behemoth should have collapsed to form a black hole, not a magnetar. The answer to this puzzle seems to lie with a companion star called Westerlund 1-5 that is now escaping the cluster. Mass was transferred from the magnetar progenitor to Westerlund 1-5, allowing its companion to shrink to a size that allowed a magnetar to be born instead of a black hole. (A study published in the May 2014 issue of "Astronomy & Astrophysics") The following preserves the necessity of a binary star system; going into detail which proposes why a magnetar, not a black hole, was born - and suggesting an answer as to why the magnetic field is so extreme.
Category: Astrophysics

[470] viXra:1408.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-25 18:32:40

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Exothermic Reactions of Water During Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

For a star to synthesize water oceans a few steps of exothermic reactions are required. A simple explanation is provided to fit inside of the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[469] viXra:1408.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-25 10:23:40

Structural Unification of Newtonian and Rational Gravity

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 7 pages.

[The paper is precisely the preprint viXra:1407.0070 which was withdrawn as suggested by a well-known mainstream journal. However, the editors simply played game with me. I am afraid I could not find a job through my life. I am over 53 year old and got sleepless each day. Life as a creative scientist is very hard, and academic circle has turned to be a common profitable business. Galilei, Newton, Maxwell, Planck could not have had a job if they had lived today] If there were no electromagnetic interaction in the Solar system from the beginning then no heavy bodies like Earth or Sun would have existed and elementary particles would miss collision with each other due to the sparse population of particles. The solar system would have been a tiny ``spiral galaxy'' or ``elliptical galaxy'' because of the structuring nature of Newton's gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[468] viXra:1408.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-23 13:57:09

Electrochemistry, Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics in Star Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is provided for the reader a simple guide for determining if a stellar evolution (planet formation) model represents reality or ignores it. Explanation is provided outlining the three fundamental studies have been ignored in astronomy, astrophysics and geophysics.
Category: Astrophysics

[467] viXra:1408.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-21 07:30:15

The Size and Energy Loss of a Wave Packet

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 8 Pages.

Combining formulas of quantum mechanics (QM) and the wave theory defines the diameter of a wave packet of circularly polarized light. This allows the calculation of the energy loss (red shift), if light traverses a thin plasma. In contrast to the Doppler effect, the total energy is conserved, also basic emission- and absorption-line physics is preserved.
Category: Astrophysics

[466] viXra:1408.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-17 10:00:26

Two-Level Mass Model of the Milky Way

Authors: Dmitriy Skripachov
Comments: 4 Pages.

The observed absence of a cuspy halo in the centers of galaxies implies a certain mechanism, which scatter DM. As this mechanism is considered annihilation of galactic antineutrino DM and neutrino DM of stellar origin. Annihilation intensity increases towards the center with increasing concentration of stars and density of DM, however, the scattering effect of annihilation begins to manifest mainly in the bulge. Based on such a hysteresis of scattering effect, we make up a two-level mass model of the Milky Way, where the mass distribution is regulated at two levels of concentration by one and the same law of decreasing density, inversely proportional to the distance from the center of power of 2.5. The first level starts from the surface of the central neutron collapsar and ends at the border of the bulge, and the second level extends from the bulge to the edge of the Galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[465] viXra:1408.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-16 10:46:16

The Size and Energy of a Wave Packet

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 13 Pages.

After the spin-flip a Hydrogen atom emits a photon, but radio astronomers measure electromagnetic waves at 1420 MHz. How and where is the photon converted into an electro­magnetic wave? Do photons really exist? This question is discussed in great detail with reference to the differences between energy measurement and amplitude measurement. The combination of formulas of Quantum mechanics and the wave theory gives the diameter of a wave packet of circu­larly polarized light. This allows the calculation of the energy loss during the traversal of a thin plasma.
Category: Astrophysics

[464] viXra:1408.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-07 05:56:56

Peeking under the Event Horizon

Authors: Francois Zinserling
Comments: 11 Pages. To be presented at the ASSA symposium 24-27 September 2014

It is shown mathematically with Newtonian physics that a particle or photon can exit from underneath the event horizon of a singularity or black hole, where it can be observed, even though it may never fully escape the gravitational field. The radius of the event horizon is only an observed effect, dependent on the distance of the observer from the singularity, where Rs (Schwarzchild radius) is the event horizon observed from a distance approaching infinity. We will show that it is possible for matter to exit from the event horizon, and be observed outside the event horizon, as has been observed in many instances. While we may not be able to observe objects under the event horizon, we may observe how objects nearer the event horizon are affected from within.
Category: Astrophysics

[463] viXra:1407.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-30 07:47:46

Pioneer Anomaly May be Gravitational, not Thermal

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages.

The question and answer about spacecraft flybys (Astronomy magazine’s “AskAstro” section - August 2014) got me thinking about the Pioneer anomaly - a slight slowdown in the predicted positions of the Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft noticed when they entered the outer solar system. After their billions of miles of travel, the Pioneer spacecraft are some 3,000 miles short of their predicted locations. If they were now carrying an infinitesimal extra mass due to m=E/c^2, this could account for the shortfall. I propose electromagnetic energy from the RTG (radioisotope thermo-electric generator) powering each craft is insufficient to be relativistically converted into enough mass, and suggest energy in the form of gravitational waves that are diverted towards the Sun's mass would convert into the mass causing the Pioneer anomaly. As the end of this short article states, “Though it’s possible that high-frequency electromagnetic waves like X-rays or gamma rays, as well as the subatomic particles in cosmic rays, might contribute to Pioneer’s extra mass; a gravitational cause is not invalidated since both matter and electromagnetism have their origins in gravitation“ (this is explained).
Category: Astrophysics

[462] viXra:1407.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-26 09:46:00

Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma: Stellar Isochrones and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In astrophysics an unnecessary concept was invented to try and explain what happens to stars as they evolve. These are known as stellar isochrones. Isochrones are rooted in the false notion that stars do not lose mass as they evolve. A corrective understanding is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[461] viXra:1407.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-25 04:54:53

There Wasn’t Big Bang.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 7 Pages.

Two ideas gave birth to this paper : The law of the galaxies scattering and the existence of the infinitely large and infinitely small numbers.
Category: Astrophysics

[460] viXra:1407.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-16 21:27:40

The Revolution of Matter

Authors: James Conor O'Brien
Comments: 71 Pages.

John A. Wheeler proposed a universe where a single electron travels along a myriad of worldlines back and forth over the history of spacetime, repeatedly bouncing off the initial and final boundaries; this follows from the Feynman-Stückelberg Interpretation where an antiparticle of positive energy moves backward in time. The problem with Wheeler' s grand idea is the lack of observable positrons; it requires an equal number of antiparticles moving backwards in time from the end of the universe, and obviously this isn't the case or the universe would be exploding all the time. A solution might be found if all the positrons are converted into electrons at the moment of the big bang, and only electrons, or fermionic matter in general and not antimatter, evolve from the big bang, and it also requires there is no final boundary. It is this modified version that this paper addresses. As I attempt to show, Wheeler' s grand idea, the Hartle-Hawking no boundary proposal, and Berry's Geometric Phase are all directly related. It is proposed in accordance with the Feynman-Stückelberg Interpretation that out of the quantum vacuum the anti - particles of virtual pairs travel backwards along the axis of Time to reflect off the boundaries of a quantum potential of a scalar field at the start of the universe. It is proposed, via a mechanism that has its foundation in the Wick Rotation, the virtual particles undergo a quantal adiabatic, geometric phase reflection; and as a consequence of the Pauli Exclusion principle this shift in phase nonholonomically conflates virtual particles under Lorentz Invariance into real particles. It is proposed that this model is consistent with the Hartle - Hawking state; leads directly to Guth's Inflationary model; and finally the results are shown consistent with the Sakharov conditions for the Big Bang.
Category: Astrophysics

[459] viXra:1406.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-27 18:57:06

Coronal Heating Problem

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 7 Pages.

Abstract: Sun's corona appears much hotter than its surface. Temperature of coronal region, which is farther from the surface by more than eight times the radius of sun, is estimated to be over 1 million degrees Kelvin while temperature of sun’s surface is only about 6000 degrees Kelvin. (Temperature at the center of sun is estimated at about 15 million degrees Kelvin). Earth, with average matter-density of 5515 Kg/m^3 and mean radius of 6360 km, has an atmosphere that extends to about 700 km (about 11% of radius). Beyond this distance there is no perceptible concentration of 3D matter-particles. On the other hand, sun with average matter-density of 1408 kg/m^3 and mean radius of 696000 km is determined to have an atmosphere that extends to its coronal region at a distance of about eight times its mean radius (about 800% of radius). It is absurd to think that sun can sustain concentration of matter-particles at this distance, with sufficient matter-density that can heat up to the estimated temperature of coronal region. As contemporary physical theories are unable to explain any logical mechanism that can produce this difference, it is considered as ‘coronal heating problem’ in physics. Alternative concept, presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ has a logical mechanism that can produce observed radiation from coronal region (which is far beyond the limit of its atmosphere).
Category: Astrophysics

[458] viXra:1406.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-24 22:00:18

Why Exponential Disk?

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 6 pages. 2 figures.

Galaxies demonstrate spectacular structure and ordinary spiral galaxies are simply an exponential disk. A rational structure has at least one net of orthogonal Darwin curves, and the exponential disk has infinite nets. This paper proves that the nets of Darwin curves of exponential disk define an intrinsic vector field in the disk plane. Finally, a proposition is given that the vector field should connect to the phenomenon of constant rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[457] viXra:1406.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-22 13:49:27

Planetary Cores

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 4 Pages.

English (traslation): The current model of the structure of the planets at issue in this article. Arguing that probably your inner core is composed of hydrogen (like the stars), and temperature Hartree. It is also proposed that the age of the planets is the same as that of the stars. And while they generate electromagnetic radiation, the planets would generate matter. Spanish (original): Se cuestiona en éste artículo el actual modelo de la estructura de los planetas. Argumentando que probablemente su núcleo interno esté compuesto por hidrógeno (al igual que las estrellas), y a la temperatura de Hartree. Se propone asimismo que la antigüedad de los planetas es la misma que la de las estrellas. Y que mientras éstas generan radiación electromagnética, los planetas generarían materia.
Category: Astrophysics

[456] viXra:1406.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-22 03:17:08

The Insoluble and Illogical Dark Matter Paradox

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper discards the very idea of dark matter and reveals the illogical and inconsistent consensus hypothesis of gravity. Astrophysicists hypothesized dark matter because of discrepancies between the mass of large astronomical objects determined from their gravitational effects and the mass calculated from the "luminous matter" they contain: stars, gas, and dust. Dark matter was first postulated by Jan Oort in 1932 to account for the orbital velocities of stars in the Milky Way and by Fritz Zwicky in 1933 to account for evidence of "missing mass" in the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters. Subsequently, many other observations have indicated the presence of dark matter in the universe, including the rotational speeds of galaxies by Vera Rubin.
Category: Astrophysics

[455] viXra:1406.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-21 13:13:12

The Graviton in an Equilibrium Universe and the Holographic Principle

Authors: David Harding
Comments: 11 Pages.

This study concludes that the universe is necessarily in equilibrium, that all black holes weigh the same per meter, exibit the same force, and that the universe “sees” a specific value as the Graviton, the quintessence of existence. This virtual particle is equal to the Schwarzschild /de Broglie product of any mass or particle whatsoever. The relation confirms that the source of all things is the Planck Interaction, and also, that all particles and all masses should be defined by their Schwarzschild radii, as well as by their de Broglie radii. Further we conclude that the universe is indeed holographic (as described above), yet with the appearance that it is also a finite black hole, and we being observers within it, exist within a predefined space, as governed by the natural constants. It was noted, that we can only observe matter that has not fallen into smaller event horizons. As such, this state includes us as observers. We can observe all matter within our defined space (the universal event horizon), but beyond this space (either larger or smaller) we can observe nothing.
Category: Astrophysics

[454] viXra:1406.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-16 07:41:22

Establishment Dogma Versus Stellar Metamorphosis: New and Old Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In establishment dogma, a star is classified as a Population I (young) or a Population II (old) star. This is based on Big Bang Creationism. Stellar metamorphosis offers a replacement understanding.
Category: Astrophysics

[453] viXra:1406.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-15 18:33:23

Establishment Dogma Versus Stellar Metamorphosis: Kepler-138c

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

It is explained in simple terms the differences between establishment dogma’s interpretation of stellar structure versus Stellar Metamorphosis of Kepler-138c
Category: Astrophysics

[452] viXra:1406.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-15 10:21:57

Sterile Neutrino and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[451] viXra:1406.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-13 05:01:45

Galaxy Formation and Evolution According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages. 26

New astronomical discoveries have recently questioned about our current standard model based understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The distribution of dark matter point sources around galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies, the so called “Red Nugget” galaxies and strange behaviour of dwarf galaxies concentrated into layers at both sides of spiral galaxies are examples of this standard model deviation. Reason to search for possible solutions, which I present here, based on the Quantum FFF Theory. ( Function Follows Form in sub quantum stringy particle physics)
Category: Astrophysics

[450] viXra:1406.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-09 20:07:13

Is it Really True that the Universe Experiences Accelerating Expansion?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 2 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

According to Standard Model cosmology, the universe experiences accelerating expansion, which creates the need for dark energy models. But I read other possible theories, for example Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model which suggests that there are large structures (void) which introduce inhomogeneity in the Universe. See for instance: http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.2044.
Category: Astrophysics

[449] viXra:1406.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-09 20:08:12

Is it Possible to Describe Solar System (Planetary Orbits) Using Self-Organized Criticality Theory?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

Abstract This article summarizes a discussion in researchgate.net. My hypothesis is that SOC can be used to explain the origin of the solar system too, especially planetary orbits, alas so far I do not find any equation yet which is based on SOC and can be used to derive numerical predictions of planetary orbit distances in solar systems. We know that planetary orbit distances in solar systems can be explained by many models such as Titius-Bode law, wave mechanics, wave equation and Lane-Emdeen equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[448] viXra:1406.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-01 15:20:31

A Pictorial Representation of Current Constraints on Condensed Dark Matter

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks
Comments: 3 Pages. This paper is intended fro internet distribution only.

This document provides a graph representing the current constraints on Compact Ultra-Dense Objects (CUDOs). It is intended to be updated as new constraints are published or found.
Category: Astrophysics

[447] viXra:1406.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-01 02:25:45

Redshift of the 21 cm Line from Taurus A near Occultation by the Sun

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 6 Pages.

The 21-centimeter absorption line from the direction of Taurus A showed a shift in frequency when the source passed near Sun. The observed redshift can be explained by an energy loss of electromagnetic waves, when the electric component accelerates unbound electrons in the thin plasma surrounding the sun. A reexamination of the recorded radio signals corroborates the predicted redshift of electromagnetic waves. This allows to determine the number of free electrons in the corona.
Category: Astrophysics

[446] viXra:1405.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-30 14:20:58

Pioneer 6 Anomalous Redshift near the Sun

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 7 Pages.

Not only spectral lines in the optical range, even radio signals with significantly lower frequencies are red shifted when they the corona close to the sun. A possible explanation is the energy loss of electromagnetic waves, when the electric component accelerates unbound electrons in the thin plasma surrounding the sun. A reexamination of the radio signals that were recorded, when Pioneer 6 was occulted by the sun, corroborates the predicted redshift of electromagnetic waves. This allows to determine the number of free electrons in the neighborhood of the sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[445] viXra:1405.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-29 12:55:30

Movement Principles of Ufo

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 43 Pages. Reviews of Modern Physics Submitted 29May2014

In this article are the 5 tables for calculating the average translational velocities of all milisecond pulsars and others fast spinning bodies and shift the center of gravity due to the rotation. Corrections theory ideal spining circle for real bodies. Extreme values for neutron stars. Summary values for neutron stars. A new perspective on neutronization and nuclear fusion. Consent theory with the real Universe. From well-functioning theory for milisecond pulsars are derived estimates for raelisation new mode of transport on the principle rotation. Keywords: stars: kinematics, pulsars: general, stellar dynamics, , stars: neutron, PACS number: 97.60.Gb, 97.60.Jd,
Category: Astrophysics

[444] viXra:1405.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-28 10:58:23

Holographic Wormhole Drive: Philosophical Breakthrough in FTL 'Warp-Drive' Technology

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso
Comments: 41 Pages.

Skeptics say Faster than light (FTL) space travel is the stuff of Science Fiction, could take 1,000 years and require a Jupiter size mass-energy source to operate superluminal warp drive spaceships. The author solves this problem in a radical new approach called the “Holographic Wormhole Drive” resulting in the possibility of warpdrive technologies in the near term. The Alcubierre warp drive metric (considered most advanced ) derived from Einstein’s General Relativity field equations by Miguel Alcubierre, in 1994 stretches space in a wave. Space ahead of a ship contracts & space behind expands, inhabitants of the warp-bubble travel along what astrophysicists call a ‘freefall’ geodesic, not moving locally inside the bubble at FTL velocities. But this model requires a negative mass-energy the size of Jupiter to operate. Amoroso uses a new spacetime transformation to cover the domain wall of the warp bubble with an array of mini-wormholes allowing an incursive oscillator to manipulate Alcubierre’s alpha and beta functions with minimal external energy input, i.e. the inherent infinite energy of the spacetime vacuum is used instead by a method of ‘ballistic’ spacetime programming. In "The Immanent Implementation of FTL Warp-Drive Technologies", from his book "Orbiting the Moons of Pluto, Amoroso solves major problems facing the Alcubierre metric based on principles of Holographic Anthropic Cosmology from another volume: "The Holographic Anthropic Multiverse". His solution is a 'Holographic Figure-Ground Effect' where the 'local' free-fall Warp Bubble separates from the holographic background by covering the domain wall of the free-fall warp-bubble with a system of mini-wormholes by 'programming mirror symmetry parameters of the spacetime vacuum'. Manipulating this figure-ground effect becomes the 'Warp speed factor'. Utilizing a higher dimensional (HD) polarized Vacuum and associated operationally completed forms of Quantum Field Theory the need for 'infinite exotic energy' is ameliorated by cyclically 'borrowing' inherent vacuum energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[443] viXra:1405.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-28 07:33:33

Et si L’espace était à L’origine Des Lois de la Physique ?

Authors: Jerrari Khalid
Comments: 14 Pages.

J'ai mené une réflexion qui vise à comprendre l’influence de l’espace sur les lois de la cosmologie. Selon mes travaux, l’espace est une substance qui serait à l’origine de la gravitation universelle, de la « matière noire » et de l’expansion de l’univers. J’expose dans ce document une théorie qui unifie toutes ces lois à l’aide des propriétés spécifiques de l’espace. Tout d’abord, l’invariance de la vitesse de la lumière me conduit à introduire la notion d’espace propre qui traduit que tout corps matériel forme un couple « masse/volume d’espace ». De plus, selon ma théorie, la présence d’un corps dans l’espace engendre une action de l’espace qui se manifeste sous forme d’une tension spatiale. Dans cette publication, j’exprime la gravitation universelle, l’expansion de l’univers et « la matière noire » sous forme d’une accélération universelle qui dérive de cette tension.
Category: Astrophysics

[442] viXra:1405.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-27 18:23:15

Deep Physics from Small Bodies : Macroscopic Dark Matter in the Solar System

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks
Comments: 1 Page. Poster Paper presented at the The Eighth Harvard-Smithsonian Conference on Theoretical Astrophysics

Nuggets of condensed strange quark matter are a viable theory for macroscopic Dark Matter (DM), consistent with astrophysical constraints despite their non-negligible cross sections, due to their very small cross section to mass ratios. This presentation describes the observable consequences of the nugget theory developed by Ariel Zhitnitsky and his collegues, which predicts a stable nugget mass (MQ) in the range 10^5 kg < MQ < 4 × 10^10 kg. Unlike most experimental DM work, which can only set upper bounds to the DM density, in this case there is positive evidence for condensed Quark matter as the source of DM.
Category: Astrophysics

[441] viXra:1405.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-22 12:52:51

Limb Redshift of the Fraunhofer Lines in the Solar Spectrum

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 9 Pages.

Near the limb of the solar disk, the positions of the Fraunhofer lines are shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, compared with their positions at the center of the disk. A possible explanation for this limb effect is the energy loss of the light, when it accelerates unbound electrons in the chromosphere. An even larger redshift is expected when light travels a longer distance in the chromosphere close to solar limb. This difference should be easily detectable during the next solar eclipse.
Category: Astrophysics

[440] viXra:1405.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-20 06:57:13

The Mond External Field Effect on the Dynamics of the Globular Clusters: General Considerations and Application to NGC 2419

Authors: Kamran Derakhshani
Comments: 8 pages, 8 figures, 1 table. Journal-ref: The Astrophysical Journal, 783:48, 2014 March 1. Erratum: 785:166, 2014 April 20

In this paper, we investigate the external field effect in the context of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) on the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of globular clusters (GCs). Using N-MODY, which is an N-body simulation code with a MOND potential solver, we show that the general effect of the external field for diffuse clusters, which obey MOND in most of their parts, is that it pushes the dynamics towards the Newtonian regime. On the other hand, for more compact clusters, which are essentially Newtonian in their inner parts, the external field is effective mainly in the outer parts of compact clusters. As a case study, we then choose the remote Galactic GC NGC 2419. By varying the cluster mass, half-light radius, and mass-to-light ratio we aim to find a model that will reproduce the observational data most effectively, using N-MODY. We find that even if we take the Galactic external field into account, a Newtonian Plummer sphere represents the observational data better than MOND to an order of magnitude in terms of the total χ2 of surface brightness and velocity dispersion.
Category: Astrophysics

[439] viXra:1405.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-18 13:54:42

How to Understand Hoyle's Steady State Universe

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since Big Bang Cosmology is creationism pseudoscience, the only real alternative to understanding all of existence is the steady state model of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. The author struggled with trying to understand how a perfect cosmological principle could be true, in which the universe looks the same in both space and time in all directions, but has finally made a common sense conclusion that can be shared with the reader.
Category: Astrophysics

[438] viXra:1405.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-13 05:24:03

Dual Star Ejection in Open Star Clusters by the Central Star.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages. 26

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a result, a NEW paradigm splitting, (with Gamma Ray Bursts) accelerating and pairing Black Hole seems to be able to accelerate itself by a -Zero Point Energy driven-self created plasma tails, to form dumbbell systems, called Herbig Haro (HH) systems, as the start of Bok globules and new star formation in between these dual- or multiple black holes, kept apart by Birkeland current related particle jets. As a consequence, Herbig Haro systems are supposed to be the origin of Open star cluster, created by the dual production of Baby Stars out of the continuous growing an instable rotating central HH star. Several examples of such pairing and splitting into HH objects and Bok globules is observed inside the Carina nebula. These small black holes inside the Carina nebula are supposed to be remnants of Supernovas or even at a smaller scale remnants of comets or former Starspots like our own Black hole based Sunspots. This is also reason to suppose that what we observe here at a small scale should have happened directly after the Big bang and the origin of the so called Fractal shaped Lyman Alpha Forest.. As a consequence, this phenomenon is an extra support for the Quantum FFF theory based Big Bang model as the splitting process of a former Big Crunch black hole into a symmetric raspberry shaped multiverse. The recent observation of bipolar butterfly shaped planetary nebula aligned with the plane of the milky way, should be a direct result of the way Herbig Haro objects are created by pairing and receding dual black hole systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[437] viXra:1405.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-11 07:24:36

The Hubble Constant H0 is not Constant, But Proportional to the Density of Free Electrons

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages. also available in german language

If electromagnetic radiation is transmitted from A to B, the total received amplitude is calculated from the sum of secondary waves of the Fresnel zones. Whenever the electromagnetic wave packet crosses a thin plasma, the free electrons are accelerated and therefore radiate undirec­ted energy which is taken from the wave packet. In dense plasma, this frequency reduction has already been proven. The wave packet does not change its direction, but its frequency will be reduced. The Hubble constant is replaced by H0 = c w ne. The correct relationship between distance and redshift is D = z/(w ne). The redshift is no scattering effect and does not depend on ω and λ. The measured values of dispersion measure (radio astronomy) and redshift (optical astronomy) depend on each other: z = w∙DM
Category: Astrophysics

[436] viXra:1405.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 20:26:49

Two-Parameter Model of Barred Galaxies and its Testification

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 21 pages. 7 figures. Concluding paper of my 14 year research in galaxy structure and physics.

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with the traditional galactic dynamic is presented which predicts the exponential disk of ordinary spiral galaxies and constant rotation curves uniquely.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[215] viXra:1410.0039 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-21 04:45:38

Evidence for Electric Dark Matter Black Hole Dust Production Inside Comets Like 67P,C-G.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages. 26

Recent turmoil around the foundation of Black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about black holes and adjacent subjects. As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a Black Hole alternative already prepacked in my Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped Preons, responsible for pair production. Two Preons are able to change form into two entangled Fermion propeller strings by an overflow of energetic opposite collision. This energy overflow is supposed to be present at the black hole event horizon. Thus the FORM of all particles is based on real joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons, however all particles are instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. That dual oscillating Higgs particles are the same as Preons and are responsible for the Casimir Dark Energy of 126 GeV recently observed in the LHC at CERN. That the oscillating Higgs vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon information and Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Higgs particles, compressed by the oscillating Higgs vacuum. The vacuum energy flow around such a Black hole indicates that different sized globular horizons are needed, an event or Photon horizon and two Fermion repulsion horizons. Such horizons are supposed to include even pair production (e-and e+) and compound quarks out of the Higgs vacuum. Pair production as a base for quarks and as such H2 and O and more complex atoms. Comet 67P CG, (Churyumov-Gerasimenko) seems to be a unique test bed for this theory. In the near future we will probably become aware of these phenomena by the 67P measurements of the Rosetta lander mission. Recent measurements and photos are already suggesting that a large variety of atoms are ejected by the Comet and surface changes seem to be the origin of local crack shaped colour changes. The dusty jets observed from the so called “Neck” of the comet seem to be a sign for a central Birkeland Alfven current circuit effect on dust acceleration and violating the solar heat erosion theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[214] viXra:1409.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-16 00:40:53

On the Luminosity Distance and the Hubble Constant (Revised)

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 3 Pages.

By differentiating the standard formula for the luminosity distance with respect to time, we find that the equation is inconsistent with light propagation. Therefore, a new defnition of the luminosity distance is provided for an expanding Universe. From supernovae observations, using this defnition we find that the Hubble parameter is a constant of physics equal to Ho = 63.2 km/s/Mpc.
Category: Astrophysics

[213] viXra:1409.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-10 15:19:45

The Concept of Gravitorotational Acceleration Field and its Consequences for Compact Stellar Objects

Authors: M.E.Hassani
Comments: 8 Page; 2 Tables; 17 References.

In a previous series of papers relating to the Combined Gravitational Action (CGA), we have exclusively studied orbital motion without spin. In the present paper we apply CGA to any self-rotating material body, i.e., an axially spinning massive object, which itself may be locally seen as a gravitorotational source because it is capable of generating the gravitorotational acceleration field, which seems to be unknown to previously existing theories of gravity. The consequences of such an acceleration field are very interesting,particularly for Compact Stellar Objects.
Category: Astrophysics

[212] viXra:1408.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-25 13:43:31

The Size and Energy Loss of a Wave Packet

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 9 Pages.

Combining formulas of quantum mechanics (QM) and the wave theory defines the diameter of a wave packet of circularly polarized light. This allows the calculation of the energy loss (red shift), if light traverses a thin plasma. In contrast to the Doppler effect, the total energy is conserved, also basic emission- and absorption-line physics is preserved.
Category: Astrophysics

[211] viXra:1407.0190 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-10 05:34:20

There Wasn’t Big Bang.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 7 Pages.

Two ideas gave birth to this paper : The law of the galaxies scattering and the existence of the infinitely large and infinitely small numbers.
Category: Astrophysics

[210] viXra:1407.0190 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 00:15:29

There Wasn’t Big Bang.

Authors: Vyacheslav Telnin
Comments: 7 Pages.

Two ideas gave birth to this paper : The law of the galaxies scattering and the existence of the infinitely large and infinitely small numbers.
Category: Astrophysics

[209] viXra:1406.0133 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-24 19:11:49

The Graviton in an Equilibrium Universe and the Holographic Principle

Authors: David Harding
Comments: 11 Pages.

This study concludes that the universe is necessarily in equilibrium, that all black holes weigh the same per meter, exibit the same force, and that the universe “sees” a specific value as the Graviton, the quintessence of existence. This virtual particle is equal to the Schwarzschild /de Broglie product of any mass or particle whatsoever. The relation confirms that the source of all things is the Planck Interaction, and also, that all particles and all masses should be defined by their Schwarzschild radii, as well as by their de Broglie radii. Further we conclude that the universe is indeed holographic (as described above), yet with the appearance that it is also a finite black hole, and we being observers within it, exist within a predefined space, as governed by the natural constants. It was noted, that we can only observe matter that has not fallen into smaller event horizons. As such, this state includes us as observers. We can observe all matter within our defined space (the universal event horizon), but beyond this space (either larger or smaller) we can observe nothing.
Category: Astrophysics

[208] viXra:1405.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-16 03:38:59

Dual Star Ejection in Open Star Clusters by the Central Star.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 31 Pages. 31

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a result, a NEW paradigm splitting, (with Gamma Ray Bursts) accelerating and pairing Dark Matter Black Hole seems to be able to accelerate itself by a -Zero Point Energy driven-self created plasma tails, to form dumbbell systems, called Herbig Haro (HH) systems, as the start of Bok globules and new star formation in between these dual- or multiple black holes, kept apart by Birkeland current related particle jets. As a consequence, Herbig Haro systems are supposed to be the origin of Open star cluster, created by the dual production of Baby Stars out of the continuous growing an instable rotating central HH star. Several examples of such pairing and splitting into HH objects and Bok globules is observed inside the Carina nebula. These small black holes inside the Carina nebula are supposed to be remnants of Supernovas or even at a smaller scale remnants of comets or former Starspots like our own Black hole based Sunspots. This is also reason to suppose that what we observe here at a small scale should have happened directly after the Big bang and the origin of the so called Fractal shaped Lyman Alpha Forest.. As a consequence, this phenomenon is an extra support for the Quantum FFF theory based Big Bang model as the splitting process of a former Big Crunch black hole into a symmetric raspberry shaped multiverse. The recent observation of bipolar butterfly shaped planetary nebula aligned with the plane of the milky way, should be a direct result of the way Herbig Haro objects are created by pairing and receding dual black hole systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[207] viXra:1405.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-14 10:11:20

Dual Star Ejection in Open Star Clusters by the Central Star.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages. 30

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a result, a NEW paradigm splitting, (with Gamma Ray Bursts) accelerating and pairing Black Hole seems to be able to accelerate itself by a -Zero Point Energy driven-self created plasma tails, to form dumbbell systems, called Herbig Haro (HH) systems, as the start of Bok globules and new star formation in between these dual- or multiple black holes, kept apart by Birkeland current related particle jets. As a consequence, Herbig Haro systems are supposed to be the origin of Open star cluster, created by the dual production of Baby Stars out of the continuous growing an instable rotating central HH star. Several examples of such pairing and splitting into HH objects and Bok globules is observed inside the Carina nebula. These small black holes inside the Carina nebula are supposed to be remnants of Supernovas or even at a smaller scale remnants of comets or former Starspots like our own Black hole based Sunspots. This is also reason to suppose that what we observe here at a small scale should have happened directly after the Big bang and the origin of the so called Fractal shaped Lyman Alpha Forest.. As a consequence, this phenomenon is an extra support for the Quantum FFF theory based Big Bang model as the splitting process of a former Big Crunch black hole into a symmetric raspberry shaped multiverse. The recent observation of bipolar butterfly shaped planetary nebula aligned with the plane of the milky way, should be a direct result of the way Herbig Haro objects are created by pairing and receding dual black hole systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[206] viXra:1405.0209 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-30 14:25:09

The Hubble Constant H0 is not Constant, But Proportional to the Density of Free Electrons

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 12 Pages.

If electromagnetic radiation is transmitted from A to B, the total received amplitude is calculated from the sum of secondary waves of the Fresnel zones. Whenever the electromagnetic wave packet crosses a thin plasma, the free electrons are accelerated and therefore radiate undirec­ted energy which is taken from the wave packet. In dense plasma, this frequency reduction has already been proven5. The wave packet does not change its direction, but its frequency will be reduced. The Hubble constant is replaced by H0 = c w ne. The correct relationship between distance and redshift is D = z/(w ne). The redshift is no scattering effect and does not depend on ω and λ. The measured values of dispersion measure (radio astronomy) and redshift (optical astronomy) depend on each other: z = w∙DM
Category: Astrophysics

[205] viXra:1405.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-12 18:19:18

Two-Parameter Model of Barred Galaxies and its Testification

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 20 pages. 7 figures. All replacements by now are because of new gravity.

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the kinematic phenomenon of constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with Poisson's equation is presented which verifies the phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[204] viXra:1405.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-10 12:49:27

Two-Parameter Model of Barred Galaxies and its Testification

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 21 pages. 7 figures. Version 3 has correct circular speed and relevant text.

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with the traditional galactic dynamic is presented which suggests that the exponential disk of ordinary spiral galaxies may match the kinematic phenomenon of constant rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[203] viXra:1405.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-17 11:07:00

Two-Parameter Model of Barred Galaxies and its Testification

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 21 pages. 7 figures. The second version has added an important formula (56).

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with the traditional galactic dynamic is presented which predicts the exponential disk of ordinary spiral galaxies and constant rotation curves uniquely.
Category: Astrophysics