Astrophysics

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(5) - 0709(1) - 0711(1)
2008 - 0803(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0806(1) - 0807(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)
2009 - 0907(2) - 0908(6) - 0909(5) - 0910(2) - 0911(6) - 0912(2)
2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(8) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(6) - 1006(4) - 1008(6) - 1009(3) - 1010(2) - 1011(3) - 1012(3)
2011 - 1101(6) - 1102(3) - 1103(6) - 1104(4) - 1105(4) - 1106(6) - 1107(4) - 1108(3) - 1109(1) - 1110(2) - 1111(5) - 1112(3)
2012 - 1201(5) - 1203(2) - 1204(6) - 1205(21) - 1206(8) - 1207(5) - 1208(3) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(6) - 1212(11)
2013 - 1301(12) - 1302(4) - 1303(19) - 1304(7) - 1305(11) - 1306(11) - 1307(4) - 1308(14) - 1309(13) - 1310(53) - 1311(17) - 1312(16)
2014 - 1401(12) - 1402(11) - 1403(14) - 1404(9) - 1405(11) - 1406(12) - 1407(3) - 1408(8) - 1409(7) - 1410(12) - 1411(28) - 1412(6)
2015 - 1501(14) - 1502(16) - 1503(28) - 1504(24) - 1505(12) - 1506(14) - 1507(12) - 1508(24) - 1509(16) - 1510(27) - 1511(12) - 1512(25)
2016 - 1601(22) - 1602(36) - 1603(23) - 1604(18) - 1605(20) - 1606(23) - 1607(34) - 1608(24) - 1609(34) - 1610(26) - 1611(37) - 1612(13)
2017 - 1701(31) - 1702(41) - 1703(28) - 1704(32) - 1705(39) - 1706(26) - 1707(45) - 1708(35) - 1709(27) - 1710(23) - 1711(22) - 1712(36)
2018 - 1801(37) - 1802(35) - 1803(52) - 1804(34) - 1805(29) - 1806(33) - 1807(41) - 1808(40) - 1809(29) - 1810(39) - 1811(40) - 1812(44)
2019 - 1901(42) - 1902(33) - 1903(43) - 1904(33) - 1905(36) - 1906(25) - 1907(43) - 1908(47) - 1909(50) - 1910(48) - 1911(34) - 1912(34)
2020 - 2001(34)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2378] viXra:2001.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:15:17

Dark Energy Survey Results

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) program uses the patterns of cosmic structure as seen in the spatial distribution of hundreds of millions of galaxies to reveal the nature of "dark energy," the source of cosmic acceleration. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[2377] viXra:2001.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-20 07:54:37

Brain Transplant Telescopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

It will enable Australian researchers to do more ambitious research despite the increasing radio-frequency interference from radio transmitters, make more discoveries, and perhaps understand some more of the mysteries of the universe. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[2376] viXra:2001.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-17 15:00:32

Does The Observation Process Effect On The Observed Particle Nature?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Empirical Data An Electron Or Subatomic Particle Behaves As A Particle And Not A Wave When It's Observed! Why? Because The Human Mind Realization Process Depends On (And Uses) The Light Velocity (0.3mkm/Sec) How Does The Observer Effect On The Observed Particle Nature? By Light Beam Produced By The Observer Mind Realization Process. Paper Idea Summary This paper tells a clear claim – that – Because our minds realization process depends on and uses the light velocity (0.3mkm/sec) in the human thinking process that causes the light velocity to be a contributor factor of every thing around us – simply – We See The Universe Through The Light Velocity Effect On Our Vision- That easily explains the equation E=mc2 – why any Mass Energy is defined relative to the light velocity?! Because the light velocity is found in our minds- that explains Why light velocity is constant in all frames Now Because our minds uses the light velocity (0.3mkm/sec), that enable our minds to produce light beams by the thinking process – this produced light beam can effect on any particle nature as the sun rays effect on all particles – This is the idea shortly– let's ask……"Is this idea truth?" This paper tries to prove… Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2375] viXra:2001.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-16 07:26:48

Dark Matter Temperature Taking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Physicists at the University of California, Davis are taking the temperature of dark matter, the mysterious substance that makes up about a quarter of our universe. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2374] viXra:2001.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 09:06:23

Crack in Universal Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

The concept of universal physics is intriguing, as it enables researchers to relate physical phenomena in a variety of systems, irrespective of their varying characteristics and complexities. [50] Stephen Wilson, a professor of materials in UC Santa Barbara's College of Engineering, works in that "long before" realm, seeking to create new materials that exhibit desirable new states. [49] A phenomenon that is well known from chaos theory was observed in a material for the first time ever, by scientists from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. [48] Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely used for enhancing light-matter interactions due to the strong local field enhancement in deep subwavelength volumes. [47]
Category: Astrophysics

[2373] viXra:2001.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-15 10:19:28

Galactic Birthplace High-Energy Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Nine sources of extremely high-energy gamma rays comprise a new catalog compiled by researchers with the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse-where our Universe is only one of many-might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[2372] viXra:2001.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 10:22:04

Connecting Dots on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

They found that this light is brighter in regions that contain a lot of matter and dimmer where matter is sparser-a correlation that could help them narrow down the properties of exotic astrophysical objects and invisible dark matter. [28] The CASPEr team is developing special nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, each targeted at a specific frequency range and therefore at a specific range of dark-matter particle masses. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2371] viXra:2001.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-14 13:24:44

Teoria y. a Teoria Unificadora do Tudo..

Authors: Dos Anjos, Josênio
Comments: 10 Pages. 10 pag. Este artigo científico está escrito em português.

TEORIA Y. A TEORIA UNIFICADORA DO TUDO. A Diferença de potencial da Energia-Espaço-Tempo e suas reações. As absurdamente fantásticas simplificação dos maiores mistérios da humanidade, muitas consideradas insolúveis até agora, com seus inúmeros e complexos cálculos matemáticos, que chegam a beirar a loucura sem explicar quase nada, aqui, revelados e explicados de maneira tão simples. Da revelação da sopa de Deus, ao acionamento do interruptor da luz. O que é a luz, ou uma onda eletromagnética? É uma diferença de potencial, ou seja, uma energia acumulada. Mas ao contrário do que a ciência postula, ela não viaja a 299 792 458 m/s, ela está estacionária. Pasmem, isso mesmo! O que se move a 299 792 458 m/s é a energia-espaço-tempo. Ou seja, a luz é um risco fixo num disco vinílico 3D rodando. Quem roda é o disco, não o risco. Partindo desta descoberta, todos os mistérios da astrofísica da quântica à Teoria Geral da Relatividade serão desvendadas.
Category: Astrophysics

[2370] viXra:2001.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-13 07:41:49

Metals Trace History of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Astronomers have cataloged signs of nine heavy metals in the infrared light from supergiant and giant stars. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[2369] viXra:2001.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 20:47:27

Stellar Distance and Velocity

Authors: Miloš Čojanović
Comments: 27 Pages.

In this paper is presented a method by which it is possible to determine a distance between the sun and a star as well as a velocity at which the star moves relative to the sun. In order to achieve this, it is sufficient to know three positions of the star and the unit vectors determined by the star and three arbitrarily chosen points, that do not lie on a single line. The method has been tested using the data generated by a computer program as well as real data obtained by Gaia mission. In the first case, we found the huge differences comparing the results derived by the method to the results calculated by the traditional parallax method. In the second case also, there are large differences between the obtained and the expected results, but primarily because of the form of the input data, that is not fully suited to the proposed method. Under certain conditions, one would be able to find a velocity at which the sun is moving regarding a stationary coordinate system $(K)$, that will be defined later on.
Category: Astrophysics

[2368] viXra:2001.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-11 20:52:32

Stellar Distance and Velocity (Ii)

Authors: Miloš Čojanović
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we will point out the systematic error, which is made using the parallax in determining the stellar distance. Instead of this method, we are proposing three methods that give more precise results in calculating the distance. In the first method we will use two consecutive parallaxes instead of one, which will allow us to determine the distance of the stars with negative parallaxes. In the second one we will present a method by which it is possible to measure a true parallax. The third method is already presented in [1] and here we will consider only one special case when the velocity of a star is calculated relative to the sun. We tested the methods using data obtained from the Gaia's catalogs.
Category: Astrophysics

[2367] viXra:2001.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 04:19:46

The Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture & the Conservation of Super-Gravity: on Stargates and Warp Drives

Authors: Nicholas R. Wright
Comments: 3 Pages.

An addendum to two previously published papers: On the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture and ERG Theory, and Planar Yang-Mills 101; respectively. I formulate a law for the conservation of supergravity, called the law of conservation of extreme grav in the Planar Yang-Mills 101 paper. I then construct a stargate or warp drive with the spatial localization problem and the circle of Apollonius. An allusion to bearing off checkers in the game of backgammon is made.
Category: Astrophysics

[2366] viXra:2001.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 05:05:37

Measure of Universe's Expansion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A team of astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has measured the universe's expansion rate using a technique that is completely independent of any previous method. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9] Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8]
Category: Astrophysics

[2365] viXra:2001.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-10 05:42:53

Smallest Dark Matter Clumps

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Now, using Hubble and a new observing technique, astronomers have found that dark matter forms much smaller clumps than previously known. [28] The CASPEr team is developing special nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, each targeted at a specific frequency range and therefore at a specific range of dark-matter particle masses. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2364] viXra:2001.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-09 08:19:05

LIGO-Virgo Neutron-Star Merger

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Gravitational waves from the merger of two neutron stars were observed by the LIGO Livingston detector on 25 April 2019-according to an international team of astrophysicists in the LIGO and Virgo collaborations. [26] Just a year ago, the National Science Foundation-funded Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, or LIGO, was picking up whispers of gravitational waves every month or so. Now, a new addition to the system is enabling the instruments to detect these ripples in space-time nearly every week. Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[2363] viXra:2001.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-08 03:34:15

Clean Dark Matter Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A research team at South Dakota School of Mines & Technology has built an air purifier that has reduced the radon in the air to about 50 times lower than typical outdoor air. The team is helping to ensure success for one of the world's most sensitive dark matter experiments-LZ. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31] Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[2362] viXra:2001.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-07 05:38:57

Black Hole Pushing Speed Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration released the first image of a black hole with observations of the massive, dark object at the center of Messier 87, or M87, last April. [25] Astronomers seeking to learn about the mechanisms that formed massive black holes in the early history of the Universe have gained important new clues with the discovery of 13 such black holes in dwarf galaxies less than a billion light-years from Earth. [24] Astronomers at the University of California, Riverside, have discovered that powerful winds driven by supermassive black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies have a significant impact on the evolution of these galaxies by suppressing star formation. [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[2361] viXra:2001.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 18:47:57

List of Largest Stars

Authors: Pelobello, J. D.
Comments: 32 Pages.

This is a list of largest stars with sizes depicted being taken from conclusions (some inconclusive) from various science journals. Fictional aliases are also included. All references are taken from the references section of Wikipedia's list of largest stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[2360] viXra:2001.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 19:01:53

Did we steal the Moon from Venus?

Authors: Pelobello, J. D.
Comments: 2 Pages.

We explore the Giant Impact Hypothesis and the potential possibility that the Earth's Moon is a captured, former satellite of Venus, a planet similar to Earth in many traits. While the strikingly similar isotope ratios between the Earth and Moon may rule out this possibility, the geological similarities between the Earth and Venus do not.
Category: Astrophysics

[2359] viXra:2001.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 19:19:34

How the Stars Work: Stellar Classification and Stellar Evolution

Authors: Pelobello, J. D.
Comments: 54 Pages.

Stars are not living beings, however, they do live and die. Stars also have many classes, usually based on their mass and temperature. The classes used to divide stars into suitable classes have undergone a chaotic history, with some deemed unnecessary. Even many stars do not fit in them. Metallicity also place a large role in the properties of stars. Generally, stars are interesting mobs, that come in many types, masses, and even in phantoms.
Category: Astrophysics

[2358] viXra:2001.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 02:05:04

Black Holes Found in Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Astronomers seeking to learn about the mechanisms that formed massive black holes in the early history of the Universe have gained important new clues with the discovery of 13 such black holes in dwarf galaxies less than a billion light-years from Earth. [24] Astronomers at the University of California, Riverside, have discovered that powerful winds driven by supermassive black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies have a significant impact on the evolution of these galaxies by suppressing star formation. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2357] viXra:2001.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 07:41:46

Discovery of Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31] Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[2356] viXra:2001.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 08:07:58

Cosmic Dark Ages

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

There was a period in the very early universe—known as the "cosmic dark ages"—when elementary particles, formed in the Big Bang, had combined to form neutral hydrogen but no stars or galaxies existed yet to light up the universe. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32] Key components for the sky-mapping Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), weighing about 12 tons, were hoisted atop the Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) near Tucson, Arizona, and bolted into place Wednesday, marking a major project milestone. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[2355] viXra:2001.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-06 08:32:42

Milky Way Flying Observatory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

A new panoramic image based on data captured by NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) shows the bustling center of our galaxy like it has never been seen before. [34] There was a period in the very early universe—known as the "cosmic dark ages"—when elementary particles, formed in the Big Bang, had combined to form neutral hydrogen but no stars or galaxies existed yet to light up the universe. [33] New observations and analysis made by a team of astronomers at Yonsei University (Seoul, South Korea), together with their collaborators at Lyon University and KASI, show, however, that this key assumption is most likely in error. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[2354] viXra:2001.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-04 05:16:51

Venus has Active Volcanoes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

New research led by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and published today in Science Advances shows that lava flows on Venus may be only a few years old, suggesting that Venus could be volcanically active today—making it the only planet in our solar system, other than Earth, with recent eruptions. [36] A team of astronomers at the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) in Pune, India have discovered a mysterious ring of hydrogen gas around a distant galaxy, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[2353] viXra:2001.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-03 08:09:04

Diffusion Gravity: Perihelion Precessions as Indicators of Galactic Gravitational Influence

Authors: DH Fulton
Comments: 14 Pages. Continued Research on Diffusion Gravity, 5th of 5 papers

Diffusion Gravity theory has shown in previous works that the constant velocity profiles of galaxies may be a direct result of equipotential “locking” of stars to the zero-potential balance point between the star and its parent galaxy. This hypothesis was incorporated into the Diffusion Gravity model in a previous paper [9] along with the integral mechanism of gravitational attraction to explain those constant velocity profiles that are otherwise attributed to “dark matter”. In this current research report, DG postulates other effects between the Sun-Mercury pair and the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG), and compares them with Mercury precession models from numerous other researchers, some or all of which can account for the precession advance of the perihelion of Mercury. In particular, the acceleration-torque effect of the MWG should also advance precession of the perihelion, thus contributing and adding to the total calculated by mass-ring models to arrive at the measured total precession advance of the perihelion of Mercury of 575.31 arcseconds per century .
Category: Astrophysics

[2352] viXra:2001.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 11:11:08

Astronaut's Blood During NASA Mission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

"My first reaction when NASA reached out to me was to ask if I could visit the International Space Station (ISS) to examine the patient myself," said Stephan Moll, MD, UNC School of Medicine blood clot expert and long-time NASA enthusiast. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[2351] viXra:2001.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 12:52:26

Hydrogen Gas Around Distant Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A team of astronomers at the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) in Pune, India have discovered a mysterious ring of hydrogen gas around a distant galaxy, using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). [35] "My first reaction when NASA reached out to me was to ask if I could visit the International Space Station (ISS) to examine the patient myself," said Stephan Moll, MD, UNC School of Medicine blood clot expert and long-time NASA enthusiast. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[2350] viXra:2001.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-02 05:32:23

A Theory of Everything Physics Solution using a Two-Step Integrated Physics/Mathematics Methodology

Authors: Antonio A. Colella
Comments: 77 Pages.

Two astrophysics issue resolution methodologies are: the prevailing Hawking single primarily mathematics step and a two-step integrated physics/mathematics consisting of a conceptual physics step and a mathematics step. The Hawking methodology provided most of the spectacularly successful astrophysics achievements over the last century for single constituent theories such as Higgs forces and stellar black holes. However, it provided near zero results for multiple constituent theories such as a Theory of Everything (TOE), in contrast to the second methodology. The conceptual physics step of the two-step integrated TOE had three goals: to define “Everything”, to answer all key outstanding TOE physics questions, and to provide correct inputs to the second mathematics step. First, “Everything” was defined as 20 amplified and integrated (New Physics) constituent theories; superstring, particle creation, inflation, Higgs forces, spontaneous symmetry breaking, superpartner and Standard Model decays, neutrino oscillations, dark matter, universe expansions, dark energy, messenger particles, relative strengths of forces, Super Universe, stellar black holes, black hole entropy, arrow of time, cosmological constant problem, black hole information paradox, baryogenesis, and quantum gravity. Second, all 19 key outstanding TOE physics questions were answered including: what are Higgs forces and stellar black holes; what is dark energy and dark matter; and what caused the start of our universe. Third, correct inputs were provided for the two part second mathematics step which followed, a Beyond the Standard Model solution for particles and an amplified N-body simulation for cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[2349] viXra:2001.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 11:01:58

Орбиты Луны, планет и приливные силы.

Authors: Киров
Comments: 2 Pages. Russ lang

Рассмотрены вопросы стационарности планетарных орбит и Лунной орбиты.
Category: Astrophysics

[2348] viXra:2001.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 11:06:40

The Orbits of the Moon, Planets and Tidal Forces.

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 2 Pages.

The issues of stationarity of planetary orbits and the lunar orbit are considered.
Category: Astrophysics

[2347] viXra:2001.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 08:13:20

Galaxy with an Active Center

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[2346] viXra:2001.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2020-01-01 08:48:28

Magnetic Ropes in Whale Galaxy' Halo

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Using the National Science Foundation's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio telescope, a team of astronomers has captured for the first time an image of large-scale, coherent, magnetic fields in the halo of a faraway spiral galaxy, confirming theoretical modeling of how galaxies generate magnetic fields and potentially increasing knowledge of how galaxies form and evolve. [34] The data comprising this image were gathered by the Wide Field Camera 3 aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. [33] For almost 10 years, astronomers have been studying a mysterious diffuse radiation coming from the centre of our galaxy. [32] Deep beneath a mountain in the Apennine range in Italy, an intricate apparatus searches for the dark matter of the universe. [31] A Multiverse-where our Universe is only one of many-might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[2345] viXra:1912.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-31 10:35:50

Radiophysicists Composites 5G Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

TSU radiophysicists are forming a database of properties of composite materials that can be used to create 5G and space communication devices operating in the terahertz range. [43] Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles present new research on a curious cosmic phenomenon known as "whistlers"-very low frequency packets of radio waves that race along magnetic field lines. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[2344] viXra:1912.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-30 08:20:53

Orbit Determination of 2002 KM6

Authors: Hyunjin Christina Lee, Catherine Lu, Carter Moyer
Comments: 17 pages, research done at the Sommers-Bausch Observatory

The premise of this research is to determine the orbit of the asteroid 99795 2002 KM6 and predict its trajectory far in the future. Asteroids’ orbits model ellipses and can thus be described by six orbital elements: the semi-major axis, eccentricity, inclination, longitude of the ascending node, argument of perihelion, and the mean anomaly. Using Python, our team programmed a series of orbital determination codes, implementing the Method of Gauss to generate the orbital elements with a reasonable level of error. This required gathering data over at least three observations. We then compared these elements to those generated by JPL Horizons to ensure they were reasonable. Our team used the numerical integration program Swift to determine long-term orbital patterns over the next 50 million years. Simulations of 60 different clones of 2002 KM6, randomly sampled from a Gaussian distribution, revealed that the majority of asteroid particles will either get too far or too close to the Sun after 50 million years. A small percentage of them, however, will maintain a stable orbit.
Category: Astrophysics

[2343] viXra:1912.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-28 16:28:18

The Sun is A Very Young Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Calculations are done to determine the age of the Sun using data collected by the Genesis Space Craft, and interpretation is accomplished with the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. As it turns out, when D/H ratios found on the Earth and other celestial bodies are pitted against one another, a much different picture of the solar system comes to light. I have calculated the Sun as being between 5.8 and 13.13 million years old. This means it is nowhere near the proposed 4.5 billion years accepted and taught by the mainstream. As well the author's previous calculations were also off. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2342] viXra:1912.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-27 11:05:30

High Precise Newtonian Constant of Gravitation with Correlation of Earth Rotation and Solar Mass

Authors: JianFei Chen
Comments: 5 Pages.

Newtonian constant of gravitation G is an important fundamental constants, but its value is still inaccurate. Because Universal Gravitation is too small, the complex environment in the laboratory seriously affects the accuracy of experiment. Calculating with planet orbit is an effective way to get its accurate value. Author found that there is a strict logical relationship between the energy waves of mean solar day and solar mass. With this relationship, we can get the precise value of solar mass. With the earth orbit, got the value of Newtonian constant of gravitation. G=6.672 148 4714(267) × 10-11 m3/kg s2, its relative uncertainty is 4.0 ppb. This is much more precise than the current value. [eastear@outlook.com, eastear@163.com]
Category: Astrophysics

[2341] viXra:1912.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-27 11:12:13

Model of Galactic Center-Pleiades-Sun

Authors: JianFei Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Author found that distance from Sun to Pleiades and the Bohr radius of hydrogen atoms meets the condition for energy wave resonating. The energy from the Bohr radius of huge amount of atoms in the universe, makes Sun and Pleiades to resonate with the current distance. Sun and Pleiades are strongly linked as a group, and Sun revolves around Pleiades. Finally the model of Galactic Center-Pleiades-Sun was set up. The greatest significance of this paper is to link the macroscopic structure of the universe with the microscopic atomic structure. [eastear@outlook.com, eastear@163.com]
Category: Astrophysics

[2340] viXra:1912.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-26 03:24:18

Lasers Learn Spot Space Junk

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

Chinese researchers have improved the accuracy in detecting space junk in earth's orbit, providing a more effective way to plot safe routes for spacecraft maneuvers. [45] A vacuum is generally thought to be nothing but empty space. But in fact, a vacuum is filled with virtual particle-antiparticle pairs of electrons and positrons that are continuously created and annihilated in unimaginably short time-scales. [44] If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: Astrophysics

[2339] viXra:1912.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-26 03:47:23

Create a Star on Earth

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Now, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have found that sprinkling a type of powder into the plasma could aid in harnessing the ultra-hot gas within a tokamak facility to produce heat to create electricity without producing greenhouse gases or long-term radioactive waste. [43] Scientists seeking to capture and control on Earth fusion energy, the process that powers the sun and stars, face the risk of disruptions—sudden events that can halt fusion reactions and damage facilities called tokamaks that house them. [42]
Category: Astrophysics

[2338] viXra:1912.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-26 04:32:26

Strengthen Spacecraft Payloads

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

The University of Surrey has developed a robust multi-layed nano-barrier for ultra-lightweight and stable carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) that could be used to build high precision instrument structures for future space missions. [46] Chinese researchers have improved the accuracy in detecting space junk in earth's orbit, providing a more effective way to plot safe routes for spacecraft maneuvers. [45] A vacuum is generally thought to be nothing but empty space. But in fact, a vacuum is filled with virtual particle-antiparticle pairs of electrons and positrons that are continuously created and annihilated in unimaginably short time-scales. [44]
Category: Astrophysics

[2337] viXra:1912.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-24 15:19:51

Is There A Contradiction Between SR And GR?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 22 Pages.

Let's summarize the contradiction point in following: (1) Lorentz Transformations tell us that – Particle 4 values are changing with high- velocity motion – these values are: Particle Mass, Length, Distance And Time In our previous discussion- we have concluded that – we have to accept the particle length contraction and mass increasing as real phenomena which can't be illusion of measurements – we have reach to this conclusion based on 2 reasons – (1st) because of the empirical proves for these features (length contraction- mass increasing)- where we need to protect the physical experimental measurements credibility and (2nd) Because we don't want to make ourselves as The Universe Reference Point. Shortly Lorentz Transformations tell that Particle Mass, Length, Distance And Time are changed by the same reason – i.e. they are dealt as similar to each other (2) The special theory of relativity is built on Lorentz Transformations But In The General Theory of relativity Einstein tells us "The existence of gravitational field is inseparably bound up with the existence of Space. On the other hand a part of Space may very well be imagined without electromagnetic field," … ……..Since according to our present conceptions the elementary particles matter are also, in their essence, nothing else than condensations of the electromagnetic field…. Namely gravitational ether and electromagnetic field or – as they might also be called – Space And Matter The Contradiction Point Lorentz Transformations deal with Space and Matter as equal ….But The General theory of relativity distinguishes between the space and matter Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2336] viXra:1912.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-20 22:09:36

Navier-Stokes Fluid Millennium Prize Problem

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Millennium Prize problem is solved because inconsistency of Navier-Stokes fluid and the perfect fluid is found. In several examples, the inconsistency of known Physics of fluid is shown.
Category: Astrophysics

[2335] viXra:1912.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-19 19:41:42

Speculation on the Purpose of Pyramids of Giza as Universal Clock for Solar System

Authors: Manfred U.E.Pohl
Comments: 4 Pages.

The idea Pyramdis of Giza could relate to Orion (only) doesn’t seem to make sense. Building such Pyramids “only” to house the remains of the deceased pharaohs who ruled over Ancient Egypt doesn’t make sense. What is the “real” purpose? Gerges Francis Tawdrous [1] analysed a possible relation to a cycle of moon, Mercury, Saturn and Venus : „The 2737 Egyptian Astronomic Phenomenon and Its Identical Distance“. This author suggests that if using ToE-Framewor [2] [3] , a perfect clock for universe could be build if the sphere surface of earth could be related to the sphere surface of cosmos using in order to align the movements on surface and in Volume of earth to movements in sphere and Volume of cosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[2334] viXra:1912.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-19 08:20:30

Newton's Three-Body Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Now, an international team, led by astrophysicist Dr. Nicholas Stone at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Racah Institute of Physics, has taken a big step forward in solving this conundrum. [16] A University of Oklahoma research group is reporting the detection of extragalactic planet-mass objects in a second and third galaxy beyond the Milky Way after the first detection in 2018. [15] UZH researchers have analyzed the composition and structure of faraway exoplanets using statistical tools. [14] A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13] The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper
Category: Astrophysics

[2333] viXra:1912.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 13:52:41

Fuzzy and Axion-Like Dark Matter as an Illusion

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here we show that masses of dark-matter (DM) loops in the massive spiral galaxies have the same values as masses of the postulated fuzzy and axion-like DM particles. The DM loops are not fuzzy and, contrary to the spin-zero axion-like DM particles, spin of them is quantized. The DM loops in galactic halos interact with stars via the weak interactions of the virtual electron-positron pairs created spontaneously in spacetime. Such interactions decrease radii of the DM loops and simultaneously increase the orbital speeds of stars. We calculated also the small-scale cutoff for such loop-like DM.
Category: Astrophysics

[2332] viXra:1912.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-18 05:33:22

Reasons of Appearing of Closed Electric Lines Circulating in Constant Magnets

Authors: Kobil Kazakbayev
Comments: 11 Pages. The work is about magnets in the inner and upper site of the Earth

MikelFaradey answered to the question “ What is the electrical field?” this way in 1850. The main characteristics of it is the effect with any power to the electric charges: E=F/q Where is the power which influences from the stressing field in instant magnets? If the French scientist Amper said in 1820, if closed waves circulating in instant magnets appear magnet power lines, how do these circulating closed lines appear?
Category: Astrophysics

[2331] viXra:1912.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-17 03:29:59

Cold Atom Dynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

By tracking the motions of cold atom clouds, astronomers can learn much about the physical processes which play out in the depths of space. [34] A physicist from RUDN University has proposed a new theoretical model for the interaction of spinor and gravitational fields. [33] Therefore, the most interesting result of our paper is not that the universe appears to be curved rather than flat, but the fact that it may force us to rearrange the pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a completely different way. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[2330] viXra:1912.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-16 09:19:03

Modeling the Evolution of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A physicist from RUDN University has proposed a new theoretical model for the interaction of spinor and gravitational fields. [33] Therefore, the most interesting result of our paper is not that the universe appears to be curved rather than flat, but the fact that it may force us to rearrange the pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a completely different way. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[2329] viXra:1912.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-15 11:19:24

Matter Creation Known Features (Analytical Study)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

How the matter is created? Let's summarize the known features in following: 1-Lorentz Transformations tell us that – Particle length and Mass are effected (changed) with high velocity motion – which tells us that- Particle Data may be created relative to its motion. 2-Gauss Law tells us that – the net electric charges of conductor resides entirely on its surface –referring to that the matter geometrical shape is created relative to any electromagnetic field may effect on it. 3-Light reflection and refraction tell us that – the matter different types are created relative to light effects on them 4-Electric Field defines the motions direction – which tells that – the electric field was necessary for the solar planets creation to save planets motions unified direction around the sun 5-Planets Data shows That Matter Is Created Depending On A Period Of Time 6-Planets Diameters & Masses Show A Dependency On Each Other Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2328] viXra:1912.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-15 06:58:03

Models for Elementary Particles, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Galaxies

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 74 Pages.

We show theory that spans tiny and vast aspects of physics. We suggest descriptions for new elementary particles, dark matter, and dark energy. We use those descriptions to explain data regarding dark matter effects, dark energy effects, and galaxy formation. Our mathematics-based modeling, descriptions, and explanations embrace and augment standard physics theory and modeling. One basis for our modeling is an extension to mathematics for harmonic oscillators.
Category: Astrophysics

[2327] viXra:1912.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-14 10:17:29

Exomoons in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

A "moon" is an object that orbits a larger object, not classified as a "star" in the mainstream. This is problematic though, as stars are young hot exoplanets in the general theory. This means the Earth, Jupiter, Uranus, etc. are all "moons" of the Sun. The word Moon originally just meant "month", where the phases of the Moon signaled the months, or simply passing of time in stages. This leaves us questioning the term "exomoons". It is suggested instead of going off the deep end as astronomers have done with big bang, black holes and dark matter, we correct the simple, important issues by using the general theory. This simple correction will allow us to be more consistent and accurate (scientific) with our terminology, as the original word "moon" was never intended to describe what is currently being discovered.
Category: Astrophysics

[2326] viXra:1912.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-13 17:36:21

The Special Theory of Relativity Analysis (Questions and Answers) (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper provides questions and answers concern the special theory of relativity, trying to see its depth… the questions are in order as following: Question No. 1 Is Lorentz Length Contraction A Real Phenomenon Or Illusion Of Measurements? Question No. 2 Why Light Velocity Is Constant In All Frames? Question No. 3 How Can Observer Effect On Observation Results? Question No. 4 Is There A Contradiction In The Physics Book? Question No. 5 Are There Relativistic Effects In The Solar System? Question No. 6 Is The Solar Planets Order In Harmony With The Sun Gravity Concept? Question No. 7 Do We Understand The Solar System Geometry? Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2325] viXra:1912.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-13 01:56:38

Отклонение луча света в гравитационном поле

Authors: Киров
Comments: 7 Pages. Rus lang

Исправлена ошибка в расчёте Зольднера отклонения луча света в гравитационном поле
Category: Astrophysics

[2324] viXra:1912.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 08:58:18

Spinning Bosonic Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Researchers at Universidade de Lisboa, Universitat de València and Universidade de Aveiro have recently carried out a fascinating study exploring the dynamics of spinning bosonic stars, which are stars formed from clusters of ultra-light bosons. [35] MIT physicists are reigniting the possibility, which they previously had snuffed out, that a bright burst of gamma rays at the center of our galaxy may be the result of dark matter after all. [34] Dark matter particles may scatter against each other only when they hit the right energy, say researchers in Japan, Germany, and Austria in a new study. [33] A team led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe constructed a map of dark matter throughout the history of the universe by analysing images of more than ten million galaxies. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[2323] viXra:1912.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 10:33:20

Planet-Mass Objects in Extragalactic Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A University of Oklahoma research group is reporting the detection of extragalactic planet-mass objects in a second and third galaxy beyond the Milky Way after the first detection in 2018. [15] UZH researchers have analyzed the composition and structure of faraway exoplanets using statistical tools. [14] A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[2322] viXra:1912.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 13:47:51

Unification of Gravitation, Black Matter and Black Energy Expression of the Universal Constants C and G

Authors: Khalid Jerrari
Comments: 14 Pages.

I carried out a reflection that aims to understand the influence of space on the laws of cosmology.According to my work, space is a substance that would be the source of universal gravitation, the" matter and the expansion of the universe, I present in this paper a theory that unifies all these laws by means of specific properties of space.First of all, the invariance of the velocity of light, leads me to introduce the notion of own space, which translates that every material body forms a pair "mass / volume of space." Moreover, according to my theory, the presence of a body in space generates an action of the space that manifests itself in the form of a spatial tension In this publication, I express universal gravitation, the expansion of the universe and "dark matter" in the form of a universal acceleration that derives from this tension. I led a reflection that aims to understand The influence of space on the laws of cosmology According to my work, space is a substance that is at the origin of universal gravitation, "dark matter" and the expansion of universe. I present in this paper a theory that unifies all these laws with the specific properties of space. First of all, the invariance of the speed of light leads me to introduce the notion of proper space, which means that every material body forms a pair "mass / volume of space". Moreover, according to my theory, the presence of a body in space generates an action of space that manifests itself in the form of a spatial tension. In this publication, I express universal gravitation, the expansion of the universe and "dark matter" as a universal acceleration that derives from this tension.
Category: Astrophysics

[2321] viXra:1912.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 16:57:01

Dark Gravitation Theory for M31 and Coma Cluster

Authors: M. Abarca
Comments: 28 Pages. A D.M. theory that works for galaxies and for galaxy clusters.

The hypothesis of this work is that D.M is generated by the own gravitational field, according an Universal mechanism based on a quantum gravitation phenomenon. In order to study DM as a Universal law is studied rotation curve of M31. The theory developed for galaxies is extended successfully to Coma cluster . In this paper is published by first time the called The equivalence theorem, which is a crucial tool to extend the theory to cluster scale. Another crucial finding made in this paper is that a characteristic parameter of the theory has been calculated by data coming from Coma cluster and by data from M31. Both results match with a high precision. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis.In the chapter 9, considering B= 5/3 are recalculated the others parameters a&b and A and formulas of theory are rewriting. In the tenth chapter are introduced the called reduced formulas for field, density and total mass. The variable of these functions is dimensionless, this way the formulas gain simplicity. In the eleventh chapter, is calculated masses in M31 at different radius by the reduced formula of mass. In the chapter 12 is introduced The equivalence theorem which is crucial in order to extend the dark gravitation theory to cluster scale. As mass and density are additive magnitudes it is found a new parameter D associated to the cluster, considering as start point the parameter D associated to one single galaxy. In the thirteenth chapter are estimated masses in Coma cluster by the equivalent theorem and results got match very well with the most recent measured of masses in such cluster. In the fourteenth chapter is developed the most awesome result of the theory up to now. The parameter DCOMAat virial radius is calculated by the Virial theorem by recent data from Coma cluster and also it is calculated by the equivalence theorem from the parameter DM31 associated to M31 galaxy. Relative difference between both results is 3%. This fact shows clearly that parameter D is backed by a Universal law. In the fifteenth chapter is introduced the average density formula, it is applied to Coma cluster and it is shown that at virial radius Coma cluster has an average density equal to 100 times the critical density of universe, which match very well with measures. Also it is calculated the radius of the sphere where the average density is equal to the Universal average D.M. density, Factor Omega D.M.= 0.27
Category: Astrophysics

[2320] viXra:1912.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-12 04:49:57

Dark Matter of Milky Way

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

MIT physicists are reigniting the possibility, which they previously had snuffed out, that a bright burst of gamma rays at the center of our galaxy may be the result of dark matter after all. [34] Dark matter particles may scatter against each other only when they hit the right energy, say researchers in Japan, Germany, and Austria in a new study. [33] A team led by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe constructed a map of dark matter throughout the history of the universe by analysing images of more than ten million galaxies. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[2319] viXra:1912.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-11 13:36:59

Sunqm-3s11: Using {N,n} QM’s Probability Density 3D Map to Build a Complete Solar System with Time-Dependent Orbital Movement (Semi-QM Deduction)

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 24 Pages.

Combining the results from the previous SunQM series papers, a (high resolution) 3D probability density map has been constructed and it is able to describe the whole Solar system with time-dependent orbital movement. It is the Eigen description of our Solar system using Schrodinger equation’s solution. In it, the Eigen n’ values of all planet have been calculated. These Eigen n’ values give both the orbital r and the surface r information for each planet. The result revealed that for all planets, their Eigen n’ values in all three dimensions are equal. For example, for a planet at orbit {1,5//6} (in the Solar {N,n//6} QM structure), if it has Eigen n’ = n*q^w = 5*6^11 = 1.81E+9 in each of rθφ-3D dimension, then it will have an orbital r = 1.57E+11 m, and surface r = 7.89E+6 m. This is very close to Earth’s orbital r = 1.49E+11 m and surface r = 6.38E+6 m. For Asteroid belt and the cold-KBO, their Eigen n’(s) in the r- and θ-dimension are equal. For example, Asteroid belt’s Eigen n’ = 48 in both r- and θ-dimension. In the current paper, although the r- and θ-dimension’s probability densities were deduced with the full-QM, the φ-dimension’s probability density was deduced with only semi-QM (for the purpose to follow the traditional QM’s rule). A full-QM deduced φ-dimension’s probability density will be given in SunQM-4s1 (where some traditional QM’s rules are modified). Because {N,n//6} QM structure covers from quark at {-17,1//6} to the Virgo super cluster at {10,1//6} with good consistency, and Schrodinger equation/solution can accurately describe the Solar system from {-2,1//6} to {5,1//6}, we believe that either the whole universe or a single quark can be described by Schrodinger equation and solution. Several (lower resolution) 3D probability density maps (also based on Schrodinger equation’s solution) for the whole Solar system have also been successfully built. A summary of the major results from the phase-1 of the SunQM series studies has been listed.
Category: Astrophysics

[2318] viXra:1912.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-10 08:02:12

X17 Factor Solve Dark Matter Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of scientists in Hungary recently published a paper that hints at the existence of a previously unknown subatomic particle. [23] In an international collaboration between Japan and Sweden, scientists clarified how gravity affects the shape of matter near the black hole in binary system Cygnus X-1. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2317] viXra:1912.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-09 05:59:21

Supermassive Black Holes Grow Fast

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Based on observations from telescopes on Earth and in space, we know that some black holes grew to be a billion times the mass of the sun just one billion years after the Big Bang. [30] Further investigation of how nuclear star clusters form and evolve will be needed to determine how frequently phase transitions of this kind occur in nature. [29] A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28] Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[2316] viXra:1912.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-07 07:16:30

Does Particle Data Depend on Its Motion? (Lorentz Transformations Analysis)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

My basic work is "Planet Data Analysis" – Specifically I try to know how planet data is created? – that's why my regular questions are – How the matter is created? Why Earth Circumference =40080 km? Why Saturn diameter =120536 km? or Why Jupiter Mass =1898 x1024 kg? I search behind the planet data to know how this data is created… Then I have discovered one important Discovery, let's refer to it in following: Puzzled Data (A/B) =1.0725 A & B are different distances in the solar system… Specially 18 distances of the solar system internal and orbital distances are rated to each other with this same rate 1.0725 i.e. 40% of all the solar system distances are rated to each other with 1.0725 ……why?? (These distances are provided in appendix no. 1 of this paper) All answers – whatsoever its form – give one meaning – (Pure Coincidences)! Simply no one knows how the planet orbital distance is defined nor why these distances are rated to each other by this same rate 1.0725! General Effect Because the rate 1.0725 is used with 18 distances which = 40% of all distances – I had to conclude that – this rate is not created by any planet effect – it's not related to any specific planet – on the contrary – this rate is a general effect found in the solar system - That means – A general force or cause effect on the whole solar system –causes this rate 1.0725. What's this general effect? At this junction I had to suppose that – the rate 1.0725 is found as Lorentz Length Contraction Rate – i.e. There are relativistic effects in the solar system (generally) and these relativistic effects caused the rate 1.0725 to be created as Lorentz Length Contraction Rate (Hypothesis) Lorentz Transformations Lorentz Transformations are 3 equations : 4 values are changing by high velocity motion Time – Distance – Particle Length – Particle Mass Einstein had used 2 values (Distance & Time) to create the space-time geometry – and he claimed that –particle space & time values are function in its motion velocity (even without explanation why?) But Einstein simply had ignored the other 2 values which are Particle Length and Mass If we follow Einstein steps in explanation – so we will reach to the conclusion that – Particle own data is a function of its motion Simply because Particle length and mass are changed with particle high velocity motion Then we had to ask the question… Is Lorentz length contraction a real phenomenon or illusion of measurements? The physics textbooks contradict each other in answer – and in appendix No.2 of this paper I provide the references which show the clear contradicting answers! After fighting we reach to the conclusion that the contraction is a real phenomenon and particle own length is changed by particle high velocity motion… Because (1)The measurements show this contraction and in physics what's measured is what's real (2)If we consider the length contraction is an illusion of measurements, that tells Particle properties correct definition is found when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle, which supposes that I'm The Universe Reference Point – that's similar to a person looks at mirror – which pushes us to refuse the claim that the contraction is an illusion of measurement Particle Mass discussion is similar to the previous one – so particle data (length and mass) is changed with high velocity motion. That creates more complex situation – because – based on this conclusion – Particle Own Data must be created as a function of this particle motion! That's why Particle own length is contracted with high velocity motion If we use this conclusion for The Solar Planet – we will have serious problem – because Based on this conclusion – Particle mass (Planet Mass) is created as a function of its motion – means the motion was found before the mass So – How Does Planet Move? Where we consider that planet motion is a result of masses gravity forces between this planet and the sun – now the mass is created based on the motion which prevent the masses gravity explanation Now let's summarize the questions in following: Question No. 1 Why does Particle Own Nature change with Particle Motion Velocity? i.e. Is Particle data a function of This Particle Motion? Question No. 2 Can Lorentz Transformations help us to know how the matter is created? Question No. 3 Are the rated distances by the same rate 1.0725 which are provided in appendix No. 1 of this paper – can be a proof that – there are relativistic effects in the solar system? Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2315] viXra:1912.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-06 11:46:27

An Alternate Resolution of the Solar Neutrino Problem

Authors: William L. Stubbs
Comments: 7 Pages.

The solar neutrino problem for the various neutrino detectors appears to lie in not understanding and analyzing adequately how the neutrinos interact with the various detector materials. The measured data were not properly interpreted, resulting in miscalculation of the neutrino fluxes measured. This gave the appearance of the detectors not seeing fractions of the neutrinos expected. By modeling nucleons as collections of electron-like and positron-like particles, I show that the 37Cl, 71Ga, H2O and D2O detectors all saw the electron neutrino flux predicted by the Standard Solar Model.
Category: Astrophysics

[2314] viXra:1912.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 07:44:50

A Note on the Gravitational Waves Detections.

Authors: Kovalyov, Mikhail
Comments: 10 Pages.

The gravitational waves detections exhibit rather curious correlation with lunar/solar events similar to that of powerful earthquakes. Due to a rather small number of samples it is hard to draw any decisive conclusions; however, the argument presented suggests that the observations of gravitational waves may have in fact been observations of minute changes in the gravitational field due to movements in the Earth’s liquid core.
Category: Astrophysics

[2313] viXra:1912.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-05 05:38:09

Law of Planetary Gravity

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Criticism of the Law of Universal Gravitation is given, the derivation of LUG from actual physical parameters, the local nature of the action of LUG corresponding to planetary interaction is determined. The non-gravitational character of stellar interactions is determined. The magnetic character of stellar interactions is updated.
Category: Astrophysics

[2312] viXra:1912.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-04 03:16:08

Закон Планетарного Тяготения

Authors: Киров
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian lang

Дана критика Закона Всемирного Тяготения, вывод ЗВТ из актуальных физических параметров, определен локальный характер действия ЗВТ, соответствующий планетарному взаимодействию. Определён негравитационный характер звёздных взаимодействий. Актуализирован магнитный характер звёздных взаимодействий.
Category: Astrophysics

[2311] viXra:1912.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-12-03 12:21:34

How Planets are Formed, How Stars Evolve

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor
Comments: 7 Pages. transcript for youtube video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CM0Hi0YwAJA

Earth was shaped by the same processes in operation today. Charles Lyell and James Hutton were correct, it is ancient almost beyond measure. But why? This outline should serve as an explanation to that "why." The present is key to the past and much more is written in the sky than in the rocks.
Category: Astrophysics

[2310] viXra:1911.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 23:31:24

On the Generation of High-Energy Gamma Rays Near Sunspots During the Transition from Solar Minimum to Maximum

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 6 Pages.

It has been recently discovered by Linden and others that high-energy gamma rays (>100 GeV in some cases) are being generated from the solar disk near the location of sunspots as the solar cycle progresses from solar minimum to solar maximum, corresponding with the movement of sunspots from the equator to the poles. It is postulated that the generation of the gamma rays are due to the interaction and inter-modulation of multiple magnetic fields near and under sunspots, which from the Wave Structure of Matter, will result in the conversion the static magnetic fields into high-energy gamma rays based on the moving wave structure of the electron, which in turn makes up the magnetic field.
Category: Astrophysics

[2309] viXra:1911.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-28 09:09:24

Is There A Contradiction In The Physics Book?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

I claim there's a contradiction in the physics book, let's explain it: Lorentz Transformations Effect Lorentz Transformations tell us that, Particle data is created relative to its motion, basically because Particle mass and length are changed because of particle high velocity motion… If Lorentz length contraction is a real effect on particle own nature or just illusion of measurements! This question we have discussed before- and we have found that- Lorentz Length Contraction is a real phenomenon effects on Particle own nature similar to Particle mass increasing as a result of high velocity motion The previous consideration we have adopted for the next reasons: (1)The measurements show this contraction and in physics what's measured is what's real (2)If we consider the length contraction is an illusion of measurements, that tells Particle properties correct definition is found when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle, which supposes that I'm The Universe Reference Point – that's similar to a person looks at mirror – which pushes us to refuse the claim that the contraction is an illusion of measurement Conclusion I. Lorentz Length Contraction is a real phenomenon effects on Particle own length II. Particle Data is created relative to this particle motion The last conclusion leads us to a contradiction with Newton mechanics Newton had interpreted Planet motion based on the masses gravity between this planet and the sun – So Planet Mass is the reason of its motion But Lorentz transformation tell us that – Particle Data (and mass) is created based on this particle Motion…! i.e. Planet Motion – according to Lorentz Transformation- must be the reason of Planet Mass – so Planet doesn't move by Masses Gravity – because planet mass is created depending on its motion which tells that Planet motion is found before any other planet data! So how does planet move? Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2308] viXra:1911.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 10:11:28

Lorentz Length Contraction Is A Real Phenomenon & Not Illusion Of Measurements

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Question: "Is Lorentz Length Contraction a real phenomenon or illusion of Measurements?" Or … "What's happened For Particle Own Nature, if this particle travels by high velocity?" We have 2 directions to choose from: (1st) to accept the idea that –Particle own nature doesn't change and the contracted length is found as illusion of measurements Or (2nd) to accept the idea that –Particle own nature changes with high velocity motion. I choose the 2nd choice- Why? Because – the 1st choice tells us that – The particle own nature is defined correctly when no difference in motions velocities found between me and this particle – that means – I'm The Universe Reference Point – and this is similar to a person looks at a mirror Specifically for the previous reason we should refuse both next statements "Particle Own Nature doesn't Change" and "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"…. Lorentz equations for particle length and mass provide the sufficient proof for this fact - Particle Length And Mass are changing with high velocity motion – which shows clearly that Particle data is created relative to this particle motion. The previous conclusions are consistent clearly with Lorentz vision based on which Lorentz transformations were created… The basic difficulty here is found with an old unanswered question let's refer to it: How the matter is created? How does any Particle define its data? Conclusion: Lorentz tells us that, Particle own nature and data must be defined relative to this particle motion This conclusion we need to discuss in this paper Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2307] viXra:1911.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-27 01:47:23

Heavy Thermal Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Astrophysicists have been searching for dark matter for several decades, but these searches have so far yielded disappointing results. In a recent study, two researchers at Weizmann Institute of Science and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel have introduced a new theoretical framework outlining a mechanism of elementary thermal dark matter with a mass up to 10 14 GeV. [23] Scientists have found evidence that dark matter can be heated up and moved around, as a result of star formation in galaxies. [22] Today, an international group of researchers, including Carnegie Mellon University's Rachel Mandelbaum, released the deepest wide field map of the three-dimensional distribution of matter in the universe ever made and increased the precision of constraints for dark energy with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (HSC). [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2306] viXra:1911.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-26 06:35:16

Carbon Soccer Ball in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

It is one of the most common forms of carbon in space: C60, a soccer ball-shaped carbon molecule, but one that has an extra proton attached to it. [38] A team of researchers from China, the U.S. and Japan has developed a way to strengthen graphene-based membranes intended for use in desalination projects-by fortifying them with nanotubes. [37] The team arrived at their results by imaging gold nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 2 to 5 nanometres, via aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. [36] Nanoparticles of less than 100 nanometres in size are used to engineer new materials and nanotechnologies across a variety of sectors. [35] For years, researchers have been trying to find ways to grow an optimal nanowire, using crystals with perfectly aligned layers all along the wire. [34] Ferroelectric materials have a spontaneous dipole moment which can point up or down. [33] Researchers have successfully demonstrated that hypothetical particles that were proposed by Franz Preisach in 1935 actually exist. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2305] viXra:1911.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-25 12:40:46

The Energetics of the an ExB Propulsor that Avoids the Hidden Momentum Pitfall

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 6 Pages. Complement to earlier paper http://vixra.org/abs/1812.0484

This paper updates earlier thoughts by the author on a putative electromagnetic propulsion system, to perform a more detailed energy balance. The previous paper demonstrated how momentum could be dumped to the ground state of the electromagnetic field but a claim was left somewhat hanging at the end of the previous paper, that the work done in changing the craft's velocity would effectively shift the centre of mass of the field-although that would be an infinitesimal shift in practice. The craft must always supply work to change velocity, such as by an accelerate/de-accelerate cycle and superficially this looks to violate the conservation of energy; we prove that this isn't so.
Category: Astrophysics

[2304] viXra:1911.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 21:26:46

Lorentz Length Contraction (More Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity tells us that The matter is created of electromagnetic wave or at least depend on it i.e. The Universe Matter Is Related To Electromagnetic Waves
Category: Astrophysics

[2303] viXra:1911.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-25 06:35:10

Dark Matter and Dark Energy Explained by Fix to Vanishing of Falling Matter

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 8 Pages.

Considered motion in Kerr-Newman, Kerr, and Reissner-Nordström spacetimes. As an example, in Kerr spacetime, if you release from rest-state an electrically neutral test-particle (from any position outside the Black Hole, but not at equatorial plane) it will end up in abrupt-end apart from the point of spacetime singularity. As solution to this problem the Dark Matter is used.
Category: Astrophysics

[2302] viXra:1911.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-24 17:48:13

Stellar Metamorphosis: Potassium

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Potassium is present in young, middle aged, old and dead stars. Its atomic symbol is K. The main point of this paper is to note that potassium concentration increases per unit mass as the star evolves. This means that stars which reach the point of being able to not only create life, but to host it, will have larger concentrations per unit mass of potassium. The potassium increases concentration in youthful stages, then combines to form salts and the beginnings of life, then the left over remains get locked in the crust as rocks/minerals. This is due to mass dependent fractionation as well as potassium's high reactivity and ability to form ionic salts.
Category: Astrophysics

[2301] viXra:1911.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-21 11:06:09

Spectrometer of Cosmic Helium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The measurements presented by Oliva and the rest of the AMS collaboration provide new interesting insight about the properties of 3He and 4He isotopes, which could have important implications for future astrophysics research investigating cosmic ray production and propagation. [27] One such mystery is the origin of electromagnetic fields on the very largest scale in the universe. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2300] viXra:1911.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-20 10:44:22

The Cyclic Undivided Raspberry Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a Super Symmetric multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum and wavefunction.. However, Libet did not Notice, because he (or his successors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII , as a base for the total number of SuSy Universes. At the same time John Cramer proposed a parallel Transactional Interpretation (T.I.) a so called “Handshake system” responsible for entanglement and wavefunction collapse processes between anti copy systems on earth. However If we take such a handshake system as functional for each (anti material) copy quantum, living inside one of the entangled anti copy universal bubbles, then we may accept it as the start for NEW PHYSICS.
Category: Astrophysics

[2299] viXra:1911.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-19 10:30:17

Light-Sensing Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made one of the highest-performance cameras ever composed of sensors that count single photons, or particles of light. [35] The DESY accelerator facility in Hamburg, Germany, goes on for miles to host a particle making kilometer-long laps at almost the speed of light. Now researchers have shrunk such a facility to the size of a computer chip. [34] University of Michigan physicists have led the development of a device the size of a match head that can bend light inside a crystal to generate synchrotron radiation in a lab. [33] A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[2298] viXra:1911.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 17:38:27

The Big Bang is a Mystery (SR Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis The Universe Is A Continuum Explanation Question no. 1 If the universe is a continuum why that disprove the big bang concept? Because – in this case – the universe will no longer be created by some random process otherwise it can't be a continuum – to be a continuum its components should be created complementary to each other to consist together one continuum Question no. 2 Why does the Special theory of relativity prove that the universe is a continuum? Einstein told that Space-time is a continuum but he didn't tell that the universe is a continuum- Space-time is coordinates consist one continuum because it's coordinates –means – the time and distance values are defined by the point position in space-time – So when Einstein told the Space-time is a continuum he didn't effect on the universe geometry itself – he simply provided a new geometry to define the coordinates But When we accept the hypothesis that – the universe is a continuum - that means -we accept that the particle properties are defined by coordinates! Specifically – that means – Particle Mass will be defined as time and distance in the space-time coordinates! But particle mass is a particle property and can't be defined by any coordinates! We have 2 different visions here! But … in fact ....the particle high velocity motion changes its time, length and MASS So, simply if the mass can be added to the space-time and defined as particle coordinates – so the special theory of relativity disproves the big bang theory Otherwise –it can't …. In this paper I try to prove that – practical mass is defined as distance & time values – all of them are space-time coordinates – that proves the hypothesis – the universe is a continuum – and disproves the big bang theory Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2297] viXra:1911.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-18 07:22:25

Constraints on Dark Matter Axions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

ADMX, with its world-leading sensitivity, has ruled out axions of a certain mass range as dark matter. [30] In a recent study, a team of researchers has presented new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons, using a new prototype detector developed as part of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) project. [29] As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[2296] viXra:1911.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-17 12:12:14

Wolf 1061c in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

A few issues are addressed to explain Wolf 1061c, which are different than the dogma. Explanation is provided. A screenshot of the Wikipedia page of Wolf 1061c is provided to juxtapose the General Theory from dogma.
Category: Astrophysics

[2295] viXra:1911.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-16 17:23:15

Simultaneity Role in The Solar System (SR Discussions)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

One of the basic difficulties I have faced with the Special Theory of Relativity….is What's happened on the next day after the relativistic effects?! We know L0 will be contracted and be L1 - and t0 will be longer t1 – also m0 will be greater m1 But how these values will live their rest of lives?! Imagine we have a rectangle its length L0 now if this length be contracted by lorentz length contraction phenomenon to become L1 – is this new length will work as the rectangle length or this position will change….? Shortly How the relativistic system will cooperate with the non-relativistic one? Special Theory of relativity gives us a short information – it's a story for what's happening in accident – but what will happen after?…. we don't know! Now I wish to write my conclusion how Einstein created this theory…. While Einstein depends on hundreds of electrodynamics experimental results and many of new discoveries in particle motion analysis – he had a very hard job to find the cooperation point between all this material – In addition to his incredible brilliant intelligence – he was so brave warrior to accept such heavy job to do The theory gives us incomplete picture –because – he didn't allow himself to provide imagination has no proves – so he provided the facts which are proved by experiments and their direct conclusions with so deep insights Now this is almost the electrodynamics apex capacity – means – this is the highest result can reach by the 5 senses experiments – instead we have to use Data Analysis to see much deeper We simply ask why they didn't use the data analysis? The difficulty here is in the experiment meaning in itself… Because we don't know how the matter is created?, we don't really know the experiment tools which we use – Einstein told us that – we even didn't know how to use the time and distance values which we measure in labs that because we have wrong definitions about them Shortly If we search for a system in which a relativistic dimension has cooperation with non-relativistic one- so this system we can't be created in experiments – we have to find it in the nature itself – Clearly we can't create such system – basically because we have no the required sufficient knowledge to do I provide a clear claim here– I claim that the solar system has relativistic effects – and because the system works sufficiently – we conclude that the relativistic dimension cooperates with the non-relativistic one perfectly- and they consist together the solar system – This idea gives us a chance to a new-approach analysis for the theory– let's start in following Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2294] viXra:1911.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-14 01:16:00

Antimatter and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Thinking that they might be, scientists from the international BASE collaboration, led by Stefan Ulmer of the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, and collaborators have performed the first laboratory experiments to determine whether a slightly different way in which matter and antimatter interact with dark matter might be a key to solving both mysteries. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32]
Category: Astrophysics

[2293] viXra:1911.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 10:34:46

The Shape of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Therefore, the most interesting result of our paper is not that the universe appears to be curved rather than flat, but the fact that it may force us to rearrange the pieces of the cosmic puzzle in a completely different way. [32] Now physicists at MIT, Kenyon College, and elsewhere have simulated in detail an intermediary phase of the early universe that may have bridged cosmic inflation with the Big Bang. [31] At the Japanese Research Center for Particle Physics KEK, the new particle accelerator experiment Belle II started operation after eight years of construction. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[2292] viXra:1911.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-13 16:43:54

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions) (Part III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

Lorentz Length Contraction Is A Real Phenomenon Done For Particle Own Length And Cause To Be Contracted. Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2291] viXra:1911.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-12 13:28:39

Dark Baryonic and Dark Gravitational as Solution for D.M. in M33

Authors: M. Abarca
Comments: 25 Pages.

After the success of the DG theory explaining the data known for DM in M31 and Milky Way and published in [1] Abarca,M., it is right to check the same theory in M33, because DG theory aims to be a universal theory as it is based on a quantum gravitation effect. Taking as starting point the remarkable rotation curve of Corbelli,E , and applying DG theory it has been possible to show that DG matter in M33 cannot explain the total amount of DM needed to justify the rotation curve of M33. Therefore, it has been postulated that the extra amount of DM is dark baryon. Even such mass has been estimated roughly. Similarly, thanks a rotation curve of LMC got by Vasiliev,E. and applying DG theory has been demonstrated that in LMC there is a DM proportion at least four times bigger than such proportion in MW. Therefore in order to preserve the DG theory as universal based on a property of gravitational propagation, it has been postulated the existence of an important amount of dark baryonic. Consequently this conclusion arises an extraordinary test to check the DG theory. Currently, it has been published a method called nanolensing which might be applied to search a type of dark baryon called SULCOs (Sub Lunar Compact Object) in Milky Way and LMC. Possibly, it could be made measures of DB in the Milky Way and LMC in a close future. If measures backed the proportion of DB predicted by the theory then DG theory would be a real theory able to explain DG as a universal law. A second important result showed in the paper is related to the concept of Dark Gravitational mass, DG, because according the theory, the calculus of DG mass has to be extended up to the distance where is placed the interacting system. For example, when it is studied the interaction between M33 and M31, the distance to calculate the DG mass has to be 220 kpc, not only for DG mass of M33 but also for M31, whereas when it is studied the interaction between MW and M31 then both DG masses has to be calculated for a distance of 770 kpc. By DG theory has been found a lower bound for total masses of M33 and LMC. It has not been possible to calculate a more accurate value of masses for both galaxies because the rotation curve published are a bit short and even at the furthest radius of rotation curve, the proportion of baryonic matter versus DG mass is too high to be neglected. Consequently the parameter C, which is the initial condition of a Bernoulli differential equation, cannot be calculated properly. It would be suitable new measures of rotation curves of M33 especially for radius bigger than 23 kpc in order to calculate parameter C with more accuracy. It worth to highlight an interesting property of DG mass formula, which is that its value tends to a finite value, Mo, as variable X grows indefinitely. Physically is important that mass does not tend to infinite. However the NFW formula for mass tends to infinite as x grows, so it is only right inside a bounded halo dominion. Similarly it happens with Burkert DM mass, which is unbounded as x grows. Another important result got in this paper is a very good estimation of Local Group total mass. According [13]Fattahi & Navarro the dynamical mass at 3 Mpc in the Local Group gives a mass of 10^13 Msun. Calculus made with DG theory at such distance gives a total mass bigger than 7*10^12 Msun, when it is considered M31, M33, Milky Way and LMC, obviously when is added the total mass of the rest of dwarfs galaxies of Local Group the total mass will be even more close to the value estimated by Fattahi & Navarro. There is no doubt that this is a magnificent result for DG theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[2290] viXra:1911.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 19:04:20

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions) (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Human Realization process Is The Universe Reference Point
Category: Astrophysics

[2289] viXra:1911.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-11 10:06:30

CERN Cosmic-Ray Showers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Cosmic rays are particles from outer space, typically protons, travelling at almost the speed of light. When the most energetic of these particles strike the atmosphere of our planet, they interact with atomic nuclei in the atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles that shower down to the Earth's surface. [31] Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[2288] viXra:1911.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-10 17:41:38

Tutorial: Binary Star Masses from Newton's Laws

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 4 Pages.

By Newton's Third Law the gravitational forces on the two stars of a binary system are equal and opposite, so the acceleration of each star is inversely proportional to its mass, which yields the ratio of the two stars' masses. However the difference of the two stars' gravitational accelerations is proportional to the sum of their masses; it is also inversely proportional to the square of their vector separation, so that vector separation traces out an elliptical orbit. The orbit's period plus its major axis length yields the sum of the stars' masses. The complete orbit isn't required; five or more of the points which lie on an ellipse determine it, and the orbit sweeps out the area enclosed by the ellipse at a constant rate.
Category: Astrophysics

[2287] viXra:1911.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 16:00:44

Lorentz Length Contraction Analysis (SR Discussions)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 5 Pages.

Particle Nature (Definition) depends On Light Velocity 1- Particle Nature Absolute Meaning Special theory of relativity states that If a particle (with length L0) travels by speed of light (approximately), it will suffer from Lorentz length contraction and be seen with a contracted length (L1) So – the question is - "What's happened For The Particle Own Nature?" The theory states "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"! We have 2 directions to choose from: (1st) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature doesn't change and the contracted length is seen by us as a wrong vision (as mirage) but the particle length itself has no real change Or (2nd) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature changes with this motion – and by such way – the particle nature should be created relative to speed of light! I choose the 2nd choice- Why? Because – the 1st choice tells us that – The particle own nature is defined clearly when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle – that means – I'm The Universe Reference Point – and this is similar to a person looks at a mirror Specifically for the previous reason we should refuse the assumption that "Particle Own Nature doesn't Change" or the statement "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"…. In fact ….Particle length is changed already Let's consider this point with some deep analysis in following: We deal here with the assumption "Particle length doesn’t change and the contracted length is only an imaginary vision" How do we measure the particle length in static case (before any motion)? and how do we measure the moving particle length? Where we use The Same Methods in both cases – practically and logically – we have to consider both results are equal in power – no result is better than the other because both are produced by the same methods of measurements.. Although I consider that –Particle in static should be considered as a special case because it moves by my velocity – means – instead to choose any other velocity the particle chooses to move by my velocity which makes it specific case for particle different motions cases So the analysis tells us that – the particle different velocities motions is the general case and static situation (relative to me) is a special one Spite of that SR states "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"! I mean – if the theory means – the proper length will stay with particle during its motion – that means – the special case is used here as a general one – and depending on it all other parameters are created Conclusion (1) Particle own length is contracted by high velocity (light velocity approximately) Because I'm not "The Universe Reference Point" I refuse the statement "The Proper Length L0 Never Change" (2) Light Velocity should be a player in Human Realization Process Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2286] viXra:1911.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 01:22:55

Unified Theory

Authors: Pastushenko Vladimir
Comments: 6 Pages. Unified theory

Unified theory
Category: Astrophysics

[2285] viXra:1911.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-09 10:30:02

Massive Black Holes Mergers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. along with one in India and one in Hungary has created simulations that could explain how larger than expected black holes could form near supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[2284] viXra:1911.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 18:11:34

Planet Motion Depends on Light Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Planet motion depends on light motion A Proof I-Data (A) 17.4 degrees (inner planets orbital inclinations total) x 0.99 = 17.2 degrees (Pluto orbital inclination) (B) 23.6 degrees (outer planets orbital inclinations total) x 0.99 = 23.4 degrees (Earth Axial Tilt) (C) (180 degrees /π) x 0.99 = 28.3 degrees (Neptune Axial Tilt) (D) Earth Moon Distance At Perigee 0.363 mkm = 0.99 x0.366 mkm (Outer Planets Diameters Total) (and the moon diameter = 1% of Outer Planets Diameters Total) II-Discussion The previous data is an example of many similar where the rate 0.99 is used frequently as a rate between different planets data – and the question is that Why This Rate 0.99 Is Used So Frequently In Different Data (axial tilts – orbital inclinations…etc)? The answer is told by Einstein himself – let's read it: Book / Relativity: The Special and General Theory (Einstein book) Section 13 (in Fizu experiment which is repeated frequently by others) "According to recent and most excellent measurements by Zeeman, the influence of the velocity of flow v on the propagation of light is represented by formula(B)(x'=wt') to within one percent (1%) I claim the difference 1% is found in the solar planets data by light motion as in Fizu experiment measurements- someone will refuse, claiming that we have no Fizu experiment here – no light beam –no tube and no liquid- I don't know how that's happened – but it's a property of light motion – and as in Fizu experiment there was a reason to find this percentages 1% and 99%- this same geometrical reason can be found in the solar planets data and motions to use frequently the rates 99% or 1% which we have seen before– simply we need to analyze and discover how the matter is crated and how the distance is formed and based on such analysis we should find that it's the light motion which creates the using of the rates 99% and 1% in the solar planets data.
Category: Astrophysics

[2283] viXra:1911.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-05 10:41:11

Black Holes like Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

According to quantum mechanics black holes should behave like other ordinary quantum systems. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2282] viXra:1911.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 10:26:31

The Amplification Effect of Parallel Counter-streaming Gravitons

Authors: Kurt L. Becker
Comments: 6 Pages.

Amplification effect of counter-streaming gravitons may give a physical foundation to MOND. Abstract: Modified Newtonian Dynamics can explain the flat rotation curves of stars in very weak gravitational fields in the outlying regions of our galaxy, but it needs a physical basis to form a complete theory. In the MOND paradigm, acceleration decreases slower, by 1/r, than in Newtonian dynamics, 1/r2. This paper explores a physical process with amplifies the stream of gravitons between distant stars, thereby keeping gravity stronger at longer distances, yet allowing the acceleration to decrease as 1/r. The streams of gravitons between distant stars is parallel, allowing time for counter-streaming gravitons to interact with each other. This interaction will compress the beam and, most importantly, will pull adjacent streams into the main gravitation stream. This results in an amplification of gravity between the two stars. The frequency of gravitational interaction with the mass of the stars will decrease as 1/r, due to the longer travel time of the gravitons between the stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[2281] viXra:1911.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 13:14:26

Conservation of Mass Limits and White Dwarfs

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

A new idea is presented which follows from the General Theory. It is hypothesized that mass is conserved in closed systems, but there is a caveat to that due to white dwarfs. In the General Theory white dwarfs have mass that is not conserved. Meaning if you take all transfers of heat and matter away, it will become more massive as it transitions to more massive stages of evolution. This means mass is not conserved under extreme pressures and temperatures. In short, there are properties of mass that we do not understand yet, and white dwarfs show this in light of the General Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[2280] viXra:1911.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-03 14:54:57

The Observer Effects on Observation Results (SR Tells)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 2 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis (No. 1) The Observer Effects On The Observational Results 1st Hypothesis Explanation If a particle (with length L0) moves by speed of light (approximately), this particle may suffer from length contraction effect and be seen with a contracted length (L1) Then "What's happened For The Particle Own Nature?" The theory states "The Proper Length L0 Never Change"! We have 2 directions to choose from: (1st) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature doesn't change and the contracted length is seen by us as a wrong vision (as mirage) but the particle length itself has no real change Or (2nd) to accept the idea that – the particle own nature changes with this motion – and by such way – the particle nature should be created relative to speed of light! I choose the 2nd choice- Why? Because – the 1st choice tells us that – The particle own nature is defined clearly when no difference in motions velocities between me and this particle – that means – I'm The Universe Reference Point – and this is similar to a person looks at a mirror So the particle nature is created relative to speed of light! Is it true? NOT The human mind realization process depends on speed of light – and that explains how the observer effects on observational results… Paper Hypothesis (No. 2) Human Mind Realization Process depends On And uses Speed Of Light - Paper Hypothesis (No. 3) The Human Mind Realization process (Using Speed Of Light) effects on the universe around.
Category: Astrophysics

[2279] viXra:1911.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-02 05:29:41

Merger Inside Binary Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology and the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics have recently gathered strong numerical evidence for a new phenomenon that takes place in the interior of binary black holes. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2278] viXra:1911.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-02 07:52:09

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis; 17. Auflage

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 12 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden die Vor- und Nachteile einer Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie.
Category: Astrophysics

[2277] viXra:1911.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-11-01 21:25:00

Why Don't We Understand The Solar System Geometry?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 20 Pages.

Why don't We Understand The Solar System Geometry? Because Paper Hypothesis -The Planets Motions are Motions of Light Beams, That means each planet motion depends on a motion of light beam – Based on that, we have to use the light geometry to explain the solar planets motions. Shortly -Planet Motion = Light Motion and should be studied under Relativistic Considerations -Because we see the planets as matters move by low velocity– We consider that the light geometry is unsuitable science to explain the solar planets motions. -That's Why – There Are Many Contradictions In The Solar Planets Motions Current Understanding And Description.. Paper Objective -The Paper tries to prove the claim that "The Solar Planets Motions Are Motions Of Light Beams"
Category: Astrophysics

[2276] viXra:1910.0642 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-31 11:17:11

Black Hole Collision Precision

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Scientists at The Australian National University (ANU) have found a way to better detect all collisions of stellar-mass black holes in the universe. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"—a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2275] viXra:1910.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 18:52:19

Planet Orbital Period Definition (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Previous Paper Conclusion -Planets Cycles Periods are defined relative to each other. Example -Mercury & Venus Cycles Periods interacted with each other, creating an effect on Earth Moon Cycles and causing that, The Moon Orbital Period to be equal Its Rotation Period (27.3 days) -This effect of Mercury and Venus, on Earth Moon Cycles Periods, is a general effect on the solar system, and be seen also on the outer planets cycles periods -A result of that, The Outer Planets Days Periods Are = Their Rotations Periods – this is found Because Earth Moon Orbital Period = Its Rotation Period =27.3 days A Proof -The Outer Planets Rotation Periods Total =(Earth Moon Rotation Period /Π) (Planets Cycles Periods, Means, Planet Orbital Period, Planet Rotation Period And Planet Day Period) Paper Objective -This paper provides more proves for the claim that "The Outer Planets Rotations Periods Are Found Depending On Earth Moon Rotation Period"
Category: Astrophysics

[2274] viXra:1910.0637 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 19:50:00

The Myth of Black Holes

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

An explanation for why the irrational idea known as "black hole", persists even in the 21st century. It has to do with the belief divorced from its relevant context. In short, black holes only exist because the environment exists to support them, and not because they are rational constructs. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2273] viXra:1910.0633 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-30 01:49:46

The Mass of the Graviton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in France has revisited the idea of improving on estimates of the upper limit of the mass of a graviton. [20] An international group of astronomers, including physicists at the University of St Andrews, has revived a previously debunked theory of gravity, arguing that motions within dwarf galaxies would be slower if close to a massive galaxy. [19] While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe-not literal ones, at least. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2272] viXra:1910.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-29 20:58:15

Planet Orbital Period Definition

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 6 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis -Planet Orbital Period, Rotation Period And Day Period (Planet Cycles Periods), Are Defined Depending On Each Other And On Other Planets Cycles Periods. -1 Hour On Mercury = 1 Solar Day On Earth (Venus Also uses This Rate Of Time) -The Solar Group Is One Machine Works As A Mechanical Clock- Transports The Motion From Planet To Another With Different Rates Of Time, Aiming To Enable Light Motion During 1 Second Period To Cause A Planet Motion For 1 Solar Day
Category: Astrophysics

[2271] viXra:1910.0592 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 19:09:30

Why Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods = 3 Mercury Rotation Periods? (Theoretical Analysis)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

The paper title provides a clear question… and I wish to provide the answer directly Why Mercury Day Period =2 Mercury orbital periods =3 Mercury rotation periods? Because 1-Mercury moves during its Day Period (175.94 solar days) a distance = 720.7 mkm= Mercury Jupiter Distance 2-In Jupiter full revolution around the sun (360 degrees) the distance 720.7 mkm is seen 2 times along Jupiter orbital diameter – that means – a distance = 1441.4 mkm – and Mercury moves this distance in 2 Mercury Days (=351.9 solar days) 3-We know that – the solar system is one building each planet is a part of it – and the solar system moves as a train (all carriages move together) – similar to that all planets move together in one unified motion – the planets velocities difference doesn't disprove this idea because planets velocities are complementary to each to produce one unified general motion as any machine of gears 4-The solar system moves (All Planets Together) a distance = 1433.5 mkm = Saturn orbital distance Per A Solar Day 5-So Mercury Motion Distance during 2 Mercury Days = The Solar System motion distance in 1 Solar Day – that supports the claim "2 Mercury Days Are Used To Produce 1 Solar Day"(Please review Mercury Day Period (Short Discussion) (I &II) (The Links are In Paper References) i.e. 6-Mercury moves during 2 Mercury days (=351.9 solar days) a distance =Saturn Orbital Distance =1433.5 7-We have agreed that – Uranus Orbital Distance is created as 2 days of the solar system motion – and we have suggested that – the solar system geometry building needs 2 days of the solar system motion – means – needs 2872.5 mkm = Uranus Orbital Distance – and to pass 2872.5 mkm Mercury has to move along 4 Mercury Days period (703.76 solar days) 8-Again in full revolution Uranus orbital distance is used 2 times along Uranus orbital diameter where the total distance = 2872.5 mkm x 2 = 5745 mkm – to pass this distance Mercury has to move a long 8 Mercury Days (1407.6 solar days) 9-Mercury rotation period = 1407.6 hours! What’s going on here?!!
Category: Astrophysics

[2270] viXra:1910.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 09:14:35

Mercury Day Period (Short Discussion) (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

We complete our discussion in the previous paper let's summarize its conclusion Previous Paper Conclusion -Before matter creation, the universe was created of light beam its velocity=1.16 mkm/sec -The light supposed velocity (1.16 mkm/sec) is the origin source of energy from which the matter and light known velocity (0.3mkm/sec) were created -In some interaction (or coherence) process light supposed velocity (1.16 mkm/sec) was the only input and the output were light known velocity (0.3mkm/sec) and the matters – this interaction (coherence) process is occurred above Earth Axis – that means Earth was the First Matter is created in the universe. -Because the motions are motions of light beams (different velocities of light) so the time and distance values simply are exchangeable with each other – that's why the equal values can be used in time or distance units… Previous Paper Question "Why Mercury Day Period =175.94 Solar Days?"
Category: Astrophysics

[2269] viXra:1910.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-28 09:55:05

Dark Matter Puzzle Piece

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

The CASPEr team is developing special nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, each targeted at a specific frequency range and therefore at a specific range of dark-matter particle masses. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2268] viXra:1910.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-27 15:46:20

Snowball Earth and Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The multiple glaciations on the Earth in the General Theory are caused by orbit changes. In short, the Earth did not always orbit the Sun, it orbited other stars in the past. The Sun is far too young, at ~100 million years old to have hosted the Earth at ~4.5-10 billion years old, for Earth's entire evolutionary sequence. This fact of nature is brought to the forefront, we are dealing with a transitionary star system, and have misplaced Sun-like stars as being as evolved as Earth-like stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[2267] viXra:1910.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 21:04:03

Mercury Day Period (Short Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Paper Question Why Mercury Day Period =175.94 Solar Days? Let's try to explain this question in following… I suppose the solar system is one building and each planet is a part of it – for that reason – each planet data is created complementary to other planets data- and no planet is created individually… Also– because the solar system is one building – so the solar system moves as a train- So as the train moves with its carriages together in one motion –regardless what's first carriage and what's last one – similar to the solar system moves with all planets together spite of Planets Different Velocities – the solar system general unified motion unify these velocities in one motion only – Based on this description – each planet data effect on the solar system geometry From this approach the question should be … Why Mercury Day Period = 175.94 solar days… But the deep question is another ….let's ask it in following… Why Mercury Day Period is used in double value (=2 x 175.94 days) generally in the solar system geometry? What does that mean? because the solar system is one building – so each planet data is used by other planets – and I have found that Mercury Day Period isn't used as 175.94 solar days but used usually as 351.8 (= 2 x 175.94) solar days – So – I write this paper to prove this fact and I use it to support the claim that the solar system is one building and each planet data is complementary to the others So this paper has 2 objectives– (1st) to prove Mercury Day Period Using (2nd) to support the claim that the solar group is one building…
Category: Astrophysics

[2266] viXra:1910.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 06:56:26

Reheating Kickstarted the Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Now physicists at MIT, Kenyon College, and elsewhere have simulated in detail an intermediary phase of the early universe that may have bridged cosmic inflation with the Big Bang. [31] At the Japanese Research Center for Particle Physics KEK, the new particle accelerator experiment Belle II started operation after eight years of construction. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2265] viXra:1910.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-26 08:34:17

Spot a Wormhole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

A new study outlines a method for detecting a speculative phenomenon that has long captured the imagination of sci-fi fans: wormholes, which form a passage between two separate regions of spacetime. [32] Now physicists at MIT, Kenyon College, and elsewhere have simulated in detail an intermediary phase of the early universe that may have bridged cosmic inflation with the Big Bang. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[2264] viXra:1910.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 07:29:38

Planetary Formation

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

The differential orbital speeds of planets tell us that they were not formed in a proto-planetary disk, why?, because those differential orbital speeds are a unique property of a natural phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[2263] viXra:1910.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-25 12:30:27

Mars Orbital Distance Is Changed Through History (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis… Mars Orbital Distance was 84 mkm and Mars has immigrated from it to dwell in the new point with Orbital Distance = 227.9 mkm i.e. Mars Was The Next Direct Planet After Mercury – where Mercury orbital distance =57.9 mkm and Mars orbital distance was 84 mkm How to prove that? Mars Daily Motion Data shows a great effect of Mercury on Mars Motion – which can't be explained unless by A Direct Effect Of The Neighbor Planet How such effect can be found with a great distance?! Mercury effected on Mars Creation and Motion Data when Mars was its neighbor with orbital distance =84 mkm – So When Mars has immigrated – the planet geometrical structure reserved this effect in its data – accordingly – Mars Motion Data shows clearly Mercury Effect on Mars Motion - which proves that Mars was the direct next neighbor of Mercury Paper Question Why Mars motion daily degrees (0.524 deg) = (1/ Mars orbital inclination 1.9 deg.)?
Category: Astrophysics

[2262] viXra:1910.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-24 09:32:39

An Auxiliary Gravitational Field Operating in Galaxies (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte.
Comments: 24 Pages.

A theory has been developed of an auxiliary gravitational field which operates in conjunction with relativistic gravity and accounts for the empirical success of Milgrom’s modified Newtonian dynamics theory. Remarkable links between this astronomical theory and atomic physics have been discovered. Resonant, standing-wave properties of the field encourage the formation of flat rotation curves, bar or spiral structures and quantised galactic rings. Gravitational lensing due to this field is also significant. The angular momentum proportional to mass-squared relationship observed in galaxies is attributed to this field selecting a preferred galactic rotation velocity.
Category: Astrophysics

[2261] viXra:1910.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-23 00:51:31

Stellar Metamorphosis - One Giant Leap For Mankind

Authors: Jeffrey J. Wolynski, Barrington J. Taylor
Comments: 55 Pages.

Stellar evolution is planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[2260] viXra:1910.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 06:15:31

Physics of White Dwarf Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

State University has recently discovered that Wigner crystallization inside white dwarfs can be studied in the lab using a new class of classical systems, called gravity crystals. [26] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei in the superconducting Large Hadron Collider in order to gain new insights into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). [25] On October 16, 2017, an international group of astronomers and physicists excitedly reported the first simultaneous detection of light and gravitational waves from the same source—a merger of two neutron stars. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2259] viXra:1910.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 07:45:49

Lasers Study How Star Stuff is Made

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

On a typical day at the world's biggest laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in Livermore, California, you can find scientists casually making star-like conditions using 192 high-powered lasers. [27] State University has recently discovered that Wigner crystallization inside white dwarfs can be studied in the lab using a new class of classical systems, called gravity crystals. [26] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei in the superconducting Large Hadron Collider in order to gain new insights into the properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2258] viXra:1910.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 08:08:47

Magnetic Reconnection Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 75 Pages.

Magnetic reconnection, a process in which magnetic field lines tear and come back together, releasing large amounts of kinetic energy, occurs throughout the universe. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino-the antimatter partner of a neutrino-with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: Astrophysics

[2257] viXra:1910.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-21 10:57:06

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part VI)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

We still try to understand the data… (1) Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods =3 Mercury rotation periods (2) Uranus Orbital Distance = 2 Saturn Orbital Distances (3) Also I have claimed that Moon Daily Displacement 88000 km is used As 2 x 88000 km Shortly Why The Rate 2: 1 Is Found In The Solar System Geometry? Paper Hypothesis Mercury Periods Data causes The Moon Daily Displacement 88000 km to be used in double value = 2 x 88000 km The Moon Daily Displacement (88000 km) effects On Mercury Periods Data
Category: Astrophysics

[2256] viXra:1910.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 19:14:18

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part V)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis -The moon is a light beam (known Velocity 0.3 mkm/sec) -The moon orbit is created of light (supposed velocity 1.16 mkm/sec) -The moon passing through the orbit causes light coherence which creates the moon planet matter (Matter Creation Process) i.e. -The moon was a light beam and becomes a planet (matter) with passing through the orbit – the moon planet moves by masses gravity -The moon as light beam is still connected with the moon planet – that's why the moon moves by 2 rates of time How to prove this claim? I have 3 proves which are: (1st) The Moon Daily Displacement Analysis (88000 km) (2nd) The relativistic effects in the solar system (3rd) There's a light coherence in the moon orbit
Category: Astrophysics

[2255] viXra:1910.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-20 20:36:06

Rare Earth Hypothesis vs. Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The rare Earth hypothesis posits that Earth is a rare phenomenon in the Universe. This is flat wrong. All stars have the chance to become Earth-like, this means there are more than likely hundreds of billions (even trillions) of Earths in our galaxy with life on them. This is to include even younger staged Earths, snowball Earths (which have internal oceans with life), and post-Earth staged objects that are older and have less internal heat, but still have life.
Category: Astrophysics

[2254] viXra:1910.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-19 18:41:42

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part IV)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Why Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods= 3 Mercury Rotation Periods? We still discuss this question whose discussion is started in the previous paper "Uranus Orbital Distance = 2 Saturn Orbital Distances" Also we try to know If the previous relationship has any effect of Mercury Data We complete the same discussion (in previous parts of the same series)
Category: Astrophysics

[2253] viXra:1910.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-17 22:31:15

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

We still discuss our subject "Earth Moon moves with 2 rates of time" (Parts I and II) The last paper concluded an interesting mystery which led to a serious question! Let's ask it in following: Why Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Period = 3 Mercury Rotation Period? Let's remember the mastery to see why this question is important: -Moon moves daily 2.58 mkm where this distance is contracted to be 2.41 mkm by length contraction effect – this difference in distances causes difference in velocities between Earth and Moon -The moon needs 0.17 mkm to perform a distance = 2.58 mkm = Earth Motion daily and based on that they will not separate from each other - but the moon moves daily by gravity forces a distance =88000 km only (Moon Daily Displacement) -So – The moon sends the distance 88000 km (Energy)- to Mercury who receives the value 88000 km and transforms it into 88 days – and Mercury based on this 88 days produced his Day period 176 days and transforms this value into 176000km and sends them to the moon to enable it to move the required distance 2.58 mkm. Interesting Mystery! But even contradicts another one! Which is -The moon moves 88000 km but this value becomes 176000 km because Uranus orbital distance =2 Saturn orbital distance – means – Uranus Saturn Relationship causes the value 88000 km to be 176000km! Based on that -What answer we expect for the question… Why Mercury Day period = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods?! -We expect that Uranus Saturn Relationship causes Mercury Day Period to be = 2 Mercury Orbital Periods… So this paper doesn't deal with any mystery… We here to answer the question Why Mercury Day Period = 2 Mercury Orbital Period = 3 Mercury Rotation Period?
Category: Astrophysics

[2252] viXra:1910.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 05:24:31

Cosmic Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

One such mystery is the origin of electromagnetic fields on the very largest scale in the universe. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2251] viXra:1910.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 10:26:24

Supermassive Black Holes Star Clusters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Further investigation of how nuclear star clusters form and evolve will be needed to determine how frequently phase transitions of this kind occur in nature. [29] A new Tel Aviv University-led study published today in Nature Astronomy finds that some supermassive black holes are triggered to grow, suddenly devouring a large amount of gas in their surroundings. [28] Needless to say, we do not have the capability of performing real experiments in or near black holes yet, so scientists resort to theory and simulations to develop an understanding, by making predictions and new discoveries. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[2250] viXra:1910.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-16 11:07:32

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis The moon moves with 2 different velocities – Why? ….Because The moon is a light beam his velocity is The Light Known Velocity (0.3mkm/s) And The moon orbit is created of light beam also (Light Supposed Velocity 1.16 mkm/s) The moon passing through his orbit causes light coherence, creating the matter to be created (The Moon Planet Creation) i.e. The moon was a light beam before to enter his orbit around Earth and becomes A Planet moves by masses gravity when he enters the orbit i.e. The Moon Moves By 2 Rates Of Time Because He Moves 2 Different Motions – Moves As A Light Beam And As A Planet. What does prove the moon motion as a light beam? 10921 km (moon circumference) x 27.3 days (moon orbital period) = 0.3 mkm This equation tells -If the moon rotates around his axis one rotation daily, he will pass during his orbital period a distance = light motion (0.3mkm/s) for 1 second! 10921 km (moon circumference) x 86400 seconds (solar day)= 940 mkm This equation tells- If Earth revolves around the sun one complete revolution in 1 solar day – so the moon circumference will = its motion for 1 second The equations geometrical mechanism is hard to be explained – but the light velocity effect is seen (And need deep discussion to discover it)
Category: Astrophysics

[2249] viXra:1910.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-15 07:29:38

If Electromagnetic Fine Structure =1/137 Then Hubble Constant=73 Km/s Mpc-1

Authors: Miroslaw Kozlowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Recent overview of the results of the research of Hubble constant by Joshua Sokol is very interesting[1]. We can learn that the numerical value of Hubble constant is still open. In Essay I present my own research results which are very old but in the light of Sokol discussion are valuable. I state and answer the question Can Hubble constant be calculated in the frame of Planck Epoch constant. The answer is yes
Category: Astrophysics

[2248] viXra:1910.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 04:28:10

Black Holes of Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Astronomers at the University of California, Riverside, have discovered that powerful winds driven by supermassive black holes in the centers of dwarf galaxies have a significant impact on the evolution of these galaxies by suppressing star formation. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2247] viXra:1910.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-13 05:26:00

Cosmic Energy System

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 10 Pages. Redefing black hole concept

The problem of proper quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open and is discussed here. So, we introduce here the term of CES to replace the erroneous term of “black hole”, since there can’t be a hole per se in the fabric of matter that exists in gaseous, liquid and solid states in spacetime continuum. Accordingly, we attempt here to merge the loop quantum gravity (LQG) with quantum mechanics and general relativity, for per Einstein, gravity is not a force – it is a property of spacetime itself. Hence, our CES loop quantum spring model (ill. 1) fits said property of spacetime and is based on our previously published unified theory and model where we apply the string theory to loop quantum gravity by showing that a CES (formerly termed a “black hole”) is created by gravitational coupling of two linear superstrings in specified boundaries of open strings which are segments with endpoints, and closed strings which form closed loops.
Category: Astrophysics

[2246] viXra:1910.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-12 19:49:04

Earth Moon moves with 2 Rates Of Time (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

What does mean 2 rates of time? 1 Day On The Sun = 1 Year On Earth In this equation there are 2 rates of time How to create them? By relativistic effects –in the solar group I have claimed that there's a physical point moves by a velocity =0.9999 C – where c= light known velocity =0.3 mkm/sec Based on this light velocity length contraction with rate 71 can be created but if the moon orbital inclination 5.1 degrees effect on the result will be 71 x 5.1 = 365.25 days (also Length contraction effect may contract 71 mkm to be seen as 1 mkm) But if Time And Distance Equivalence (Proves) (my previous paper) That means 1 Day On The Sun = 1 Year On Earth Example 10921 km (Moon Circumference) x 86400 seconds (Solar Day Period) = 940 mkm (Earth orbital circumference) (Moon = Earth Moon) What does this equation tell us? The equation tells that If Earth revolves around the sun one complete revolution in one solar day only – so the moon circumference will equal a distance passed by Earth Motion during 1 second period. So this equation refers to the possibility of existence more than one rate of time in the solar system – where T1= 1day and T2 = 365.265 days
Category: Astrophysics

[2245] viXra:1910.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-12 02:57:08

“Fermi Bubbles Explained by the Intentions of the M 2–9 (Butterfly Wings – Planetary Nebulae) and Spin–orbital Interaction and Interaction of Milky Way Galaxy and M31 Galaxy Andromedae.“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 8 Pages.

Fermi Bubbles or Galactic Bubbles are streams of High–Energy particles – electron, photon (gamma burst radioactivity), high energy neutrinos and gravitational and radio–waves below and above galactic Equator of Milky Way and probably in the Galaxy M31 Andromedae. This Galactic Bubble’s born like the evaporation of Central Massive Black Hole, which also caused rotation of Galaxy Milky Way and Galaxy Andromedae M31. This fact is connected with so called Fermi Surfaces and Fermi’s edge, also with accretion of a disc (cannibal galaxies), galactic core, galactic halo. The Bubbles are sources of ultraradio, gamma, electron and neutrino particle waves from the North and South Galactic Lobes (25 000 ly) of Fermi’s Bubbles. Spatial conformations of bubbles are like spin–orbital (particle electron clouds) interaction between electrons and core of atom, according The Periodical System (Table) of chemical elements (Mendelejev). The results of measurements of these events will be in the future have fundamental significance for knowledge of function of our and foreign galaxies, black holes, and stars and whole our Cosmos, which is built on 400 – 600 mld of these galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[2244] viXra:1910.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-11 07:37:00

Photochemistry of the Atmosphere

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

One such process has now been elucidated by a team led by Prof. Matthias Kling and Dr. Boris Bergues at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (LAP), which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians Universität (LMU) and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ). [30] Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a non-invasive hybrid imaging technique that excites biological tissues with light and detects the subsequently generated ultrasound to form images. [29] ETH researchers have integrated two CRISPR-Cas9-based core processors into human cells. This represents a huge step towards creating powerful biocomputers. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2243] viXra:1910.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-09 12:48:00

Way to Hear Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The team found signatures of axion particles composed of Weyl-type electrons (Weyl fermions) in the correlated Weyl semimetal (TaSe4)2I. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[2242] viXra:1910.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 23:36:45

Moon Orbital Motion Analysis (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 20 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses…. -The Moon Is A Light Beam (with known velocity 0.3 mkm) Sent From Uranus Carrying Energy To Earth -The moon orbit is created by 1 second motion of light beam (with supposed velocity 1.16 mkm/sec). -The moon passes through the moon orbit– which causes interaction or coherence between these 2 light beams (1.16mkm/sec – 0.3 mkm/sec) -Based on this interaction the moon who was a light beam will be a planet (Transformation From Light State Into Matter State) -The Moon Energy (As Light Beam) Is Stored. -The Moon seeks to transport its energy to Earth -Through Solar Eclipse Phenomena the moon transports the energy it carries from Uranus to Earth -Energy is transported based on quantized measurements -Solar eclipse cycles and calendars are so important because these periods tell when the energy quantum is ready to be used -Solar Eclipse Job (Conclusion) Solar eclipse phenomena transports the energy from the moon to Earth through the Solar Umbra –
Category: Astrophysics

[2241] viXra:1910.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 00:05:22

Moon Orbital Motion Analysis (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Moon orbital Motion Direction is defined based on the following factors: 1-Masses Gravity forces definition for the moon motion direction is correct. But 2-The moon principle motion is done similar to Earth motion – i.e. a motion on straight line inclining with 0.985 degrees per solar day 3-Because Earth motion =2.58 mkm and moon motion becomes 2.41 mkm –this difference in velocities causes the motion in straight line to be seen in parabola So – points 2 & 3 should be taken into consideration before using Masses gravity to define the moon orbital motion direction 4-Venus effect on the moon orbit causes its regression 19 degrees yearly and that effect on the moon orbital motion 5-Saturn and Uranus interaction effects on the moon orbital motion and defined the moon motion main points That means There are 5 factors effect on the moon orbital motion direction
Category: Astrophysics

[2240] viXra:1910.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-08 07:13:37

Cesium Vapor Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

With their new technique, the scientists have now accessed a hitherto unexplored frequency range in which, as postulated in relaxion theory, the effects of certain forms of dark matter on the atomic properties of cesium should be relatively easy to spot. [22] Dark matter could be much "lighter," or lower in mass and slighter in energy, than previously thought. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2239] viXra:1910.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 18:33:59

Moon Orbital Motion Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Moon Motion Details -Earth Moon is The Solar Group Energy Indicator -Earth Moon moves with 2 different motions – they together create the moon motion distance =2.58 mkm = Earth motion daily -The Moon first Motion is (The Train Motion Concept) – Let's explain it in following -The Solar System is a theater of puppets – puppets move by outer force- which cause their motion -The solar planets move together in one unified motion as a train moves with all its carriages (a planet = a carriage) (The Train Motion Concept) -The Moon Second Motion is Masses Gravity Motion which causes the moon daily displacement (88000 km) -The solar system geometrical mechanism uses the moon motion (88000 km) (Moon Displacement daily) to produce the distance (2 x 88000 km) – where this distance is required to make the moon motion daily =2.58 mkm = Earth Motion daily
Category: Astrophysics

[2238] viXra:1910.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 21:54:15

Why Saturn Orbital Distance = Saturn Uranus Distance? (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 20 Pages.

-The Solar System moves one unified motion - as the train moves with its carriages the solar system moves with all planets together one unified motion. (2nd hypothesis) -Planets different velocities don't disprove that- where – a machine of gears has one motion but different velocities of its gears. -Based on that – the solar system (all planets together) moves during a solar day a distance = 1433.5 mkm = Saturn Orbital Distance. The solar system depends on the solar day as its period of time. -The distance 1433.5 mkm is energy – reflected at Saturn – to produce an equal distance 1433.5 mkm = Saturn Uranus Distance (note please – I suppose distance can behave as a light beam and by such way it can reflected where Space= Energy) -Earth Moon Motion effects greatly on Saturn energy reflection process and that's the reason behind the relationship between Earth Moon Motion and Saturn data .. -Shortly –Earth Moon interacts with Saturn and Uranus Distances which perform the energy reflection process and create the relationship between Saturn, Uranus and Earth Moon
Category: Astrophysics

[2237] viXra:1910.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 05:56:07

The Moon Indeed Moves by Gravity (Iii) (Explanation)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Paper hypotheses -Light Motion For 1 Second causes Planet Motion For 1 Solar Day (research 5th hypothesis) -Planet Matter is created as a result of Planet motion -Solar system matter is created based on planet motion for 2 Solar Days -Saturn orbital distance is the required distance to be passed by the solar system unified motion during 1 solar day ("The Train Motion Concept") -Uranus orbital distance is the required distance to be passed by the solar system unified motion during 2 Solar Days -The previous description shows the theoretical reason behind Uranus and Saturn strong relationship.
Category: Astrophysics

[2236] viXra:1910.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-06 09:43:00

Astronomers/Astrophysicists Do Not Know how to Properly Apply Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

A screenshot and some explanation is given to show why and how astronomers/astrophysicists got it all wrong. This is to prove beyond a reasonable doubt with written documentation that astronomers/astrophysicists have the tool called "gravitational collapse", but do not know how to properly use it. Some explanation is provided with examples.
Category: Astrophysics

[2235] viXra:1910.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 16:49:46

The Moon Indeed Moves by Gravity (Iii)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

-Earth Moon Motion proves "The Train Motion Concept" -"The Train Motion Concept" states that the solar planets move together as train carriages – i.e. – there's no solar planet moves individually or independently from others –instead –all solar planets move together (as train moves with its carriages together)- this concept is explained in 2nd hypothesis of my research. -Earth & Moon Motions show their cooperation with Saturn one. -Earth, Moon and Saturn Motions show a deep cooperation between 3 planets – which produce the following data:
Category: Astrophysics

[2234] viXra:1910.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 19:43:33

Why Young Stars Shine and Then Stop Shining

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is an ignored feedback loop that makes young stars shine. No fusion is required. This is to introduce the possibility of simplicity in science, as anybody who has read a book on how stars are supposedly "powered" is sure to lose track of reality, with gigantic math equations that explain nothing, and imaginations that run wild into fantasy-land. In short, it is a simple feedback mechanism as observed in solar granulation. The plasma recombines to neutral gas, falls inwards, gains energy, gets ionized and then rises back up to recombine again. This is why stars shine. When that feedback loop is lost, the star loses its capacity to shine.
Category: Astrophysics

[2233] viXra:1910.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-05 05:40:59

How a Fuzzy Universe Looked

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Shortly after the Big Bang, particles of dark matter would have clumped together in gravitational "halos," pulling surrounding gas into their cores, which over time cooled and condensed into the first galaxies. [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[2232] viXra:1910.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 22:16:03

The Causes of Planetary Migration are Inherent & Unavoidable

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 2 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

ABSTRACT In the “evolution” of a gas & dust cloud (e.g, planetary or galactic size) the following effects will be occurring. The generalised view:- more “outside matter” moves mass outwards from the centre. The generalised view:- more accretion on the “outside” moves mass towards the centre. The generalised view:- more accretion “outside the central gravity shell” occurs on bodies orbiting nearer the central body & moves mass towards the centre. The generalised overview:- Planetary Migration is Inherent & Unavoidable
Category: Astrophysics

[2231] viXra:1910.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-02 05:20:28

The Moon Indeed Moves By Gravity (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

-Masses Gravity Forces cause Earth Moon motion for its daily displacement (88000 km) -Without this motion – the moon should be separated from Earth during their motions course -Because Solar Planets Masses are created depending on each other – the masses forces which cause the moon daily displacement motion isn't Earth Mass -Instead – Mars Mass – in behalf of – the inner planets masses total – pushes Earth moon daily to move its displacement (88000 km). -The Moon Motion is a treasure through which many solar system geometrical concepts can be discovered among which:- o Solar System Relativistic Effects o Planets Masses Creation Dependency On Earth other o Mars motion interaction with Earth and Moon motions
Category: Astrophysics

[2230] viXra:1910.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 06:32:10

Space and Time in the Universe

Authors: Belykh S.A.
Comments: 1 Page. Белых С.А., Планковская физика/ Рязань: «Зеленые острова», 2008 г., 2-е изд. – 89 с.: ISBN 5-85106-028-5

An approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave an outlet to a point with constant parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes, and the continuation of the geometric construction made it possible to determine the dimensionality of time and other physical quantities.
Category: Astrophysics

[2229] viXra:1910.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-10-01 09:05:07

The Moon Indeed Moves by Gravity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Moon indeed moves by Gravity Abstract In great pleasure we send the best greetings to the Great Scientist Isaac Newton – who enlightened the human knowledge by his perspicacious science Earth Moon Motion Features -The Solar System is a theater of puppets – puppets move by outer force- which cause their motion -The solar planets move together in one unified motion as a train moves with all its carriages (a planet = a carriage) (The Train Motion Concept) -The matter creation depends on relativistic effects found in the solar system -Earth moon moves daily a distance = 2.58 mkm= Earth Motion Distance Daily (otherwise they will be separated from each other) -The solar system relativistic effects causes the moon daily motion (2.58mkm) to be contracted (2.41 mkm) – and by such way the moon actual motion daily be shorter than Earth Daily Motion Distance which may cause their separation -Masses Gravity forces attract the moon to Earth forcing him to move daily 88000 km – as additional distance to his original one (2.58 mkm daily) which is contracted by relativistic contraction to be (2.41 mkm daily) -The solar system geometrical mechanism uses the moon motion (88000 km) (Moon Displacement daily) to produce the required distance (2 x 88000 km) -2.41 mkm + 2 x 88000 km = 2.58 mkm this is the moon final motion which keeps the moon moving with Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[2228] viXra:1909.0661 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 18:09:54

Research 1st Hypothesis Discussion (Ii) (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 41 Pages.

Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Paper Main Question Why Does Uranus Orbital Distance = Saturn Orbital Diameter? (Why does Saturn orbital distance = Saturn Uranus distance?) Space Definition and Features -Solar Planets are theater of puppets connecting by one trajectory of energy. -Space is Energy and created as a result of light motion -Uranus Orbital Distance is the solar system first distance created as a result of light motion for 1 second (1 second of light motion is equivalent to 1 solar day of planet motion – 3rd hypothesis) -Saturn Orbital Distance is a defined distance by the solar system motion per a solar day -Uranus and Saturn orbital distances are produced by one motion done in the same period of time by Earth Moon Effect. -Earth Moon has no this great energy to effect on Saturn and Uranus orbital distances, but Earth Moon is the solar system general energy indicator and he defines where the energy will pass –that shows his effect secret.
Category: Astrophysics

[2227] viXra:1909.0650 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-29 21:04:02

Research 1st Hypothesis Discussion (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 33 Pages.

Research 1st Hypothesis Discussion (II) Abstract Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Paper Main Question Why Does Uranus Orbital Distance = Saturn Orbital Diameter? Space Definition and Features -Solar Planets is a theater of puppets connecting together by one trajectory of energy through Space -Space Is Energy -Space is a medium can't be independent from the moving physical point in it – that means – Space Nature can be effected by a moving particle through it -Uranus Orbital Distance is created based on light motion for 1 second.
Category: Astrophysics

[2226] viXra:1909.0648 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 01:20:41

Gravitation With Zero Mass - The Curve Ball

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 3 Pages.

Gravitation without mass? Yes, it is the "curve ball" a new celestial object.

It has all of the same properties as a black hole but it is made from pure spacetime curvature - so it is made from nothing.
That means intense gravity with zero mass.
This is a representation of a star surrounded by curved spacetime...

1 3 5 ● 5 3 1

The amount of curve is represented by numbers.
Closer to the star equals more curve, a higher number, for instance 5.
As you move away from the star the amount of curve will of course diminish: 5, 3, 1, 0

If there are 2 stars in a binary system orbiting each other:

1 3 5 ● 5 3 1 1 3 5 ● 5 3 1

Their curves will overlap - the curve will of course add together: 1 + 1 = 2

1 3 5 ● 5 3 2 3 5 ● 5 3 1

With one billion stars in a galaxy the curve ball number would be one billion.

1 3 5 ● 5 3 (one billion) 3 5 ● 5 3 1

The massive gravity will be misinterpreted as something with mass, but there is nothing there.

That means there can be an enormous amount of gravity with zero mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[2225] viXra:1909.0645 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 06:56:53

Perihelion Advance Formula Inference from Newton Gravity Law Relative-Velocity Dependence Completed

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 4 Pages.

While the original Newton’s law of gravitation does not lead to the formula in question, the same law relative-velocity dependence completed does, briefly, with no hypothesis. Keywords: perihelion advance; interactions relative-velocity dependence.
Category: Astrophysics

[2224] viXra:1909.0641 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 09:45:52

Can We Predict?

Authors: L. Jetsu
Comments: 3 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS 28.9.2019 (arXiv moderation: Telegrams, notes, and circulars do not ...)

We simulate artificial data for a sinusoid having a period P=1. Then we show that this period can be detected from a short Delta T = 0.3 slice of data. We proceed to show that the slice length is irrelevant for high quality measurements. The frustrating frequency resolution limit f_0=1/\Delta T of the power spectrum methods is pulverized. It is possible to predict the behaviour of non-linear periodic models.
Category: Astrophysics

[2223] viXra:1909.0640 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-30 09:49:43

Heating Solar Corona

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

The hot outer layer of the sun, the corona, has a temperature of over a million degrees Kelvin, much more than the surface temperature of the Sun which is only about 5500 degrees Kelvin. [44] For 400 years people have tracked sunspots, the dark patches that appear for weeks at a time on the sun's surface. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Astrophysics

[2222] viXra:1909.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-29 12:24:58

Focus: “Quantum Foam” Scrubs Away Gigantic Cosmic Energy (in Russian)

Authors: David Lindley
Comments: 2 Pages. in Russia

Theory suggests that empty space is filled with enormous energy, but according to a new proposal this energy may be hidden because its effects cancel at the tiniest scales.
Category: Astrophysics

[2221] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-27 11:31:03

A Dark Matter Formula for M31 Halo Got Through Buckingham Theorem

Authors: M. Abarca
Comments: 19 Pages.

A DARK MATTER FORMULA FOR M31 HALO GOT THROUGH BUCKINGHAM THEOREM In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. According the theory hypothesis, coefficients A&B are universal so are the same in different galaxies. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks these remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.95 In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Furthermore it is stated the mathematical relation between both functions. Namely, it is got value B =1.6688 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to develop theory introduced in this paper. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. Furthermore it is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6688 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.688 and are writing newly the formulas of theory with these new values. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. In tenth chapter are compared direct formulas and Bernoulli formulas for field and for DM density. The differences range between 0.3% and 0.6% for E and between 0,6 % and 1% for DM density all over radius dominion. Also it is shown that neglecting addend C*R^3/4 the Bernoulli solution for field becomes an acceptable approximation and a far more simple formula. In fact, thanks to such approximation it is demonstrated that Bernoulli formulas become direct formulas for field, for density and for dynamical mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[2220] viXra:1909.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-26 11:44:08

Predictions About Interstellar Comet 2i/borisov (C/2019 Q4) Appearance from 1i/`oumuamua Features

Authors: José J. Astorkia
Comments: 2 Pages.

The first unduobtable interstellar minor body observed in inner Solar System showed several unexpected features can be explained by a long journey along Solar System immersed in an abrasive medium. The recently observed second unduobjetable interstellar origin comet 2I Borisov is travelling similar journey. Thus we can predict changes in comet appearance.
Category: Astrophysics

[2219] viXra:1909.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-25 06:47:13

Research 1st Hypothesis Discussion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. This is my first and old hypothesis – the solar group is one body and each planet is member of this same body – so solar planets aren't similar but complementary to each other Any way – the basic point depends on the motion definition – that means – if the solar system is a theater of puppets – as I suggest- where one thread connects all puppets together and push them to move according to each puppet geometrical structure – based on this description- may we have a way to prove this hypothesis Now we have no escape to avoid the space definition – for that- this paper provides a deep discussion to see the data real direction more than to dictate any conclusions…
Category: Astrophysics

[2218] viXra:1909.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-24 22:55:53

On Three Possible Applications of Neutrosophic Logic in Applied Sciences

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper has been submitted to NSS journal. Comments are welcome

This paper shortly reviews the links among Aether and matter creation from the perspective of Neutrosophic Logic. We also discuss two other possible applications of Neutrosophic Logic.
Category: Astrophysics

[2217] viXra:1909.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 11:05:52

Black Holes from Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Hooman Davoudiasl, a theoretical physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, has recently introduced a new theory suggesting that the black holes observed by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration originate from a first order quark confinement phase transition. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2216] viXra:1909.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 22:53:33

Why the Moon is Turned One Side to the Earth.

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 1 Page.

The moon does not have its own rotation, the moon moves like a normal satellite, so it is always turned one side towards the earth. And therefore, in one revolution around the Earth, the Moon makes one revolution around its axis.
Category: Astrophysics

[2215] viXra:1909.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 05:16:28

Galactic Rotation Curves and Spiral Form

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 4 Pages. The two problems in the title are listed as unsolved problems in physics.

The two problems in the title, concerning massive core galaxies, unexplained by the original gravity law of Newton, are normal features according to the same law Relative-Velocity Dependence completed,thus—among other hypotheses—the dark matter is no longer necessary. Keywords: spiral galaxy; rotation curve; dark matter; interactions relative-velocity dependence; gravitational refractive index; black captor/hole; atom radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[2214] viXra:1909.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-21 20:35:35

Whole Star Magnetochronology

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is presented a seminal paper on magnetochronology to begin the process of dating stars based on their total magnetic fields as they evolve, total meaning whole body, i.e. thermosphere, to surface to core. All portions of the star evolve and the magnetosphere changes as these features evolve on the star. This is to include all stars in all stages of evolution from white dwarf, to blue giant, to Sun-like stars, red dwarfs, brown dwarfs, Jupiters, greys, Neptunes, post-Neptunes, ocean worlds, Earths and even dead mostly solid stars such as Venus, Mercury and Mars. It is important to establish a beginning paper to build on this concept, as the idea of Sun-like stars with whole body features evolving to becoming Earth-like stars with life is rich with work to be done. In fact, it could be argued that figuring out the ages of stars by their magnetic features can lead to a more well-rounded method for determining how much life is out there. In short, a star’s magnetic field, coupled with isotopic data, gyrochronology, atmospheric composition, mass, orbital parameters around a host, and other factors can lead us to understand why the Earth has such strange surface magnetic features.
Category: Astrophysics

[2213] viXra:1909.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 10:47:55

Plasma Flow Explain Sunspots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

For 400 years people have tracked sunspots, the dark patches that appear for weeks at a time on the sun's surface. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Astrophysics

[2212] viXra:1909.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 01:17:28

My Research Hypotheses

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 21 Pages.

During 2013-2019 I have studied the solar system geometry. Based on this study I have formed the following 5 basic hypotheses: Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Hypothesis No.2 Solar System moves as a train. i.e. A train moves with all its carriages together, similar to that – Solar Planets move together as one train in one unified motion (i.e. No Planet moves individually or independently from other planets motions) Hypothesis No.3 Planet motion for 1 solar day depends on energy of light motion for 1 second period – that means – Planet moves following light motion – i.e. – Planet motion shows double motions – (1st) Light Motion (2nd) Its Follower Planet Motion Hypothesis No.4 Solar System Unified Motion depends On Solar Day Period Hypothesis No.5 Matter Creation process depends on solar day period of time – that means – Matter creation process depends on the time as one of its main components In this paper I try to explain these 5 hypotheses and provide short proves for them
Category: Astrophysics

[2211] viXra:1909.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:49:34

Remarks on Newtonian Dynamics, Aether, Cosmic Core and Quantized Redshift Phenomen

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a physics journal. Your comments are welcome

This paper shortly reviews the links among Aether, Newtonian dynamics, galactic core and plasma double layers. It is hoped that we can sketch an argument for the origin of Tifft’s quantized redshift phenomena, a known puzzle for astronomers.
Category: Astrophysics

[2210] viXra:1909.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 08:22:30

Explore Dark Matter with Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

"If we can detect axions and say for sure they are dark matter, it would be a truly exciting event indeed. It's what physicists like us dream for." [32] A team of physicists and computer scientists at ETH Zurich has developed a new approach to the problem of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Using machine learning tools, they programmed computers to teach themselves how to extract the relevant information from maps of the universe. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2209] viXra:1909.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 09:09:21

Effect on Black Holes of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A RUDN University physicist has developed a formula for evaluation of the effect of dark matter on the size of the shadow of a black hole. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2208] viXra:1909.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:02:49

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Hypothesis No. (1) Solar System pushes all planets to move together one unified motion– this motion is similar to train motion, so I call it "Train Motion Concept" – and as the train moves with all carriages one general motion- the solar system pushes all planets to move in one general unified motion.. (Planets Different Velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept") Hypothesis No. (2) Solar System Motion depends on Solar Day Period as its main unit of time Hypothesis No. (3) Matter depends on Solar Day Period To Be Created
Category: Astrophysics

[2207] viXra:1909.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:32:47

Laser Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have announced a prototype for a laser at the heart of the first space-based gravitational wave observatory, known as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2206] viXra:1909.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 02:50:52

Black Holes Clues to Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[2205] viXra:1909.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 03:12:30

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows, Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept". (4) Space is NOT nothingness but a geometrical player in the solar system geometry (5) Space & Matter are created relative (and complementary) to each other
Category: Astrophysics

[2204] viXra:1909.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:38:22

Solar Fuel Generation in Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Hoping to break this barrier, scientists at the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a Department of Energy Innovation Hub based partly at Berkeley Lab, have invented a cell that is specially designed to allow for unobtrusive observation of an isolated, operating catalyst. [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2203] viXra:1909.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 11:40:17

Stellar Metamorphosis: Does Gas Accretion Occur in the Vacuum to Form Gas Giants, K2-18b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. 2 diagrams, one of lift, one of stellar metamorphosis

It is pointed out that astronomers do not understand the principles of pressure and gas in the vacuum of outer space, nor do they understand planetary evolution. Some clarifying statements are made to fix the issue, and fully replace the outdated dogma. In short, astronomers claim that gas accretes onto a solid body "like a vacuum cleaner" to form a gas giant. An archive link and screen shot are provided to show how wrong this is, and a replacement theory is offered. The link is here: http://archive.is/2xg6L
Category: Astrophysics

[2202] viXra:1909.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 01:25:25

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows that Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows that, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "the rain motion concept" because Planets motions are complementary to each other to enable the general unified motion to be performed which necessities the difference of velocities.
Category: Astrophysics

[2201] viXra:1909.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 17:26:10

Stellar Metamorphosis: Accretion Friction Braking, Part Two, 25143 Itokawa

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper calculations are done to determine the kinetic energy in joules of an impact at 3 different velocities of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. More calculations are done in a graph, and some explanation is given as to what will happen to Itokawa in accordance with the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Essentially any impact velocity of Itokawa due to its large mass will cause enormous destruction, leading to the realization that it must have formed from an even larger destructive event.
Category: Astrophysics

[2200] viXra:1909.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 00:19:19

Definition Of Motion (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Solar System Motion 1-Light travels before any other motion – because by this light motion energy the solar system moves. 2-Solar planets motions are followers the leading light motion 3-Light Motion is One and Planets Motions is One i.e. 4-Solar Planets cooperate together to produce one unified motion 5-Planets Data proves that solar system moves one unified motion by all planets – as a train moves with all carriages together- (Planet = A Train Carriage) Also Solar System has relativistic effects which prove the one motion claim Because (1) All distances are contracted by the same rate which means there's One Unified Motion Behind (2) the contraction rate is transported from point to another which proves the energy transportation through the solar system, makes it as one Trajectory of Energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[2199] viXra:1909.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:09:43

Definition Of Motion (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses -Solar system motion consists of light & planets motions. Both are geometrical players in the solar system geometrical structure -In all solar system motions – light motion leads planets motions -Solar system motion main features are (I) 2 Motions (Light And Planet) (II) both motions pass the same distance (III) the same distance passing by different rates Of Time. -Inner planets orbital circumferences are motions done by inner planets and light beams -Inner planets orbital circumferences are produced depending on Jupiter energy -Inner planets orbital circumferences work as bridge to transport the energy from Jupiter to the moon orbit
Category: Astrophysics

[2198] viXra:1909.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:40:00

How Fast Universe Expanding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists have known for decades that the universe is expanding, but research in the past few years has shaken up calculations on the speed of growth-raising tricky questions about theories of the cosmos. [20] If we haven't detected it 20 years from now I may be concerned, but for now I'm betting that dark matter is the real deal. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2197] viXra:1909.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:48:54

Differential Equations for Conic Section

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 5 Pages.

Theoretical mechanics shows that the motion along a curve is possible only when a body has an acceleration. It follows from the second Neeton’s law that a force has to be applied to a body so as to make it accelirate. All forces applied to the body can be summed up and replaced by one summarized force. “To solve the mass point motion problem we need differential equations for the motion. The way we derive these equations doesn’t matter”: [1,§11,п.3]. In this paper the equation for conic section is derived by the investigation of movement of a body along an elipse under the influance of a summarized force.
Category: Astrophysics

[2196] viXra:1909.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 07:32:04

Astronomers Believe in Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

If we haven't detected it 20 years from now I may be concerned, but for now I'm betting that dark matter is the real deal. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2195] viXra:1909.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 13:11:10

Sunqm-3s10: Using {N,n} QM’s Eigen N to Constitute Asteroid/kuiper Belts, and Solar {N=1..4,n} Region’s Mass Density R-Distribution and Evolution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 22 Pages.

Asteroid belt is explained as the leftover “ring stain” of the once out-flying ice-rock mixture fragments (driven by the expansion of the ice-evap-line). The cold-KBO of Kuiper belt is explained as the “ring stain” of the current out-flying methane-ice mixture fragments (driven by the expansion of methane-evap-line, or the solar wind stop line). Using the normalized radial probability function r^2 * |R(n,l=n-1)|^2 = [r/rn * exp(1 - r/rn)]^(2*n), we calculated out that (at the normalized probability ≥ 0.1), Asteroid belt at {1,8//6} = {0,48//6} has a probability peak at n = 48, with the peak range = 2.7 ±0.6 AU, and Kuiper belt at {3,1//6} = {0,192//6} has a probability peak at n = 192, with the peak range = 43 ±5 AU. Using θ-dimension probability formula [sin(θ)]^[2(n-1)] ≥ 0.01, we calculated out that the n=48 belt has the collective orbits’ inclination range < 17.8 degree, and b=192 belt has the collective orbits’ inclination range < 8.9 degree. These calculated results fit to the Asteroid belt’s and the cold-KBO’s experimental data perfectly. Then we proposed a new concept: “Eigen quantum number n’ ” is the maximum n’ that can describe one orbit space’s > 90% mass in a single |nLL> = |n’,n’-1,n’-1> QM state. So n=48 and n=192 are the Eigen description for Asteroid belt and the cold-KBO. Using the Eigen n, the four undiscovered {3,n=2..5//6} belts (if they did not form planets) ’s r ± Δr and Δθ’ ranges are also predicted. Using the Eigen n, the Solar {N=1..4,n//6} region’s r-dimensional mass distribution was described by r^2*|R(n,l)|^2 either at each n shell level, or at each N super-shell level, or at the level of treating all N super-shells as a single entity. The evolution of r-dimensional mass distribution in Solar system (driven by the expansion of rock-evap-line and ice-evap-line) is discussed. The result suggested that any sub-Eigen n’ description for an Eigen QM state will be a low resolution and more broad description, and any above Eigen n’ description for an Eigen QM state will be a high resolution but needs many linearly combined QM states.
Category: Astrophysics

[2194] viXra:1909.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 00:13:12

Definition Of Motion (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 25 Pages.

Definition Of Motion (I) Paper Hypotheses 1-Planets data are created relative to each other 2-Mercury & Pluto Motions define the distance between them 3-Mercury & Pluto Motions define Saturn Orbital Distance 4-Solar System is one building and each planet is a point in it 5-Solar system moves one unified motion as a train moves with all carriages
Category: Astrophysics

[2193] viXra:1909.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 07:25:15

Graphene Astronomy Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology have demonstrated a detector made from graphene that could revolutionize the sensors used in next-generation space telescopes. [31] "Experiments of hot dense plasma are challenging enough that we should not rule out the possibility of error," Nagayama said. "And the science impact is enormous—this obligates us to continue examining the experiment's validity." [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29]
Category: Astrophysics

[2192] viXra:1909.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 05:41:29

Black Hole Ringing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Now, physicists from MIT and elsewhere have "heard" the ringing of an infant black hole for the first time, and found that the pattern of this ringing does, in fact, predict the black hole's mass and spin—more evidence that Einstein was right all along. [10] Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been spotted for the first time by the LIGO and Virgo detectors. [9] Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8]
Category: Astrophysics

[2191] viXra:1909.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 23:17:38

Solar System Motion Analysis (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Mercury Motion causes to connect and bind all solar planets motions to produce one unified motion
Category: Astrophysics

[2190] viXra:1909.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 00:27:08

Atoms Race Toward Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

According to the team, their study is the first unambiguous confirmation that quasar emissions fuelled by interstellar material trapped in the sphere of influence of supermassive black holes. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2189] viXra:1909.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 00:48:51

Solution to Solar Model Problems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

"Experiments of hot dense plasma are challenging enough that we should not rule out the possibility of error," Nagayama said. "And the science impact is enormous—this obligates us to continue examining the experiment's validity." [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2188] viXra:1909.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 13:43:26

First Stars in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Astronomers are closing in on a signal that has been travelling across the Universe for 12 billion years, bringing them nearer to understanding the life and death of the very earliest stars. [47] Collisions between neutron stars are fascinating cosmic events that lead to the formation of numerous chemical elements. [46] Physicists from ITMO University have developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[708] viXra:2001.0307 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-18 05:21:45

Rhind Papyrus Problem no 48 Squaring a Circle in 4-D Spacetime

Authors: Manfred U.E. Pohl
Comments: 4 Pages.

The ToE Framework that unites quantum theory with gravitation „Solution to the Problem of Time“ [1] is based on the Solution of the Black-Hole Information Paradox, namely the squaring of a circle (π) in space-time. It is well known how to “square” a circle over an additional dimension, as shown in „Solution to the Problem of Time“ II +III [2]. In addition to the Essay “It takes a Decision to Decide if Decidability is True or False” [3] (concering Gödels incompleteness and impossibility of Hilbert’s Programm) it is shown here the Solution to the Problem No. 48 in the Rhind-Papyrus. Keywords: Pi, God, Unified Principle, Gödel’s Incompleteness, Foundation of Mathematics, TOE.
Category: Astrophysics

[707] viXra:1912.0375 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-20 07:48:03

Speculation on the Purpose of Pyramids of Giza as Universal Clock for Solar System

Authors: Manfred U.E.Pohl
Comments: 5 Pages.

The idea Pyramdis of Giza could relate to Orion (only) doesn’t seem to make sense. Building such Pyramids “only” to house the remains of the deceased pharaohs who ruled over Ancient Egypt doesn’t make sense. What is the “real” purpose? Gerges Francis Tawdrous [1] analysed a possible relation to a cycle of moon, Mercury, Saturn and Venus : „The 2737 Egyptian Astronomic Phenomenon and Its Identical Distance“. This author suggests that if using ToE-Framewor [2] [3] , a perfect clock for universe could be build if the sphere surface of earth could be related to the sphere surface of cosmos using in order to align the movements on surface and in Volume of earth to movements in sphere and Volume of cosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[706] viXra:1912.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-18 20:31:43

Models for Elementary Particles, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Galaxies

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 74 Pages.

We show theory that spans tiny and vast aspects of physics. We suggest descriptions for new elementary particles, dark matter, and dark energy. We use those descriptions to explain data regarding dark matter effects, dark energy effects, and galaxy formation. Our mathematics-based modeling, descriptions, and explanations embrace and augment standard physics theory and modeling. One basis for our modeling is an extension to mathematics for harmonic oscillators.
Category: Astrophysics

[705] viXra:1912.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-24 02:45:03

Dark Gravitation Theory for M31 and Coma Cluster

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 33 Pages.

The hypothesis of this work is that D.M is generated by the own gravitational field, according an Universal mechanism based on a quantum gravitation phenomenon. In order to study DM as a Universal law is studied rotation curve of M31. The theory developed for galaxies is extended successfully to Coma cluster . In this paper is published by first time the called The equivalence theorem, which is a crucial tool to extend the theory to cluster scale. Another crucial finding made in this paper is that a characteristic parameter of the theory has been calculated by data coming from Coma cluster and by data from M31. Both results match with a high precision. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682. In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% . So it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis.In the chapter 9, considering B= 5/3 are recalculated the others parameters a&b and A and formulas of theory are rewriting. In the tenth chapter are introduced the called reduced formulas for field, density and total mass. The variable of these functions is dimensionless, this way the formulas gain simplicity. In the eleventh chapter, is calculated masses in M31 at different radius by the reduced formula of mass. In the chapter 12 is introduced The equivalence theorem which is crucial in order to extend the dark gravitation theory to cluster scale. As mass and density are additive magnitudes it is found a new parameter D associated to the cluster, considering as start point the parameter D associated to one single galaxy. In the thirteenth chapter are developed two methods to calculate parameter D in clusters and it is demonstrated that both are mathematically equivalents. Also it is calculated three different parameter D for Coma cluster using recent measures of Coma cluster mass. In the fourteenth chapter is used the formula of total mass in Coma cluster by the three different parameter D calculated in previous chapter. Also it is discussed its result and compared with data measured of Coma cluster mass. In the fifteenth chapter is introduced the average density formula, it is applied to Coma cluster and it is shown that at virial radius Coma cluster has an average density equal to 100 times the critical density of universe, which match very well with measures. Also it is calculated the radius of the sphere where the average density is equal to the Universal average D.M. density, In the sixteenth chapter it is proposed a method to calculate parameters C and D, rightly from mass formula. This method is totally independent to the equivalence theorem, so it is highly interesting in order to compare both methods.
Category: Astrophysics

[704] viXra:1912.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-17 09:44:22

Dark Gravitation Theory for M31 and Coma Cluster V2

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 31 Pages. V2 is better than previous one.

The hypothesis of this work is that D.M is generated by the own gravitational field, according an Universal mechanism based on a quantum gravitation phenomenon. In order to study DM as a Universal law is studied rotation curve of M31. The theory developed for galaxies is extended successfully to Coma cluster . In this paper is published by first time the called The equivalence theorem, which is a crucial tool to extend the theory to cluster scale. Another crucial finding made in this paper is that a characteristic parameter of the theory has been calculated by data coming from Coma cluster and by data from M31. Both results match with a high precision. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density.In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis.In the chapter 9, considering B= 5/3 are recalculated the others parameters a&b and A and formulas of theory are rewriting. In the tenth chapter are introduced the called reduced formulas for field, density and total mass. The variable of these functions is dimensionless, this way the formulas gain simplicity. In the eleventh chapter, is calculated masses in M31 at different radius by the reduced formula of mass. In the chapter 12 is introduced The equivalence theorem which is crucial in order to extend the dark gravitation theory to cluster scale. As mass and density are additive magnitudes it is found a new parameter D associated to the cluster, considering as start point the parameter D associated to one single galaxy. In the thirteenth chapter are developed two methods to calculate parameter D in clusters and it is demonstrated that both are mathematically equivalents. Also it is calculated three different parameter D for Coma cluster using recent measures of Coma cluster mass. In the fourteenth chapter is used the formula of total mass in Coma cluster by the three different parameter D calculated in previous chapter. Also it is discussed its result and compared with data measured of Coma cluster mass. In the fifteenth chapter is introduced the average density formula, it is applied to Coma cluster and it is shown that at virial radius Coma cluster has an average density equal to 100 times the critical density of universe, which match very well with measures. Also it is calculated the radius of the sphere where the average density is equal to the Universal average D.M. density, = 0.27
Category: Astrophysics

[703] viXra:1912.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-09 14:15:18

Law of Planetary Gravity

Authors: Kirov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Criticism of the Law of Universal Gravitation is given, the derivation of LUG from actual physical parameters, the local nature of the action of LUG corresponding to planetary interaction is determined. The non-gravitational character of stellar interactions is determined. The magnetic character of stellar interactions is updated.
Category: Astrophysics

[702] viXra:1912.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-09 14:12:04

Закон Планетарного Тяготения

Authors: Киров
Comments: 1 Page.

Дана критика Закона Всемирного Тяготения, вывод ЗВТ из актуальных физических параметров, определен локальный характер действия ЗВТ, соответствующий планетарному взаимодействию. Определён негравитационный характер звёздных взаимодействий. Актуализирован магнитный характер звёздных взаимодействий.
Category: Astrophysics

[701] viXra:1911.0432 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-01 04:57:38

The Energetics of the an e X B Propulsor that Avoids the Hidden Momentum Pitfall

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 6 Pages. Complement to earlier paper http://vixra.org/abs/1812.0484

This paper updates earlier thoughts by the author on a putative electromagnetic propulsion system, to perform a more detailed energy balance. The previous paper demonstrated how momentum could be dumped to the ground state of the electromagnetic field but a claim was left somewhat hanging at the end of the previous paper, that the work done in changing the craft's velocity would effectively shift the centre of mass of the field-although that would be an infinitesimal shift in practice. The craft must always supply work to change velocity, such as by an accelerate/de-accelerate cycle and superficially this looks to violate the conservation of energy; we prove that this isn't so.
Category: Astrophysics

[700] viXra:1911.0425 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-18 08:06:34

Dark Matter and Dark Energy Explained by Fix to Vanishing of Falling Matter

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 9 Pages.

Considered motion in Kerr-Newman, Kerr, and Reissner-Nordström spacetimes. As an example, in Kerr spacetime, if you release from rest-state an electrically neutral test-particle (from any position outside the Black Hole, but not at equatorial plane) it will end up in abrupt-end apart from the point of spacetime singularity. As solution to this problem the Dark Matter is used.
Category: Astrophysics

[699] viXra:1911.0425 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-06 08:38:52

Dark Matter and Dark Energy Explained by Fix to Vanishing of Falling Matter

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 12 Pages.

Considered motion in Kerr-Newman, Kerr, and Reissner-Nordström spacetimes. As an example, in Kerr spacetime, if you release from rest-state an electrically neutral test-particle (from any position outside the Black Hole, but not at equatorial plane) it will end up in abrupt-end apart from the point of spacetime singularity. As solution to this problem the Dark Matter is used.
Category: Astrophysics

[698] viXra:1911.0425 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-27 03:39:30

Dark Matter and Dark Energy Explained by Fix to Vanishing of Falling Matter

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 9 Pages.

Considered motion in Kerr-Newman, Kerr, and Reissner-Nordström spacetimes. As an example, in Kerr spacetime, if you release from rest-state an electrically neutral test-particle (from any position outside the Black Hole, but not at equatorial plane) it will end up in abrupt-end apart from the point of spacetime singularity. As solution to this problem the Dark Matter is used.
Category: Astrophysics

[697] viXra:1911.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-26 08:28:27

Tutorial: Binary Star Masses from Newton's Laws

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's Law of Gravitational Force together with his Second and Third Laws of Motion implies that the inverse of the ratio of the acceleration magnitudes of the two stars of a binary system equals their mass ratio, and that the difference of their accelerations is proportional to their mass sum as well as being inversely proportional to the square of their separation, which causes their vector separation to trace out an elliptical orbit. The period and major axis length of that elliptical orbit yield the two stars' mass sum. The complete orbit's data isn't needed; five or more of the points which lie on an ellipse determine it, and the orbit sweeps out the area enclosed by that ellipse at a constant rate.
Category: Astrophysics

[696] viXra:1910.0517 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-20 01:13:06

Protoplanetary Whirlpools

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

The differential orbital speeds of planets tell us that they were not formed in a protoplanetary disk, because those differential orbital speeds are a unique property of a whirpool.
Category: Astrophysics

[695] viXra:1910.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-23 14:19:01

Stellar Metamorphosis: One Giant Leap For Mankind

Authors: Jeffrey Wolynski, Barrington Taylor
Comments: 55 Pages. Stellar evolution is planet formation.

Stellar evolution is planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[694] viXra:1910.0194 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-15 14:08:33

“Fermi Bubbles Explained by the Intentions of the M 2–9 (Butterfly Wings – Planetary Nebulae) and Spin–orbital Interaction and Interaction of Milky Way Galaxy and M31 Galaxy Andromedae.“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 8 Pages.

Fermi Bubbles or Galactic Bubbles are streams of High–Energy particles – electron, photon (gamma burst radioactivity), high energy neutrinos and gravitational and radio–waves below and above galactic Equator of Milky Way and probably in the Galaxy M31 Andromedae. This Galactic Bubble’s born like the evaporation of Central Massive Black Hole, which also caused rotation of Galaxy Milky Way and Galaxy Andromedae M31. This fact is connected with so called Fermi Surfaces and Fermi’s edge, also with accretion of a disc (cannibal galaxies), galactic core, galactic halo. The Bubbles are sources of ultraradio, gamma, electron and neutrino particle waves from the North and South Galactic Lobes (25 000 ly) of Fermi’s Bubbles. Spatial conformations of bubbles are like spin–orbital (particle electron clouds) interaction between electrons and core of atom, according The Periodical System (Table) of chemical elements (Mendelejev). The results of measurements of these events will be in the future have fundamental significance for knowledge of function of our and foreign galaxies, black holes, and stars and whole our Cosmos, which is built on 400 – 600 mld of these galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[693] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-17 09:00:55

Dark Gravitation Theory for Milky Way M31 Galaxy and Solar System

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 37 Pages. Dark Gravitation Theory works perfectly in Solar System

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according this formula. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.6682. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. In the tenth chapter has been developed the called reduced Bernoulli formulas, whose main importance is that radius is changed by a dimensionless variable X= radius/ Rs. Being Rs a parameter with length dimension. In the eleventh chapter the reduced formulas are applied to calculate total masses in M31 at different radii. In the twelfth chapter, it is introduced Sofue data for Milky Way and it is applied dark gravitation theory to calculate the total mass at different radius. Results match perfectly with Sofue results. The importance of this new version of paper is that by Milky Way data has been found parameter B and b coherent with Buckingham theorem. In addition has been calculated a new aOPTIMUS by a careful selection of data set in Milky Way. Also it has been written reduced Bernoulli formulas and it is calculated total masses of Milky Way. In the thirteenth chapter it has been introduced the concept of extended halo, which is a big difference regarding NFW theory. According dark gravitation theory it is possible to extend the halo up to 770 kpc when is studied the interaction between M31 and MW, whereas the halo has to be extended up to distance of nearby cluster when it is studied the interaction between Local Group and other nearby clusters. Furthermore the extended halo may explain successfully the fact that proportion of baryonic matter versus D.M. is lower at cluster scale. In the fourteenth chapter the theory is applied successfully to Solar System, it is got that the Dark matter generated by the Sun inside the Solar System is equivalent to 74.6 times the mass of the Earth, although a big big fraction of this DM is generated inside the orbit defined by Mercury, because in this region the field is far bigger than field far away the Sun and according the Dark Gravitation theory DM density depends on field with the power 5/3.In this version parameters C and D have been calculated with data from Mercury and Venus, whereas in previous version were calculated with data from Venus and Neptune. This version is more trustworthy because the influence of giant planets is a minimum.
Category: Astrophysics

[692] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-14 18:00:03

Dark Gravitation Theory for Milky Way M31 Galaxy and Solar System –V8

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 38 Pages. The Solar System chapter is awesoming.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius. The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according this formula. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.6682. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. In the tenth chapter has been developed the called reduced Bernoulli formulas, whose main importance is that radius is changed by a dimensionless variable X= radius/ Rs. Being Rs a parameter with length dimension. In the eleventh chapter the reduced formulas are applied to calculate total masses in M31 at different radii. In the twelfth chapter, it is introduced Sofue data for Milky Way and it is applied dark gravitation theory to calculate the total mass at different radius. Results match perfectly with Sofue results. The importance of this new version of paper is that by Milky Way data has been found parameter B and b coherent with Buckingham theorem. In addition has been calculated a new aOPTIMUS by a careful selection of data set in Milky Way. Also it has been written reduced Bernoulli formulas and it is calculated total masses of Milky Way. In the thirteenth chapter it has been introduced the concept of extended halo, which is a big difference regarding NFW theory. According dark gravitation theory it is possible to extend the halo up to 770 kpc when is studied the interaction between M31 and MW, whereas the halo has to be extended up to distance of nearby cluster when it is studied the interaction between Local Group and other nearby clusters. Furthermore the extended halo may explain successfully the fact that proportion of baryonic matter versus D.M. is lower at cluster scale. In the fourteenth chapter the theory is applied successfully to Solar System, it is got that the real baryonic Solar mass is 0.8 per cent lower than the current accepted value for solar mass. This original result allows to calculate that at Solar surface the gravitational field is 271.9 instead 274 m/s^2. This important difference is possible to be measured with current technology; therefore this is a crucial test for the theory. In my opinion these facts suggest strongly that nature of non baryonic DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal mechanism. In other words, it is clear that DM it is a phenomenon of quantum gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[691] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2020-01-12 13:59:48

Dark Gravitation Theory for Milky Way M31 Galaxy and Solar System –V7

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 34 Pages. The Solar System chapter is astonishing.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius. The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according this formula. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.6682. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. In the tenth chapter has been developed the called reduced Bernoulli formulas, whose main importance is that radius is changed by a dimensionless variable X= radius/ Rs. Being Rs a parameter with length dimension. In the eleventh chapter the reduced formulas are applied to calculate total masses in M31 at different radii. In the twelfth chapter, it is introduced Sofue data for Milky Way and it is applied dark gravitation theory to calculate the total mass at different radius. Results match perfectly with Sofue results. The importance of this new version of paper is that by Milky Way data has been found parameter B and b coherent with Buckingham theorem. In addition has been calculated a new aOPTIMUS by a careful selection of data set in Milky Way. Also it has been written reduced Bernoulli formulas and it is calculated total masses of Milky Way. In the thirteenth chapter it has been introduced the concept of extended halo, which is a big difference regarding NFW theory. According dark gravitation theory it is possible to extend the halo up to 770 kpc when is studied the interaction between M31 and MW, whereas the halo has to be extended up to distance of nearby cluster when it is studied the interaction between Local Group and other nearby clusters. Furthermore the extended halo may explain successfully the fact that proportion of baryonic matter versus D.M. is lower at cluster scale. In the fourteenth chapter the theory is applied successfully to Solar System, it is got that the real baryonic Solar mass is 0.8 per cent lower than the current accepted value for solar mass. This original result allows to calculate that at Solar surface the gravitational field is 271.9 instead 274 m/s^2. This important difference is possible to be measured with current technology; therefore this is a crucial test for the theory. In my opinion these facts suggest strongly that nature of non baryonic DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal mechanism. In other words, it is clear that DM it is a phenomenon of quantum gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[690] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2019-12-31 16:53:36

Dark Gravitation Theory for Milky Way and M31 Got by Buckingham Theorem –V6

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 31 Pages. It is the best version

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius. The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according this formula. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.6682. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. In the tenth chapter has been developed the called reduced Bernoulli formulas, whose main importance is that radius is changed by a dimensionless variable X= radius/ Rs. Being Rs a parameter with length dimension. In the eleventh chapter the reduced formulas are applied to calculate total masses in M31 at different radii. In the twelfth chapter, it is introduced Sofue data for Milky Way and it is applied dark gravitation theory to calculate the total mass at different radius. Results match perfectly with Sofue results. The importance of this new version of paper is that by Milky Way data has been found parameter B and b coherent with Buckingham theorem. In addition has been calculated a new aOPTIMUS by a careful selection of data set in Milky Way. Also it has been written reduced Bernoulli formulas and it is calculated total masses of Milky Way. In the thirteenth chapter it has been introduced the concept of extended halo, which is a big difference regarding NFW theory. According dark gravitation theory it is possible to extend the halo up to 770 kpc when is studied the interaction between M31 and MW, whereas the halo has to be extended up to distance of nearby cluster when it is studied the interaction between Local Group and other nearby clusters. Furthermore the extended halo may explain successfully the fact that proportion of baryonic matter versus D.M. is lower at cluster scale. In my opinion these facts suggest strongly that nature of non baryonic DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal mechanism. In other words, it is clear that DM is a phenomenon of quantum gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[689] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2019-11-01 04:56:14

A D.M. Formula for Milky Way and M31 Halo Got by Buckingham Theorem –V5

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 31 Pages. There is anew expression for DM density and Mass called Reduced formulas.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according this formula. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.6682. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. Also it has been introduced a new expression for DM density and mass called reduced formulas because the previous formulas has been rewritten by a dimensionless variable similarly to NFW or Burkert formulas. Furthermore thanks these new expression is more easy to calculate the exact values of density and masses. In tenth chapter are calculated some different type of DM masses in M31 to be compared with DM calculated by Sofue. There is a good agreement between both results. In the eleventh chapter through the Hubble law it is demonstrated that galaxies in the ancient universe were smaller than at present and as a consequence it is got that proportion of DM versus baryonic matter was lower in the ancient universe. Results got are in agreement with current observational evidences. In the twelfth chapter, it is introduced Sofue data for Milky Way and it is applied DM theory by gravitational field to calculate the DM contained inside the halo at different radius. Results match perfectly with Sofue results. The importance of this chapter is based on the fact that the parameters of M31 has been used to do the calculus in Milky Way. These results back strongly the fact that DM generated by field theory is a general theory to explain DM nature. In the thirteenth chapter it has been introduced the concept of extended halo and thanks to this concept the total mass calculated of Milky Way and M31 is equal to 4*10 ^12 Msun , which is 10 ^12 Msun heavier than total mass with standard halos, so there is only a lack of 10 ^12 Msun to get the dynamical mass of Local Group instead of 2*10 ^12 Msun.
Category: Astrophysics

[688] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-17 17:12:38

A Dark Matter Formula for Milky Way and M31 Halo Got by Buckingham Theorem

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 29 Pages. There is a new chapter for Milky Way with successful results.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according this formula. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Namely a power of E whose exponent is B= 1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.6682. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. In tenth chapter are calculated some different type of DM masses in M31 to be compared with DM calculated by Sofue. There is a good agreement between both results. In the eleventh chapter through the Hubble law it is demonstrated that galaxies in the ancient universe were smaller than at present and as a consequence it is got that proportion of DM versus baryonic matter was lower in the ancient universe. Results got are in agreement with current observational evidences. In the twelfth chapter, it is introduced Sofue data for Milky Way and it is applied DM theory by gravitational field to calculate the DM contained inside the halo at different radius. Results match perfectly with Sofue results. The importance of this chapter is based on the fact that the parameters of M31 has been used to do the calculus in Milky Way. In the thirteenth chapter it has been introduced the concept of extended halo and thanks to this concept the total mass calculated of Milky Way and M31 is equal to 4*1012 Msun , which is 10 12 Msun heavier than total mass with standard halos, so there is only a lack of 10 12 Msun to get the dynamical mass of Local Group instead of 2*10 12 Msun. These results back strongly the fact that DM generated by field theory is a general theory to explain the DM nature.
Category: Astrophysics

[687] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-13 16:52:54

A Dark Matter Formula for M31 Halo Got Through Buckingham Theorem-V3

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 22 Pages. it contains a chapter with a successful formula for Local Group total mass

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according this formula. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.96 and data range from 40 kpc up to 300 kpc. In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Furthermore it is stated the mathematical relation between both functions. Namely, it is got value B =1.6682 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6682 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.688 and are written newly the formulas with these new values. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. In tenth chapter are calculated some different type of DM masses in M31 to be compared with DM calculated by Sofue. There is a good agreement between both results. In the eleventh chapter through the Hubble law it is demonstrated that galaxies in the ancient universe were smaller than at present and as a consequence it is got that proportion of DM versus baryonic matter was lower in the ancient universe. Results got are in agreement with current observational evidences. In the twelfth chapter is estimated total mass of Local Group of galaxies as 5*10^12 Msun which is in perfect agreement with current accepted value based on measures of relative velocity between Milky Way and M31.
Category: Astrophysics

[686] viXra:1909.0594 [pdf] replaced on 2019-10-01 17:06:30

A Dark Matter Formula for M31 Halo Got Through Buckingham Theorem V2

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 22 Pages. This V2 contains a new chapter which involves the Hubble law.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Its radius dominion is only the halo region because it is needed that baryonic matter density has to be negligible. The first profile is called direct DM density because it is got directly from rotation curve and represents DM density depending on radius The second one, called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation, represents DM density depending on local gravitational field according a power law. The power of E is called B. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. According the theory hypothesis, coefficients A&B are universal so are the same in different galaxies. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Rotation curve data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. Thanks this remarkable rotation curve, the regression curve of velocity depending on radius has a correlation coefficient bigger than 0.95 In fourth chapter it is got the function of DM density depending on radius, called direct DM density. In fifth chapter it is demonstrated that function direct DM density is mathematically equivalent to the function DM density depending on E. Furthermore it is stated the mathematical relation between both functions. Namely, it is got value B =1.6688 In sixth chapter it is got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc the ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic matter density in order to simplify calculus. In seventh chapter it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for field and is solved. In eighth chapter it is made dimensional analysis for magnitudes Density, field E and universal constants G, h and c. It is demonstrated that it is needed a formula with two Pi monomials. It is found that B = 5/3 is the value coherent with Buckingham theorem and differs only two thousandth regarding B=1.6688 which was got by regression analysis. In ninth chapter are recalculated parameters a,b and A as a consequence of being B=5/3 instead B=1.688 and are written newly the formulas with these new values. Thanks this change the formulas are now dimensionally right. In tenth chapter are compared direct formulas and Bernoulli formulas for field and for DM density. The differences range between 0.3% and 0.6% for E on the whole radius dominion. Also it is got a very good approximation for field E. In fact, thanks to such approximation it is demonstrated that Bernoulli formulas become direct formulas. In the eleventh chapter through the Hubble law it is demonstrated that galaxies in the ancient universe were smaller than at present and as a consequence it is got that proportion of DM versus baryonic matter was lower in the ancient universe. Results got are in agreement with current observational evidences.
Category: Astrophysics