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Recent Submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[434] viXra:1404.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-19 19:35:24

Pick One

Authors: Suomy Nona
Comments: 575 Pages. viXra:1402.0070

The following equations were found by a comprehensive search using a GPU, trying every combination of constants that could be equal to the Universal Gravity constant. Because of limitations of measuring constants, all of these equations are more or less correct. The reader is invited to pick an equation as a favorite. Which one, if any, is the most correct?
Category: Astrophysics

[433] viXra:1404.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-16 04:33:01

Orbit Radius and Speed of the Sun Around the Center of Gravity of the Solar System

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 10 Pages. The article is ready for publication

The start of the 22-year cycle begins with a well-established dipole field component aligned along the solar rotational axis. The field lines tend to be held by the highly conductive solar plasma of the solar surface. The solar dipole field, through similar processes, reverses again at the end of the 22-year cycle. The new solar cycle by definition begins with the sun in the middle latitudes (around 30 ° north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude - Spörer's law ) arises first sunspots. These spots have opposite magnetic polarity than the spots above the solar cycle. Around the center of gravity of the Solar System v Sun = 377,64404380671797815401286112528 m/s and RSun orbit = 0,41727286425040580889702383164445e+11 m = 0,27892571139733008616111218692781 AU. Keywords: center of mass, angular momentum, solar cycle, orbit radius of the Sun around the center of gravity of the Solar
Category: Astrophysics

[432] viXra:1404.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-12 06:47:10

The Distance of Planets Has Relativistic Reasons!

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 28 Pages.

Relativity is everywhere; it’s also in the Solar System. And, as an example, here we give proof that the distance of a planet from the Sun unquestionably depends on a pretty relativistic formula!
Category: Astrophysics

[431] viXra:1404.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-08 03:37:36

CMB Radiation

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: Various types of irrational inflationary models of universe were introduced to oppose possible accumulation of all material bodies at a point due to gravitational attraction between them. As no logical mechanism could produce inflationary universe and maintain its stable state, diverse assumptions including big bang origin of universe were proposed. As no known origin to CMBR was readily available, it was accepted as a proof to these assumed theories. However, CMBR has a logical reason and definite mechanisms of production. These are not linked to big bang creation or inflationary state of universe but to its steady state of existence.
Category: Astrophysics

[430] viXra:1404.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-03 09:25:54

The "Like-Likes-Like" Principle in Dusty Plasmas

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 5 Pages.

The strength of the body force exerted on dusty plasmas by the electric force (due to the charge separation in Debye cells) is calculated, and the implications are considered.
Category: Astrophysics

[429] viXra:1404.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-03 04:41:56

General Relativistic Predictions are Incompatible with Solar Planetary Recessions

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 4 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal as a research note.

It is generally assumed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is silent on the issue of planetary recession such as has been measured recently. In this short note, we demonstrate that the GTR is not silent on this matter, it does make a clear predictions albeit, predictions that is contrary with experience and for this task, we use the same solution that was and has been used triumphantly to explain the perihelion precession of the planet Mercury. From a pure stand-point of binary logic, we expect this solution to stand-up to all its predictions for both the precession of perihelion precession and as-well the expansion of orbits. At any rate imaginable, this apparent contradiction presents an interesting state of affairs for the GTR.
Category: Astrophysics

[428] viXra:1404.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-01 09:15:40

Inside Stars (Second Edition, Expanded with New Chapters)

Authors: Larissa Borissova, Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 170 Pages.

This book announces a mathematical theory of the internal constitution of stars, and the sources of stellar energy according to the General Theory of Relativity. This is an alternative to the conventional theory of gaseous stars which was introduced in the 1920’s on the basis of classical mechanics and thermodynamics. In contrast, the common consideration of a star and its field according to the General Theory of Relativity, that presented in this book, comes to the model of liquid stars. Such a star is homogeneous inside, with a tiny core (about a few kilometres in the radius) in the centre. The core is selected from the main mass of the star by the collapse surface with the radius according to the star’s mass. Despite almost all mass of the star is located outside the core (the core is not a black hole), the force of gravity approaches to infinity on the surface of the core due to the inner space breaking of the star’s field therein. The super-strong force of gravity is sufficient for the transfer of the necessary kinetic energy to the lightweight atomic nuclei of the stellar substance, so that the process of thermonuclear fusion begins. The energy produced by the thermonuclear fusion is that energy which the stars shine: the tiny core of each star is its luminous “inner sun”, while the produced stellar energy is then transferred to the physical surface of the star due to the thermal conductivity. A new classification of stars is introduced according to the space breaking of their fields: the regular stars (in the range from the dwarfs to the super-giants), Wolf-Rayet stars, neutron stars (and pulsars), and black holes are considered. The introduced liquidmodel matches with the new observational evidences for the state of condensed matter inside stars; in particular, that the Sun consists of the high temperature liquid metallic hydrogen.
Category: Astrophysics

[427] viXra:1404.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-01 11:52:07

Proposal for the Origin of Unexpected Large B-Modes Found in the Bicep2 Measurements.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

According to Quantum FFF (Function Follows Form ) theory, our universe is part of a raspberry shaped Multiverse and super symmetric with a nearby copy anti matter universe, entangled down to each quantum. The raspberry multiverse is supposed to be a cyclic one with the start of an exploding a central Higgs dark matter-dark energy based nucleus into 8 or 12 CPT symmetric universal bubble by a Fractal evaporation based inflation epoch. As a consequence, each universe has its own “navel cord” of the original main splitting and evaporating primary Big Bang black hole nucleus. It seems to be possible to discriminate three chains of such splitting black holes in so called Large Quasar Groups (LQGs). I also suggest that three very large LQGs could be located at the start of three Lyman Alpha Forrest Fractal systems in each of three universe. Each navel cord is suppose to split continuously into smaller secondary nuclei or Large Quasar Groups ( LQGs) leaving a so called Fractal based Lyman Alpha forest behind. This Lyman Alpha forest we observe today very clearly by the distribution of galaxy clusters. The inflation epoch is supposed to end if the black hole splitting and evaporation stops due to lack of black hole nuclei Higgs content able to split. It is generally accepted that the end of the inflation epoch can be observed in the Planck CMB ( Cosmic Microwave Background) and that gravitational waves are the origin of electric and magnetic structure called respectively E-modes and B-Modes. However according to Quantum FFF theory the E and B-Modes are the result of so called Birkeland –Alfven current circuits produced between paring black holes as the origin of primordial Herbig Haro objects, (see former essays) which is also proposed to be the origin of the unexpected large B-Modes found in the BICEP2 measurements. Not the gravity ripples but the Birkeland Alfven circuits are the direct origin of the unexpected large B-Modes.
Category: Astrophysics

[426] viXra:1403.0972 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-30 06:25:58

Galactic Rotation Anomaly

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

Orbital speeds of stars, far from center of a galaxy, are found roughly constant, instead of reductions predicted by current gravitational theories (applied on galactic and cosmological scales). This is called the anomalous rotation of galaxies. This article intends to show that constant angular speeds of all macro bodies in a galaxy are natural phenomenon and there is no mystery about it.
Category: Astrophysics

[425] viXra:1403.0927 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 15:39:18

The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world is expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z)^4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
Category: Astrophysics

[424] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 10:20:35

Flat Gravity of Habble's Law Added to Gravity of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 7 Pages. This is pre print before the contributions to a review journal

Flat gravity caused by the recession of the space was covered in a short distance by gravity according to the inverse square law. It is similar to what was not able to find transverse Doppler effect in the speed of sound. However, it caused the gravity anomalies such as Galaxy rotation problem and Pioneer anomaly or Earth flyby anomaly. It is simple and can calculate the physical quantity from Hubble constant and the gravitational mass. The gravity acts regardless of the distance with the gravity source in a gravisphere. This flat gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming influence of the dark matter and the plasma. There are the evidence that whole space recession in the same isotropy is appears in the free-fall motion of all things.
Category: Astrophysics

[423] viXra:1403.0923 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 09:55:20

Stellar Metamorphosis: Replacing the Big Bang's Model for Determining the Age of Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since the Big Bang Model is a philosophically unsound construct violating cause and effect and laws of thermodynamics any deduction of the ages of stars based on it is also philosophically unsound. A seminal understanding is offered via stellar metamorphosis to replace it.
Category: Astrophysics

[422] viXra:1403.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 09:46:46

Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma: The Location of Accretion

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations, 3 references

It is explained in easy to understand language and pictures the main differences between GTSM’s (The General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis) location for accretion and the establishment’s location for accretion.
Category: Astrophysics

[421] viXra:1403.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-17 09:36:43

Anisotropy in Stelar Plasma Doppler Profile Disproves Cosmic Inflation

Authors: Albert Zotkin
Comments: 3 Pages.

I'm going to prove in this brief paper that actually there is not a so called "cosmic inflation", because that so called "cosmic inflation" is just an artifact of an incorrect theoretic model of Doppler effect for electromagnetic waves in remote sources.
Category: Astrophysics

[420] viXra:1403.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-16 03:59:25

Since the Time-Dilation of Super-Novae Light-Curves Is Not a Confirmative-Evidence for Expansion of Space-Time and the Universe, Some Alternative Possibilities that the Universe May Not Be Expanding

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Nine-page paper

This paper makes use of some astronomical-observations to gain deeper insight into the fundamental questions of physics and astrophysics. Alternative-interpretations of cosmological-red-shift are generally rejected on the ground that ‘tired-light-interpretations’ are inconsistent with the observations of time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves; whereas it is shown here that these curves are time-domain-representations of amplitude of light. So, these curves can be Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain, and it is this wide band of waves which propagates in inter-galactic-space, and reaches us after millions of years. These Fourier-transformed-components, being electromagnetic-waves, get red-shifted by any mechanism that can cause spectral-shift, and when transformed back into time-domain, show time-dilation. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova light-curves, or the relativistic-time-dilation, means ‘red-shift of light’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic-length-contraction is also explained using wave-theory. With this explanation, this letter presents five new possible-mechanisms for the ‘cosmological-red-shift’; which will also give some insight into pure physics. These alternative-interpretations are: (i) Inter-galactic-photons can also get red-shifted due to vacuum-polarization-mechanism; (ii) Spherically-expanding-wave-front of light can be viewed as a spherically-expanding cavity, continuously changing its impedance, causing around -400 dB reflected-power back to the source; (iii) Cumulative-phase-alteration of extra-galactic-photons caused by the cosmic-microwave-background; (iv) Electric-field and magnetic-field of extra-galactic-light in the transverse-directions, causing virtual-electrons to oscillate, and generating gravitational-field in the longitudinal-direction; losing part of their energy in the form of ‘gravitational-waves’; (v) Though the rest-mass of photon is zero, it has a ‘relativistic-mass’ equal to its momentum-divided-by-its-speed (h f / c2); so this ‘relativistic-mass’ of the photon can radiate gravitational-waves, branching-out its energy into gravitational-wave and electromagnetic-wave; and as a supportive-evidence, it is shown here that the energy lost by ‘cosmologically-red-shifting-photons’ is strikingly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces. These new alternative explanations also explain the non-linearity of red-shift-distance-curve, observed by Perlmutter and Reiss, without any need for ‘dark-energy’.
Category: Astrophysics

[419] viXra:1403.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-14 01:24:12

The Milne Universe and the Melia 'Cosmic Horizon'.

Authors: Richard Blaber.
Comments: 9 Pages. 14 equations; 36 footnotes.

We revisit the Milne cosmological model and examine Melia’s argument for a ‘cosmic horizon’ in relation to that model, before dismissing both in favour of the standard Lambda-CDM view.
Category: Astrophysics

[418] viXra:1403.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-12 09:01:00

On Correction in Calculation of Magnetic Fields of Earth or Other Heavenly Bodies.

Authors: Abhinav K. Verma
Comments: 10 Pages. Please pardon me if there is some error and review. Thank you for reading. This paper is a result of exper

This paper aimed at producing one of the most significant errors and correction in the conventional measurement of magnetic field of the earth or any such planet with a core current that may build up a magnetic field in its outer regions.
Category: Astrophysics

[417] viXra:1403.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-12 05:48:33

A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework for Testing Cosmological Models

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 10 Pages.

We tested alternative cosmologies using Monte Carlo simulations based on the sampling method of the zCosmos galactic survey. The survey encompasses a collection of observable galaxies with respective redshifts that have been obtained for a given spectroscopic area of the sky. Using a cosmological model, we can convert the redshifts into light-travel times and, by slicing the survey into small redshift buckets, compute a curve of the galactic density over time. Because foreground galaxies obstruct the images of more distant galaxies, we simulated the theoretical galactic density curve using an average galactic radius. By comparing the simulated galactic density curves versus the survey galactic density curve, we could assess the cosmologies. We applied the test to the expanding-universe cosmology of de Sitter and to a dichotomous cosmology introduced herein.
Category: Astrophysics

[416] viXra:1403.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-11 10:46:23

On the Number of Baryons in the Observable Universe

Authors: Aleksandr V. Bukalov
Comments: 3 Pages.

From the cosmological model of superconductivity (CCM) are obtained the formulas of the baryons and neutri-nos numbers in the Universe. The connection between the number of baryons and leptons with the holographic principle is discussed. It is proposed to consider the number of generations of particles in the standard model as a quantum number.
Category: Astrophysics

[415] viXra:1403.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-09 20:55:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Life Hypothesis Versus the Habitable Zone Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 3 diagrams, 3 references

In the star sciences astronomers and astrophysicists have ignored basic understanding of what life needs to survive as well as what is needed for water to exist in liquid form. The life hypothesis as covered in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis is contrasted with the Habitable Zone Hypothesis of establishment scientism.
Category: Astrophysics

[414] viXra:1403.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 08:39:17

Stellar Aberration

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Reversals of earth’s direction of motion in its orbital path around sun is an essential requirement for contemporary explanations on stellar aberration. Earth’s orbital path around sun is an apparent concept. Reversal of direction of motion of a macro body of the size of earth and moving at real linear speed of earth, in three months period without affecting its integrity is irrational. However, considering corpuscles of light as 3D matter-particles can provide logical explanation for this phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[413] viXra:1403.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-03 08:59:38

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Essence of Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 3 references, 1 diagram

It is explained what shape an object needs to be in order to experience gravitational collapse. Diagrams are provided and the alternative to the nebular hypothesis, stellar metamorphosis is presented, to explain what happens to young stars after they are formed.
Category: Astrophysics

[412] viXra:1403.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-02 05:01:31

Seven Possible Alternative Interpretations of the ‘cosmological Red Shift’ Which Can do Away with the Dark Energy

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Fourteen page paper

The currently popular ‘Big Bang Theory’ is based on ‘Doppler Shift Interpretation’ of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’. But it is shown here that the value of Hubble-constant matches so perfectly with the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces, that such a coincidence is very un-likely. Secondly, if the expansion of the universe is accelerating, as the recent observations suggest, e.g.( Paal, G. et al. 1992, Adam G. Riess et al.1998, and Perlmutter, S. et al.1999)[1,2,3], then very large amount of dark-energy may be needed which is still not found. Therefore, it is proposed here that extra galactic photons may be loosing some of their energy through ‘vacuum polarization’, as described by Levine, I. (1997)[4] and Brown et al (1996)[5]. It is proposed here that: when an extra galactic photon is absorbed by either electron or positron of the virtual electron positron pair, then not only the ‘electrostatic potential energy’ of the pair is increased, but also its ‘gravitational potential energy’ as well; but when these ‘potential energies’ are released, then not only a photon, but also a graviton is emitted; so the input energy gets branched out. And we find here that the energy lost by the ‘cosmologically red shifted photons’ is strikingly proportional to the ‘strength ratio’ of gravitational and electric forces. Since, according to this new interpretation for the ‘cosmological red shift, the red-shift is a function of distance traveled by the photon, rather than relative velocity of the galaxies; so this study will also do away with the need for ‘dark energy’. In addition to this, six more alternative possibilities for the red shift are also indicated.
Category: Astrophysics

[411] viXra:1402.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-24 08:42:38

Radius of Stable Galaxy

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

An evolving galactic cloud, depending on its parameters, may attain stable state for brief period. Total matter-content, spin speed and diameter of spinning galactic cloud determine duration of stable period. This article proposes mutual relation, between these factors, required for a galactic cloud during its life as a stable galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[410] viXra:1402.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-23 02:36:55

Wave-Theoretical-Insight Into the Relativistic-Length-Contraction, Time-Dilation of Super-Nova Light-Curves and Five Alternative Interpretations of the Cosmological-Red-Shift

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Five-page-manuscript

This paper makes use of some astronomical-observations to gain deeper insight into the foundations of physics. Alternative-interpretations of cosmological-red-shift are generally rejected on the ground that ‘tired-light-interpretations’ are inconsistent with the observations of time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves; whereas it is shown here that these curves are time-domain-representations of amplitude of light. So, these curves can be Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain, and it is this wide band of waves which propagates in inter-galactic-space, and reaches us after millions of years. These Fourier-transformed-components, being electromagnetic-waves, get red-shifted by any mechanism that can cause spectral-shift, and when transformed back into time-domain, show time-dilation. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova light-curves, or the relativistic-time-dilation, means ‘red-shift of light’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic-length-contraction is also explained using wave-theory. With this explanation, this letter presents five new possible-mechanisms for the ‘cosmological-red-shift’; which will also give some insight into pure physics. These alternative-interpretations are: (i) Inter-galactic-photons can also get red-shifted due to vacuum-polarization-mechanism; (ii) Spherically-expanding-wave-front of light can be viewed as a spherically-expanding cavity, continuously changing its impedance, causing around -400 dB reflected-power back to the source; (iii) Cumulative-phase-alteration of extra-galactic-photons caused by the cosmic-microwave-background; (iv) Electric-field and magnetic-field of extra-galactic-light in the transverse-directions, causing virtual-electrons to oscillate, and generating gravitational-field in the longitudinal-direction; losing part of their energy in the form of ‘gravitational-waves’; (v) Though the rest-mass of photon is zero, it has a ‘relativistic-mass’ equal to its momentum-divided-by-its-speed (h f / c2); so this ‘relativistic-mass’ of the photon can radiate gravitational-waves, branching-out its energy into gravitational-wave and electromagnetic-wave; and as a supportive-evidence, it is shown here that the energy lost by ‘cosmologically-red-shifting-photons’ is strikingly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces.
Category: Astrophysics

[409] viXra:1402.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-19 04:55:50

On the Existence of Black Holes

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

The non existence of black holes has been predicted by the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity as a consequence of the existence of negative gravitational mass evidenced in the expression of correlation between gravitational mass mg and inertial mass mi, obtained after the quantization of gravity [7]. Here, we review this theoretical discovery, which point to a revolution in fundamental physics.
Category: Astrophysics

[408] viXra:1402.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-17 23:48:02

Quark Stars and Black Holes

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 2 Pages. My article results from a discussion at http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1971

According to the article "Quark Star Plays Role in New Theory for Brightest Supernovae" by Jeanna Bryner, Senior Writer | June 03, 2008 (http://www.space.com/5450-quark-star-plays-role-theory-brightest-supernovae.html), "Other explanations for the bright supernovae are possible, the researchers say". I think these "other explanations" reveal that the scientists are going in the right direction but have failed to go far enough. As the article says, "Quarks are considered to be the tiniest elementary particles that form the building blocks for protons and neutrons, which in turn form atoms." The term "tiniest elementary particles" appears to mean "the ground state or lowest possible energy level". And according to the next paragraph I've written, "the binary digits of 1 and 0 must surely be the ground state or lowest possible energy level". Admittedly, this explanation probably sounds more unusual than the notion of quark stars. But I believe my explanations answer every question more than satisfactorily. In the end, my explanations lead back to black holes instead of quark stars. And black holes, while as unusual as my ideas, are scientifically accepted while the article points out that quark stars are still just theoretical.
Category: Astrophysics

[407] viXra:1402.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-12 09:31:50

Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma: the Evolution of Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations, 3 references

Two diagrams and an explanation for the public are provided which outline the main differences between establishment dogma and stellar metamorphosis in their predictions of star evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[406] viXra:1402.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-11 10:31:41

Are Galaxies Structured by Riccati Equation? The First Graph of Rational Bar

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 2 Figures. Computer language program file is include (1 page)

A mother, a father, and their daughter were taking a picture. They were 5, 7, and 2 feet tall respectively. The parents stood in a row, and their daughter stood in front of her mother. My son saw this and ran quickly in front of the father before the picture was taken. I asked my son why. He answered that he was exactly 4 feet tall. I figured out his reasoning, and afterwards I have become an astrophysicist. A pattern is a distribution of differences. In the array pattern of the above-said four people, the height differences between adults and between kids are equal, and the height differences between females and between males are equal too. This simple pattern can be generalized into any array of numbers. Assume the differences of numbers in a row are equal to the corresponding differences in any other row. That is, there exist the common differences in all rows. Similarly assume the common differences in all columns. Then the pattern is called a rational structure. Assume the number at the bottom left corner is zero, C(0,0) = 0, and denote the series of numbers in the bottom row by U(i) and the series of numbers in the first column by V(j). I found the formula for the rational array: C = U(i) + V(j). This is called Skew Law. I generalized the rows and columns to be curved, and required that the curves cross each other at a right angle. This was exactly my idea of galaxy patterns. In this paper I show that the patterns are governed by the Riccati equation with constant coefficients; and the curves are governed by a type of algebraic equations. The cubic equation of the type gives a pattern which resembles the sharp bar of galaxy NGC 1073. Are all barred galaxies governed by the cubic and higher degrees of algebraic equations? The question will be resolved in the near future.
Category: Astrophysics

[405] viXra:1402.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-10 16:27:54

Regarding “Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes” by S. W. Hawking

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is proposed that the “apparent horizons” assumed by Hawking to resolve the black hole information paradox, are in reality the regions where in Lorentzian relativity the absolute velocity against a preferred reference system at rest with the zero point vacuum energy reaches the velocity of light, and where an elliptical differential equation holding matter in a stable equilibrium goes over a transluminal Euler-Tricomi equation into a hyperbolic differential equation where such an equilibrium is not more possible, with matter in approaching this region disintegrating into radiation. Hawking’s proposal depends on the AdS/CFT conjecture which in turn depending on string/M theory which in the absence of super -symmetry will not work.
Category: Astrophysics

[404] viXra:1402.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-09 16:19:29

Expressing Gravity

Authors: Suomy Nona
Comments: 1 Page.

The following equation was found by a comprehensive search using a GPU, trying every combination of constants that could be equal to the Universal Gravity constant. During the search, roughly 56000 equations were identified that had the correct units and then a handful of those equations where found to have low error rates of roughly one part in a trillion, when compared to the original constants. The simplest equation of the high accuracy set is presented in this paper. [G = (10390/23)*R^73*w^73*e^2/(c^68*h^74*A^2*N^73)]
Category: Astrophysics

[403] viXra:1402.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-06 02:52:35

On the Perihelion Precession of Solar Planetary Orbits

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 5 Pages. To be submitted to a journal. This paper complete the earlier paper Nyambuya 2010, MNRAS 403, pp.1381-1391

The present letter presents an improved version of the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG-model) which was presented for the first time four years ago (in Nyambuya 2010). Herein, we propose a solution to the standing problem of the lambda-parameters in which effort we put the ASTG-model on a clear pedestal for falsification. The perihelion precessional data of Solar planetary orbits is used to set the theory into motion. As a way of demonstrating the latent power of the new theory, we show in separate letters that -- one of the most important and outstanding problems in astrophysics today -- the Radiation Problem; which is thought to bedevil massive stars during their formation, may find a plausible solution in the ASTG-model. Further, from within the confines of this new theory, we also demonstrate (in a separate letter) that the Emergence of Bipolar Molecular Outflows may very be an azimuthal gravitational phenomenon. Furthermore, we also show (in a separate letter as-well) that the ASTG-model does, to a reasonable extent explain the tilt of Solar planetary orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[402] viXra:1402.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-03 08:20:38

Tidal Pressure Hypothesis

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 1 Page.

It is my opinion that the movements of tides is mostly of mechanical nature where forces of pressures and the lunar shading thereof interacts with rotational motions and the Earth´s distribution of land mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[401] viXra:1402.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-03 09:17:51

Stellar Metamorphosis: Kepler 16, Another Falsification of the Nebular Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, 3 references

A binary star system has been discovered that completely falsifies the nebular hypothesis. The replacement theory is offered as stellar metamorphosis. The stars in question are simply in different stages to their evolution, they did not form from a theoretical nebular disk. Establishment physics will ignore the falsification of their accepted models and its effective replacement and they will ridicule and label the discoverers and sharers of this understanding as cranks/crackpots and pseudoscientists. Stellar Metamorphosis completely replaces their ad hoc mathematical models of star evolution. A diagram of where the stars are in their evolution is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[400] viXra:1402.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-03 06:13:33

Is the Non Linearity of Red-Shift-Distance-Curve, Observed by Perlmutter and Riess, Due to the ‘Reduction-of-Additional-Red-Shift’ with the ‘Reduction-in-Brightness’ of the Super Novae?

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Two-page priliminary note.

It was recently proposed in my previous note, that reduction in amplitude of electromagnetic wave with time should cause 'additional-red-shift', proportional to the rate of reduction of the brightness of a super nova. In this note it is proposed, that: is the non-linearity of red-shift-distance-curves of distant super novae, as observed by Perlmutter and Riess, due to reduction in this 'additional-red-shift' caused due to reduction in 'rate-of-reduction-of-brightness' of those super-novae?
Category: Astrophysics

[399] viXra:1401.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-31 01:38:32

Novel Descriptions of the Big Bang, Inflation, Galactic Structure and Energetic Quasars

Authors: Jay D Rynbrandt
Comments: 28 Pages. A companion note, "Probable Results of Significant Spatial Interactions with Mass" accompanies this paper.

ABSTRACT Black holes (BH) hold immense energy. When BH collide, they release sufficient energy that they do not combine. Their collision is supra elastic and thus BH leave these encounters with extra kinetic energy. With mutual BH rejection, new mechanisms emerge for the big bang (BB), inflation, galaxy formation and quasars. The BH rejection interaction also held separate ultra-massive, (galaxyacquired) black holes (UMBH), of a dying universe, as they accelerated their collapse toward a compacting, universal black hole. However, an instant before complete collapse, UMBH reached a critical temperature/pressure and ignited as a big bang (BB) detonation that consumed all UMBH. The BB released gravity-constrained energy, mass and space acquired by billions of UMBH. The freed space produced inflation, and the “matter” mass steered the new universe toward continued “matter” domination. But a few (hundred billion), much smaller (and previously far more numerous) stellar BH (stBH) survived both the collapse and BB, grew to super-massive size (due to BB pressure) and moved out, with continuing inflation, to organize individual galaxies. These galaxies retained lose associations they acquired just after the BB as large-scale galactic filaments and clusters. (A possible mechanism to maintain and sharpen these structures is discussed in the “Spatial Interactions…” note which follows.) In rare cases, the extreme energy/mass pressures following the BB caused colliding BH to pair as intimately-coupled, binary, supermassive, black holes (SMBH), which we see today as ancient, energetic quasars spewing immense thermal radiation or as younger, radio-frequency, active galactic nuclei (AGN) -- depending their SMBH orbital separation. Thermal quasars orbit each other within their reactive (surface disruptive) distance, and radio AGN exceed it. BH precursors needed to be present at the time of the BB to be pressurejoined as close-coupled, equal-mass, SMBH pairs, and the high efficiency of their light-generating mechanism suggests that current quasar size estimates may be high. Thermal quasars expire when their SMBH separation distance exceeds their surface-disruptive distance; and they leave behind energetic, radio frequency AGN. As this paired AGN whips their intense, intertwined magnetic fields through the narrow gap between them, their compressed fields eject extreme energy cosmic rays and relativistic, radio frequency electrons.
Category: Astrophysics

[398] viXra:1401.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-31 02:15:54

Probable Results of Significant Spatial Interactions with Mass

Authors: Jay D Rynbrandt
Comments: 7 Pages. A companion paper, "Novel Descriptions of the Big Bang, Inflation, Galactic Structure and Energetic Quasars" sets the stage for this note.

ABSTRACT The preceding paper proposed that black holes (BH) gravitationally capture space and release it when they interact with each other or are destroyed in the big bang. This note describes some less dramatic effects of: BH spatial capture, a general attraction of space to mass and an intrinsic property of space to expand: 1. Space captured by super massive black holes (SMBH) reduces universal spatial expansion pressure (an attribute of space itself) in the vicinity of galactic filaments and clusters. This local reduction, from normal spatial expansion, maintains and sharpens these structures. Thus empty-space regions expand more rapidly to nudge galaxies and maintain these intergalactic filaments and clusters. 2. Space, within galactic disks, rotates in the direction of galaxies to reduce galactic rotation speeds (relative to their local spatial reference) and maintain stable stellar orbits within the galaxies. 3. As the universe expands, galactic-spatial–rotation rates increase due to weakened connections with the universal space grid. These faster rotations of the galactic spatial grids promote eventual galactic collapse into ultra massive black holes (UMBH), which now contain their galactic masse. 4. Galactic collapse into an UMBH adds significant relativistic mass to it – above and beyond the combined masses of the galaxy and its central SMBH. This added relativistic mass increases mutual UMBH attractions to initiate universal collapse. Thus spatial expansion, as a fundamental property of space itself, explains both big bang inflation and continued universal expansion (without dark energy). And spatial attractions to mass explain observed higher-than-stable galactic orbital speeds (without dark matter).
Category: Astrophysics

[397] viXra:1401.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-26 10:45:19

A Black Hole Model Consideration and a New Model for Gravity

Authors: Victor Demjanenko
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this brief note, suggestions are made for an improved black hole model. Prof. Hawking has just rescinded some of his thoughts on what a black hole is or isn’t. The suggested model characteristics are the result of back-to-basics thoughts about the interactions of a black hole and its surroundings.
Category: Astrophysics

[396] viXra:1401.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-25 04:26:40

Gravitomagnetic Rotation-Rotation Coupling

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 6 Pages. Spanish

A rotating body induces a gravitational force on a test particle perpendicular to its motion, similar to what happens with the magnetic force. In complete analogy with electromagnetism there is an interaction between a rotating body and a gravitomagnetic dipole moment: that is, a gravitomagnetic rotation-rotation coupling. We study this interaction and apply it to the study of orbital perturbations of a gyroscope orbiting the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[395] viXra:1401.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-23 13:38:48

The Gravitational Mass of the Millisecond Pulsars

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this work it is theoretically shown that a millisecond pulsar spinning with angular velocity close to 1000 rotations per second (or more) has its gravitational mass reduced below its inertial mass, i.e., under these circumstances, the gravitational and the inertial masses of the millisecond pulsar are not equivalents. This can easily be experimentally checked, and it would seem to be an ideal test to the equivalence principle of general relativity.
Category: Astrophysics

[394] viXra:1401.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-17 03:40:03

On Some General Regularities of Formation Planetary Systems

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 12 pages, including 10 figures. Accepted for publication in "Progress in Physics"

J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept have been used, in which space continuum is considered as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface admitting the existence of transitions of the input-output kind between distant regions of the space in an additional dimension. This model assumes the existence of closed structures (micro- and macrocontours) formed due to the balance between main interactions: gravitational, electric, magnetic, and inertial forces. It is such macrocontours that have been demonstrated to form—independently of their material basis — the essential structure of objects at various levels of organization of matter. On the basis of this concept in this paper basic regularities acting during formation planetary systems have been obtained. The existence of two sharply different types of planetary systems has been determined. The dependencies linking the masses of the planets, the diameters of the planets, the orbital radii of the planet, and the mass of the central body have been deduced. Formation of low-density planets was explained. The possibility of formation Earth-like planets near brown dwarfs has been grounded. The minimum mass of the planet, which may arise in the planetary system, has been defined.
Category: Astrophysics

[393] viXra:1401.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-15 18:59:45

Singularity-Free Superstar as an Alternative to Black Hole and Gravastar

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets
Comments: 6 Pages. Published: Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 7A1, 2013, pp. 1-6. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=33945

Singularity-free superstar is proposed as a model for the collapse of large stars and for GRBs, and as an alternative to black hole and gravastar. Similar to a superconductor, a superstar contains extreme force fields that have non-zero momentum and non-zero wavelength to prevent the inactivation of force field at absolute zero and singularity (infinite interacting energy) at infinite density, respectively, based on the uncertainty principle. Emerging only at an extremely low temperature above absolute zero or an extremely high density below infinite density, extreme force fields are shortrange, and located in between a particle and its ordinary force fields (electromagnetic, weak, strong, and gravitational forces) to prevent the inactivation of force fields at absolute zero and singularity (infinite interacting energy) at infinite density in ordinary force fields. Extreme force fields are manifested as the bonds among electrons in a superconductor and among atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate. When the stellar core of a large star reaches the critical extreme density during the stellar collapse, the stellar core is transformed into the super matter core with extreme force fields and ordinary force fields without singularity. A pre-superstar contains the super matter core, the ordinary matter region, and the thin phase boundary between the super matter core and the ordinary matter region. The stellar collapse increases the super matter core by converting the in falling ordinary energy and matter from the ordinary matter region into the super matter, and decreases the ordinary matter region. Eventually, the stellar breakup occurs to detach the ordinary matter region and the phase boundary from the super matter core, resulting in GRB to account for the observed high amount of gamma rays and the observed complex light curves in GRBs. Unlike black holes and gravastars that lose information, singularity-free superstars that keep all information exist.
Category: Astrophysics

[392] viXra:1401.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-16 00:45:10

Primordial Capture of Dark Matter in the Formation of Planetary Systems

Authors: T.M. Eubanks
Comments: 6 Pages. Submitted to Dark Matter 2014

Although Dark Matter (DM) apparently pervades the universe, it is rarely con- sidered in the context of the formation of the Solar System and other planetary systems. However, a relatively small but non-negligible fraction of the mass of any such systems would consist of DM gravitationally captured during the collapse of the proto-planetary Nebula, subject to the very general assumption that DM particles have an individual mass << than the mass of the Earth. This process, much more efficient than the previously considered post-formation captures by three-body interactions (1, 2), would apply to both microscopic DM, such as axions or Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and macroscopic DM candidates such as Compact Ultra-Dense Objects (CUDOs) and Primordial Black Holes (PBH).
Category: Astrophysics

[391] viXra:1401.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-12 22:36:05

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VIII. `Futile' Processes in the Chromosphere

Authors: Joseph Luc Robitaille, Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the liquid metallic hydrogen solar model (LMHSM), the chromosphere is the site of hydrogen condensation (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L15-L21). Line emission is associated with the dissipation of energy from condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Previously considered reactions resulted in hydrogen atom or cluster addition to the site of condensation. In this work, an additional mechanism is presented, wherein atomic or molecular species interact with CHS, but do not deposit hydrogen. These reactions channel heat away from CHS, enabling them to cool even more rapidly. As a result, this new class of processes could complement true hydrogen condensation reactions by providing an auxiliary mechanism for the removal of heat. Such `futile' reactions lead to the formation of activated atoms, ions, or molecules and might contribute to line emission from such species. Evidence that complimentary `futile' reactions might be important in the chromosphere can be extracted from lineshape analysis.
Category: Astrophysics

[390] viXra:1401.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-08 18:30:53

Astrophysics Wants Its Physics Back.

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 166 pages, 126 references, 121 figures

A new method for studying astrophysics is now yielding fascinating results. Instead of mindlessly accepting existing constructs that are untestable by definition (e.g., dark matter, dark energy, etc.), this new method is based entirely on laboratory physics. It solves problems that have defied previous efforts by integrating all of the provable forces into non-linear systems, where competing forces cause instabilities that resolve into the distinctive forms that we observe. Existing theories acknowledge only inertia and gravity, and if those forces can't fully explain something, the theorists account for the discrepancies with untestable inventions. The new method acknowledges inertia, gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear forces, and demonstrates that the resulting combinatorial complexity can plausibly resolve into a wide variety of forms. When two or more configurations of forces appear to match the explanandum, additional data are tested against the expectations of each configuration. In the end, this method settles on the most probable combination of known forces, given the available data. And nothing within the problem domain has been found to necessitate the invention of anything new.
Category: Astrophysics

[389] viXra:1401.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-05 12:36:32

Observational Constraints on Ultra-Dense Dark Matter

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks
Comments: 3 Pages. Abstract Submitted to the 2014 UCLA Dark Matter Conference

Observational Constraints on Ultra-Dense Dark Matter T. Marshall Eubanks Asteroid Initiatives LLC, 7243 Archlaw Drive, Clifton, Va 20124, USA E-mail:tme@asteroidinitiatives.com. There have been numerous suggestions that macroscopic ultra-dense objects, either quark nuggets or Primordial Black Holes (PBH), formed in the early universe, persisted until the present, and provide the Dark Matter (DM) required by a variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations. An important check on these DM theories comes from the condensed object mass spectrum, observational estimates of space density or flux compared to the known DM density. The three conventional checks on macroscopic DM, observations of the flux through laboratory detectors, planetary detectors and ground-based gravitational microlensing surveys, allow two disjoint mass regions for viable macroscopic DM particle masses. New Kepler satellite microlensing data restrict the allowed DM region somewhat, while a search for femtolensing of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) provides a new set of DM constraints, greatly restricting the allowed region for larger masses and leaving three allowed “windows” in the mass spectrum. Combining all of these constraints, DM made up exclusively of a particle of mass M_DM would not violate current observational constraints if 6 × 10^−6 kg ≤ M_DM ≤ 10 kg, or 10^5 kg ≤ M_DM ≤10^18 kg, or 10^20 kg ≤ M_DM ≤ 10^22 kg. Primordial capture of any macroscopic DM in the Solar System and other planetary systems provide a different means of observing DM that may provide profound constraints on DM over a wide range of particle masses. In particular, primordial capture can be immediately used to derive severe restrictions in the mass range of PBH, which would consume any ordinary matter objects they come in contact with, a process easily detectable in the Solar System. Capela et al. considered primordial capture as part of stellar formation, and concluded that it can be used to exclude PBH with MP BH > 10^13 kg, with smaller PBH not being excluded as they would not have sufficient time to consume their host stars. The extension of primordial capture of PBH to planetary formation can be used to exclude all smaller masses of PBH as such PBH, if captured, would rapidly consume their host planets or asteroids. As the Solar System has manifestly not been consumed, and as other planetary systems appear not to be in the process of being consumed, this implies that M_PBH must be > 10^−8 M⊙, or > 10^22 kg, to be viable. If this exclusion is combined with the Kepler and other microlensing constraints, then there is very little possibility of PBH making the DM at any mass up to ∼ 30 M⊙, effectively ruling out PBH as a viable DM candidate.
Category: Astrophysics

[388] viXra:1401.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-05 02:52:02

Complex Physics: the Fractal Universe of Multiple Space Scales and Time Arrows

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 142 Pages.

The main difference between classic physics and complex physics is the acceptance in complex physics of a 2nd arrow of information in the Universe besides the arrow of entropy or expansive energy, used by XX century physics. Such duality of energy, stored in the spatial vacuum, and information, stored in the frequency of the cyclical clocks of charges and masses (E=Mc2+ExT=k->M=kv) - defines a new Fundamental Principle of Science: ‘All what exists are relative surfaces of spatial energy that transform themselves back and forth into clock-cycles of temporal information: Se⇔Ti’. This law that substitutes the law of conservation of energy is formalized by the ‘Generator, feedback equation of the Universe’, whose dynamic expression, Se⇔Ti, defines the fundamental events of physical systems and its complementary duality, as particles of information attached to fields of energy and its static expression, ExTi=K discovered by Heisenberg in the quantum membrane and Einstein in the cosmological membrane defines the 2 scales of the fractal Universe, the microcosmic membrane of electromagnetic forces and charges and the cosmological membrane of gravitational forces and masses, which according to Einstein’s principle of equivalence are attractive vortices of space-time. Thus, Complex Physics defines a Universe made of multiple, fractal cycles of time that break and enclose a surface of spatial energy becoming quantum knots called masses and charges, formalized as fractal, non-Euclidean points with ‘breath’. Those Space-Time cycles gather then into particles that gather into social networks called atoms, units of a bigger scale of molecules; units of celestial bodies; units of galaxies; units of a Universe, made of networks of informative galaxies that implode energy into mass, and fields of dark energy that explode mass into energy, balancing each other and creating an infinite, scalar, organic Universe. In this paper we solve with those 2 time arrows and fractal membranes of the Universe, departing from the Generator equation of space-time cycles the main questions that monist physics could not resolve with a single arrow: the meaning of mass; the Unification equation of charges and masses - the two vortices of information of the 2 scales of the Universe; the meaning of dark energy; the deficit of antiparticles; the reasons why there are 3 families of mass; the meaning of Universal Constants; the weakness of gravitational forces in the quantum realm; and why there are 4 dimensions and 4 quantum numbers; deducing most of the laws and equations of physics from the generator equation of space-time cycles. For example, Einstein’s famous equation, E=M (Planck’s notation) becomes now a simple transformation of two type of motions: E⇔M(i), as lineal, expansive energy coils into a cyclical vortex of mass. This paper introduces the model and resolves with it the main questions left unanswered by classic physics.
Category: Astrophysics

[387] viXra:1312.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-30 03:21:29

The Cosmic Energy in the Principle of Conservation

Authors: Essam E Maroun
Comments: 6 Pages. emaroun85@hotmail.com

Several theories have introduced an estimate for the total mass-energy of the observable universe, this magnitude can be determined upon the cosmic critical density, the extrapolation from number of stars or Hoyle based steady-state estimates; and all imply a finite universe. Using the assumption of the conservation of the total observable cosmic energy, and employing a form of Bohr’s quantization; we apply a different method to estimate the mass-energy of the large scale universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[386] viXra:1312.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-30 01:43:41

New Interpretation of the Cosmological Red Shift: Which Can do Away with the Dark Energy

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Number of pages: 6

The currently popular ‘Big Bang Theory’ is based on ‘Doppler Shift Interpretation’ of the ‘cosmological-red-shift’. But it is shown here that the value of Hubble-constant matches so perfectly with the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces, that such a coincidence is very un-likely. Secondly, if the expansion of the universe is accelerating, as the recent observations suggest, e.g.( Paal, G. et al. 1992, Adam G. Riess et al.1998, and Perlmutter, S. et al.1999)[1,2,3], then very large amount of dark-energy may be needed which is still not found. Therefore, it is proposed here that extra galactic photons may be loosing some of their energy through ‘vacuum polarization’, as described by Levine, I. (1997)[4] and Brown et al (1996)[5]. It is proposed here that: when an extra galactic photon is absorbed by either electron or positron of the virtual electron positron pair, then not only the ‘electrostatic potential energy’ of the pair is increased, but also its ‘gravitational potential energy’ as well; but when these ‘potential energies’ are released, then not only a photon, but also a graviton is emitted; so the input energy gets branched out. And we find here that the energy lost by the ‘cosmologically red shifted photons’ is strikingly proportional to the ‘strength ratio’ of gravitational and electric forces. Since, according to this new interpretation for the ‘cosmological red shift, the red-shift is a function of distance traveled by the photon, rather than relative velocity of the galaxies; so his study will also do away with the need for ‘dark energy’.
Category: Astrophysics

[385] viXra:1312.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-28 15:01:16

Ether,dark Matter and Expansion of the Universe

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 24 Pages.

The idea of the existence of ether has been abandoned after the theory of relativity was accepted. It appears that the existence of an ether, compatible with the main points of the classical standard Cosmological model, permits to solve some enigmas of the present Cosmological model that are very important, for instance the enigma connected to dark matter or to fossil radiation. In this article we show how the existence of an ether, being compatible with the classical standard Cosmological model on many points, permits to solve those enigmas. In particular we show how it can give the nature of dark matter, the origin of its invisibility, the curve of velocities of stars in galaxies (constant) and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. So our theory appears to be an alternative to MOND theory. We will also justify a very simple topological form of the Universe and the position of our galaxy inside this Universe. We will also give the possible nature of the enigmatic dark energy. We will see that our theory is compatible with Special and General Relativity, despite that it is based on the concept of ether.
Category: Astrophysics

[384] viXra:1312.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-27 09:13:38

A Poem of Physics

Authors: Suomy Nona
Comments: 4 Pages. If nothing else, my work makes great dimensional analysis test questions.

An analogy, imagine our scientific constants as a set of lego blocks. I figured out how to snap the lego blocks together to represent scientific units. My next step was to find the minimal number of blocks that I could use for a unit. Since the minimal number of constants seemed unique and invariant, I believed that the information was important. Alas, no one else agreed that my equations were unique and invariant so I made my work into a poem. If you read it out loud, it is a poem of physics.
Category: Astrophysics

[383] viXra:1312.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-26 15:16:25

A Cosmological Model with Variable Constants

Authors: Guoliang Liu
Comments: 19 Pages. This work is copyrighted under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Based on several assumptions to deduce a cosmological model with three fundamental constants along with the dimensionless electroweak interaction coupling constant turned into functions of the gravitational potential. Initial research of this model has indicated solutions to several long-standing cosmological puzzles.
Category: Astrophysics

[382] viXra:1312.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-23 22:48:55

Quark Matter in the Solar System: Evidence for a Game-Changing Space Resource

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks
Comments: 7 Pages. The attached paper will be presented at the IAA Space Exploration​ Conference - January 09,​ 2014​ - and will eventually be published in Acta Astronautica.

Macroscopic quark matter nuggets are an alternative explanation for Dark Matter (DM) consistent with the observational constraints on this mysterious cosmological component. Such quark matter theories have strong implications in the formation, development and current behavior of the Solar System, as primordial quark nuggets orbiting the Galaxy would be subject to capture during planetary formation, leading to the retention of condensed quark matter in the centers of the Sun, planets and asteroids today, a possibility that needs to be taken seriously in Solar System Research. As quark nuggets are expected to have a minimum mass set by their physics of their formation, any sufficiently small asteroid with a quark matter core would be a “strange asteroid,” with a high bulk density and strong gravitational binding. Small strange asteroids would be the easiest nugget hosts to detect observationally, and the most accessible source of quark matter once detected. Solar System observations of small Very Fast Rotating (VFR) asteroids (those with rotation periods $\le$ 1/2 hour) support the quark matter nugget hypothesis. If VFR asteroids are assumed to be bound by quark matter cores, the inferred core mass range peaks at $\sim$ 10$^{10}$ kg, consistent with the stable quark matter mass range predicted by the detailed theory of Zhitnitsky and his colleagues \cite{Zhitnitsky-2003-b,Zhitnitsky-2006}. As there is a prospect that quark nuggets could be used to produce large amounts of antimatter, the economic benefit from even a single ultra-dense strange asteroid could be little short of astounding. If some of the Near-Earth Objects (NEO) are indeed strange asteroids they would truly constitute a game-change resource for space exploration. It is likely that the quark nugget theory will either be rapidly refuted using Solar System observations, or become a focus of space exploration and development in the remainder of this century.
Category: Astrophysics

Recent Replacements

[180] viXra:1404.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-11 07:40:17

The "Like-Likes-Like" Principle in Dusty Plasmas

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 6 Pages.

The strength of the body force exerted on dusty plasmas by the electric force (due to the charge separation in Debye cells) is calculated, and the implications are considered.
Category: Astrophysics

[179] viXra:1404.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-09 06:45:33

Proposal for the Origin of Unexpected Large B-Modes Found in the Bicep2 Measurements.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages. 25

According to Quantum FFF (Function Follows Form ) theory, our universe is part of a raspberry shaped Multiverse with super (Charge Parity) symmetric entangled universes down to each quantum. The raspberry multiverse is supposed to be a cyclic one, starting with an exploding central new physics Big Bang black hole and ending with a Big Crunch black hole.. The Big Bang Black hole can shortly be described as Higgs particle dark matter/ dark energy based nucleus of 8 or 12 CPT symmetric universal bubbles, evaporating and splitting by a Fractal inflation epoch, leaving a so called Lyman Alpha forest of galaxy seeds behind. Galaxy seeds are supposed to be represented by Quasars and large Quasar groups ( LQGs) but also by CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) hotspots and B-Modes. The inflation epoch is supposed to end in the CMB if the black hole splitting and evaporation stops due to lack of black hole particle content, able to split and form local Quasars or LQGs. It is generally accepted that the end of the inflation epoch can be observed in the Planck CMB ( Cosmic Microwave Background) and that gravitational waves are the origin of electric and magnetic structure called respectively E-modes and B-Modes. However according to Quantum FFF theory the E and B-Modes could also be the result of so called Birkeland –Alfven current circuits produced between paring black holes as the origin of primordial Herbig Haro objects, which could be he origin of the unexpected large B-Modes found in the BICEP2 measurements. Not the gravity ripples but the Birkeland Alfven circuits are the direct origin of the unexpected large B-Modes. The fact that the B-Modes are unexpected large ( about 10- times larger than expected ) is reason to support this hypothesis, and support for future research on B-Modes. I realize that “new paradigm dark matter black holes” are not only presented by knots of B-Mode polarization but also as Cometary knots and much larger Stellar Anchor black holes (dual bow shocks) in Planetary nebula like the Helix nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[178] viXra:1404.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-02 03:37:50

Proposal for the Origin of Unexpected Large B-Modes Found in the Bicep2 Measurements.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

According to Quantum FFF (Function Follows Form ) theory, our universe is part of a raspberry shaped Multiverse with super (Charge Parity) symmetric entangled universes down to each quantum. The raspberry multiverse is supposed to be a cyclic one, starting with an exploding central new physics Big Bang black hole and ending with a Big Crunch black hole.. The Big Bang Black hole can shortly be described as Higgs particle dark matter/ dark energy based nucleus of 8 or 12 CPT symmetric universal bubbles, evaporating and splitting by a Fractal inflation epoch leaving a so called Lyman Alpha forest of galaxy seeds behind. Galaxy seeds are supposed to be represented by Quasars and large Quasar groups ( LQGs) but also by CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) hotspots and B-Modes. The inflation epoch is supposed to end in the CMB if the black hole splitting and evaporation stops due to lack of black hole particle content, able to split and form local Quasars or LQGs. It is generally accepted that the end of the inflation epoch can be observed in the Planck CMB ( Cosmic Microwave Background) and that gravitational waves are the origin of electric and magnetic structure called respectively E-modes and B-Modes. However according to Quantum FFF theory the E and B-Modes could also be the result of so called Birkeland –Alfven current circuits produced between paring black holes as the origin of primordial Herbig Haro objects, which could be he origin of the unexpected large B-Modes found in the BICEP2 measurements. Not the gravity ripples but the Birkeland Alfven circuits are the direct origin of the unexpected large B-Modes. The fact that the B-Modes are unexpected large ( about 10-20 times larger than expected: r=0,2 to 0,01) is reason to support this hypothesis, and support for future research on B-Modes.
Category: Astrophysics

[177] viXra:1403.0972 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-30 09:57:09

Galactic Rotation Anomaly

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

Orbital speeds of stars, far from center of a galaxy, are found roughly constant, instead of reductions predicted by current gravitational theories (applied on galactic and cosmological scales). This is called the anomalous rotation of galaxies. This article intends to show that constant angular speeds of all macro bodies in a galaxy are natural phenomenon and there is no mystery about it.
Category: Astrophysics

[176] viXra:1403.0927 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-06 02:57:05

The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world is expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z)^4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
Category: Astrophysics

[175] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-26 12:07:20

Flat Gravity of Hubble's Law Added to Gravity of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 7 Pages.

Flat gravity caused by the recession of the space was covered in a short distance by gravity according to the inverse square law. It is similar to what was not able to find transverse Doppler effect in the speed of sound. However, it caused the gravity anomalies such as Galaxy rotation problem and Pioneer anomaly or Earth flyby anomaly. It is simple and can calculate the physical quantity from Hubble constant and the gravitational mass. The gravity acts regardless of the distance with the gravity source in a gravisphere. This flat gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming influence of the dark matter and the plasma. There are the evidence that whole space recession in the same isotropy is appears in the free-fall motion of all things.
Category: Astrophysics

[174] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-25 14:21:43

Flat Gravity of Hubble's Law Added to Gravity of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 7 Pages.

Flat gravity caused by the recession of the space was covered in a short distance by gravity according to the inverse square law. It is similar to what was not able to find transverse Doppler effect in the speed of sound. However, it caused the gravity anomalies such as Galaxy rotation problem and Pioneer anomaly or Earth flyby anomaly. It is simple and can calculate the physical quantity from Hubble constant and the gravitational mass. The gravity acts regardless of the distance with the gravity source in a gravisphere. This flat gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming influence of the dark matter and the plasma. There are the evidence that whole space recession in the same isotropy is appears in the free-fall motion of all things.
Category: Astrophysics

[173] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-24 14:46:46

Flat Gravity of Hubble's Law Added to Gravity of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 7 Pages. This is pre print before the contributions to a review journal

Flat gravity caused by the recession of the space was covered in a short distance by gravity according to the inverse square law. It is similar to what was not able to find transverse Doppler effect in the speed of sound. However, it caused the gravity anomalies such as Galaxy rotation problem and Pioneer anomaly or Earth flyby anomaly. It is simple and can calculate the physical quantity from Hubble constant and the gravitational mass. The gravity acts regardless of the distance with the gravity source in a gravisphere. This flat gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming influence of the dark matter and the plasma. There are the evidence that whole space recession in the same isotropy is appears in the free-fall motion of all things.
Category: Astrophysics

[172] viXra:1403.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-20 03:58:31

Since the Time-Dilation of Super-Novae Light-Curves Is Not a Confirmative-Evidence for Expansion of Space-Time and the Universe, Some Alternative Possibilities that the Universe May Not Be Expanding

Authors: Hasmukh K. Tank
Comments: Nine-page paper

This paper makes use of some astronomical-observations to gain deeper insight into the fundamental questions of physics and astrophysics. Alternative-interpretations of cosmological-red-shift are generally rejected on the ground that ‘tired-light-interpretations’ are inconsistent with the observations of time-dilation of super-nova-light-curves; whereas it is shown here that these curves are time-domain-representations of amplitude of light. So, these curves can be Fourier-transformed into wave-number-domain, and it is this wide band of waves which propagates in inter-galactic-space, and reaches us after millions of years. These Fourier-transformed-components, being electromagnetic-waves, get red-shifted by any mechanism that can cause spectral-shift, and when transformed back into time-domain, show time-dilation. Thus, time-dilation of super-nova light-curves, or the relativistic-time-dilation, means ‘red-shift of light’ due to any mechanism. Similarly, the relativistic-length-contraction is also explained using wave-theory. With this explanation, this letter presents five new possible-mechanisms for the ‘cosmological-red-shift’; which will also give some insight into pure physics. These alternative-interpretations are: (i) Inter-galactic-photons can also get red-shifted due to vacuum-polarization-mechanism; (ii) Spherically-expanding-wave-front of light can be viewed as a spherically-expanding cavity, continuously changing its impedance, causing around -400 dB reflected-power back to the source; (iii) Cumulative-phase-alteration of extra-galactic-photons caused by the cosmic-microwave-background; (iv) Electric-field and magnetic-field of extra-galactic-light in the transverse-directions, causing virtual-electrons to oscillate, and generating gravitational-field in the longitudinal-direction; losing part of their energy in the form of ‘gravitational-waves’; (v) Though the rest-mass of photon is zero, it has a ‘relativistic-mass’ equal to its momentum-divided-by-its-speed (h f / c^2); so this ‘relativistic-mass’ of the photon can radiate gravitational-waves, branching-out its energy into gravitational-wave and electromagnetic-wave; and as a supportive-evidence, it is shown here that the energy lost by ‘cosmologically-red-shifting-photons’ is strikingly proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces. These new alternative explanations also explain the non-linearity of red-shift-distance-curve, observed by Perlmutter and Reiss, without any need for ‘dark-energy’.
Category: Astrophysics

[171] viXra:1403.0079 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-06 04:10:10

A Monte Carlo Simulation Framework for Testing Cosmological Models

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 10 Pages.

We tested alternative cosmologies using Monte Carlo simulations based on the sampling method of the zCosmos galactic survey. The survey encompasses a collection of observable galaxies with respective redshifts that have been obtained for a given spectroscopic area of the sky. Using a cosmological model, we can convert the redshifts into light-travel times and, by slicing the survey into small redshift buckets, compute a curve of galactic density over time. Because foreground galaxies obstruct the images of more distant galaxies, we simulated the theoretical galactic density curve using an average galactic radius. By comparing the galactic density curves of the simulations with that of the survey, we could assess the cosmologies. We applied the test to the expanding-universe cosmology of de Sitter and to a dichotomous cosmology introduced herein.
Category: Astrophysics

[170] viXra:1402.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-24 09:10:32

Stellar Evolution: Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams, 5 references

Two diagrams and an explanation for the public are provided which outline the main differences between establishment dogma and stellar metamorphosis in their predictions of star evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[169] viXra:1402.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-15 16:22:34

The Impossible Zero Point Electric Black Hole

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 33 Pages. 33

Recent turmoil around the foundation of Black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about black holes and adjacent subjects. As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a Black Hole alternative already prepacked in my Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped Preons, responsible for pair production. Two Preons are able to change form into two entangled Fermion propeller strings by an overflow of energetic opposite collision. This energy overflow is supposed to be present at the black hole event horizon ( fig 5). Thus the FORM of all particles is based on real joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons, however all particles are instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. That dual oscillating Higgs particles are the same as Preons and are responsible for the Casimir Dark Energy of 126 GeV recently observed in the LHC at CERN. That the oscillating Higgs vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon information and Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Higgs particles, compressed by the oscillating Higgs vacuum. The vacuum energy flow around such a Black hole indicates that different sized globular horizons are needed, an event or Photon horizon and two Fermion repulsion horizons, which can explain lots of astronomical unresolved phenomena.
Category: Astrophysics

[168] viXra:1402.0012 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-23 20:44:31

Frequency Decay Through em Absorption by Intergalactic Gases/matter as an Alternate Explanation for the Hubble Constant

Authors: D.G. Taylor
Comments: 14 Pages.

Decreasing frequency of Electromagnetic radiation from inter-Galactic objects is taken as an absolute declaration of their motion away from our viewing point. An alternate explanation would be that as the frequency reduction of the signal could be due to interfering effect of inter-Galactic gases. This paper determines the rate of frequency decay in an inter-Galactic scale environment. It also argues against the velocity of Universe expansion demanded by the Big Bang theory. Hard evidence of the existence of Dark Matter is reasoned through the evidence of EM frequency shifts downward. A simple parallel to the reddening of solar radiation as it travels through a greater thickness of atmosphere during both Sunrise and sunset. No figures cited in this paper are incontestable. Dimensions of this Universe: its mass, its age, or its linear dimensions are gigantically debated in Science. But the general scale is accepted: any particular figure may be debated, but the actual scope is not. That scope is examined, and the fundamental part it has played it in both the Local Universe we observe and a theoretic infinite reality in Time and Space.
Category: Astrophysics

[167] viXra:1402.0012 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-22 12:19:53

Frequency Decay Through em Absorption by Intergalactic Gases/matter as an Alternate Explanation for the Hubble Constant

Authors: D.G. Taylor
Comments: 15 Pages.

Decreasing frequency of Electromagnetic radiation from inter-Galactic objects is taken as an absolute declaration of their motion away from our viewing point. An alternate explanation would be that as the frequency reduction of the signal could be due to interfering effect of inter-Galactic gases. This paper determines the rate of frequency decay in an inter-Galactic scale environment. It also argues against the velocity of Universe expansion demanded by the Big Bang theory. Hard evidence of the existence of Dark Matter is reasoned through the evidence of EM frequency shifts downward. A simple parallel to the reddening of solar radiation as it travels through a greater thickness of atmosphere during both Sunrise and sunset. No figures cited in this paper are incontestable. Dimensions of this Universe: its mass, its age, or its linear dimensions are gigantically debated in Science. But the general scale is accepted: any particular figure may be debated, but the actual scope is not. That scope is examined, and the fundamental part it has played it in both the Local Universe we observe and a theoretic infinite reality in Time and Space.
Category: Astrophysics

[166] viXra:1402.0012 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-20 13:47:42

Frequency Decay Through em Absorption by Inter-Galactic Gases/matter as an Alternate Explanation for the Hubble Constant

Authors: D.G. Taylor
Comments: 13 Pages. Copyright Case#: 1-1190626511

Decreasing frequency of Electromagnetic radiation from inter-Galactic objects is taken as an absolute declaration of their motion away from our viewing point. An alternate explanation would be that as the frequency reduction of the signal could be due to interfering effect of inter-Galactic gases. This paper determines the rate of frequency decay in an inter-Galactic scale environment. It also argues against the velocity of Universe expansion demanded by the Big Bang theory. Hard evidence of the existence of Dark Matter is reasoned through the evidence of EM frequency shifts downward. A simple parallel to the reddening of solar radiation as it travels through a greater thickness of atmosphere during both Sunrise and sunset. No figures cited in this paper are incontestable. Dimensions of this Universe: its mass, its age, or its linear dimensions are gigantically debated in Science. But the general scale is accepted: any particular figure may be debated, but the actual scope is not. That scope is examined, and the fundamental part it has played it in both the Local Universe we observe and a theoretic infinite reality in Time and Space.
Category: Astrophysics

[165] viXra:1401.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-24 08:42:17

The Gravitational Mass of the Millisecond Pulsars

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this work it is theoretically shown that a millisecond pulsar spinning with angular velocity close to 1000 rotations per second (or more) has its gravitational mass reduced below its inertial mass, i.e., under these circumstances, the gravitational and the inertial masses of the millisecond pulsar are not equivalents. This can easily be experimentally checked, and it would seem to be an ideal test to the equivalence principle of general relativity.
Category: Astrophysics

[164] viXra:1401.0097 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-18 05:20:23

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VIII. `Futile' Processes in the Chromosphere

Authors: Joseph Luc Robitaille, Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. As published on January 18th - Progress in Physics, 2014, 10(1), 36-37.

In the liquid metallic hydrogen solar model (LMHSM), the chromosphere is the site of hydrogen condensation (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L15-L21). Line emission is associated with the dissipation of energy from condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Previously considered reactions resulted in hydrogen atom or cluster addition to the site of condensation. In this work, an additional mechanism is presented, wherein atomic or molecular species interact with CHS, but do not deposit hydrogen. These reactions channel heat away from CHS, enabling them to cool even more rapidly. As a result, this new class of processes could complement true hydrogen condensation reactions by providing an auxiliary mechanism for the removal of heat. Such `futile' reactions lead to the formation of activated atoms, ions, or molecules and might contribute to line emission from such species. Evidence that complimentary `futile' reactions might be important in the chromosphere can be extracted from lineshape analysis.
Category: Astrophysics

[163] viXra:1312.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2014-02-10 14:37:31

A Cosmological Model with Variable Constants

Authors: Guoliang Liu
Comments: 20 Pages. This is a preprint under review.

Based on several assumptions to deduce a cosmological model with three fundamental constants along with the dimensionless electroweak interaction coupling constant turned into functions of the gravitational potential. Initial research of this model has indicated solutions to several long-standing cosmological puzzles.
Category: Astrophysics

[162] viXra:1312.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2014-01-24 22:33:06

A Cosmological Model with Variable Constants

Authors: Guoliang Liu
Comments: 19 Pages. This is the preprint under review at Canadian Journal of Physics.

Based on several assumptions to deduce a cosmological model with three fundamental constants along with the dimensionless electroweak interaction coupling constant turned into functions of the gravitational potential. Initial research of this model has indicated solutions to several long-standing cosmological puzzles.
Category: Astrophysics