Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[941] viXra:1608.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 12:02:20

Dynamic Universe Model Solves “Faster Than Light Neutrinos” Riddle

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. Additional supplimentary files are there

There are many instances that reported Superluminal neutrinos. Dynamic Universe Model explains the how and why of “Faster than Light Neutrinos” without any modification in its theory. Various instances like Astronomical jets, Gravitational catapult, MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy Neutrinos travelling faster than speed of light were recorded. There were 76 theoretical experiments conducted and their results are reported in this paper. These experiments were done between 2009 to 2011. Dynamic Universe Model theory was tested in explaining many anomalies in Physics. Dynamic Universe Model’s many predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[940] viXra:1608.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-23 19:44:34

The Hydrogen Balloon Rocket with Laser Power

Authors: Zhixian Lin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Laser propulsion is not a new conception, but by now still no one can launch a spacecraft into space with laser propulsion. To launch a spacecraft with laser propulsion, high-power laser beams need to focus on the spacecraft, but high-power laser beams will destroy the spacecraft. This paper describes a hydrogen balloon rocket with laser power which allow high-power laser beams focus on it. It is reusable and is much effective than chemical rockets. It makes laser propulsion feasible and has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of space launches.
Category: Astrophysics

[939] viXra:1608.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 19:38:38

The Sun is a Planet

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Masses, orbits and definitions of stars change as they evolve with us.
Category: Astrophysics

[938] viXra:1608.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 08:15:20

Neutrinos and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Three distinguished particle physicists have joined the lab over the past months to pursue research on two particularly mysterious forms of matter: neutrinos and dark matter. [10] New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave, which could explain why matter persists over antimatter. [9] Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Astrophysics

[937] viXra:1608.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-18 07:41:01

Three-body

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 1 Page.

The three-body problem Author:LeiGuanji contact:gaimotuanti@sina.com Abstract:The three-body problem maybe could be solved by studying the move orbit of the mass center.So I finished this paper to describe it. Background:There is many three-body system in our universe,but we don't have a theory to describe them. The context and purpose of the study:I want to describe the move of three-body's mass center. Results:Describing the motion of the three-body. The main findings:the motion of the three-body's mass center is law-abiding. Conclusions:the mass center is moving on a cone-curve. Brief summary and potential implications: maybe it will explain many three-body's moving in our universe. Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article For Research Article:The three-body problem,mass center,star's orbit. Abstract:The three-body problem is a very inportant question.We can't solve it used common math ways because we only study the move of star but not study the move of mass center.I want to describe the motion of mass center in this paper. Introduction:I want to explain the motion of the star by the motion of the mass center. Methods:math analyse,determent analyse,go to the 5-dimension space-time to observe Discussion and Results:   We all make a mistake of three-body problem:we only want to know the equation of the three stars,but not pay attention to the moving of the centre of mass.(we only discuss the star's movement in this paper)   The three stars A,B,C make up a triangle ABC,that define a plane surface ABC. 1、one star is moving   If there is a star A is moving and the other two star isn't moving,so there is a fix line segment BC.   If A has a speed not perpendicular to BC.Using the simple math inference,we could know that the centre of mass υ is moving on a ellipse orbit and the focus point of the ellipse K isn't moving. (A doesn't between BC if A on BC line) In the framework of the planar and circular Restricted Three-Body Problem, we consider an asteroid that orbits the Sun in quasi-satellite motion with a planet.[1] 2:there is two stars moving   If there is a star A is static,and other two star B and C all have a speed.We can see that the centre of mass of AB υ1 is moving on a ellipse orbit O1. The centre of mass of AC υ2 is moving on another ellipse orbit O2.If we make O1 and O2,we can get the orbit of the ABC's centre of mass.We could find that it is on a ellipse surface.(A doesn't between BC if A is on BC line) The case of the planar circular photogravitational restricted three-body problem where the more massive primary is an emitter of radiation is numerically investigated. A thorough numerical analysis takes place in the configuration(x,y)and the(x,C)space in which we classify initial conditions of orbits into three main categories: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. Our results reveal that the radiation pressure factor has a huge impact on the character of orbits. Interpreting the collisional motion as leaking in the phase space we related our results to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. We successfully located the escape as well as the collisional basins and we managed to correlate them with the corresponding escape and collision times. We hope our contribution to be useful for a further understanding of the escape and collision properties of motion in this interesting version of the restricted three-body problem.[2] 3:ABC is all moving(A doesn't between BC if A on the BC line.B doesn't between AC if B is on the AC line .C doesn't between AB if C is on theAB line)   We could find that the centre of mass of AB,AC and BC are all moving on a ellipse orbit.So the ABC's centre of mass is moving on a ellipse shape. 4:other If a star is between another two stars when it is on their line.We could know that it doesn't moving on a ellipse orbit but moving on a odd orbit,we also can resolve its orbit into three orbits.We could find a point on the orbits are a part of a ellipse like a point on the cone spiral is a part of a circle. The presence of mean-motion resonances (MMRs) in exoplanetary systems is a new exciting field of celestial mechanics which motivates us to consider this work to study the dynamical behaviour of exoplanetary systems by time evolution of the orbital elements of the planets. Mainly, we study the influence of planetary perturbations on semimajor axis and eccentricity. We identify (r 1):rMMR terms in the expression of disturbing function and obtain the perturbations from the truncated disturbing function. Using the expansion of the disturbing function of three-body problem and an analytical approach, we solve the equations of motion. The solution which is obtained analytically is compared with that of obtained by numerical method to validate our analytical result. In this work, we consider three exoplanetary systems namely Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11. We have plotted the evolution of the resonant angles and found that they librate around constant value. In view of this, our opinion is that two planets of each system Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11 are in 2:1, 4:3 and 5:4 mean motion.[3]   If we have those conclusions,we could get the analytical solution of the three-body problem.I think now I can give this question to human being to solve. Conclusions:The mass center of the three-body moving on a complex but law-abiding motion. Acknowledgements Thanks to all kind lives. References: [1]On the co-orbital motion in the Planar Restricted Three-Body Problem: the Quasi-satellite motion revisited Alexandre Pousse, Philippe Robutel, Alain Vienne arXiv:1603.06543 [2]、Astrophysics and Space Science November 2015,360:1 First online:01 October 2015 Euaggelos E. Zotos: Unveiling the influence of the radiation pressure in nature of orbits in the photogravitational restricted three-body problem [3]、Orbital Dynamics of Exoplanetary Systems Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11 Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah Volume 459Issue 3July 01, 2016
Category: Astrophysics

[936] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 00:31:50

Black-Holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint regard to black-holes’ innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[935] viXra:1608.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-14 15:34:21

On a Global Relative Rotation of the Universe Around Earth Induced by it's Spin and the Outlines for a New Mechanism for Magnetic Fields Generation

Authors: Mutasim A. Ahmed
Comments: 18 Pages.

Although relative motion, in the special theory of relativity, can have true and verifiable results, at least for a particular observer, but we ignored it in the case of the rotation of Earth around it's own axis, my aim is to find a "resultant inertial rotation" ( resulting from the curved path due to gravity , and a circular path of an observer due to rotation, that is to claim that if the curvature of the observers circular path is same as the curvature produced by gravity, the motion will be perfectly inertial, otherwise there will be a resultant inertial motion, and for this "resultant inertial rotation" an observer can claim the state of rest while the whole observable Universe will be rotating relatively in the opposite direction, this relative Universal rotation will be displayed in conformity with the circular motion laws. I was able to find an equation to describe this type of rotation, and for very distant objects where Earth's orbit around Sun dwarfs to zero, so using this equation, and assuming that the secular aberration of light of distant cosmic objects, due to Sun's movement with it's peculiar velocity around the Galactic center, we assumed that will allow us to observe a component of the tangential velocity due to this Universal rotation, along our line of sight. It will be possible for us to explain the Hubble phenomenon, and predict a blue-shift on the other side of the sky mostly behind the zone of avoidance, hence we predict two points one with maximum red-shift and the other opposite to it with a maximum blue-shift, these two points will coincide with the CMB dipole, also we can show that the Hubble constant isn't a constant, and it's value depends on the aberration angle, therefore we can show that the great attractor, the Virgo in-fall, the CMB dipole, the dark energy, and the fingers of God theories and the likes are based on illusions, all the CMB anomalies detected by WMAP spacecraft and Planck, can be explained with ease, and the pioneer effect can also be explained, and the annual and diurnal variation of the effect can be accounted for naturally due to the dependence of the effect on the aberration angle, due to Earth's daily rotation and due to annual revolution of Earth around the Sun. Also it is possible using this rotation to find a universal mechanism for magnetic field generation, which can be applied for all cosmic objects from asteroids to magnetars and even galaxies, by simply assuming an excess in the positive charge due to protons over the negative one in deep space, therefore we will have a solenoid mechanism for magnetic field generation, but we will give only the outlines so other investigators can develop it further.
Category: Astrophysics

[934] viXra:1608.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 02:49:32

Fermi Expands Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Three studies published earlier this year, using six or more years of data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, have broadened the mission's dark matter hunt using some novel approaches. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[933] viXra:1608.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 05:50:31

Quelques Conséquences de la Matière Noire Entropique Relativiste

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

L'objectif de cet article est de tirer quelques conséquences importantes de la théorie de la matière noire entropique relativiste (GEST) dont l'approximation des champs faibles (SWFA) est un modèle. Il y sera exposé la dérivation de la relation de Tully-Fisher, la dérivation d'une nouvelle forme de décalage de fréquence, le décalage intrinsèque, et la courbe de distribution de la masse (matière) noire. Ces extensions théoriques permettront peut-être de comprendre les erreurs expérimentales inexplicables dans le calcul de la constante de Hubble et le problème de la création et de la stabilisation des disques galactiques. De plus, puisque le champ de matière noire exposé est probablement le champ BEHHGK, les implications du calcul de la courbe de distribution dépasse largement le domaine de l'astrophysique.
Category: Astrophysics

[932] viXra:1608.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 19:42:52

Kic 8462852 Intrinsic Variability

Authors: Fernando Martínez Isla
Comments: 5 Pages.

The light curve of KIC 8462852 in dips around day 1520 and 1570 shows features matching accurately its rotational period. Therefore the probable explication of this mysterious variability must be some phenomenon of the star itself. Intrinsic variability.
Category: Astrophysics

[931] viXra:1608.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 07:01:39

Modified Equations of Newtonian Dynamics (MEND) vs Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND)

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 6 Pages.

Asking the question: What if the Newtonian gravitational constant G, is inherently comprised of segmented values? Modified Equations of Newtonian Dynamics (MEND) as an alternative to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND), by postulating the Newtonian constant of gravitation G, as an aggregate of constants. A mechanism by which the galactic rotation curves could be explained by utilizing the segmented values of G. The sacrosanct doctrine of non-variability of G is preserved. The view is taken that the author of (MoND), Dr. Milgrom unwittingly stumbled upon the segmented values of the Newtonian constant of gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[930] viXra:1608.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 21:18:01

Plasma, Cosmic Noise, Heterodynes and Harmonics

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two parallel electromagnetic waves intermixing in a plasma will produce a new single wave that contains all the frequency attributes of the two original waves, plus sum and difference frequencies. To retain all the original attributes requires that the two mixing waves have the same polarity, are coplanar and collinear. The perfect alignment occurs in vacuum tubes and semi-conductor devices used to produce heterodynes. Any deviation from the perfect alignment will change the EM wave intermix process such that both EM waves are altered and they will continue on in their original direction of propagation.
Category: Astrophysics

[929] viXra:1608.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 10:06:19

The Charge Separation Principle of Stellar Birth According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The clouds that birth stars have to be completely ionized and have charge separation so that birthing can take place.
Category: Astrophysics

[928] viXra:1608.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 06:33:27

Quark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[927] viXra:1608.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 19:51:24

The Crust Ossification Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that in highly evolved rocky stars such as Earth, Venus or Mars, the crust thickens and hardens as it cools down from earlier stages of evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[926] viXra:1608.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 07:18:43

Thermodynamically Open Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that stars are thermodynamically open systems in their interface with outer space. Matter and energy can be exchanged freely.
Category: Astrophysics

[925] viXra:1608.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 08:41:21

Theory of Periodical Bursts of the Sun and the Planets

Authors: G.-P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Raise the theory of periodical bursts of the Sun and the planets. Point out that the Jovian planets, main-belt asteroids, and the terrestrial planets originated from periodical bursts of the Sun from 4.8 billion to 4.4 billion years ago. A large amount of objects from the last burst of the Sun caused the Late Heavy Bombardment. Point out that planets also burst periodically and their bursts gave birth to their regular satellites, and the rings of Jovian planets. Many facts of the solar system were systematically explained with the theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[924] viXra:1607.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 15:20:42

A Subatomic Replica of Our Solar System. Macrocosmos and Microcosmos. As Above! So Below! }

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we show that each planet and sun (star) has a mathematical subatomic twin. These planetary twin particles have exactly the same mathematical properties as their substantially larger twin planet or sun. From a planet's twin particle we get the planet's escape velocity, its solar deflection, and its red shift. If we arrange these solar system twin particles with their relative distances as our real solar system then they will, based on Newton's law of gravitation have the same orbital velocities as the true solar system. In other words, we have created a subatomic world that follows the laws of modern physics, thus becoming a replica of the Macrocosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[923] viXra:1607.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 15:44:54

The Vortex Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that a star/planet or star system in a disk configuration cannot be formed in a vortex according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[922] viXra:1607.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 08:57:24

Combining Physics Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Among the intriguing issues in plasma physics are those surrounding X-ray pulsars—collapsed stars that orbit around a cosmic companion and beam light at regular intervals, like lighthouses in the sky. Physicists want to know the strength of the magnetic field and density of the plasma that surrounds these pulsars, which can be millions of times greater than the density of plasma in stars like the sun. [12] In a lovely demonstration of light's quantum effects, physicists in the UK have just mixed a molecule with light at room temperature for the first time ever. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[921] viXra:1607.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 01:44:34

Star Forming Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

The scientists analyze the magnetic field strengths and show that, even in the least massive fragment the field is not strong enough to inhibit gravitational collapse. In fact, they find indications that gravity, as it pulls material inward, drags the magnetic field lines along. [7] Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars -- small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[920] viXra:1607.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 20:08:13

Masses Accelerate the Universe

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 9 Pages. Space waves. Every wave has energy. Space waves have energy that causes the gravity.

Space waves. Mass (matter) changes the wavelengths of space waves. Gravity is the difference of wavelengths of space waves caused by masses. This definition of space-matter theory uncovers a new characteristic of mass and space; masses accelerate the Universe. Note space-matter theory has been worked out to describe the force of thought. Thought force seems to be far from gravity. No, it isn't. Thought force and gravity have common roots. The working method of gravity is a multidisciplinary phenomenon. The new definition of gravity is a new and important additional result of space-matter theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[919] viXra:1607.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 21:03:02

Stellar Age Delineation of Host and Companions

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that a companion star can not have its age determined simply by determining the age of its host.
Category: Astrophysics

[918] viXra:1607.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 05:07:54

Effective Field Theories

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Until now, theoretical physicists have used models based on a simple, abstract description of the interaction between dark matter and ordinary particles, such as the Effective Field Theories (EFTs). [14] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] “Call it the sound of dark matter,” says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it’s not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter’s deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron’s army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[917] viXra:1607.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 17:43:54

The Chemical Complexity Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper a simple principle is presented to connect the principle of biostellar evolution with the astrochemical principle in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[916] viXra:1607.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:37:48

Design and Prototyping of Life Support and Agriculture for Extended Space Habitation and Travel

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 16 Pages.

An experimental design is presented for a modular, reconfigurable multi-function platform that can be constructed in near-orbit or deep-space, for use in life support and emergency repair/reconstruction tasks within extended long-distance and long-duration space missions. This design is based upon a series of predecessor designs and deployments originating in applications ranging from emergency services to environmental monitoring and testing labs. The novelty in this “PodAtrium” architecture is the emphasis upon multi-functionality for structural components as well as internal apparatus including furnishings that are composed of basic elements that can be disassembled and reassembled as necessary and as demanded by the needs of a crew operating in isolation from any support craft or stationary habitation such as an exoplanetary base. Attention in the present phase of research and development has been upon the use of structural elements within a PodAtrium complex that can serve alternatively for a hydroponics-based greenhouse, a fuel-cell based power plant, and an asteroid mining operation, each of which could conceivably fulfill important roles at different times in the lifespan operations for a long-distance interstellar space vehicle with human crew onboard.
Category: Astrophysics

[915] viXra:1607.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 11:50:38

An Elementary Particle Pulsation Hypothesis Elucidates Real Nature of the Dark Energy.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis elucidates real nature of the dark energy. The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle.  The complete table of contents. From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe. Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[914] viXra:1607.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:22:58

The Gravichemical Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning stars ability to provide activation energy requirements for chemical reactions to take place during stellar evolution according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[913] viXra:1607.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:25:11

The Principle of Star Water Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning water formation on evolving stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[912] viXra:1607.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 17:00:55

A New Dark Matter Density Profile as Power of Gravitational Field for Coma Cluster

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 17 Pages.

For last two years I have published eight papers about DM on galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original profile called Bernoulli profile and check its results with other standard DM profiles such as NFW, Burket or Pseudo-Isothemal. Results on every galaxy checked have been successful. The importance these works is that Bernoulli profile is supported by an original hypothesis about Dark matter nature. This hypothesis stated that dark matter is generated locally by gravitational field according an unknown quantum mechanism. Now , in this paper Dark matter density in Coma cluster will be studied with the same method. Briefly is going to be explained the structure of this paper. Firstly are presented data Coma Cluster, which come from recent papers published in 2016. They are two couples of radius and mass enclosed by its sphere. Radius considered are R = 1.314 Mpc and Virial radius = 3.1 Mpc With only two couple of data is fitted NFW profile for Dark matter density in Coma cluster within an interval radius 1.314 Mpc to 3.1 Mpc. As DM through NFW profile gives an excessive amount of DM within halo up to 14 Mpc it has been introduced Bernoulli profile which is an original DM density profile developed by author, used successfully in several galaxies to study DM. According Chernin,A. 2013. Firstly are introduced concepts of gravitating mass, dark energy or anti gravitating mass and matter mass apart from its formula MG (R) = MM (R) + MDE (R) .Because at cluster halo scale dark energy are not negligible, so it has been considered Dark energy effect to calculate gravitating mass within Coma cluster halo up to 14 Mpc. Result got of gravitating mass within cluster halo up to 14 Mpc through DM calculated with Bernoulli profile differ only 8% regarding gravitating mass got by Diferio A. & Geller M.J. 1997 whereas gravitating mass got with NFW differ more than 600%.
Category: Astrophysics

[911] viXra:1607.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 07:21:58

LUX Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The LUX Dark Matter Experiment operates a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. It's location helps shield the detector from background radiation that could confound a dark matter signal. [18] To address this problem, physicists are working on developing ever more sensitive dark matter detectors. In a new paper, researchers have proposed a new type of dark matter detector made of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance at ultracold temperatures—that may offer the highest sensitivity yet for detecting "superlight" dark matter. Superlight dark matter has a mass at the low end of the range of 1 keV (1000 electron volts) to 10 GeV, or in other words, up to a million times lighter than the proton. [17] Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[910] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 09:49:33

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. Comments welcome

The idea of ‘gravitational wave’ (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses a number of unsolved questions, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[909] viXra:1607.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:11:49

Dark Matter, the Correction to Newton's Law in a Disk

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The dark matter problem refers to the discrepancy between the galactic mass estimated from luminosity measurements of galaxies with a given mass-to-luminosity ratio and the galactic mass measured from the rotational speed of stars using the Newton’s law. Newton’s law fails when applied to a star in a spiral galaxy. The problem stems from the fact that Newton’s law is applicable to masses represented as points by their barycenter. As galactic spirals have shapes similar to a disk, we shall correct Newton’s law accordingly. We found that the Newton’s force exerted by the interior mass of a disk on an adjacent mass shall be multiplied by the coefficient η_disk estimated to be 7.44±0.83 at a 99% confidence level. The corrective coefficient for the gravitational force exerted by a homogeneous sphere at it’s surface is 1.00±0.01 at a 99% confidence level, meaning that Newton’s law is not modified for a spherical geometry. This result was proved long time ago by Newton in the shell theorem.
Category: Astrophysics

[908] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 04:22:35

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages. Research Note nr.RIC-MPM-160708

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[907] viXra:1607.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 11:25:48

Black Holes as Gates of Upper Universe for our Soul after the Death

Authors: Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir
Comments: 10 Pages.

This is the main issue of the present theory to relate the death of a human body to the so-called black holes. In this theory it is assumed that black holes are the gates to the upper universe, having tunnel-like path in singularity region,R_sc і, of imaginary or extra dimension. As a consequence of equation of motion for the Soul (the quantum end state of human’s body) in non-physical dimension of space-time, each individual’s Soul must cross through its specific black hole with imaginary singularity-radius of 2GMі/(c^2⁄α^(2D-8) ) when it leaves the physical body. Overall, the main objective of this article is to derive new equation for Black Hole’s singularity in which an individual Soul crosses through so tiny white tunnel, which is hidden into black hole’s singularity, to enter into other world.
Category: Astrophysics

[906] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 09:23:38

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 11 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s Principled Special Theory of Relativity states that a moving object will experience time running slower than a stationary object. I.e., it will experience dilated time. This has been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second, the question then becomes: Whose second? The Constructive Theory of Relativity defined here shows that light emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s second, not per Earth second. Light from celestial objects does not arrive at any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s velocity through space and its proximity to any gravitational mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[905] viXra:1607.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 15:40:52

The Principle of Young Galaxy Radiance

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 pictures

In stellar metamorphosis young galaxies can be spotted by observing bi-polar outflows in the radio frequencies. Galaxies are born all over the universe at any given time, the radio image on the second page provided by the MeerKAT shows a picture of them growing, many hundreds of them in one image.
Category: Astrophysics

[904] viXra:1607.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 13:58:58

Host and Companion Delineation in Celestial Systems

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the majority of transiting astrons such as KELT 17b around KELT-17, documentation accepted in online archives such as ArXiv still references the incorrect concepts concerning the perceived separation of planet and star. A reasonable correction for semantic purposes is provided, utilizing stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[903] viXra:1607.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 14:37:29

The Mass Independence and Dependence Principles of Stellar Formation and Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the recent paper, “KELT-17b: A Hot-Jupiter Transiting an A-Star in a Misaligned Orbit Detected with Doppler Tomography”, it is referenced that, “a sample of well characterized planets around massive stars is necessary to understand the mass-dependence of planet properties.” Two principles are provided to explain that mass-dependence attributed to formation processes is moot. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[902] viXra:1607.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 04:39:47

Neutrino Decoherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[901] viXra:1607.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 12:49:26

Dark Energy Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

An international team of astronomers has created the largest ever three-dimensional map of distant galaxies in a bid to help them understand one of the most mysterious forces in the universe. [6] For years, physicists have attempted to explain dark energy - a mysterious influence that pushes space apart faster than gravity can pull the things in it together. But physics isn’t always about figuring out what things are. A lot of it is figuring out what things cause. And in a recent paper, a group of physicists asked this very question about dark energy, and found that in some cases, it might cause time to go forward. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[900] viXra:1607.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 18:50:41

Inside the Cosmic Dispersive Prism

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages.

The universe has the characteristics of a dispersive prism with areas having different indexes of refraction. A material with a varying index of refraction can have areas that produce magnification, reflection, refraction and alter other characteristics of electromagnetic waves over distance. Radio astronomers have identified that electromagnetic waves have to travel through extensive regions of plasma. The interaction of electromagnetic waves in a plasma can produce heterodyne products. These products can mimic redshift, blueshift and produce a prodigious amount of radio noise which can be referred to as cosmic static.
Category: Astrophysics

[899] viXra:1607.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 01:49:51

Physical Bases of Divine Creation of the Universe Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v., Nikitina N. N. the Description of Process of Creation of the First Day of the World and the List of Exclusive Hypotheses in the Field of the Cosmology and Astrophysics Concerni

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitina N. N.
Comments: 1 Page.

The description of process of creation of the first day of the world and the list of exclusive hypotheses in the field of the cosmology and astrophysics concerning the Divine Universe
Category: Astrophysics

[898] viXra:1607.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 02:16:50

Yes there Will be Light! Nikitina N. N., Nikitin V. N. the Description of Process of Creation of the First Day of the World and the List of Exclusive Hypotheses in the Field of the Cosmology and Astrophysics Concerning the Divine Universe.

Authors: Nikitina N. N., Nikitin V. N.
Comments: 1 Page.

The description of process of creation of the first day of the world and the list of exclusive hypotheses in the field of the cosmology and astrophysics concerning the Divine Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[897] viXra:1607.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 16:24:14

The Astrophysical Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of human knowledge is presented to explain the structures that create life.
Category: Astrophysics

[896] viXra:1607.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 18:13:28

Core Before Crust Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar metamorphosis is presented to reposition the timeline of large solid structure formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[895] viXra:1607.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 20:39:15

The Principle of Planet Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning planet formation and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[894] viXra:1607.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 12:26:15

Quantum Thread Theory

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 15 Pages.

There is a high tension finest-filament-thread particle field in space .
Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing).
A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual thread lengths are approximately one Ångström).
Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web. If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a finest filament thread particle field)
The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"
The particle field threads have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is. If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'
Category: Astrophysics

[893] viXra:1607.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 17:11:47

The Singular Gravitationally Collapsing Object Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, a gravitationally collapsing object remains singular, and does not spawn multiple objects. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[892] viXra:1607.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 17:18:20

The Actual Size of Protoplanets in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, young stars are planets in their plasmatic state, meaning they are protoplanets. Establishment science has protoplanets as being smaller than the Moon, which is incorrect. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[891] viXra:1607.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 16:40:42

The Coherency Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar evolution is presented to clarify the idea of stars ejecting remains as they are born and evolve.
Category: Astrophysics

[890] viXra:1607.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 04:25:55

Gravitational Wave of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Gravitational waves communicate information in a wholly different medium than any type of radiation. What that means is that astronomers could use them to study things that were fundamentally invisible before. Black holes and dark matter come to mind as the most prominent examples of parts of the universe that are, at least, difficult to see with light. So, it can hardly be surprising, the controversy now swirling around the idea that the gravitational waves detected earlier this year, marking a watershed confirmation of Einstein's general relativity, could turn out to contain information on both of those topics. [1] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[889] viXra:1607.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 11:13:46

The Principle of Electromagnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that stars are electromagnetohydrodynamic structures when they are young, not hydrostatic as per nuclear models. A simple principle is given.
Category: Astrophysics

[888] viXra:1607.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 12:37:50

Pulse Detection Algorithms for SETI@home

Authors: Eric J. Korpela, Eric M. Heien, Dan Werthimer
Comments: 8 Pages. Korpela, E. J., Heien, E. M., and Werthimer, D., “Pulse Detection Algorithms for Use in SETI@home,” Bull. AAS 32, 1492 (Dec. 2000)

We describe the pulse detection algorithms used by the most recent versions of SETI@home. The first is a modified folding algorithm with an optimal threshold function. It is designed to efficiently search for repeating pulses over a 15+ octave period range with constant false alarm rate per period searched. This algorithm is potentially useful for other applications where detection of faint pulsed emission is desired (i.e. pulsar searches). The second is a triplet detector, which searches for sets of three evenly spaced pulses that exceed a power threshold. It is useful for detecting pulsed emission that has total duration less than the searched exposure. We describe the first results of the use of these algorithms in SETI@home and discuss the pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI) environment of the Arecibo observatory.
Category: Astrophysics

[887] viXra:1607.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 07:34:18

The Principle of Thermodynamic Phase Aging

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar evolution is presented to clarify the age differences between rocky and plasmatic stars according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[886] viXra:1606.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 09:47:35

The Principle of Multiple Nebulas in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that the solar system formed from multiple nebulas, not a singular one. Explanation is given.
Category: Astrophysics

[885] viXra:1606.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 09:48:56

The Solar System Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

According to the Principle of Multiple nebulas inside of stellar metamorphosis theory, a new principle of solar systems is presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[884] viXra:1606.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 12:41:38

The Pressure and Time Principle of Rock/Mineral Formation in Outer Space

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of rock and mineral formation in outer space is presented according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[883] viXra:1606.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 10:07:47

Dark Matter Density on Big Galaxies Depend on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 28 Pages.

This paper contain results from six previous paper I have published for different galaxies about dark matter density depending on gravitational field. Galaxies studied are NGC 2841, NGC 7331, NGC 3992, M31. All of them are big galaxies bigger than Milky Way. In addition Milky Way was studied with data coming from two authors. Also were studied two intermediate galaxies M33 (Triangulum galaxy) and NGC 3198 Each paper studied dark matter density depending on gravitational field on each galaxy. Rotation curve and dark matter density function depending on radius were taken from paper published by prestigious astrophysics and I got dark matter density depending on gravitational field through a mathematical method. I found that Dark matter density depend on gravitational field according a power function DM density = A•E^B, where A and B are parameters which depend on each galaxy. In this paper are gathered eight different functions belonging to eight different galactic data set and they are tabulated and plotted in order to compare all of them. Conclusion got is that dark matter density depending on gravitational field is very similar on big galaxies whereas DM density is a great deal bigger on intermediate galaxies. The less massive galaxy is the higher DM density is. Results got for big and intermediate galaxies are consistent with author hypothesis which state that dark matter is generated by the own gravitational field.
Category: Astrophysics

[882] viXra:1606.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 17:00:22

The Principles of Volume and Surface Area in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that stars’ volume and surface area increase during stellar birthing then decrease during stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis, so two principles are provided to further clarify stellar evolution/planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[881] viXra:1606.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 15:44:14

The Plasma to Rock and Metal Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A principle of matter evolution is presented to further explain the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[880] viXra:1606.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:21:14

The Phase Transition Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of thermodynamic phases is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[879] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 04:27:02

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 2 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained qualitatively by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[878] viXra:1606.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 10:21:36

Science in Crisis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 228 Pages.

Abstract: General public regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[877] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 18:38:28

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 4 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravity Wave waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the Sun mass orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics

[876] viXra:1606.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 01:46:35

Supermassive Black Holes Jets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. [15] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[875] viXra:1606.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 14:41:19

LIGO find Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

When an astronomical observatory detected two black holes colliding in deep space, scientists celebrated confirmation of Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves. A team of astrophysicists wondered something else: Had the experiment found the "dark matter" that makes up most of the mass of the universe? [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[874] viXra:1606.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 15:42:27

The Stellar Foundation Structure Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

As stars evolve into stable rocky life hosting structures it is required to define the process of foundation structure formation with a simple principle according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[873] viXra:1606.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:27:04

The Laws of Hot Jupiters

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Five laws of hot Jupiters are given definition so that the reader can properly examine the validity and accuracy of establishment sciences’ claims according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[872] viXra:1606.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 11:55:45

Newton's Shell Theorem and the Deformation of Interacting Galaxies

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 3 Pages.

SUMMARY: On behalf of gravitational effects galaxies are usually considered as spheres. Is it correct to apply Newton's Shell Theorem to galaxies? Will interacting galaxies act like Newtonian spheres? There are exact astronomical observations to be compared with theoretic considerations. Newton's gravitation law is confirmed by a lot of observations of interacting galaxies, but there are severe objections against the validity of the Shell Theorem on behalf of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[871] viXra:1606.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 17:15:14

The Brightness Principle in Galaxy Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to connect stellar metamorphosis to galaxy growth and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[870] viXra:1606.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 21:09:32

Magneton Theory Commentary Universe Mysteries -- 10. Photon Trajectory Bend Experiment

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 4 Pages.

Photon、dark matter、electromagnet wave conduction medium、cosmic dust, between them inner link is a urgent research major issues. Photon characteristics research is bear brunt. In 1919, British scientist Eddington organized a total solar eclipse big observation. Observed data confirm that photon trajectory is arc. From then on, opened the relativity era. Magneton Theory think, photon trajectory bend is photon spin and environmental magnet field combined action result. According to Magneton Theory, conceived a new experiment. This experimental results exact simple proved following conclusions: 1. In most cases, photon trajectory is arc. 2. Photon trajectory curvature radius inversely proportional to beam frequency. 3. Under special conditions, photon trajectory is straight line. 4. Photon trajectory bend has nothing to do with gravity. This experiment would prompt world to re-examine the relativity. This experiment will also open physical theory new era.
Category: Astrophysics

[869] viXra:1606.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 08:39:26

Gravitational Theory of Time

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is many experments to prove the relation between gravitation and time,and the entropy and time have a very close relation,so the gravitation maybe could be explained by entropy.And there is too many theories of gravitation like string theory.But we can't get any prediction which could be observed by experments. I have wrote that:"Only the physical quantity which we have (and will) observed by experments have the really physical significance[1]" in my another paqer “Some views of time trials for fundamental constants”.If we can't prove the string theory is right.It must be wrong,so we need a new theory about gravitation. The context and purpose of the study:I want to make up a new theory about gravitation which could be proved (even maybe it will be proved that it is wrong) by experments.The theory of relativity tell us that the pace of time's increasing and the gravitation have some very big relation.But the thermodynamics tell us that the time and entropy have very close relation.So maybe the gravitation have some effects about entropy.Now we observed many effects about dark mass,maybe them could be explained by entropy.I have finished this paper to explain the relation between the gravitation and time(entropy).We could get theose conclusions: 1,the quasar maybe could decay in one hundred years. 2,The expanansion of universe is speeding up and the vaccum energy is lower than zero point nergy. 3,the dark mass is around the galaxy. 4,the planck constant will change by the gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[868] viXra:1606.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 17:38:15

The Principle of Heat Evolution in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in reference to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[867] viXra:1606.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 13:11:40

The Accretion Principle of Planet Formation and Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided to explain accretion in astrophysics according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[866] viXra:1606.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 13:55:31

The Death of the Nebular Hypothesis and Replacement with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is referenced that the nebular hypothesis was never actually invented to explain planet formation. It was used to try and place entire galaxies as local phenomenon (birthing solar systems) and keep the Milky Way as the entire universe. In this paper it is shown that not only is that hypothesis incorrect, but that it is effectively replaced as a means of planet formation and stellar evolution by the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[865] viXra:1606.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 11:54:19

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way Which Depends on Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 19 Pages. 19 pgs.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. Also were proposed several experimental test to check that theory. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for Milky Way. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW dark matter density profile below 15%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM density profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. [5] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field and finally [7] Abarca, M.2016 A new Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside Milky Way galaxy. These data come from [8] Huang,Y.2016. In fourth chapter, it has been calculated and tabulated gravitational field through Virial theorem, which is a direct calculus having velocity data depending on radius. In this paper, dominion of gravitational E extends from 26 kpc to 100 kpc. In fifth epigraphs it has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [8] Huang, Y.2016. for Milky Way. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is DM density = A• E^B .Where A= 5.1085837 •10^-7 and B= 1.568156686 being regression coefficient r= 0.9886366654 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are below 16% inside main part of dominion. In eighth epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region (26 to 100 kpc) where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r ^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then. M´(r) = 4Pi • r ^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula of D.M = A•E^B. In ninth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 18% for radius lower than 70 kpc. This is a superb result, especially if it is considered that NFW profile come from calculus got through experimental data with important errors. In tenth epigraph are introduced a study of ancient and recent measures of local dark matter also it is calculated local dark matter through power of E formula. Finally it is concluded that the new one value of local dark matter is similar to local dark matter values published currently.
Category: Astrophysics

[864] viXra:1605.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-31 14:22:53

Nikolai Kozyrev Was Right

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

Simple calculation shows early cosmological thoughts of Nikolai Kozyrev (1908-1983) basically correct. A prediction about revolution speeds of Pistol star, Eta Carinae, Mira, Alpha Herculis, 119 Tauri and VY Canis Majoris has been made.
Category: Astrophysics

[863] viXra:1605.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-31 07:39:14

The Principle of Atmospheric Thinning

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to explain what happens to stars as they evolve.
Category: Astrophysics

[862] viXra:1605.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 10:04:38

Loop Quantum Gravity and Event Horizon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In principle, nothing that enters a black hole can leave the black hole. This has considerably complicated the study of these mysterious bodies, which generations of physicists have debated since 1916, when their existence was hypothesized as a direct consequence of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. There is, however, some consensus in the scientific community regarding black hole entropy—a measure of the inner disorder of a physical system—because its absence would violate the second law of thermodynamics. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[861] viXra:1605.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 11:55:33

Dark Matter is Made of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

"These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[860] viXra:1605.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 03:56:44

Circular Galactic Formation

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 2 Pages.

The standing cosmological understanding of the galactic formation is insufficient. Both the Standard Model and the ideas derived from the Einsteinian hypothesis are inconsistent, contradictive and lacks natural logics. The linear cosmological model with the Big Bang almost demands skills of a mathemagician and all kinds of metaphysical speculations thrives in both areas. The natural and universal process of formation is cyclical, circuital and spherical and the formational process is governed by the electromagnetic forces and qualities, building everything together, dissolving it and re-building everything in eternity.
Category: Astrophysics

[859] viXra:1605.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 02:16:32

Shouldn't be at Mars of Secrets from us Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Atmosphere and Water of Mars Have Once Been Forced Out by an Unknown Comet to His Internal Area!

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The atmosphere and water of Mars have once been forced out by an unknown comet to his internal area!
Category: Astrophysics

[858] viXra:1605.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:57:25

Planetesimals in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that the accepted notions of planetesimal formation are philosophically backwards. A simple correction of reasoning is provided via stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[857] viXra:1605.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 08:05:56

Intergalactic and Time Travel Via Black Holes Possible Because E=mc^2 Can Transform Into (E=0) + (M=c^2)

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 11 Pages.

For many years, I dismissed the idea of intergalactic and time travel via black holes as science fiction. Then one day, I started playing around with E=mc^2 to see what else could be done with it. One of the results fits in with modern ideas in physics and mathematics. And there seems to be an emphasis here on references to Stephen Hawking. So I have to say thanks for changing my mind, Drs. Einstein and Hawking.
Category: Astrophysics

[856] viXra:1605.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 08:29:13

Some Views Of Time Trials for Fundamental Constants

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 3 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments prove that the fundamental constants is changing by the evolution of the universe , this paper tries to give some explanation.We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time.Some scientists think the vaccum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing,too.I agree them.So I finish this paper to explain those experments and develop those guesses.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[410] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-19 09:18:47

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[409] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-19 02:12:23

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[408] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-17 07:55:42

Black-Holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint regard to black-holes’ innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[407] viXra:1608.0111 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-21 12:06:09

Quelques Conséquences de la Matière Noire Entropique Relativiste

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

L'objectif de cet article est de tirer quelques conséquences importantes de la théorie de la matière noire entropique relativiste (GEST) dont l'approximation des champs faibles (SWFA) est un modèle. Il y sera exposé la dérivation de la relation de Tully-Fisher, la dérivation d'une nouvelle forme de décalage de fréquence, le décalage intrinsèque, et la courbe de distribution de la masse (matière) noire. Ces extensions théoriques permettront peut-être de comprendre les erreurs expérimentales inexplicables dans le calcul de la constante de Hubble et le problème de la création et de la stabilisation des disques galactiques. De plus, puisque le champ de matière noire exposé est probablement le champ BEHHGK, les implications du calcul de la courbe de distribution dépasse largement le domaine de l'astrophysique.
Category: Astrophysics

[406] viXra:1608.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-18 15:48:23

Kic 8462852 Intrinsic Variability

Authors: Fernando Martinez Isla
Comments: 5 Pages.

The light curve of KIC 8462852 in dips around day 1519 and 1568 shows features matching clearly the rotational period of the star. Changes in brightness (unevenly distributed around its surface in these two cases) are shown modulated by the rotational period. Therefore the probable explication of this mysterious variability must be some phenomenon of the star itself instead of occultations by external objects.
Category: Astrophysics

[405] viXra:1608.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-08 23:21:37

Theory of Periodical Bursts of the Sun and the Planets

Authors: G.-P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Raise the theory of periodical bursts of the Sun and the planets. Point out that the Jovian planets, main-belt asteroids, and the terrestrial planets originated from periodical bursts of the Sun from 4.8 billion to 4.4 billion years ago. A large amount of objects from the last burst of the Sun caused the Late Heavy Bombardment. Point out that planets also burst periodically and their bursts gave birth to their regular satellites, and the rings of Jovian planets. Many facts of the solar system were systematically explained with the theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[404] viXra:1607.0556 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-03 08:11:01

A Subatomic Replica of Our Solar System. Macrocosmos and Microcosmos. As Above! So Below!

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we show that each planet and sun (star) has a mathematical subatomic twin. Each planetary twin particle has exactly the same mathematical properties as its substantially larger twin planet or Sun. From a planet's twin particle we get the planet's escape velocity, its solar deflection, and its red shift. If we arrange these solar system twin particles with their relative distances as our real solar system then they will, based on Newton's law of gravitation, have the same orbital velocities as the true solar system. In other words, we have created a subatomic world that in many respects is a replica of the Macrocosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[403] viXra:1607.0427 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-25 11:50:59

A New Dark Matter Density Profile as Power of Gravitational Field for Coma Cluster

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 18 Pages. In V2 DM has been got by analitical integration instead numerical. Calculus and observation differ 6% instead 8 %.

For last two years I have published eight papers about DM on galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original profile called Bernoulli profile and check its results with other standard DM profiles such as NFW, Burket or Pseudo-Isothemal. Results on every galaxy checked have been successful. The importance these works is that Bernoulli profile is supported by an original hypothesis about Dark matter nature. This hypothesis stated that dark matter is generated locally by gravitational field, E, according an unknown quantum mechanism. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters. Now , in this paper Dark matter density in Coma cluster will be studied with the same method. Briefly is going to be explained the structure of this paper. Firstly are presented data Coma Cluster, which come from recent papers published in 2016. They are two couples of radius and mass enclosed by its sphere. Radius considered are R500 = 1.314 Mpc and Virial radius = 3.1 Mpc With only two couple of data is fitted NFW profile for Dark matter density in Coma cluster within an interval radius 1.314 Mpc to 3.1 Mpc. NFW profile is an intermediate processes to get A & B parameters of formula DM density = A•E^B. Finally it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for E whose solution gives DM density Bernoulli profile and whose dominion extend up to 14 Mpc. As it is known DM through NFW profile gives an excessive amount of DM within halo up to 14 Mpc. This is the reason why I have tried with Bernoulli profile. According Chernin,A. 2013. At cluster scale is needed to consider dark energy, gravitating mass and matter mass. This formula relates three masses. MG (R) = MM (R) + MDE (R) .Dark energy is a negative quantity. So gravitating mass, which is the mass measured by observation is lower than mass matter which is baryonic mass plus dark matter. Result got as gravitating mass within cluster halo up to 14 Mpc through DM calculated with Bernoulli profile is 2.25• 10 ^15 Solar masses and differ only 6% regarding gravitating mass got by Geller M.J. & Diaferio A. 1999 whereas gravitating mass got with NFW differ more than 600%.
Category: Astrophysics

[402] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-22 08:32:13

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. One reference added and text expanded.

The idea of gravitational wave (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses outstanding challenges, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[401] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 10:39:34

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

The idea of ‘gravitational wave’ (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses a number of unsolved questions, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[400] viXra:1607.0373 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-09 14:21:51

Dark Matter, the Correction to Newton's Law in a Disk

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The dark matter problem in the context of spiral galaxies refers to the discrepancy between the galactic mass estimated from luminosity measurements of galaxies with a given mass-to-luminosity ratio and the galactic mass measured from the rotational speed of stars using the Newton’s law. Newton’s law fails when applied to a star in a spiral galaxy. The problem stems from the fact that Newton’s law is applicable to masses represented as points by their barycenter. As spiral galaxies have shapes similar to a disk, we shall correct Newton’s law accordingly. We found that the Newton’s force exerted by the interior mass of a disk on an adjacent mass shall be multiplied by the coefficient ηdisk estimated to be 7.44±0.83 at a 99% confidence level. The corrective coefficient for the gravitational force exerted by a homogeneous sphere at it’s surface is 1.00±0.01 at a 99% confidence level, meaning that Newton’s law is not modified for a spherical geometry. This result was proven a long time ago by Newton in the shell theorem.
Category: Astrophysics

[399] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 04:20:06

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages.

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[398] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-19 09:11:02

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages.

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[397] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-08 09:46:18

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 8 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s Principled Special Theory of Relativity states that a moving object will experience time running slower than a stationary object. I.e., it will experience dilated time. This has been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second, the question then becomes: Whose second? The Constructive Theory defined here shows that light emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s second, not per Earth second. Light from celestial objects does not arrive at any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s velocity through space and its proximity to any gravitational mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[396] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-01 08:58:13

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 11 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s Principled Special Theory of Relativity states that a moving object will experience time running slower than a stationary object. I.e., it will experience dilated time. This has been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second, the question then becomes: Whose second? The Constructive Theory of Relativity defined here shows that light emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s second, not per Earth second. Light from celestial objects does not arrive at any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s velocity through space and its proximity to any gravitational mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[395] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-25 10:22:05

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 11 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s Principled Special Theory of Relativity states that a moving object will experience time running slower than a stationary object. I.e., it will experience dilated time. This has been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second, the question then becomes: Whose second? The Constructive Theory of Relativity defined here shows that light emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s second, not per Earth second. Light from celestial objects does not arrive at any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s velocity through space and its proximity to any gravitational mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[394] viXra:1606.0279 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-13 17:45:51

Dark Matter Density on Big Galaxies Depend on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 29 Pages. V2 contain calculus of Coma Cluster mass trhough DM density as power of E law

This paper contain results from six previous paper I have published for different galaxies about dark matter density depending on gravitational field. Galaxies studied are NGC 2841, NGC 7331, NGC 3992, M31. All of them are big galaxies bigger than Milky Way. In addition Milky Way was studied with data coming from two authors. Also were studied two intermediate galaxies M33 (Triangulum galaxy) and NGC 3198 Each paper studied dark matter density depending on gravitational field on each galaxy. Rotation curve and dark matter density function depending on radius were taken from paper published by prestigious astrophysics and I got dark matter density depending on gravitational field through a mathematical method. I found that Dark matter density depend on gravitational field according a power function DM density = A•E^B, where A and B are parameters which depend on each galaxy. In this paper are gathered eight different functions belonging to eight different galactic data set and they are tabulated and plotted in order to compare all of them. Conclusion got is that dark matter density depending on gravitational field is very similar on big galaxies whereas DM density is a great deal bigger on intermediate galaxies. The less massive galaxy is the higher DM density is. Results got for big and intermediate galaxies are consistent with author hypothesis which state that dark matter is generated by the own gravitational field. This second version paper include an estimation of total mass in Coma Cluster got through DM density as power of E which is very close to mass calculated by cosmological standard model CDM and NFW profile in a paper published in 2015 by prestigious researchers. This calculus is a test overcome to consider DM density as power of gravitational field as Universal law because that law was got for big galaxies and it has been used to calculated total dark matter inside a galaxy cluster which is 100 times bigger and it contains thousand of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[393] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-19 21:39:15

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 8 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[392] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 12:06:16

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. One reference added.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[391] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-24 15:12:11

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. One reference added and text expanded. Comments welcomed.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[390] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 06:32:02

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Text expanded, typos corrected.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[389] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 05:53:17

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[388] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 14:31:02

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravitational Waves waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass G-star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the main G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics