Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1237] viXra:1706.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 17:52:53

The Origin of the Moon in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The moon is a dead star vastly older than the Earth. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1236] viXra:1706.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-19 07:08:00

The Principle of Atmospheric Thinning and Chthonian Planets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 screenshots, 1 illustrative diagram

Chthonian planets as previous gas giants are observed all over the galaxy, regardless if their evidence for existence is hypothetical inside of the dogma. They are not hypothetical objects in stellar metamorphosis, because they are observed and can be directly experimented on. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1235] viXra:1706.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-18 11:30:48

Superfluid Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1234] viXra:1706.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-17 15:30:21

Defining the Chemical Equilibrium of Dead Stars in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

: It is explained in stellar metamorphosis that in order for a star to be classified as dead, it absolutely must be in static chemical equilibrium. Perfect chemical equilibrium is impossible though, as interactions with asteroids and hotter stars can change the chemistry of the dead star.
Category: Astrophysics

[1233] viXra:1706.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 07:22:11

Creating Different Sized Earths in Stellar Metamorphosis, the Trappist-1 System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Nature creates Earths. Here is an explanation of one aspect of how she does it by ripping away their atmospheres at different rates. We can explain the different sizes of the Trappist-1 evolved stars using stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1232] viXra:1706.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 13:17:39

Universe and Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime was infinite at the big bang. In fact, at this point all mathematical tools fail, and the theory breaks down. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1231] viXra:1706.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 00:19:47

An Unusual Hole in Mars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the image.
Category: Astrophysics

[1230] viXra:1706.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 07:13:31

Electrodeless Spacecraft Propulsion Engine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The universe is made up of plasma, which is easily influenced by magnetic fields and forces, leading to complex behavior. [18] Measuring small fast electron populations hidden in a sea of colder "thermal" electrons in tokamak plasmas is very challenging. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science - and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1229] viXra:1706.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-14 21:49:08

Uranus is a Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

According to establishment dogma, Uranus is an “ice giant”, which is based on poor theory. Uranus is not “ice” nor is it the actual giant size it was in its past. It is a highly evolved star probably even older than Neptune according to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Reasoning is provided to replace the outdated dogma.
Category: Astrophysics

[1228] viXra:1706.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-07 12:16:44

The Principle of Energy Transformations in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of stellar evolution (planet formation) is presented to further clarify the star sciences and make them coherent.
Category: Astrophysics

[1227] viXra:1706.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 18:23:31

KIC 8462852—Physical Modelling of its Occulting Objects and the Mystery of the Cyclic Fluctuations

Authors: Andrew Collins, Rodney Hale
Comments: 15 Pages.

KIC 8462862, an F-type main sequence star in the constellation of Cygnus, was found to be experiencing strange light fluctuations during the initial Kepler mission. Recorded data showed that the flux dropped by as much as 16 percent on one occasion in 2011 and 22 percent on another occasion in 2013. Various other major and minor light dipping episodes occurred across this same period, with an eclectic series of theories being offered to account for them. Experimental attempts are made to physically model the occulting objects behind the drops in flux to try and determine their line of sight profile, and through this their nature and appearance. The Kepler data for KIC 8462852 is re-examined to better understand the 0.88-day and 48.4-day periodicities noted in connection with the star (Boyajian et al, 2016). These reveal cyclic patterns suggesting that the prediction of future light dipping episodes might be possible, as well as recurring number sequences that warrant further investigation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1226] viXra:1706.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-03 03:28:17

Rotating Universe and Simultaneous Existence of Red and Blue Shifted Galaxies in Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 30 Pages. This paper is prepared for answering David Pinyana question on Mar. 18, 2017 @ 10:52 GMT in FQXi, topic 2925

Abstract: According to Dynamic Universe Model, our Universe is a Rotating Universe. In this model, electrons rotate about nucleus; Moons rotate about planets; Planets, asteroid and comets etc., rotate about stars; stars rotate about Galaxy center; Galaxies rotate about common center of local systems; and similarly Systems rotate in Ensembles, Aggregate, Conglomerations and Galaxy Clusters and so on and so forth. Galaxies coming near are Blue shifted and going away are red shifted. There are many blue shifted Galaxies in our universe. Here in this paper we will see different simulations to make such predictions from the output pictures formed from the Dynamic Universe model. There are some old and a few new simulations where different point masses are placed in different distances in a 3D Cartesian coordinate grid; and are allowed to move on universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. The output pictures depict the three dimensional orbit formations of point masses after some iterations. In an orbit so formed, some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted). In this paper the simulations predicted the existence of a large number of Blue shifted Galaxies, in an expanding universe, in 2004 itself. Over 8,300 blue shifted galaxies have been discovered extending beyond the Local Group, was confirmed by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations in the year 2009. Thus Dynamic Universe model predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[1225] viXra:1706.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-01 07:17:09

Neptune is a Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrative graphs

According to establishment dogma, Neptune sized objects should be rare. This is the complete opposite of the predictions made by stellar metamorphosis, which shows that Neptune objects will be quite common. Explanation is provided with a simple graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[1224] viXra:1706.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-01 03:24:26

Hypothesis of the Principle of Particle Pulsation. (Original in 1980)

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

Hypothesis of the principle of particle pulsation. (Original in 1980) Elementary particles repeat the divergence and contraction of self-energy. The spontaneous breaking from the symmetry of the vacuum space is repeated at a very high speed. It is an energy aggregate that changes the degree of self-mass at a moment. The vacuum space is filled with energy, and the energy acts as a repulsive force to each other and holds the symmetry. The energy atmosphere is the vacuum itself. The vacuum space has a symmetry that the energy density of the energy atmosphere is the storage amount. The increase or decrease in the energy density from the vacuum level is a breach of the symmetry to the positive or negative, causing the mass to become a distortion of the space. Particle and wave conversion is repeated at a very high speed by alternating the symmetry breaking of the positive and the negative with the pulsation with the particle. In the mass extinction process of the particle pulsation, the whole mass of the particles is converted into energy and released into the field. Subsequently, it becomes mass generation stroke by the reaction, an equivalent amount of energy containing the information of the field is absorbed, the mass of the equivalent is formed again particles.
Category: Astrophysics

[1223] viXra:1705.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-31 11:15:55

The Density of Dark Energy.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 3 Pages.

The dark energy density of the accelerating expanding universe is considered constant. The dark energy density of the accelerating expanding universe is considered constant. It means that the dark energy continues to be supplied to the expanding space from somewhere. Dark energy is considered to be a constant, lambda (λ) of the gravitational equation that Einstein removed after adding. The energy value of the lambda is desired to be zero. In the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis, the average density of dark energy is set to zero as the first assumption. When the universe expands and the dark energy density thins, the energy value of the lambda is always zero. It is expressed as the horizontal line of the energy waveform diagram. It can be said that the pulsating hypothesis is a deviation from the horizontal line, and physical of the wave shot. The horizon is assumed to be energy zero regardless of whether the dark energy continues to be supplied from the surplus dimension.
Category: Astrophysics

[1222] viXra:1705.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-29 17:51:51

PAH's in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustrative graph

The vast majority of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)’s are formed in intermediate stages of a star’s evolution. This is in line with the astrochemical principle of stellar metamorphosis. Stars in intermediate stages of evolution are outlined in a graph and are comprised of M, L, Y and T type brown dwarfs all the way to ocean world stages of stellar evolution. PAH’s are mostly formed in Pop 2 stars according to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1221] viXra:1705.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-26 19:53:36

Dark Matter and Rotation Curves

Authors: Anton A. Lipovka
Comments: 11 Pages.

In present paper we show that to explain the shape of the rotation curves of galaxies, there is no need to involve the concept of dark matter. Rotation curves are completely determined by the distribution of baryonic matter and such parameters of the galaxy as its mass and the distribution of baryonic matter can be easily calculated from the observed rotation curves. As an example, our Galaxy is considered. Calculated total mass of the Galaxy is 25x10(10)M\_sun. Consequences for cosmology are discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1220] viXra:1705.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 07:12:28

Metallurgy in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is observed that stars evolve into what are called “planets/exoplanets”, this meaning planets/exoplanets are simply evolved/evolving stars. The theoretical foundations for explaining how this occurs is outlined in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. As a principle of this still developing theory the plasma to rock and metal principle is mentioned with how it relates to metallurgy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1219] viXra:1705.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 02:23:57

Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. ГИПОТЕЗА О ТОМ, ЧТО ЯВЛЯЕТСЯ ИСТОЧНИКОМ ЭНЕРГИИ ГАЛАКТИК ВСЕЛЕННОЙ Источником энергии галактик является Вселенская Белая дыра. Галактики возникли в результате галактического распада Белой дыры Вселенной.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Источником энергии галактик является Вселенская Белая дыра. Галактики возникли в результате галактического распада Белой дыры Вселенной.
Category: Astrophysics

[1218] viXra:1705.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 13:06:29

Blackbody Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In 2013, a group of physicists from Austria proposed the existence of a new and unusual force called the "blackbody force." [18] Researchers have shown how singularities – which are normally only found at the centre of black holes and hidden from view – could exist in highly curved three-dimensional space. [17] A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1217] viXra:1705.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 19:58:32

Einstein's Key to Hubble Redshift

Authors: W.Q. Sumner
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1907 Einstein discovered the key to understanding accelerating Hubble redshifts. By assuming that acceleration and gravity are equivalent (“The Happiest Thought of my Life”), he proved that Maxwell’s equations are the same in every acceler- ated reference frame but that vacuum permittivity depends on the acceleration. Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. Maxwell’s equations are valid in every coordinate sys- tem in general relativity. Vacuum permittivity depends on the spacetime curvature. For Friedmann spacetime, vacuum permittivity is proportional to the radius of the universe. When the radius changes, changing electrical fields in atoms change the wavelengths of emitted photons by about twice as much as photon wavelengths change. This is the key Einstein left us: The evolution of both photons and atoms must be used together to understand Hubble redshift. When this is done, the physics of Maxwell, Einstein, Bohr, and Friedmann fits modern Hubble redshift observations beautifully.
Category: Astrophysics

[1216] viXra:1705.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 07:22:25

Naked Singularity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers have shown how singularities – which are normally only found at the centre of black holes and hidden from view – could exist in highly curved three-dimensional space. [17] A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1215] viXra:1705.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 08:47:38

Tails Around Globular Cluster

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astronomers have found tidal tails around a distant globular cluster known as NGC 7492. The newly discovered features could provide important information about the nature of globular clusters. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1214] viXra:1705.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 02:58:33

Никитина Н.Н., Никитин В.Н., Никитин И.В. ГРАВИТАЦИЯ ПОБЕДИТ! По мере движения галактик к окраинам Вселенной гравитация будет возрастать и, в конечном итоге, победит, раздавит всё и превратится в «ничего»

Authors: Nikitina N.N., Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

По мере движения галактик к окраинам Вселенной гравитация будет возрастать и, в конечном итоге, победит, раздавит всё и превратится в «ничего».
Category: Astrophysics

[1213] viXra:1705.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 07:59:43

Interaction Between Dark and Ordinary Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Statistical analysis of mini-spiral galaxies shows an unexpected interaction between dark matter and ordinary matter. [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1212] viXra:1705.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 11:37:01

History of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Each galaxy has a fado—a narrative of its biography since the birth of its first stars. This fate is written in its electromagnetic spectrum, which contains the fossil records of multiple stellar populations that formed over several billion years, as well as the gas that those stars ionize with their radiation. [8] The Earth is constantly jostled by low-frequency gravitational waves from supermassive black hole binaries in distant galaxies. Astrophysicists are using pulsars as a galaxy-sized detector to measure the Earth's motion from these waves. [7] Last week's announcement that Gravitational Waves (GW) have been detected for the first time—as a result of the merger of two black holes—is huge news. But now a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) originating from the same place, and that arrived at Earth 0.4 seconds after the GW, is making news. Isolated black holes aren't supposed to create GRB's; they need to be near a large amount of matter to do that. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1211] viXra:1705.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 04:27:04

A Perfect Candidate for Dark Matter. 

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 3 Pages.

If the mystery of the pioneer anomaly is "gravitational action by photon Group of Sunlight", The mass of the pulsating photon particle process is a perfect candidate for dark matter. The photon of the particle pulsation hypothesis is a perfect candidate for dark matter. * Ultra-high-speed and pulsating photons in the particle pulsation hypothesis are moving in the surplus dimension at a very high speed, with great kinetic energy. It is a particle with mass in the surplus dimension though it is a wave of the light of mass zero propagating at the speed of light. This is a particle of Caruia-Klein state. The mass is hidden in the surplus dimension. The photon is full of space, equipped with a sufficient amount to constitute 23% of the universe, and is everywhere in the vacuum space around us. It can be said to be the perfect candidate for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1210] viXra:1705.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 09:06:12

Mapping Super Massive Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1209] viXra:1705.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 13:41:39

Dance of Electrons in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

You can't see them, but swarms of electrons are buzzing through the magnetic environment—the magnetosphere—around Earth. [18] When NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale—or MMS—mission was launched, the scientists knew it would answer questions fundamental to the nature of our universe—and MMS hasn't disappointed. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times.
Category: Astrophysics

[1208] viXra:1705.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 13:29:52

Minimum Energy Transfer Orbit

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try to obtain the theoretical minimum for the energy transfer orbit for a spaceship
Category: Astrophysics

[1207] viXra:1705.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 07:42:21

Quantum Squeezer and Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1206] viXra:1705.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 08:12:52

Dark Matter Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1205] viXra:1705.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 06:34:34

One Black Hole, Two Stars and Residual Dust

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the image.
Category: Astrophysics

[1204] viXra:1705.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 13:34:53

Stars Test Foundations of Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Stars, quasars, and other celestial objects generate photons in a random way, and now scientists have taken advantage of this randomness to generate random numbers at rates of more than one million numbers per second. [18] UBC physicists may have solved one of nature's great puzzles: what causes the accelerating expansion of our universe? [17] A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1203] viXra:1705.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 13:53:47

Solving Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

UBC physicists may have solved one of nature's great puzzles: what causes the accelerating expansion of our universe? [17] A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1202] viXra:1705.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 16:37:35

Pioneer Anomaly

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

A difference in orbits has formed by a gravity action of the photon crowd of sunlight who keeps applying an investigation satellite according to a pulsation hypothesis. In that pioneer Mary, the orbit calculation of the space exploration satellite pioneer is led by gravitation action by the sun mass. The gravitation by the light of the sun is not included in orbit calculation there. A mystery pulled little by little in the direction of the sun is not untied every year for 30 years by an effort equivalent to gravitational 1/100 hundred million from the orbit which a pioneer calculated. According to the analogy from an elementary particle pulsation principle, I think that a group of photons of the light of the sun to arrive in the exploration satellite is the gravitation by a gravity child carried by a material wave from the sun. It is vacuum space between a space probe and the sun, and there is not the atmosphere inhibiting a light of the sun ingredient. It should always go away by radiation pressure (photon rocket) of the light of the sun from the sun because photon group of enormous numerical high energy collides with a space probe. On the contrary, the top is past repulsive force of the radiation pressure, and, as for what is drawn into the sun direction, gravity by the photon group can understand that it is bigger and acts. A mystery to deviate from the original track that I calculated by gravity by the mass of the sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[1201] viXra:1705.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 12:12:07

The Hydrogen Paradox of Earth and Rocky Body Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The velocity of hydrogen gas at temperatures hypothesized to have been on Earth and other rocky bodies during their formation is well beyond the escape velocity of Earth and other smaller bodies. So there is a paradox, how exactly did rocks, minerals and water oceans form, which contain hydrogen, if hydrogen would have escaped Earth’s and other bodies’ gravitational fields?
Category: Astrophysics

[1200] viXra:1705.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 15:08:42

Some Notes on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model in Reference to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Some notes are referenced to put together a much more cohesive picture of stellar evolution using a few ideas presented by Pierre-Marie Robitaille in his Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model as compared to Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1199] viXra:1705.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 22:34:37

Informativity Expressions for Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Jody A Geiger
Comments: 10 Pages.

Providing a straight-forward explanation of dark energy and dark matter using only the physical laws of nature as they are known today has proved difficult and allusive. Using the principles of Informativity, a model based on counts of the fundamental measures—length, time and mass—an understanding of the expansion of our universe is resolved. Several expressions—mass of the universe, Hubble’s constant, age of the universe, rate of expansion—are presented that exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The postulates of Informativity change our understanding of length, suggesting that our current understanding of galactic measure is distorted.
Category: Astrophysics

[1198] viXra:1705.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 16:51:07

Improved First Estimates to the Solution of Kepler's Equation

Authors: Richard J. Mathar
Comments: 4 pages with 7 figures.

The manuscripts provides a novel starting guess for the solution of Kepler's equation for unknown eccentric anomaly E given the eccentricity e and the mean anomaly M of an elliptical orbit.
Category: Astrophysics

[1197] viXra:1705.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 01:15:48

The Origin of Gravity and the Impetus for Celestial Motions

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 11 Pages.

Newtonian mechanics is a subfield of mechanics that deals with the motion of particle, and is by far the most clear and concise kinematics. Although Newtonian mechanics can well describe the motion of particle, it is not applicable to the motion of bodies other than particle. That is why it could not explain the rotation and revolution of celestial bodies as well as the impetus for their movements. Based on Newtonian mechanics, this paper presented an extended discussion of the motion of non-particle objects and put forth a new kinetic theory that can well explain the rotation and revolution of celestial bodies and the motivating force for their movements. Meanwhile, it provided a feasible way of explaining the origin of gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[1196] viXra:1705.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 20:04:38

Magnetosphere Evolution in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

In stellar metamorphosis theory it is noted that after stars form their global magnetic fields, they decrease in strength as the star evolves. The global magnetic field is not limitless energy, but is directly proportional to the amount of mechanical motion in the interior of the star. This means the bigger the global field, the more active/younger the star.
Category: Astrophysics

[1195] viXra:1705.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 16:03:44

The Structure of the Pivot Universe

Authors: Arieh Sher
Comments: 16 Pages.

The pivot theory presents a new approach regarding the structure of the universe. While originating from the dark matter theory, it claims that the dark matter resides within a black hole in the universe, the Pivot, rather than being spread out through the universe. Thus, supplying an answer as to why dark matter cannot be observed. The gravity force of the Pivot exists everywhere in the universe and influences all celestial bodies. The structure offered here is based on this hypothesis. The universe is composed of a spinning black hole, the Pivot, and a ring of a visible universe that is orbiting it. The Pivot theory explains, with high accuracy, known cosmological observations such as: The flattened rotation curve in spiral galaxies and the Spiral shape of galaxies. These calculations are based on the primeval hadron theory, suggested by Muradian and others. The Pivot theory postulates that Kerr-Newman black hole is the object that connects between the very small primeval hadron and the entire universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1194] viXra:1705.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 20:35:43

A Material Wave of the Same Photon Mediates Between Gravity and the Electromagnetic Power.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

Photon group of the light of the sun that arrived at the space exploration satellite pioneer triggers gravity. I maintain a star around the Milky Way where photon group to surround the Milky Way turns by gravity. In the wave packet of the material wave called the pilot wave, a photon and a gravity child should exist. A photon and a gravity child are left out of velocity of light C for the different wave packet. In the quantum mechanics, the electromagnetic willpower is told to act by the exchange of the photon. It is thought that the gravity acts by the exchange of the gravity child. I think that gravity and electromagnetic willpower act by the same photon by the hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle. I understand that Mitsuko of the minus number particle trip is a gravity child. The space formed by a minus number particle trip of the photon group that the outer space is full of is a distortion of the space. I meet the general theory of relativity that assumed a distortion of the space gravity. The electromagnetic power and gravity are the table of a photon and back. 5 wave packets are equivalent to 5 cycles of pulsation. The wave packet is rotted, but the pulsation isn`t rotted.
Category: Astrophysics

[1193] viXra:1705.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 01:14:50

Isenthalpic Processes in Cosmology, Astrophysics and at Home

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1192] viXra:1705.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 12:36:43

A Different Black Hole Horizon Interpretation Leading to Entropy Reduction and Violation of the Second Law.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages.

According to Function Follows Form Theory, Hawking mathematics of a black hole horizon should be interpreted differently. Too weird to be true? My conclusion is that Stephen Hawking is still too anxious to admit that the splitting of positive mass ( going out) and negative mass (going in) at the black hole horizon should lead to violation of the second law of thermodynamics , by entropy decrease!! So, the Hawking mathematics of a black hole horizon should be interpreted differently. All Fermions (with positive mass) should be repelled at the horizon! The ingoing negative mass (suggested by Hawking) should be interpreted as the dark energy of the massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice including all photonic energy connected to the vacuum. If we include existence of microscopic interference black holes (or Quantum Knots) then Ball lightning and micro comets ( incl Comet and sunspots) are to be explained as micro black holes violating the second law of thermodynamics. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface by interference . I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprites..
Category: Astrophysics

[1191] viXra:1705.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 06:50:09

HAT-P-6 and HAT-P-6b in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 illustrative graph

HAT-P-6 the host, and HAT-P-6b the companion, are placed on a graph according to stellar metamorphosis to determine their ages and stage of stellar evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[1190] viXra:1705.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-07 02:42:28

A Theory of Dark Matter

Authors: Jaidev B. Parmar
Comments: 8 Pages.

A model of the Universe is constructed and a number of problems in Contemporary physics like Baryon Asymmetry, Dark Matter, Proton Decay, Galaxy Rotation Curve, Quasars, SMBH, Relativistic Astrophysical Jets, Coronal Heating, Solar Cycle, Supernovae mechanism, Magnetar magnetic field, Cosmological Lithium problem, Solar neutrino problem and Existence of Black holes are discussed in the light of the theory. It is proposed that there exists stable neutrons and antineutrons that could explain the Dark matter and the missing antimatter of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1189] viXra:1705.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-05 17:23:48

Ultracool Dwarf Stars vs. Red Dwarfs vs. Brown Dwarfs, OGLE-2016-BLG-1195L in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 1 weblink

A strange phenomenon of language has appeared concerning the naming of host stars of new systems. For some reason scientists have abandoned their distinction of red dwarf/brown dwarf in favor of “ultra cool dwarf star”. It should be made aware for the public that this signals a crack in the foundation of accepted astrophysical interpretations and theories. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1188] viXra:1705.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-03 13:26:13

Milky Way's Dark Matter Signal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1187] viXra:1705.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 14:21:56

The Mystery of Space Exploration Satellite Orbit "Pioneer Anomaly" 

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 5 Pages.

The orbit of the satellite is drawn in the direction of the sun and shifted from the calculated value. The mystery is called the Pioneer Anomaly, and the mystery has not been solved for thirty years. 「Wikipedia」 article. Every possibility has been investigated but has yet to be settled. The power to the satellites is usually calculated as 1/100 billion of gravity. Previously, when the mystery of the coming of the mercury orbit was not solved, It was the first time that the general theory of relativity was born and was understood as a distortion of the space by gravity. Similarly, it is forecast that it is a mystery solved for the first time by an unknown theory. This will prove the correctness of the theory by becoming a powerful verification experiment of general relativity theory. In the same way, If the answer to "Pioneer anomaly" by the principle of particle pulsation is truth, It is a It becomes a powerful verification experiment to the gravity action that the particle pulsation principle model shows. It will demonstrate the correctness of the theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1186] viXra:1705.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 14:43:50

The Solar System Geometry (Part 3)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 51 Pages.

The Solar System Geometry Series considers the Solar Group as One Machine cooperates together In this Part (No.3) we discuss The Planet Diameter Creation And Job How the Solar Planets Geometry define specific Diameter for specific Planet And what will happen if the planet diameter changes…? And How the Sun Diameter is Created? Through The Planet Diameter Study We Discuss The Matter Origin And Definition..
Category: Astrophysics

[1185] viXra:1705.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-03 03:48:26

The Magic of Life- and Matter Creating Self Propelled Electric Dark Matter Black Holes Guided by a Holographic Entangled Symmetric Multiverse System.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 37 Pages.

In Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, ( Q-FFF Theory) the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed massless Axion Higgs particles. The Big Bang Nucleus of compressed massless Axion /Higgs particles is assumed to be split into respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes called plasma /matter creating Quasars, or evaporated as singular massless Axion Higgs vacuum particles oscillating along a tetrahedral shaped chiral vacuum lattice. . The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame with variable local length and so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and eigen energy and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic oscillating vacuum lattice is assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller (or large scale Casimir effect) Gravitons are not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than vacuum particle pressure does. So, gravity is assumed to be a dual pressure process on fermions. As a consequence, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. The universe is supposed to be Holographic by the instant long distance entanglement particle guidance between Charge Parity Symmetric Universes; the Multiverse.
Category: Astrophysics

[1184] viXra:1705.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 08:06:33

CAST Search for Axion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A team of researchers working on the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) project report passing an important milestone in their search for the axion— they have moved below established astrophysical constraints and are now working in an area that is expected to reap many rewards regarding both the axion and other avenues of physics research. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1183] viXra:1704.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 10:06:58

Scalar Field Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Astronomers have used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the properties of dark matter, the mysterious, invisible substance that makes up a majority of matter in the universe. The study, which involves 13 galaxy clusters, explores the possibility that dark matter may be more "fuzzy" than "cold," perhaps even adding to the complexity surrounding this cosmic conundrum. [18] The idea is called "FDM", for "fuzzy dark matter". It posits that an extremely light boson, one almost exactly massless in fact, could be responsible for the scale of galaxy halos we observe in the universe. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1182] viXra:1704.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 10:27:11

Black Hole in Sagittarius

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

An international team of astronomers led The University of Manchester have found evidence of a new 'missing-link' black hole in the Milky Way galaxy, hidden in the Sagittarius constellation. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1181] viXra:1704.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 11:41:42

The Gravity that the Photon Group of the Sun's Light Carries Changes Orbit of the Space Probe.

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 10 Pages.

According to the particle pulsation principle model, The photon of the wave process acts the electromagnetic power, The photon of the negative particle process forces gravity. The probe is being pulled by the gravity of the photon group of the solar Light which illuminates the space probe pioneer and is changing orbit. This is considered to be a verification experiment for the unification of nuclear, gravity and electromagnetic forces led by the principle of particle pulsation. "Anomalous events of the space probe pioneer" "Fundamental particle pulsation (dark energy pulsation model) solves the mystery" In quantum electromagnetic power, electromagnetic energy is understood as the exchange effect of photons. According to the pulsating hypothesis, photons transmit electromagnetic power, and the spatial distortion (empty late space) by the photon of the negative stroke is gravity quantum, conveying gravity. It is thought that the solar light (photon group) which reaches the space probe pioneer is operating gravity in the direction of the sun. It can be understood that the gravity of the sun is zurase 12,800 kilometers from the scheduled orbit during one year. The light of the Sun (Photon Group) is pulling in the direction of the sun by operating the gravity of the sun on the space probe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1180] viXra:1704.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 04:24:52

Heretical Physics Orbits an Aether Solution

Authors: John E.Miller
Comments: 11 Pages.

Following on from Heretical Physics II, in which the concept of planetary orbits being the resultant creation, by the geometry of two circles. Here expanded to two 'Aether' spheres. The second sphere is an Aether carrier sphere (A.C.S.) shown at various locations; here for Earth as the working example. Some support for Einstein's CURVED SPACE - (A field of charge?) and an explanation of the geometry for the Milankovitch cycles as they affect Earth's axis is included.
Category: Astrophysics

[1179] viXra:1704.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 14:33:11

Converged Solar Neutrinos Heat Outer Core of Earth to Liquid

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a new viewpoint to explain why the outer core of Earth is liquid. The conclusion is based on these factors: iron and nickel are the principle elements of core; isotopes 57Fe, 61Ni can harvest low energy 14keV and 67keV respectively from concentrated neutrinos current, then convert to heat; unlike thermal neutron’s optic refractive index n<1 and very close to 1, the low energy (<100keV) neutrino’s can be n > 2, so as to form caustic zone inside Earth, confirmed by the fact that night observed value of solar neutrinos is 3.2% more than day.
Category: Astrophysics

[1178] viXra:1704.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:48:27

Heretical Physicsxia Newtons'g'

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 6 Pages.

Investigate the source of Newton's 'G' and unexplored dynamic applications beyond value 'g'
Category: Astrophysics

[1177] viXra:1704.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 02:09:56

Никитин В. Н., Никитин И. В. Если раcпадаться, то до конца! Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».
Category: Astrophysics

[1176] viXra:1704.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 13:45:16

Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1175] viXra:1704.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 04:49:27

Mathematics for Input Space Probes in the Atmosphere of Gliese 581d.

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 8 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.2, n.5, 6-13(2016). https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/archives

The work is a mathematical approach to the entry of an aerospace vehicle, as a probe or capsule in the atmosphere of the planet Gliese 581d, using data collected from the results of atmospheric models of the planet. GJ581d was the first planet candidate of a few Earth masses reported in the circum-stellar habitable zone of another star. It is located in the Gliese 581 star system, is a star red dwarf about 20 light years away from Earth in the constellation Libra. Its estimated mass is about a third of that of the Sun. It has been suggested that the recently discovered exoplanet GJ581d might be able to support liquid water due to its relatively low mass and orbital distance. However, GJ581d receives 35% less stellar energy than the planet Mars and is probably locked in tidal resonance, with extremely low insolation at the poles and possibly a permanent night side. The climate that demonstrate GJ581d will have a stable atmosphere and surface liquid water for a wide range of plausible cases, making it the first confirmed super-Earth (2-10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone. According to the general principle of relativity, “All systems of reference are equivalent with respect to the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics.” In this case all the equations studied apply to the exoplanet Gliese 581d. If humanity is able to send a probe to Gliese 581d, this has all the mathematical conditions set it down successfully on its surface.
Category: Astrophysics

[1174] viXra:1704.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:40:01

Interference Black Holes, Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs and Sunspots According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. I assume that the largest Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..
Category: Astrophysics

[1173] viXra:1704.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:44:11

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Hypothesis of "Star" Disintegration of Galaxies Formation and Evolution of Galaxies is a Result of "Star" Disintegration of Their White Holes and Their Further Transformation Into Black Holes.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Formation and evolution of galaxies is a result of "star" disintegration of their White Holes and their further transformation into Black Holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1172] viXra:1704.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:24:29

An Analysis of Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: Pages.

An analysis of books, presentations and scientific papers about Albert Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity shows that there is a fundamental disagreement between what Einstein wrote and how what he wrote is being interpreted by mathematician-physicists and taught in colleges and universities around the world. An analysis of the evidence shows that Einstein was correct and the interpretations and teachings are incorrect.
Category: Astrophysics

[1171] viXra:1704.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:27:33

Black Hole Heart Beating

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1170] viXra:1704.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:57:45

Singularity in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1169] viXra:1704.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:09:47

The Physicist of an Origin of Forces of Gravitation and Range of S-Radiations in Whom Threats from Space Are Shown

Authors: V.Korniienko
Comments: 18 pages in English and a copy at 19 pages in Russian

In article it is experimentally proved that any body has the quantum electromagnetic field which as a result of deformation generates electromagnetic radiations (S-radiations). The S-radiations properties found by us demonstrates that interaction of quantum electromagnetic fields of different bodies causes their mutual attraction which is gravitation forces. Besides, tension which arises in matter of celestial bodies under the influence of gravitation and forces of other origin, cause deformation of the quantum electromagnetic field of these bodies owing to what they generate space S-radiations which have filled all Universe. Therefore there is a range of S-radiations in which we observed how in the summer of 2003 Earth and the Sun were occupied by a power information field which influence causes all global changes. In this range we also watch a space body which from a terrestrial orbit generates powerful S-radiations. Therefore, for the benefit of early identification of threats from Space, it is necessary to develop astronomical observations in a range of S-radiations.
Category: Astrophysics

[1168] viXra:1704.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 22:38:15

Heretical Physics Xii

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 2 Pages.

A check of the variations required to be produced by the sun 'g' to balance the Newton - Kepler planetary elliptic orbits as theorized by the 'Standard Model'
Category: Astrophysics

[1167] viXra:1704.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 03:08:52

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Perm Extinction – a Doomsday Prelude the Most Fissile Mass Cold Snap is the Reason of Mass Extinction of the Permian Period of Existence of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The most fissile mass cold snap is the reason of mass extinction of the Permian Period of existence of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1166] viXra:1704.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 07:46:39

The Krypton Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple conclusion is made concerning destroyed worlds with life on them according to stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1165] viXra:1704.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:04:11

Core Growth Termination During Stellar Evolution in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis stars grow iron/nickel cores via vapor deposition and condensation during intermediate stages of evolution. It is proposed that these iron/nickel cores stop growing for a few reasons provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1164] viXra:1704.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 22:15:25

The Beginning of Homogeneous Nucleation of Iron/Nickel Cores in Homogeneous Young Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

To begin the process of forming homogeneous iron/nickel cores it is required that the young, hot stars be homogeneous in their interiors. To form an iron/nickel core as the star evolves, no nuclear core can be present. It would be too hot for the iron/nickel vapor to clump together and it would get in the way of the differentiation process.
Category: Astrophysics

[1163] viXra:1704.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 07:36:08

First Image of Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

After training a network of telescopes stretching from Hawaii to Antarctica to Spain at the heart of our galaxy for five nights running, astronomers said Wednesday they may have snapped the first-ever picture of a black hole. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1162] viXra:1704.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 11:11:40

Image of a Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1161] viXra:1704.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 05:09:40

The Origin of Life and the Need for a Rigid String Propeller Fermion Model Combined with a Chiral Vacuum Lattice.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 38 Pages.

The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and is a strong argument that life in the Universe may be common rather than rare. Glycine molecules (Amino Acids) are found inside materials ejected from comets like Wild 2 ( 2004) and 67P-CG ( 2015-2016) which is reason to support the idea that new physics magnetic micro interference black holes postulated by Quantum FFF Theory are the origin of life creating comets and (ball) lightning all over the universe. . Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) new physics theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped rigid but transformable massless strings called Axion- Higgs (AH) particles. Colliding AH particles are responsible for pair production ( e- and e+) and even quarks around micro and macro black hole nuclei present in the splitting Big Bang down to Comets and Ball Lightnings. Black hole nuclei are supposed to be AH knots compressed by the in falling AH vacuum lattice. Two AHs should be able to change form by real high energy collision into two entangled electron positron propeller strings with opposite pitch and spin. Such high energy is supposed to be present at black hole event/photon horizons and inside particle colliders like the LHC at Geneva. The propeller form of fermions is assumed to be the origin of a new physics black hole model. All black holes attract (eat) the local AH vacuum but repel all fermions by spin polarisation effects, which make black holes pair producing and fermion producing phenomena observed in Quasars, Herbig Haro objects, Comets and even ball lightning. Thus the variable FORM of all particles is based on real internal joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons. However all new particles pairs are assumed to be instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. Massless transformed Axion particles are also assumed to be responsible for all compound quantum knots like quarks and massive Higgs particles of 126 GeV and Higher energy recently observed in the LHC at CERN. The oscillating AH vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon, Gluon and Neutrino information. Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Axion particles, compressed by the oscillating AH vacuum and acting as dark matter point sources called “Dark Matter Black Holes”( DMBHs).
Category: Astrophysics

[1160] viXra:1704.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 21:09:40

Accretion Friction Braking in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is required in stellar metamorphosis to brake material so that it loses the momentum that would prevent coalescence. In order to do any sort of accretion in outer space, the material has to clump together slowly and be pulled together and heated significantly. Even the slightest momentum with gaseous matter, dust, 1 cm sized particles or 1 km sized asteroids would prevent accretion and result in a further disintegration or deflection of the material. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1159] viXra:1704.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 21:46:23

GJ 1132b in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A prediction of the atmosphere composition, differentiation, weather, life and future of GJ1132b is made in accordance with stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1158] viXra:1704.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-08 19:23:29

The Change in Gravitational Potential Energy of Objects Near Stars in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

With a few simple statements it is outlined that the gravitational potential energy of objects near stars in stellar metamorphosis changes as the stars evolve. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1157] viXra:1704.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 19:24:38

Internal Work to Heat Efficiency Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper it is explained that the efficiency of internal work to heat transfer increases as a star evolves. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1156] viXra:1704.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 19:32:59

Dark Matter and Dark Energy: Mysteries of the Universe

Authors: Nirakar Sapkota, Binod Adhikari
Comments: 20 Pages.

The Universe has a flat geometry and its density is very close to critical density. However, the observed amount of matter accounts for only 5% of the critical density. The rest of the 95% is completely unknown to us which exists in the form of Dark Energy (68%) and Dark Matter (27%). We present an overview of how the very idea of the existence of Dark Matter emerged and some compelling evidences for the existence of such matter. Moreover, we also provide an insight on how scientific ideas have evolved from a static Universe to an expanding Universe and then to an accelerating Universe. In addition, we explain fundamental concepts related to Dark Energy and discuss briefly on the evidences of Dark Energy. We also discuss some alternative solutions to the problems of Dark Matter and Dark Energy provided by different scientists.
Category: Astrophysics

[1155] viXra:1704.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 07:13:39

Merging Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists at the University of Birmingham have made progress in understanding a key mystery of gravitational-wave astrophysics: how two black holes can come together and merge. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1154] viXra:1704.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 06:36:47

Dark Matter Wind

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

We know which way the dark matter wind should blow. Now we just have to find it. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1153] viXra:1704.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 22:58:13

Grand Unification from a Classical Interpretation of “Spin” Angular Momentum

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 5 Pages. Thank you.

It is shown from the laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum that the gravitational energy of a bound state particle is dependent upon its geometric mean angular frequency. A classical interpretation for the intrinsic “spin” angular momentum of a particle is submitted that can be tested macroscopically with the Rarita−Schwinger equation for the orbit of Mercury. Librations in the relative obliquity of planetary bodies are shown to be analogous to the Larmor precession of atomic particles. Schrodinger's concept of a bound state electron's zitterbewegung is hypothesized to be the librations in the electron's relative obliquity.
Category: Astrophysics

[1152] viXra:1704.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 07:52:02

Image of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1151] viXra:1703.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 13:11:39

Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1150] viXra:1703.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 13:40:14

Magnetospheric Multiscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

When NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale—or MMS—mission was launched, the scientists knew it would answer questions fundamental to the nature of our universe—and MMS hasn't disappointed. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1149] viXra:1703.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 06:01:58

Detection of Vibranium in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1365 Through X-Ray Spectroscopy

Authors: F. Ursini, A. Tortosa, F. Ricci
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present results from a joint NuSTAR/VLT monitoring of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1365. We find conclusive evidences for an emission K alpha line from atomic vibranium in the X-ray spectrum, in combination with molecular vibranium absorption features in the mid-infrared spectrum. This is the first direct observation of vibranium in an astronomical environment. We also derive a measurement for its abundance of 2e-6 with respect to hydrogen.
Category: Astrophysics

[1148] viXra:1703.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-30 08:34:08

Universe Without Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1147] viXra:1703.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-30 06:47:58

Using a Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis for Red Giant Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Using the principle of spherical celestial objects in stellar metamorphosis, we can determine if red giants are actual stars or something else.
Category: Astrophysics

[1146] viXra:1703.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-28 06:08:25

Alternative Reflections on EmDrives and Newton's Third Law, the Conservation of Momentum

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 8 Pages.

The EmDrive (Electromagnetic Drive) is assumed to be able to produce propulsive mechanical forces from electrical power, without the need of propellant material. On the basis of classical theories of gravitation, this idea, however, violates heavily a well-established physical law, the conservation of momentum. On the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation" (ARG), however, such a drive is not only seen as possible without the violation of Newton's third law. It even lets expect enormous improvements for interplanetary and even interstellar flight projects.
Category: Astrophysics

[1145] viXra:1703.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-28 02:51:58

Nucleosynthesis After Frequency Shifting in Electromagnetic Radiation Near Gravitating Masses in Dynamic Universe Model with Math

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper was prepared for FQXi contest ... http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2726.... This paper answers to the question given by Paul N Butler and answeres the question about Formation of all the elements in the Universe thro Dynamic Universe

Abstract: This paper is further to Dynamic Universe Model studies of the “light rays and other electromagnetic radiation” passing grazingly near any gravitating mass changes its frequency .This change in frequency will depend on relative direction of movement between mass and radiation. All these particles like “neutrinos, positrons, electrons, protons and neutrons” behave like waves also. We should remember the wave particle duality. Hence frequency enhancing is applicable here also. So in other words change in frequency can go further to converting radiation into matter like micro particles as stated above. Here in this paper we will discuss further into different element formations. And we will see some possible electrochemical reactions that are possible at high temperature and pressure for formation of these different elements.
Category: Astrophysics

[1144] viXra:1703.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-26 06:58:54

Pulsating X-ray Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1143] viXra:1703.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 12:16:52

Dark Sector Portal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Portals mix or connect the dark sector particles with the Standard Model particles. Through the portals it is possible to explore the dark sector particles using the Standard Model particles. [27] The dark photon (A'), the gauge boson carrier of a hypothetical new force, has been proposed in a wide range of Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) theories, and could serve as our window to an entire dark sector. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1142] viXra:1703.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-22 21:58:28

Creatio Ex Nihilo: The Evolution Equation

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages.

It seems possible to suggest a hypothetical evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo of mass and energy from the quantum vacuum, yet does not lead to any catastrophic event.
Category: Astrophysics

[1141] viXra:1703.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-21 08:12:54

Helium Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of scientists has discovered that a law controlling the bizarre behavior of black holes out in space—is also true for cold helium atoms that can be studied in laboratories. [13] A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12] To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1140] viXra:1703.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-21 01:43:45

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Now We Begin to Understand What Happened to You, the Sister Four Exclusive Hypotheses of the Reasons of the Abnormal Phenomena on Venus Are Given.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Four exclusive hypotheses of the reasons of the abnormal phenomena on Venus are given.
Category: Astrophysics

[1139] viXra:1703.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 01:25:16

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. as the Earth Becomes Tempered the General Cold Snap and Natural Cataclysms on Earth Are Inevitable and Are a Consequence of a Power Condition of Space of Solar System.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The general cold snap and natural cataclysms on Earth are inevitable and are a consequence of a power condition of space of Solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1138] viXra:1703.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-18 11:02:12

The Solar System Geometry (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 73 Pages.

Abstract The Solar Planets Group is One Machine This one machine cooperates together to enable the Earth to produce The Solar Day Time Providing the life chance on the Earth.. This paper aims to prove this idea and explains this machine mechanism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1137] viXra:1703.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-16 20:30:16

Flare Star Transitioning in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Flare stars signal the transition of red dwarfs to brown dwarfs in stellar metamorphosis. This means brown dwarfs are not “failed stars”, just the next stage after red dwarf. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1136] viXra:1703.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-17 02:13:34

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. One More Example of Limitation and Orderliness of the Universe Results of Researches of Scientists on Detection of Borders of the Universe Are Given. the Confirming Exclusive Hypotheses of a Structure and Evolution of the Unive

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Results of researches of scientists on detection of borders of the Universe are given. the confirming exclusive hypotheses of a structure and evolution of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1135] viXra:1703.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-14 15:07:46

The Stability Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Another principle of planet formation is added to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. It is reasoned that planets can only form where the environment is stable for hundreds of millions of years.
Category: Astrophysics

[1134] viXra:1703.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-13 07:58:45

Solar Ponds on Mars: Ideal Habitats for Human Colonists Created at Negligible Cost, at Any Scale

Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 17 Pages.

There is a cheap, simple way to create habitable zones on Mars: the solar pond. At a few metres depth in such a pond, the pressure and temperature are benign for Earth-evolved life, with ample sunlight but negligible hard radiation. To create and sustain the pond, lightweight mirrors of silvered plastic film similar to solar sail fabric are mounted on inclining masts, positioned by day to divert additional sunlight into the pond, by night horizontal above its surface to minimize thermal energy escape. A submersible at the pond’s warmest depth emits jets of water to melt any opaque surface ice that forms. A surface film of oil suppresses evaporation and absorbs UV. Tents of transparent bubble-wrap-style plastic, filled with breathable air like diving bells and anchored to the pond floor, provide pleasant sunlit living space. Crops can be grown both inside and outside the tents. Only the mirrors are exposed to the harsh conditions of the Martian surface: everything else is in a protected, quasi-terrestrial environment.
Category: Astrophysics

[1133] viXra:1703.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-12 08:14:56

The Solar System Geometry (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 75 Pages.

The Solar Planets Group is One Machine This one machine cooperates together to enable the Earth to produce The Solar Day Time Providing the life chance on the Earth.. This paper aims to prove this idea and explains this machine mechanism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1132] viXra:1703.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-11 13:34:13

Coolest Spot in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

This summer, an ice chest-sized box will fly to the International Space Station, where it will create the coolest spot in the universe. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1131] viXra:1703.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 13:41:12

Quasars and Galaxies' Origins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1130] viXra:1703.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 20:12:40

An Inverse Relationship of Temperature and Population in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since stellar evolution is planet formation, a simple inverse relation can be drawn up concerning stars in evolved galaxies. Their surface temperatures and populations are inversely proportional. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1129] viXra:1703.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 10:20:02

Fuzzy Pulsars Orbiting Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1128] viXra:1703.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 04:18:44

Dark Matter Detection Upgrade

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1127] viXra:1703.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 10:06:06

Pluto, Should Be Defined As a Comet

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

showing a viewpoint about the classification of the Pluto.
Category: Astrophysics

[1126] viXra:1703.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 07:29:13

Black Holes Eject Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Black holes are well known to be voracious feeders, but in the rush to consume all around them, some of the material gets flung far into space. [16] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1125] viXra:1703.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-05 07:30:39

Neutrino Detectable Supernova Explosion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A team of researchers at North Carolina State University has found that current and future neutrino detectors placed around the world should be capable of detecting neutrinos emitted from a relatively close supernova. [8] As a massive star dies, expelling most of its guts across the universe in a supernova explosion, its iron heart, the star's core, collapses to create the densest form of observable matter in the universe: a neutron star. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1124] viXra:1703.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-02 04:35:37

Dark Matter Mapped

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A Yale-led team has produced one of the highest-resolution maps of dark matter ever created, offering a detailed case for the existence of cold dark matter-sluggish particles that comprise the bulk of matter in the universe. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1123] viXra:1703.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-01 01:05:01

PICO Dark Matter Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1122] viXra:1702.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-23 19:21:47

Cosmic Foam Could Negative Energy Matter Dark Energy be Hiding in Plain Sight?

Authors: R.Cooke
Comments: 1 Page.

Short letter to the Physics Community - I've had an interest in the concepts surrounding anti-gravity probably from science fiction since childhood. Twenty years ago I gave a hand written paper to a lecturer on the subject explaining that there could be four different types of matter- matter, anti-matter, anti-gravity matter, anti-gravity anti-matter. Anti-gravity matter would seem to repel normal gravitational matter so it would try to get as far from matter as possible. When a saw some of the work on cosmic foam done by the Nobel Prize winning George Smoot I wondered about its structure and felt that the reason for its structure could be due to a mirror anti-gravity universe that given its lack of interaction in the electromagnetic realm was invisible. This sort of answers my outstanding question- why if anti-gravity matter exists can't we detect it? Perhaps this idea is common knowledge within the physics community but wanted to comment on it in the case the possibility had been overlooked.
Category: Astrophysics

[1121] viXra:1702.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 14:27:53

Quasi-Periodic Oscillations of GRO J1744-28

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 14 Pages, including 1 table

Observed quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of GRO J1744-28 are compared with predictions from a previously proposed three tori model. The three highest QPO frequencies are assumed to arise from three circular tori moving around the pulsar: an inner torus with charge Qi, a torus with mass mm in the middle and an outer torus with charge Qo, whereas the pulsar itself bears a charge Qs.

In addition, it follows from a special interpretation of the gravitomagnetic theory, that the three circular tori are subjected to a total number of four low-frequency precessions. The expressions of these four additional QPO frequencies are revised compared to earlier work. For GRO J1744-28 the two lowest observed QPO frequencies are attributed to the two highest of the four low-frequency QPOs. The two other frequencies of the quartet may be too low to be detected. From the two highest QPO frequencies of the quartet, lying close together, approximate values for the charges Qs, Qi, and Qo are extracted. The results are compared with the observed and predicted set of seven QPOs for five other pulsars and two black holes.

The observed magnetic field is compared with the polar magnetic field, also predicted by the gravitomagnetic theory. Remarkably, the observed highly ionized iron emission lines may be compatible with the tree tori model. In order to explain the discontinuity in recently observed phase lags of GRO J1744-28, a Compton reverberation mechanism is considered, compatible with electron temperatures that depend on the radii of the tori.


Category: Astrophysics

[1120] viXra:1702.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-20 09:33:51

First Image of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1119] viXra:1702.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:45:36

Gravitomagnetism Including an Introduction to the Coriolis Theory

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 207 Pages.

One day in 2002, I discovered in a newspaper that "dark matter" is supposed to be responsible for the constancy of the orbital velocity of the stars, and that velocity is supposed to be in contradiction with the Kepler laws. I was upset. We can travel to the moon and invent great medicines, we have the supposed miracle-theory of general relativity and nobody can explain it? Next hour, I was rumbling in a slide of my old desk, where I stored old papers from my university period, and I found back the analogy I made between electromagnetism and gravitation. I never trusted Einstein's relativity theory, because it only calculates what is observed by using light, but not what is really happening. Also the great Richard Feynman once confessed that he didn't understand why gravitation would be so different from other physical theories. A few days later, I found the gravitational consequences of the motion of masses. Month after month, I steadily discovered that all the cosmic issues that are not understood by mainstream, make sense through gravitomagnetism. The shape of supernovae, the disc and the spiral galaxies, the motion of asteroids, the flatness of planetary systems, the tiny rings of Saturn, black holes, the expanding Earth and Sun, etc. I can't find any cosmic issue that is in contradiction with gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1118] viXra:1702.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:47:06

The Solar Protuberance Theory - Our Solar System and the Planetary System Creation

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 56 Pages.

It is a widely accepted misconception that the solar system would have been created by the collapse of nebulae around the solar region, just as our galaxy itself. Where this is true for the stars in the galaxy, this is definitely wrong for our planetary system. Indeed, many stars in our galaxy were created during the formation of our disk galaxy out of a regular, spherical or elliptical galaxy, due to the angular momentum of the galaxy's center, which contains fast spinning stars and black holes. This process has been extendedly explained in my book “Gravitomagnetism - including an introduction to the Coriolis Gravity Theory”. The disk was compressed by the angular gravity of the galaxy's center, a second gravity field on top of Newtonian Gravity. The smaller and colder parts were able to clump together and heathen up by that compression. Elsewhere, voids were created that way, and a heterogeneous disk, as our spiral disk galaxy shows us, could form. The difference between the solar system creation and the galaxy creation is enormous. Where we find numerous stars in the galaxy on the same orbit or at close orbits, our solar system counts only nine (or, more correctly: eight) planets, which orbit very far from each-other. Moreover, on each orbit or nearby it, there are no other planets nor objects. The only place where other objects are found is on the asteroid belt and, as an extension of that belt, a number of asteroids, called Trojans, on Jupiter’s orbit. The nebula theory has numerous unsolved problems. The very existence of the Trojans prove that asteroids doesn’t just go away or aren’t just absorbed by the planet of (or near) an orbit. At the contrary, one should then find several planets on the same orbit, and remaining asteroids from the nebula. The diversity of the planets’ spin orientations is another problem. More problems arise regarding the big difference between the set of core planets and the set of gas planets. Nothing in the nebula theory can explain the differences of spin either. In this little book, the reader will find numerous arguments in favor to a totally different point of view: the planets all come from an electromagnetic solar explosion. The reason of the existence of a set of four core planets versus the set of four gas planets will be explained, and why their masses, as groups, are related like the mass quotient of a proton versus an electron. Jupiter’s spin rate will be explained and the orientation of the planets’ spin as well. Also the orbital distance between the planets can be explained with very high probability. In a few moments, the reader will discover this fresh Solar Protuberance Paradigm, enriched with a multitude of evidence. Enjoy the reading!
Category: Astrophysics

[1117] viXra:1702.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:58:27

Gravitational Constants, the Earth's Expansion and Coriolis Gravity

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 33 Pages.

Is not everything settled with Gravitomagnetism, the analogy of electromagnetism for gravity, with which I explained the formation of disk galaxies without dark matter, the shape of supernova and hourglass stars, and many other phenomena? Is there more to be told? In this little booklet, I show that one of the parameters that are used to define the Sun's dynamics can be expressed by the other parameters. In other words, the Sun's gravity is defined by its angular velocity and its radius. This amazing property finds its origin in the way how particles interact, and the way how I expect that all kinds of forces work: by a Coriolis effect between particles. Henceforth the calculus of the Gravitational Constant is possible. Linked to this phenomenon is the expansion of spinning objects, like the Earth, the Sun and the stars. This occurs by gravity as well, and this can be explained by both the Gravitomagnetic as the Coriolis approach. Discover in the next few pages how these new gravitational realities take form.
Category: Astrophysics

[1116] viXra:1702.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 12:16:51

Asteroid Redirect

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

Asteroids are a great threat to mankind. Here we will show that it is possible to redirect them from their trajectories by means of a strong gravitational repulsion, produced by the gravitational interaction between the asteroid and a Gravitational Spacecraft positioned close to the asteroid.
Category: Astrophysics

[1115] viXra:1702.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-18 22:26:45

Rocket Invention Using Anti-Gravity Wheel Torque Induced Gyroscopic Precession to Decrease Apparent Weight and Increase Thrust Efficiency.

Authors: H Dhaliwal
Comments: 4 Pages.

By attaching multiple massive anti- gravity wheel type structures to the rocket we may achieve a less apparent weight for the rocket, allowing it to lift easier. Instead of a wheel, a hollow saucer like pod shall be used, attached to a bar, which connects to the rocket. There are multiple anti gravity saucers attached to the rocket in a symmetric fashion connecting to a point at the rocket. These saucers will carry water, fuel or cargo which is minused from the rocket and added to the saucer. Displacing the weight from the rocket and into the saucers will ensure no extra weight is added. These saucers will be spun up extremely fast from the ground via motors, storing energy in them. The motors are ground based at the lift off site and will decouple from the saucers on lift off. The torque induced gyroscopic precession of these spinning saucers will decrease the apparent weight of the rocket as the rocket raises, allowing the thrust to make the rocket raise easier. The fuel in the rocket tank will not be filled 100%. Perhaps it will be filled 50%. The other 50% of the fuel is displaced and divided amongst the saucers and stored in them. As the rockets main fuel tank level lowers during mid flight, the fuel in the saucers can be pumped into the tank of the rocket for continued use. These saucers spin rate will be slowed down as the rocket raises, allowing easier transfer of fuel. When the fuel in the saucer tanks is depleted, the anti gravity saucer arms can be disconnected from the rocket and the saucers shall fall back towards earth. Instead of fuel, water can also be stored in these saucers for long term human missions to mars. The water can be frozen solid in the saucer tanks to keep the saucers cool as they ascend, and the ice will melt as the rocket ascends. The water tank in the rocket will be empty on lift off. But will be refilled in the same manner as above after reaching a certain altitude. Cargo that can withstand centrifugal forces can also be stored, such as food, or metal equipment. This equipment can then be reintroduced to the rocket by moving the saucer pods to the rocket. The whole rocket structure can be on a platform that makes the rocket setup rotate just before liftoff so the saucer wheels can start their gyroscopic precession. Or mechanism can be built into the saucer arms to push the saucer outward a bit to start the gyroscopic precession. Or such a setup may not be needed as a rocket rotates by itself usually as it ascends which will efficiently create the needed gyroscopic precession.
Category: Astrophysics

[1114] viXra:1702.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:25:24

Introduction to the Flyby Anomaly: the Gyrotational Acceleration of Orbiting Satellites

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the former paper “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination”, a physical deduction is found for the motion and the variations of the tilt of asteroids. This deduction is based upon the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1113] viXra:1702.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:30:02

The Observed Symmetrical Supernovae Remnants Form Overwhelming Evidence for the Gravitomagnetic Force

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 6 Pages.

Supernovae remnants that are double-lobe or double-ring shaped with a central ring are fully explained by Gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1112] viXra:1702.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:37:15

On the Formation of Prograde Disk Galaxies from Spherical Galaxies with a Global Null Angular Momentum

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

There seems to exist a way to transform apparent chaos into an ordered system. The key for such a behavior lays in gravity itself, and more precisely in gravitomagnetism. The results of the G Probe-B experiment, in 2011, proved gravitomagnetism’s superiority over other theories like General Relativity and its deduced metrics, and it is in this light that the solution can be found. We apply the gravitomagnetic principles to a random spherical galaxy with a global null angular momentum and unveil how this system eventually becomes a disk galaxy. Moreover, we deduce the quantum nature of galaxies through this process and, by the analogy between electromagnetism and gravitomagnetism, we prove by deduction the quantum nature of atomic structures as well.
Category: Astrophysics

[1111] viXra:1702.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:46:36

Gravitomagnetic Evolutionary Classification of Galaxies

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Milky Way might be a bar galaxy. In this paper, we show that bar galaxies are spiral galaxies with an orientation change of the bulge's gravitomagnetic field. The tilting of the gravitomagnetic field evolves from the bulge to the galaxy's extremities at wave speed and the physical acceleration of the stars away from the disc follow soon. Finally, this will result in a new, slightly elliptical galaxy that will again turn into a disc galaxy and then a spiral galaxy. If the Milky Way really is a bar galaxy, the solar system will some day get a novel acceleration (an apocalyptic sway?) towards a new, widely oscillating position in the galaxy. Finally, we come to a Gravitomagnetic Evolutionary Classification of Galaxies that is different from the usual classifications.
Category: Astrophysics

[1110] viXra:1702.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:49:23

Does Gravity Conserve Angular Momentum at a Distance?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

We found [4] that the key for many cosmic events lays in gravity, which is very well explained by gravitomagnetism, as suggested by O. Heaviside and further developed as a causal and coherent theory by O. Jefimenko. The angular momentum of spinning objects is transmitted to the surroundings by gravity, and form the rings of Saturn and the disc galaxies. In this paper, we analyze what happens with the gravity fields of collapsing stars. It is found that not only the mechanical angular momentum is regulating the orientation of disc galaxies. The magnetic-like component of gravity, which is velocity-dependent, is found to create forces that are consistent with the conservation of angular momentum. However, the retardation of the gravity fields by the speed of light, which is velocity-dependent, is found to cause a discrepancy between the mechanical angular momentum and the transmitted gravitational angular momentum.
Category: Astrophysics

[1109] viXra:1702.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:57:29

On the Variability of the Gravitational Constant by the Evolution of Stars and Galaxy Clusters

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 6 Pages.

Gravitomagnetism, initiated by O. Heaviside [1] and further developed by O. Jefimenko [2] consists of the Newtonian gravity and gyrotation, which is totally analogous to magnetism. This model successfully explained an important number of physical and cosmic phenomena [3]. Striking is the possibility of gravitational repel by particles with like-oriented spins. I also showed [5] why the gravitational constant is varying locally and I prove that, the particles in rotating bodies will preferentially form distributions that globally attract. This explains why masses have never been found to be repulsive. I deduced a new definition for “mass” as a vector, and conclude that the gravitational constant’s value is the sum of the orientations of the elementary vector-masses while taking their spacing into account. I found why the gravity force is so weak and why cohesion forces are so large. In this paper, I attempt to define the variations of the Gravitational Constant in the evolution of stars, and show that, for the same global mass of a star during its evolution, white dwarfs possess a much stronger gravitational constant than the red giant stars. Based upon these findings, I study the possibility that relaxed galaxy clusters possess, due to the same process, a much lower gravitational constant than unrelaxed galaxy clusters. This might be the reason why gravity lensing is a hundred times larger than the visible mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[1108] viXra:1702.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:37:03

Elliptical Fly-By and Expected Gyro-gravitational Orbit Accelerations

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 8 Pages.

Following to the two former papers “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination” and “Cyclic Tilt Spin Vector Variations of Main Belt Asteroids due to the Solar Gyro-Gravitation”, wherein we theoretically studied the tilt motions and variations of spinning asteroids, we continue the analysis with the study of the orbit anomalies of satellites. The equations for the fly-by of satellites near the Earth, or near planets in general are deduced.
Category: Astrophysics

[1107] viXra:1702.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:40:10

The Gravitational Stellar Constant Allows for an Improved Description of Stellar and Black Hole Dynamics

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Sun’s dynamics defines our Gravitational Constant. In a former paper [2], that strict relationship has been shown, based upon the most fundamental equations of gravity and gyrotation (the magnetic equivalent for gravity), applied upon elementary particles. The consequence is that one parameter can be eliminated, as explained before [6] and this allows me to unveil some issues on the shape and the moments of inertia of stars, supernovae and black holes, and the possibility of double bursts of forming black holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1106] viXra:1702.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:43:35

Natural Decrease of Orbital Eccentricities

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

The amazing Solar Protuberance Theory gives three strong proofs for the creation of our planets from a huge electromagnetic eruption. I found a 99,98% probability fit between the initial planetary orbit diameters calculated with the theory and the actually observed ones. Since the initial orbits probably were highly eccentric, the question remains whether or not the actual planetary orbital eccentricities can be explained by the theory. This is proven here in different ways.
Category: Astrophysics

[1105] viXra:1702.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:46:57

Are Venus’ and Uranus’ Tilt of Natural Origin?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 15 Pages.

The formation theories of our solar system have still remained filled of question marks. Why are the orbits of Mercury and Pluto that much eccentric, and that of the other planets much less? Why are the axial tilts what they are? This we will discover in this paper. Here we will start from the primary model of a huge solar protuberance and next apply the electromagnetic and the gravitational dynamics to it. The application of these physics leads us to the description of how the planets arose, their orbits, their tilt, and their composition. Also we will comment why the Asteroids Belt and the Trojan Asteroids probably arose. Initially, we will bring in that the complete planetary system originated from a solar eruption, and reveal that the planets have successively developed in the order : Mercurius, Venus, the Earth, and Mars on the one hand, and on the other hand Neptune, next Uranus and probably Pluto, then successively Saturnus and Jupiter. At last, the Asteroids Belt was formed, just after the formation of Mars and Jupiter. This theory is supported by the other parameters such as the comparison of the planet’s density, size and chemical composition. Also the comparison of their tilt, the spacing between their orbits, and the elliptic orbit and tilt of some planets support the theory. We find evidence that Venus’ and Uranus’ tilt are totally natural.
Category: Astrophysics

[1104] viXra:1702.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:48:57

Outsmarting Inertia

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

Inertia is analyzed in the light of the Coriolis Gravity Theory. It is found that inertia is orientation-dependent, which opens a way to outsmart its effects. Particles can be oriented and made inertia-insensitive for given accelerations and forces by using magnetic fields. Although the theory allows it, effective technology to realize this still has to be developed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1103] viXra:1702.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:50:57

Novel Method for the Evaluation of the Rotation Velocity of Solar-like Stars

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

The evaluation of stars’ properties is classically performed by comparing the stars’ light spectra and fluxes to the known solar properties. Another method to find the stars’ rotation velocity will be discussed here: the extrapolation to the other solar-like stars of an empiric solar property, which consists of a direct relationship between the star’s frequency and its surface gravity, without the need of any other parameters.
Category: Astrophysics

[1102] viXra:1702.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:54:02

Gravitomagnetism Successes in Explaining the Cosmos

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 41 Pages.

Gravitomagnetism is almost totally similar to Electromagnetism. I call 'Gyrotation' the magnetic-like part of gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1101] viXra:1702.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:01:32

How to Measure the Spin of a Black Hole

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

Black holes and fast spinning stars attract the surrounding objects in a different way than Newtonian gravity. As shown by my work on Gravitomagnetism [1], the spin of fast spinning stars and black holes is far the most important factor in the behavior of nearby objects. This paper shows that the accretion disc of any black hole is orbiting in prograde way. Moreover, it is explained that the accretion disc’s turbulence, curvature and quantity of the vortexes are predominant factors for the gravitational strength of a black hole. The measurement of the spin of a black hole depends mainly on this factor, and to a lesser extent, to a few other factors.
Category: Astrophysics

[1100] viXra:1702.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:05:47

Considerations on the Fundamental Forces Based Upon the Coriolis Gravity Theory

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 4 Pages.

The gravitational constant G is clearly not a universal constant [5]. It seems impossible to find a precise value for G. In this paper, I will analyze the reasons for that issue, according Gravitomagnetism and the Coriolis Gravitation Theory. In my paper “Fundamental Causes of an Attractive Gravitational Constant, Varying in Place and Time” [4], I explained that, according Gravitomagnetism and the Coriolis Gravitation Theory, the orientation of the particles’ spin determines whether a set of particles attract or repel, but I proved that attraction takes the lead. Here, I show, based upon [3] , that the constant G depends from star to star. Furthermore, I generalize the Coriolis concept for the forces in electromagnetism and in quantum mechanics, as an identical process for all types of forces. I look at the meaning of matter, mass and electrical charge.
Category: Astrophysics

[1099] viXra:1702.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:08:11

Thoughts on the Nebular Theory of our Planetary System Formation

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 5 Pages.

The hypothesis of a Solar Nebula, also known as the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, is currently the most accepted explanation for the origin of the Solar System.
Category: Astrophysics

[1098] viXra:1702.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:10:01

On the Formation of Close Binary Systems

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

I discuss the approach of black holes based upon the improved theory of gravity originated by Oliver Heaviside [2] and find that the Schwarzschild metric is highly improbable to occur at all, if not impossible. I found that a spinning black hole is always emitting information at the poles [6]. Close binary stars containing a fast spinning star or black hole and a companion are found to emerge from only one original star. Close binary stars consisting of two fast spinning stars or black holes are found to be much more rarely.
Category: Astrophysics

[1097] viXra:1702.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:16:21

Why Does Saturn Have Many Tiny Rings ?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 7 Pages.

This publication is based on the fundamentals of the dynamics of masses interacting by gravitation, given by the Maxwell analogy for gravitation or the Heaviside field. In our paper “A coherent dual vector field theory for gravitation” © oct 2003, we have developed a model. This dynamics model allowed us to quantify by vector way the transfer of angular movement point by point, and to bring a simple, precise and detailed explanation to a large number of cosmic phenomena. With this model the flatness of our solar system and our Milky way has been explained as being caused by an angular collapse of the orbits, creating so a density increase of the disc. The constant velocity of the stars has been calculated, and the halo explained. The “missing mass” (dark matter) problem has been solved without harming the Keplerian motion law. The theory also explains the deviation of mass like in the diablo shape of rotary supernova having mass losses, and it defines the angle of mass losses at 0° and above 35°16’. Some quantitative calculations describe in detail the relativistic attraction forces maintaining entire the fast rotating stars, the tendency of distortion toward a torus-like shape, and the description of the attraction fields outside of a rotary black hole. Qualitative considerations on the binary pulsars show the process of cannibalization, with the repulsion of the mass at the poles and to the equator, and this could also explain the origin of the spin-up and the spin-down process. The bursts of collapsing rotary stars are explained as well. The conditions for the repulsion of masses are also explained, caused by important velocity differences between masses. Orbit ‘chaos’ is better explained as well. Finally, the demonstration is made that gyrotation is related to the Relativity Theory. The detailed photographs of the Saturn rings made by the Cassini-Huygens mission gives us new evidence for the validity of Gravitomagnetism. It explains the presence of the flat rings around Saturn, the presence of thin parallel rings, the shape of the edges of the F-ring and the reason why such rings are present at the border of large ring zones.
Category: Astrophysics

[1096] viXra:1702.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 11:50:33

New Axion Detection Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1095] viXra:1702.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 01:08:29

Cause Hypothesis Lunotryaseny Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Movement of Gravitational Educations on an Internal Surface of a Cover of the Moon Owing to Influence of "Tidal" Forces of the Moon and the Sun is the Main Reason for Lunotryaseniye.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Movement of gravitational educations on an internal surface of a cover of the Moon owing to influence of "tidal" forces of the Moon and the Sun is the main reason for lunotryaseniye.
Category: Astrophysics

[1094] viXra:1702.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 01:21:17

Hypothesis of the Origin of Ice Ages on the Earth Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Recurrence of Fluctuations of Internal Energy Pressure of the Solar System is a Basic Reason of Emergence of Ice Ages on Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Recurrence of fluctuations of internal energy pressure of the Solar system is a basic reason of emergence of Ice Ages on Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1093] viXra:1702.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-13 14:23:15

Next-gen Dark Matter Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1092] viXra:1702.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-10 10:55:07

Modified Gravity from Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1091] viXra:1702.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 09:31:55

New Findings Concerning Dark Matter

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 9 Pages.

SUMMARY. Dozens of exceeding experiments all over the world were performed with high hopes to find dark matter particles. No evidence for any dark particle could be found despite all these efforts. This is an overwhelming result. Furthermore, one must consider some discrepancy between the theory of dark matter and astrophysical observations. But there is another theory to explain the galactic rotation curve by calculation, called method of gravity areas, which is based on the gravitation theorem and other well-known facts. Newton's gravitation law remains untouched, and no unknown is needed. At any position there is a single gravitational vector towards the centre and another single vector towards the opposite direction. So the billions-of-masses-problem has changed to a solvable threecomponent- problem. The summed up gravitational vectors of all near and far away mass within a galactic disc, baryonic mass only, will result in a horizontal gravitation curve, equivalent to a horizontal rotation curve. The theory of gravity areas is based on well-known physical laws and verifiable parameters. Therefore, the theory can be proved wrong, but up to now it has not been disproved.
Category: Astrophysics

[1090] viXra:1702.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-08 09:31:36

CP Symmetry Between Material and Anti Material Copy Universes Combined with Local- and Multi-Universal Cycle Time.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

Recent measurements by the LHC are a strong support for the stability differences between (anti)-proton and (anti)-neutrons. See Nature: “Measurement of matter–antimatter differences in beauty baryon decays” According to Quantum FFF Theory however there should be a multiversal CP symmetric origin if we assume that the vacuum is able to become chiral. So I concentrate here on Construction principles for chiral “atoms of spacetime” based on geometrical 3-D chiral vacuum lattice models and consequences for spacetime, general relativity based space curvature and time variation, including cyclic Multi- Universal time, and local time. The chirality of the oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum lattice in each universe is assumed to be the origin of the difference between material or anti-material universes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1089] viXra:1702.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 14:15:10

Rethinking Gravity

Authors: Adrian Packham
Comments: 7 Pages. phulpackham@gmail.com

GRAVITY ABSTRACT. With advances in technology in recent years, in particular space telescopes and space probes, mankind can now see further into space with more accuracy than ever before. This also applies to the microscopic world with the development of The Large Hadron Collider and electron telescopes. On a macroscopic level, it is now possible to view our solar system, galaxies and a portion of the known universe. Similar patterns are now emerging that may indicate that celestial bodies and systems have more in common than previously thought. From the planets in our solar system to the sun to other stars and galaxies it would appear that the activity around these bodies equators and polar regions require further investigation. That investigation should also include whether there are similarities to how the quantum world operates. Mankind may now be at the tipping point of being able to understand gravity at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. This paper attempts to explain how this is possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[1088] viXra:1702.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 08:05:27

The Time Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since stellar evolution takes billions of years, and planet formation is stellar evolution in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis, it takes billions of years for a planet to form.
Category: Astrophysics

[1087] viXra:1702.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 04:02:52

The Beautiful Nebula and Its Formation Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about the formation mechanism of a Cat's eye nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[1086] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 10:02:14

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t), and all the other measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). So, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. Only the issue of which equation is a better choice to describe it is at this moment a point of contention. In order to determine the mass of the dark matter particle, in this work we will focus on developing such quantum equation for dark matter under gravity and on its application to galactic halos taking the Milky Way as our case of study. Also we consider the evaluation of such equation as the sought after halos' universal law. Afterwards, we will resolve such equation to estimate the mass of the dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[1085] viXra:1702.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 02:00:21

The CMB is Light Pollution from the Younger Universe Gravitationally Lensed Back After Millions of Turns.

Authors: H. Dhaliwal
Comments: 1 Page.

The CMB is light pollution from the younger universe gravitationally lensed back after millions of turns. Imagine the Milky Way when it was just a baby galaxy. Let's follow a photon that it emitted from a random point. This photon will pass by millions of galaxies or black holes, turning its direction with each pass via light bending as it passes by a gravity well. As the photon passes by each object, the objects get older since more time is passing. The photon, when had enough time to traverse the universe with enough turns will make its way back to the Milky Way. Now imagine the baby Milky Way galaxy with all its photons radiating every which way as a 360 degree light source, combined with the billions of galaxies doing the same thing. Most of these photons will gravitationally lense back to us at some point. The colder cmb is light that travelled longer. The hotter cmb is light that travelled a lesser distance relatively.
Category: Astrophysics

[1084] viXra:1702.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 03:14:35

The Real Origin of Hubble Redshift : Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[1083] viXra:1702.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:11:36

Rotation Curves of the Cosmic Objects and Attractive Force in the Universe

Authors: Tamara Kudykina, Alexander Pervak
Comments: 12 Pages.

A hydrodynamic model of the motion of galaxies, planets and moons is proposed in this paper. The solution of the Euler equation gives the description of the rotation curves with the positive parts of the Bessel functions J1(βr), where is the distance from the object to the axis of rotation, and β — is the parameter depending upon the angular velocities, the dimension of the system and the velocity of the progressive motion of the system. In the dimensionless units the case with β>>1 corresponds to the rotation curves of the planets and moons and in this limit coincides with the Kep-ler-Newton law. In the case of parameters β≤1 we have the rotation curves of the galaxies. The hydrodynamic theory describes the rotation curves of both the galaxies and the planets systems without invoking dark matter hypothesis. Within the limit of motion of the cosmic objects in the ideal medium, the expres-sion of the generalized attractive force is derived. In the case of planets (β>>1), the form of the attractive force coincides with the Newton law; in the case of the galax-ies, the attractive force differs sufficiently from the Newton law. The distribution of the energy-density for the cosmic objects is obtained. For the Solar system, the distances between the planets and the Sun are derived. For small planets, the calculation agrees well with the observed values at the parameters β≈80÷90 and for the planets-giants — at β≈40÷50.
Category: Astrophysics

[1082] viXra:1702.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:16:38

Redshift Of Quasars And Time Dilation

Authors: Tamara Kudykina, Alexander Pervak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The most of the cosmic objects moves along a screw line: a rotation and progressive motion. The shift of the spectrum of the emitting bodies is due to the time difference in the motionless and moving reference frames. In the case of the progressive motion, the Doppler effect takes place, in the case of rotation – the Sagnac effect is observed. It is shown that the observed redshift (and blue shift as well) of the spectra of cosmic objects is due to the Sagnac effect. The parameter of redshift z depends on the parameters of its own non-inertial reference frame of every cosmic object (its angular velocity and dimension). It is intrinsic ones for every object and does not determine the distance from us to a cosmic object. It was shown that the Sagnac effect predominates, and therefore, the time dilation and the change of the distances between close objects have to be negligible even at great z. Therefore, the Hubble law and the hypothesis about the Universe expansion (BigBang theory) don’t have their main grounds and are wrong.
Category: Astrophysics

[1081] viXra:1701.0669 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-30 09:07:54

Evidence of Holographic Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A UK, Canadian and Italian study has provided what researchers believe is the first observational evidence that our universe could be a vast and complex hologram. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1080] viXra:1701.0659 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 04:58:58

Extreme Facts about Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a massive star dies, expelling most of its guts across the universe in a supernova explosion, its iron heart, the star's core, collapses to create the densest form of observable matter in the universe: a neutron star. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1079] viXra:1701.0650 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-28 10:24:55

Two New Non Baryonic Dark Matter Profiles for Milky Way Halo

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this work has been calculated two new non baryonic DM density profiles inside halo region of Milky Way, MW hereafter, and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Data have been got from rotation curve published in [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P.2014. The first profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in halo rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. The second one, DM density as power of E, E is gravitational field, has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, where it has been used to study non baryonic DM in several galaxies. It is called “as power of E” because DM density depend on E as a power function. Hypothesis which is the basis of theory is that non baryonic DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside MW halo. These data come from [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P. Chaudary, S. Kundu, S.2014. In addition it is fitted a power regression of rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b . In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression of velocity depending on radius. Also it is compared Direct DM got from rotation curve [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P.2014 and Direct DM got from rotation curve [5] Sofue, Y.2015. It is shown that relative difference oscillate between 2.6% at 40 kpc and 3.8 % at 190 kpc which is a very exiguous difference. It is a very good news that two prominent teams of researchers got so similar results. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that Direct DM profile is mathematically equivalent to DM density depending on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B, where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of velocity). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 4% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. In seventh chapter is compared Direct DM density got in this paper with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Throughout dominion NFW profile is bigger than Direct DM profile. Its relative difference oscillate between 25% at 40 kpc and 22% at 190 kpc. In my opinion this remarkable fact could be explained because NFW profile is fitted with total DM enclosed inside galactic disc and as it is known inside bulge and disc there is an unknown amount of baryonic DM such as dwarf browns and cold gas clouds. However Direct DM profile is fitted with data which radius are bigger than 40 kpc where baryonic matter is negligible. It is clear that extra DM density data inside disc have influence over the whole NFW profile so it is right to conclude that relative difference between Direct DM and NFW profile might be explained by baryonic DM inside bulge and disc. In eight chapter is compared DM density as power E in MW with DM density as power E in M31, which was published in [ 11] Abarca,M.2016. Results show that at a specific E, both DM densities are very similar. Relative differences are under 15 % inside main part of dominion. This fact support strongly author hypothesis about DM as power of E as Universal law.
Category: Astrophysics

[1078] viXra:1701.0633 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-27 05:15:17

Local and Multi-Universal Cycle Time According to Quantum FFF Theory. (FFF= Function Follows Form)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

Construction principles for chiral “atoms of spacetime” based on geometrical 3-D chiral vacuum lattice models and consequences for spacetime, general relativity based space curvature and time variation, including cyclic Multi- Universal time, and local time.
Category: Astrophysics

[1077] viXra:1701.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 13:57:24

The Mystery of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dark energy pulsating hypothesis challenging mystery of cosmic large-scale structure. Even a hundred billion galaxies are distributed like bubbles (void) of aggregate space design structure. Galaxies are distributed to the grid of bubbles. Galaxy does not exist on the inside of the bubble. That is a mystery of Cosmic Physics. Oscillatory universe model to challenge its mysteries. Repeated mini-big bang due to pulsation of the microcosm. In each of its Moving bubbles around galaxies formed by the previous mini-big bang, centered in the grid of bubbles.
Category: Astrophysics

[1076] viXra:1701.0620 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 10:02:09

Electronic Chip Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12] To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1075] viXra:1701.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 14:19:03

From Neutrino's Microtokamaks or Microstellarators to Neutrino's Quantum Extradimensional Respectively Extraterrestrial Bundles and Boundless Neutrino's Transmissions of Yotta Bytes Neutrinic's “space Music”

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 5 Pages.

There have been observed very scientifically important facts and astrophysical events in the Scorpius Stars Constellation during the last twenty years. Like an example I can introduce Discovery of nova Scorpii 2007, probably Binar System (V 1280 Sco.), described by Japanese astronomer Yukio Samurai on 4th – 5th February 2007. In 1998 in many scientific journals (Science, Scientific American) was published many informations about our Sun's (G2V) homolog or equivalent in Scorpii Constellation. In exceptionally but probably case an existence of high–tech civilization or metacivilization with building of Super Dyson sphere could be important for radiowave or other way of communication. There could be an existence some extrasolar's planets with advanced hi–tech civilization respectively based on neutrinic or spin–tronic technology. In the Scorpius Constellation are these typically our Sun's homolog stars: Shaula (λ Scorpii), Dschubba (δ Scorpii) -> tetrastellar system, Acrab (β Scorpii) and Binar Sun System Wei (ε Scorpii).
Category: Astrophysics

[1074] viXra:1701.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 10:42:08

Hawking Radiation in the Lab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1073] viXra:1701.0604 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 05:44:04

Magnetic Fields Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1072] viXra:1701.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 08:33:34

Distances, Locations, Ages and Reproduction of Galaxies in our Dynamic Universe

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 9 Pages. This Exxay was submitted to FQXI---- FQXi FORUM: Wandering Towards a Goal Essay Contest (2016-2017) January 24, 2017

There are many distant Galaxies whose distances are about 30 Giga light years. There are Galaxies which were born just after 400 million years after Bigbang and which were born 6 to 7 billion years after Bigbang. In Dynamic Universe Model all the Galaxies are distributed at different distances and the Universe looks similar as it is now. On 01March2016 the news of the discovery about the observation of most distant Galaxy ‘GNZ11 or GN11’having an light travel distance 13.4 Giga light years & co-moving distance of 32 Giga light years and having a red shift z of 11.1 created quite a stir. There are many such Galaxies like EGSY8p7 (with z= 8.68, age =13.2) and EGS-zs8-1 (with z= 7.73, age =13.04). To show that Universe exists further to GNz11, a Galaxy at distance of 100 times 13.4 Billion light years (1.26862E+28 meters) is simulated and named it as GNz11 in this simulation. 132 more galaxies were assumed in the range (3.02001E+26 to 1.26862E+28) meter. Later distance of the first Galaxy was reduced by 50% and found the graphs of Universe become similar in both the simulations after 102 iterations. Slowly life of the stars and hence subsequently the life of Galaxy will come to end because of their electromagnetic radiation. Galaxies tend to evolve from spiral to elliptical structure and they perish to form Blue clouds known as Galaxy "quenching". Hence we can say that our Universe had reproduction ability, which is a very slow process. Universe produces new Galaxies, and the already formed Galaxies perish slowly. Ours is single universe and is a closed one. In other words, our Universe reproduces its Galaxies, as and when light and other electromagnetic radiation condenses to form enough matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1071] viXra:1701.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 08:53:27

Existence of Many Blue Shifted Galaxies in the Universe by Dynamic Universe Model Came True

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 32 Pages. This paper is published in Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation with DOI 10.4236/ojmsi.2017.51009 . ISSN Print: 2327-4018 , ISSN Online: 2327-4026 , Gupta, S.N.P., (2017), 5, 113-144.

There are many blue shifted Galaxies in our universe. Here we will see old simulations to make such predictions from the output graphs using SITA simulations. There are four new simulations also presented here. In these sets of simulations, different point masses are placed in different distances in a 3D Cartesian coordinate grid; and these point masses are allowed to move on universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. The output pictures depict the three dimensional orbit formations of point masses after some iterations. In an orbit so formed, some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted). In this paper, the simulations predicted the existence of a large number of Blue shifted Galaxies, in an expanding universe, in 2004 itself. Over 8300 blue shifted galaxies have been discovered extending beyond the Local Group by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the year 2009. Thus Dynamic Universe model predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[1070] viXra:1701.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 11:51:47

Is Newton's Gravitational 'Constant' Increasing?

Authors: Alphonsus J. Fagan
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Beckenstein-Hawking formula for black hole entropy indicates that black holes have the highest possible entropy density in the universe. This suggests that, in addition to increasing entropy by its inexorable expansion, the universe can also increase it by creating more black holes. And one way to accomplish this would be to have the gravitational 'constant' ('Big G') increase with time. This paper explores how the dynamic of these two competing entropic processes might play out, how 'Big G' might vary with time, and where to look for evidence.
Category: Astrophysics

[1069] viXra:1701.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 03:32:22

Quantum Horizon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Patrick Hayden and Robert Myers describe how the study of “qubits”, quantum bits of information, may hold the key to uniting quantum theory and general relativity into a unified theory of quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1068] viXra:1701.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 04:36:42

Dark Matter and Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1067] viXra:1701.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-22 13:17:59

Wave Gravity the Way Towards Planck's Scale

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Gravity phenomenon is observed as periodic and wavy by its nature. Wave function describing state of space encircling gravitodynamic vortex is being suggested. In the “strong field” area, a quantization of orbits should be quite natural and fully observable. That phenomenon is named as gravitonium. The so-called Resonance with de Broglie’s wave arises as a natural. A direct consequence is the natural existence of Planck’s values as the main quanta. Resonance observed there could be possible mechanism of mass creation. The whole concept leads to change of 20th century geometrization paradigm towards real wave dynamic description of Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1066] viXra:1701.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 21:17:29

The Law of Capture in Star System Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

If there are older stars orbiting younger ones, then star system formation via capture is the law of star system formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1065] viXra:1701.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 10:05:13

Violations of Energy Conservation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists have proposed that violations of energy conservation in the early universe, as predicted by certain modified theories of quantum mechanics and quantum gravity, may explain the cosmological constant problem, which is sometimes referred to as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1064] viXra:1701.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-18 13:49:36

Purpose of Life in Universe

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 13 Pages.

This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.
Category: Astrophysics

[1063] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 23:28:52

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[1062] viXra:1701.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 12:46:36

Inflation Space Model and Pulsation Space Model.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

The inflation space model becomes the leading role of the cosmology now. The inflation cosmology supposes space to have been the size of the elementary particle level at a moment of the space birth and applies particle physics and is going to understand it. But for now, Innumerable inflation cosmology is proposed, and one cannot identify it. Introduction of the super velocity of light concept more than the velocity of light, A unit infinite other than the space where we live in other space with existing, There is it in confusion.
Category: Astrophysics

[1061] viXra:1701.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 01:10:24

White Spots of the Universe "FULL of HOLES" Become Black Holes Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe – One of Galaxies Multivselenna Limited to a Gravitational Cover and the Black Hole in the Center. the White Hole Has Turned Black, Having Let Out Gala

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Our Universe – one of galaxies Multivselenna limited to a gravitational cover and the Black hole in the center. The white hole has turned black, having let out galactic "tears", and we see that today, as have to see!
Category: Astrophysics

[1060] viXra:1701.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 01:15:27

How Much "BLUEBERRY" on Mars? Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Once the Tail of an Unknown Comet "Covered" Mars with Red "Cover". Martian "Blueberry" is the Hail Which Arose from the "Torn-Off" Tail of an Unknown Comet.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Once the tail of an unknown comet "covered" Mars with red "cover". Martian "blueberry" is the hail which arose from the "torn-off" tail of an unknown comet.
Category: Astrophysics

[1059] viXra:1701.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 14:18:40

Supermassive Black Holes Galaxies Merge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In roughly four billion years, the Milky Way will be no more. Indeed, our home galaxy is on course to collide and unite with the Andromeda Galaxy, at present some two million light years away. [16] A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. [15] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1058] viXra:1701.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 02:38:07

Hypothesis of Multistage Synthesis of Elements of Stars Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Hydrogen and Helium – the Subsequent Product of Synthesis of Elements of Stars.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Hydrogen and helium – the subsequent product of synthesis of elements of stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1057] viXra:1701.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 12:01:39

Could Planet 9 be a Dwarf star?

Authors: Jerrold Thacker
Comments: 12 Pages.

A review of parallax measurements of stars indicates there are major discrepancies in the distance measurements to red giant stars. There is very strong evidence that the nearest star is Betelgeuse, only a few light-weeks away and actually a dwarf star. It is possible that this dwarf star may be the missing Planet 9
Category: Astrophysics

[1056] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 07:30:58

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1055] viXra:1701.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 05:36:59

Video of Explosion Like Phenomena in the CMB Hot Spots Are Observed When WMAP and Planck CMB Images Are Superimposed and Transitioned Back and Forth.

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: 19 Pages.

I have compared Wmap to Planck and there appears to be explosion like phenomena occurring in the Cmb. A hot spot, after some time, disappears or explodes in the before and after comparisons. There are also observations of hot spots appearing where once there was a cold region. One may say this is noise in the data, to carry on the big bang theory, but there is a significant chance it is not as these changes are too large. If they are explosions, these hot spots may leave black holes behind and eject matter outwards, similar to a super novae event but macro. In some observations you will notice a round hollowish dark dot is left after the explosion like event. This observation, if correct, means we cannot rely on the redshift-distance theory interpretation as we know it when it comes to the distance between us and the Cmb. If in fact these were explosions, they should be significantly different in there frequency. There is also evidence from simulations on the Cmb of numerous concentric circles existing in the map. These circles may be the after affects of these Cmb hot spots exploding. The midpoint of these concentric rings do not have any hot spots in them, because the hot spot at the midpoint may have exploded in the past, which turned into cold spots, and the after affect was the concentric rings. A superimposition of the concentric circles on the Cmb is also included in the paper. Note some concentric rings have unique dark spots in the mid point, a black circle is placed over these interesting observations (Obs. 17).
Category: Astrophysics

[1054] viXra:1701.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-09 18:11:54

A Simple Solution to the Dark Matter Problem

Authors: Jerrold Thacker
Comments: 1 Page.

There is evidence that the attractive force of gravity is logarithmic instead of linear. If this is true, then the motion of stars in spiral galaxies is easily explained and there is no need for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1053] viXra:1701.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 11:34:02

Giant Atoms Unveil Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Giant atoms could help unveil 'dark matter' and other cosmic secrets. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1052] viXra:1701.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 13:52:39

Exploring the Inflation and Gravity of the Universe with Eyring’s Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao, Yuanze Xu, Ting Hao
Comments: 20 pages, 4 figures

On the basis of the very successful free volume theory applicable to wide length scales from electrons to small molecules, macromolecules, colloidal particles and even granules, hypothetical particles dubbed “freevons” are proposed to fill up the free volume available in any system from microscopic atomic world to the macroscopic universe. The Eyring’s rate process theory that has a wide applicability to many chemical and physical phenomena is assumed to govern the behaviors of freevons. It turns out that for keeping the universe to expand in an accelerated manner, the freevons must form the paired structures, like electrons paired in superconductivity state and helium-3 atoms paired in superfluidity state; at about 5 K, there is a temperature induced phase transition happening and the Hubble’s constant is predicted to dramatically increase, implying that the universe will inflate even further rapidly. The universe is therefore viewed as particles, the stars and galaxies, dispersed in the superfluidity freevon sea and the gravity is considered to be induced from the force density, usually defined as a negative gradient of pressure in fluid mechanics. The Newton’s gravity equation is thus easily obtained under those assumptions, and similarly the Coulomb’s Law can also be obtained using the same approach. In this superfluiditiy framework, the volumes rather than the masses of particles are found to be important in determining the gravitational forces. The expansion driving force comes from the activity or concentration gradient of freevons formed at the beginning of the big bang, and there is no need to postulate a dark energy or dark matter to be responsible for such an accelerated inflation; Or freevons can be considered “dark matter”. Our approach may bridge many different theories in astrophysics field and provide a possibility to use quantum mechanics to study the universe through exploring the quantum mechanics behaviors of freevons.
Category: Astrophysics

[1051] viXra:1701.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 07:53:05

Existence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1050] viXra:1612.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 04:52:24

Loss of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1049] viXra:1612.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 02:31:53

Variations of the Gravitational Constant with Time in the Framework of the Expanding Universe

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to find an answer in the matter of expanding universe from the time variance of the gravitational constant point of view. We took as reference the equivalent variation of the gravitational constant of a static universe and report the observational data to it. The equivalent variation of the gravitational constant of a static universe is estimated in a reference universe hypothesis. An expanding force is balanced by an attracting force and this is the basis from which we can establish a formal time variance for the gravitational constant in two cases. The first one correspond to an expanding universe, hence this case can’t be a reference for our evaluation. The second case corresponds to a static universe and it is the same as a de Sitter universe. This is the reason why this case can be a reference case. Thus the observational data smaller than our reference theoretical value, are linked to a collapsing universe and the observational data greater than the same reference value are characteristic to an expanding universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1048] viXra:1612.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 02:15:28

Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Background

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1047] viXra:1612.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 13:25:00

Verlinde's Theory of Gravity Tested

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team led by astronomer Margot Brouwer (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) has tested the new theory of theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde (University of Amsterdam) for the first time through the lensing effect of gravity. [21] Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1046] viXra:1612.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 13:57:47

Photonic-Magnetic Field in Interplanetary Space

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 14 Pages.

Imagine an interplanetary space where each celestial object will be attracted by the magnetic waves from these electromagnetic waves are created in more of photonic waves. From this set of waves there arises the photonic-magnetic field theory which is to attract a celestial body when the celestial object is undergoing a total shutdown. From this shutdown of the celestial body or planet, there is created an energy that emanates (Aggressively) photons. The photons have the function of joining with the magnetic waves, from this bond will create a cloud of magnetic charges (+ ;-) and photons ( Note that the photons are radiation magnetic waves.
Category: Astrophysics

[1045] viXra:1612.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 09:31:06

Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 47 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. We then study according to our new theory of dark matter the different possible distributions of dark matter in galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters. Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). Despite that our Theory of dark matter is compatible with the SCM, we then expose a new Cosmological model based on this new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM and that we will call local Cosmological frame. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new Cosmological model. The 1st mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd mathematical model of expansion of the Universe is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model of expansion used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[483] viXra:1705.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-01 00:26:42

Dark Matter and Rotation Curves

Authors: A. Lipovka
Comments: 9 Pages.

In present paper we show that the rotation curves of our Galaxy, can be obtained directly from the baryon matter distribution function and there is no need to involve the concept of dark matter. Such parameters of the galaxy as its mass and the distribution of baryonic matter can be easily calculated from the observed rotation curves. Calculated total mass of the Galaxy is 35x10(10)M\_sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[482] viXra:1705.0153 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-16 05:38:01

A Different Black Hole Horizon Interpretation Leading to Entropy Reduction and Violation of the Second Law.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 34 Pages.

According to Function Follows Form Theory, Hawking mathematics of a black hole horizon should be interpreted differently. Too weird to be true? My conclusion is that Stephen Hawking is still too anxious to admit that the splitting of positive mass ( going out) and negative mass (going in) at the black hole horizon should lead to violation of the second law of thermodynamics , by entropy decrease!! So, the Hawking mathematics of a black hole horizon should be interpreted differently. All Fermions (with positive mass) should be repelled at one of the fermion repelling horizons with positive or negative charge! As a result, each black hole is assumed to have a globular shell of positron and proton based plasma at the inside and a negative electron based plasma shell outside this positive shell. The ingoing negative mass (suggested by Hawking) could be interpreted as the anti material entangled copy symmetric shadow partners popping up into distant entangled anti material copy universes and the origin of the interference effect in a one photon double split experiment as suggested by David Bohm.. If we include existence of small interference black holes (or Quantum Knots) then Ball lightning and micro comets ( including Comets and sunspots) are to be explained as micro black holes violating the second law of thermodynamics. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface by interference . I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprites
Category: Astrophysics

[481] viXra:1705.0153 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-12 02:42:58

A Different Black Hole Horizon Interpretation Leading to Entropy Reduction and Violation of the Second Law.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 33 Pages.

According to Function Follows Form Theory, Hawking mathematics of a black hole horizon should be interpreted differently. Too weird to be true? My conclusion is that Stephen Hawking is still too anxious to admit that the splitting of positive mass ( going out) and negative mass (going in) at the black hole horizon should lead to violation of the second law of thermodynamics , by entropy decrease!! So, the Hawking mathematics of a black hole horizon should be interpreted differently. All Fermions (with positive mass) should be repelled at the horizon! The ingoing negative mass (suggested by Hawking) should be interpreted as the dark energy of the massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice including all photonic energy connected to the vacuum. If we include existence of microscopic interference black holes (or Quantum Knots) then Ball lightning and micro comets ( incl Comet and sunspots) are to be explained as micro black holes violating the second law of thermodynamics. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface by interference . I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprites..
Category: Astrophysics

[480] viXra:1705.0153 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-11 04:28:38

A Different Black Hole Horizon Interpretation Leading to Entropy Reduction and Violation of the Second Law.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Function Follows Form Theory, Hawking mathematics of a black hole horizon should be interpreted differently. Too weird to be true? My conclusion is that Stephen Hawking is still too anxious to admit that the splitting of positive mass ( going out) and negative mass (going in) at the black hole horizon should lead to violation of the second law of thermodynamics , by entropy decrease!! So, the Hawking mathematics of a black hole horizon should be interpreted differently. All Fermions (with positive mass) should be repelled at the horizon! The ingoing negative mass (suggested by Hawking) should be interpreted as the dark energy of the massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice including all photonic energy connected to the vacuum. If we include existence of microscopic interference black holes (or Quantum Knots) then Ball lightning and micro comets ( incl Comet and sunspots) are to be explained as micro black holes violating the second law of thermodynamics. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface by interference . I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprites..
Category: Astrophysics

[479] viXra:1705.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-12 11:19:53

A Theory of Baryonic Dark Matter

Authors: Jaidev B. Parmar
Comments: 8 Pages.

A model of the Universe is constructed and a number of problems in Contemporary physics like Baryon Asymmetry, Dark Matter, Proton Decay, Galaxy Rotation Curve, Quasars, SMBH, Relativistic Astrophysical Jets, Coronal Heating, Solar Cycle, Supernovae mechanism, Magnetar magnetic field, Cosmological Lithium problem, Solar neutrino problem, Existence of Black holes and Electron spin are discussed in the light of the Hypothetical Universe. It is proposed that there exists stable neutrons and antineutrons that could explain the Dark matter and the missing antimatter of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[478] viXra:1704.0375 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-09 11:37:15

Converged Solar Neutrinos Heat Outer Core of Earth to Liquid

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 10 pages, 1 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22716.23689

This paper presents a new viewpoint to explain why the outer core of Earth is liquid. The conclusion is based on these factors: iron and nickel are the principle elements of core; isotopes 57Fe, 61Ni can harvest low energy 14keV and 67keV respectively from concentrated neutrinos current, then convert to heat; unlike thermal neutron’s optic refractive index n<1 and very close to 1, the low energy (<100keV) neutrino’s can be n > 2, so as to form caustic zone inside Earth, confirmed by the fact that night observed value of solar neutrinos is 3.2% more than day.
Category: Astrophysics

[477] viXra:1704.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-08 10:10:49

An Analysis of Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Theory of Special Relativity

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 20 Pages. Made changes to how LIDAR guns work.

An analysis of books, presentations and scientific papers about Albert Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity shows that there is a fundamental disagreement between what Einstein wrote and how what he wrote is being interpreted by mathematician-physicists and taught in colleges and universities around the world. An analysis of the evidence shows that Einstein was correct and the vast majority of interpretations and teachings are incorrect.
Category: Astrophysics

[476] viXra:1704.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-04 10:02:57

An Analysis of Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Theory of Special Relativity

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 20 Pages. A major revision

An analysis of books, presentations and scientific papers about Albert Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity shows that there is a fundamental disagreement between what Einstein wrote and how what he wrote is being interpreted by mathematician-physicists and taught in colleges and universities around the world. An analysis of the evidence shows that Einstein was correct and the vast majority of interpretations and teachings are incorrect.
Category: Astrophysics

[475] viXra:1704.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-14 05:25:26

The Origin of Life and the Need for a Rigid String Propeller Fermion Model Combined with a Chiral Vacuum Lattice and Micro Interference Black Holes

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 40 Pages.

The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and is a strong argument that life in the Universe may be common rather than rare. Glycine molecules (Amino Acids) are found inside materials ejected from comets like Wild 2 ( 2004) and 67P-CG ( 2015-2016) which is reason to support the idea that new physics magnetic micro interference black holes postulated by Quantum FFF Theory are the origin of life creating comets and (ball) lightning all over the universe. . Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) new physics theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped rigid but transformable massless strings called Axion- Higgs (AH) particles. Colliding AH particles are responsible for pair production ( e- and e+) and even quarks around micro and macro black hole nuclei present in the splitting Big Bang down to Comets and Ball Lightnings. Black hole nuclei are supposed to be AH knots compressed by the in falling AH vacuum lattice. Two AHs should be able to change form by real high energy collision into two entangled electron positron propeller strings with opposite pitch and spin. Such high energy is supposed to be present at black hole event/photon horizons and inside particle colliders like the LHC at Geneva. The propeller form of fermions is assumed to be the origin of a new physics black hole model. All black holes attract (eat) the local AH vacuum but repel all fermions by spin polarisation effects, which make black holes pair producing and fermion producing phenomena observed in Quasars, Herbig Haro objects, Comets and even ball lightning. Thus the variable FORM of all particles is based on real internal joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons. However all new particles pairs are assumed to be instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. Massless transformed Axion particles are also assumed to be responsible for all compound quantum knots like quarks and massive Higgs particles of 126 GeV and Higher energy recently observed in the LHC at CERN. The oscillating AH vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon, Gluon and Neutrino information. Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Axion particles, compressed by the oscillating AH vacuum and acting as dark matter point sources called “Dark Matter Black Holes”( DMBHs).
Category: Astrophysics

[474] viXra:1704.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-08 21:17:36

Grand Unification from a Classical Interpretation of “Spin” Angular Momentum

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is shown from the laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum that the gravitational energy of a bound state particle is dependent upon its geometric mean angular frequency. A classical interpretation for the intrinsic “spin” angular momentum of a particle is submitted that can be tested macroscopically with the Rarita−Schwinger equation for the orbit of Mercury. Librations in the relative obliquity of planetary bodies are shown to be analogous to the Larmor precession of atomic particles. Schrodinger's concept of a bound state electron's zitterbewegung is hypothesized to be the librations in the electron's relative obliquity.
Category: Astrophysics

[473] viXra:1703.0296 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-03 15:22:51

Detection of Vibranium in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1365 Through X-Ray Spectroscopy

Authors: F. Ursini, A. Tortosa, F. Ricci
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present results from a joint NuSTAR/VLT monitoring of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1365. We find conclusive evidences for an emission K alpha line from atomic vibranium in the X-ray spectrum, in combination with molecular vibranium absorption features in the mid-infrared spectrum. This is the first direct observation of vibranium in an astronomical environment. We also derive a measurement for its abundance of 2e-6 with respect to hydrogen.
Category: Astrophysics

[472] viXra:1703.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-22 09:56:36

Solar Ponds on Mars: Ideal Habitats for Earth Life

Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 19 Pages.

There is a cheap, simple way to create habitable zones on Mars: the solar pond. At a few metres depth in such a pond, the pressure and temperature are benign for Earth-evolved life, with ample sunlight but negligible hard radiation. To create and sustain the pond, lightweight mirrors of silvered plastic film similar to solar sail fabric are mounted on inclining masts, positioned by day to divert additional sunlight into the pond, by night horizontal above its surface to minimize thermal energy escape. A submersible at the pond’s warmest depth emits jets of water to melt any opaque surface ice that forms. A surface film of oil suppresses evaporation and absorbs UV. Tents of transparent bubble-wrap-style plastic, filled with breathable air like diving bells and anchored to the pond floor, provide pleasant sunlit living space. Crops can be grown both inside and outside the tents. Only the mirrors are exposed to the harsh conditions of the Martian surface: everything else is in a protected, quasi-terrestrial environment.
Category: Astrophysics

[471] viXra:1703.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-12 00:18:29

Pluto, Should Be Defined As a Comet

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

showing a viewpoint about the classification of the Pluto.
Category: Astrophysics

[470] viXra:1702.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-05 00:16:14

The Beautiful Nebula and Its Formation Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about the formation mechanism of a Cat's eye nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[469] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-13 17:56:54

Determining The Mass of The Dark Matter Particle (WIMP)

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages. Original Research Paper

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this paper we will derive such mass value mwimp from an actual measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions Ψ(r,t) of quantum particles, since such wave functions must live in the space-time defined by the metric gμν consequence of the distribution of mass. In addition, in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian to determine the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function of dark matter particles inside galactic halos we will consider a quantum equation containing in the Hamiltonian the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the whole halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our quantum equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[468] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-14 10:16:48

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle (WIMP)

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this paper we will derive such mass value mwimp from an actual measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions Ψ(r,t) of quantum particles, since such wave functions must live in the space-time defined by the metric gμν consequence of the distribution of mass. In addition, in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian to determine the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function of dark matter particles inside galactic halos we will consider a quantum equation containing in the Hamiltonian the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the whole halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our quantum equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[467] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-01 11:38:16

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle (WIMP)

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this paper we will derive such mass value mwimp from an actual measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions Ψ(r,t) of quantum particles, since such wave functions must live in the space-time defined by the gμν metric consequence of the distribution of mass. In addition, in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian to determine the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function of dark matter particles inside galactic halos we will consider a quantum equation containing in the Hamiltonian the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the whole halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[466] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-31 10:21:02

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle (WIMP)

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this paper we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions Ψ(r,t) of quantum particles, since such wave functions must live in the space-time defined by the gμν consequence of the distribution of mass. In addition, in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian to determine the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function of dark matter particles inside galactic halos we will consider a quantum equation containing in the Hamiltonian the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the whole halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[465] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-30 14:06:58

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle, WIMP

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this paper we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions Ψ(r,t) of quantum particles, since such wave functions must live in the space-time defined by the gμν consequence of the mass present, and in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian to determine the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function of dark matter particles inside galactic halos we will consider a quantum equation containing in the Hamiltonian the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the whole halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[464] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-19 15:54:38

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this work we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions of quantum particles, and in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian have an affect on the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function Ψwimp(r,t) of dark matter particles inside galactic halos, we will consider a quantum equation containing the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along all this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[463] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 18:06:43

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this work we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions of quantum particles, and in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potentials that affect the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine the wave function Ψwimp(r,t) of dark matter particles inside galactic halos, we will consider a quantum equation containing the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this our derived quantum equation as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along all this process some special attention will be paid to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, very large information travel time across the halo system, etc, Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve that equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[462] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-27 11:35:20

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this work we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions of quantum particles, and in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potentials that affect the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine the wave function Ψwimp(r,t) of dark matter particles inside galactic halos, we will consider a quantum equation containing the gravitational potential energy produced by the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this our derived quantum equation as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along all this process some special attention will be paid to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, very large information travel time across the system, etc, Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve that equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[461] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-15 10:39:48

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t) and all of the measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). Therefore, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. So at this point the only element of contention would be which equation may be a better choice to describe the behavior of Ψ(r,t) for a dark matter particle in a galactic halo: 1) a Schrödinger type of equation 2) a Klein-Gordon type of equation 3) or even perhaps a new type of quantum equation better suited to our application in untested galactic dimensions. In this work we will focus on evaluating which quantum equation could be used, and under which conditions, to describe quantum states available to dark matter in galactic halos, under the gravitational field produced my all galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. We also will propose such quantum equation as the sought after halos' universal law. And at the end we will solve such equation, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, to estimate, applying this entirely different approach, the mass of the so elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[460] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-12 06:04:22

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 40 Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t) and all of the measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). Therefore, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. So at this point the only element of contention would be which equation may be a better choice to describe the behavior of Ψ(r,t) for a dark matter particle in a galactic halo: 1) a Schrödinger type of equation 2) a Klein-Gordon type of equation 3) or even perhaps a new type of quantum equation better suited to our application in untested galactic dimensions. In this work we will focus on evaluating which quantum equation could be used, and under which conditions, to describe quantum states available to dark matter in galactic halos, under the gravitational field produced my all galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. We also will propose such quantum equation as the sought after halos' universal law. And at the end we will solve such equation, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, to estimate, applying this entirely different approach, the mass of the so elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[459] viXra:1702.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-22 02:37:23

The Alternative Origin of Hubble Redshift : Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 35 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[458] viXra:1702.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-14 04:40:04

The Real Origin of Hubble Redshift : Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 34 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[457] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-03 08:12:27

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[456] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-18 00:39:26

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[455] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-30 10:13:04

Black Holes, White Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about black holes, white holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[454] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-30 07:08:30

Black Holes, White Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about black holes, white holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[453] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-23 23:54:57

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[452] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-23 04:40:03

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[451] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 21:35:24

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[450] viXra:1701.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-06 16:04:29

Exploring the Inflation and Gravity of the Universe with Eyring’s Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao,Yuanze Xu,Ting Hao
Comments: Pages.

On the basis of the very successful free volume theory applicable to wide length scales from electrons to small molecules, macromolecules, colloidal particles and even granules, hypothetical particles dubbed “freevons” are proposed to fill up the free volume available in any system from microscopic atomic world to the macroscopic universe. The Eyring’s rate process theory that has a wide applicability to many chemical and physical phenomena is assumed to govern the behaviors of freevons. It turns out that for keeping the universe to expand in an accelerated manner, the freevons must form the paired structures, like electrons paired in superconductivity state and helium-3 atoms paired in superfluidity state; at about 5 K, there is a temperature induced phase transition happening and the Hubble’s constant is predicted to dramatically increase, implying that the universe will inflate even further rapidly. The universe is therefore viewed as particles, the stars and galaxies, dispersed in the superfluidity freevon sea and the gravity is considered to be induced from the force density, usually defined as a negative gradient of pressure in fluid mechanics. The Newton’s gravity equation is thus easily obtained under those assumptions, and similarly the Coulomb’s Law can also be obtained using the same approach. In this superfluiditiy framework, the volumes rather than the masses of particles are found to be important in determining the gravitational forces. The expansion driving force comes from the activity or concentration gradient of freevons formed at the beginning of the big bang, and there is no need to postulate a dark energy or dark matter to be responsible for such an accelerated inflation; Or freevons can be considered “dark matter”. Our approach may bridge many different theories in astrophysics field and provide a possibility to use quantum mechanics to study the universe through exploring the quantum mechanics behaviors of freevons.
Category: Astrophysics

[449] viXra:1612.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-14 04:18:08

Physical Properties of Stars and Stellar Dynamics

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 15 Pages. Accepted for publication in Progress in Physics

The present study is an investigation of stellar physics based on observables such as mass, luminosity, radius, and photosphere temperature. We collected a dataset of these characteristics for 360 stars, and diagramed the relationships between their characteristics and their type (white dwarf, red dwarf, main sequence star, giant, supergiant, hypergiant, Wolf-Rayet, carbon star, etc.). For stars dominated by radiation pressure in the photosphere which follow the Eddington luminosity, we computed the opacity and cross section to photon flux per hydrogen nuclei in the photosphere. We considered the Sun as an example of star dominated by gas pressure in the photosphere, and estimated the density of the solar photosphere using limb darkening and assuming the adiabatic gradient of a monoatomic gas. We then estimated the cross section per hydrogen nuclei in the plasma of the solar photosphere, which we found to be about 2.66\e{-28} \, m^2, whereas the cross section of neutral hydrogen as given by the Bohr model is 8.82\e{-21} \, m^2. This result suggests that the electrons and protons in the plasma are virtually detached. Hence, a hydrogen plasma may be represented as a gas mixture of electrons and protons. If the stellar photosphere was made of large hydrogen atoms or ions such as the ones we find in gases, its surface would evaporate due to the high temperatures.
Category: Astrophysics