Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2219] viXra:1909.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 10:47:55

Plasma Flow Explain Sunspots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 79 Pages.

For 400 years people have tracked sunspots, the dark patches that appear for weeks at a time on the sun's surface. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: Astrophysics

[2218] viXra:1909.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 01:17:28

My Research Hypotheses

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 21 Pages.

During 2013-2019 I have studied the solar system geometry. Based on this study I have formed the following 5 basic hypotheses: Hypothesis No.1 Solar System is One building (or one machine) and each planet is a part of this same building. Hypothesis No.2 Solar System moves as a train. i.e. A train moves with all its carriages together, similar to that – Solar Planets move together as one train in one unified motion (i.e. No Planet moves individually or independently from other planets motions) Hypothesis No.3 Planet motion for 1 solar day depends on energy of light motion for 1 second period – that means – Planet moves following light motion – i.e. – Planet motion shows double motions – (1st) Light Motion (2nd) Its Follower Planet Motion Hypothesis No.4 Solar System Unified Motion depends On Solar Day Period Hypothesis No.5 Matter Creation process depends on solar day period of time – that means – Matter creation process depends on the time as one of its main components In this paper I try to explain these 5 hypotheses and provide short proves for them
Category: Astrophysics

[2217] viXra:1909.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 05:49:34

Remarks on Newtonian Dynamics, Aether, Cosmic Core and Quantized Redshift Phenomen

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a physics journal. Your comments are welcome

This paper shortly reviews the links among Aether, Newtonian dynamics, galactic core and plasma double layers. It is hoped that we can sketch an argument for the origin of Tifft’s quantized redshift phenomena, a known puzzle for astronomers.
Category: Astrophysics

[2216] viXra:1909.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 08:22:30

Explore Dark Matter with Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

"If we can detect axions and say for sure they are dark matter, it would be a truly exciting event indeed. It's what physicists like us dream for." [32] A team of physicists and computer scientists at ETH Zurich has developed a new approach to the problem of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Using machine learning tools, they programmed computers to teach themselves how to extract the relevant information from maps of the universe. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2215] viXra:1909.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 09:09:21

Effect on Black Holes of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A RUDN University physicist has developed a formula for evaluation of the effect of dark matter on the size of the shadow of a black hole. [31] These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2214] viXra:1909.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:02:49

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Hypothesis No. (1) Solar System pushes all planets to move together one unified motion– this motion is similar to train motion, so I call it "Train Motion Concept" – and as the train moves with all carriages one general motion- the solar system pushes all planets to move in one general unified motion.. (Planets Different Velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept") Hypothesis No. (2) Solar System Motion depends on Solar Day Period as its main unit of time Hypothesis No. (3) Matter depends on Solar Day Period To Be Created
Category: Astrophysics

[2213] viXra:1909.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 13:32:47

Laser Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have announced a prototype for a laser at the heart of the first space-based gravitational wave observatory, known as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. [20] The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2212] viXra:1909.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 02:50:52

Black Holes Clues to Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

These results, important for the construction of new theoretical models and for the development of new hypotheses about the nature of dark matter, offer much more precise indications for tracing the intricate path to understanding one of the largest mysteries of the cosmos. [30] New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark
Category: Astrophysics

[2211] viXra:1909.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-18 03:12:30

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows, Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "Train Motion Concept". (4) Space is NOT nothingness but a geometrical player in the solar system geometry (5) Space & Matter are created relative (and complementary) to each other
Category: Astrophysics

[2210] viXra:1909.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 17:51:25

Religious Persecution Against Coptic – In Egypt – Please Help

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

(1) Egyptian Government practices a Religious Persecution against me (Coptic) (2013-2019)– Because of my Specific Work in Astrophysics (2) Egyptian Government prevents the Coptic to be distinguished or famous – And she prevented me to travel from Egypt during (2013-2019) (3) Egyptian Government forces my relatives and Church people to perform this persecution works (4) Egyptian Government People tortures my mother to prevent me to publish my research papers (5) Egyptian Government People Try To Kill My Mother Now And To Get Rid Of Me. My research & CV proves my claim. Please Help
Category: Astrophysics

[2209] viXra:1909.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 08:38:22

Solar Fuel Generation in Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Hoping to break this barrier, scientists at the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a Department of Energy Innovation Hub based partly at Berkeley Lab, have invented a cell that is specially designed to allow for unobtrusive observation of an isolated, operating catalyst. [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2208] viXra:1909.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 11:40:17

Stellar Metamorphosis: Does Gas Accretion Occur in the Vacuum to Form Gas Giants, K2-18b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. 2 diagrams, one of lift, one of stellar metamorphosis

It is pointed out that astronomers do not understand the principles of pressure and gas in the vacuum of outer space, nor do they understand planetary evolution. Some clarifying statements are made to fix the issue, and fully replace the outdated dogma. In short, astronomers claim that gas accretes onto a solid body "like a vacuum cleaner" to form a gas giant. An archive link and screen shot are provided to show how wrong this is, and a replacement theory is offered. The link is here: http://archive.is/2xg6L
Category: Astrophysics

[2207] viXra:1909.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-16 01:25:25

Solar Planet Velocity Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Planet Velocity shows that Planet Motion is a part of A Greater Motion- (2) Planet Velocity shows that, Planets motions are similar to a train motion- it's one unified motion – and as a train moves with its carriages – the solar system moves one general motion with all planets. ("Train Motion Concept") (3) Planets different velocities can't disprove "the rain motion concept" because Planets motions are complementary to each other to enable the general unified motion to be performed which necessities the difference of velocities.
Category: Astrophysics

[2206] viXra:1909.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 17:26:10

Stellar Metamorphosis: Accretion Friction Braking, Part Two, 25143 Itokawa

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper calculations are done to determine the kinetic energy in joules of an impact at 3 different velocities of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa. More calculations are done in a graph, and some explanation is given as to what will happen to Itokawa in accordance with the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Essentially any impact velocity of Itokawa due to its large mass will cause enormous destruction, leading to the realization that it must have formed from an even larger destructive event.
Category: Astrophysics

[2205] viXra:1909.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 00:19:19

Definition Of Motion (III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Solar System Motion 1-Light travels before any other motion – because by this light motion energy the solar system moves. 2-Solar planets motions are followers the leading light motion 3-Light Motion is One and Planets Motions is One i.e. 4-Solar Planets cooperate together to produce one unified motion 5-Planets Data proves that solar system moves one unified motion by all planets – as a train moves with all carriages together- (Planet = A Train Carriage) Also Solar System has relativistic effects which prove the one motion claim Because (1) All distances are contracted by the same rate which means there's One Unified Motion Behind (2) the contraction rate is transported from point to another which proves the energy transportation through the solar system, makes it as one Trajectory of Energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[2204] viXra:1909.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 12:57:23

The Thrust of Rockets in Space.

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 2 Pages.

Rockets in the vacuum keep there velocity by inertia,but there acceleration stays null which means that they can't be thrusted at all.
Category: Astrophysics

[2203] viXra:1909.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:09:43

Definition Of Motion (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses -Solar system motion consists of light & planets motions. Both are geometrical players in the solar system geometrical structure -In all solar system motions – light motion leads planets motions -Solar system motion main features are (I) 2 Motions (Light And Planet) (II) both motions pass the same distance (III) the same distance passing by different rates Of Time. -Inner planets orbital circumferences are motions done by inner planets and light beams -Inner planets orbital circumferences are produced depending on Jupiter energy -Inner planets orbital circumferences work as bridge to transport the energy from Jupiter to the moon orbit
Category: Astrophysics

[2202] viXra:1909.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:40:00

How Fast Universe Expanding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists have known for decades that the universe is expanding, but research in the past few years has shaken up calculations on the speed of growth-raising tricky questions about theories of the cosmos. [20] If we haven't detected it 20 years from now I may be concerned, but for now I'm betting that dark matter is the real deal. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2201] viXra:1909.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-14 03:48:54

Differential Equations for Conic Section

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 5 Pages.

Theoretical mechanics shows that the motion along a curve is possible only when a body has an acceleration. It follows from the second Neeton’s law that a force has to be applied to a body so as to make it accelirate. All forces applied to the body can be summed up and replaced by one summarized force. “To solve the mass point motion problem we need differential equations for the motion. The way we derive these equations doesn’t matter”: [1,§11,п.3]. In this paper the equation for conic section is derived by the investigation of movement of a body along an elipse under the influance of a summarized force.
Category: Astrophysics

[2200] viXra:1909.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 07:32:04

Astronomers Believe in Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

If we haven't detected it 20 years from now I may be concerned, but for now I'm betting that dark matter is the real deal. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2199] viXra:1909.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 13:11:10

Sunqm-3s10: Using {N,n} QM’s Eigen N to Constitute Asteroid/kuiper Belts, and Solar {N=1..4,n} Region’s Mass Density R-Distribution and Evolution

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 22 Pages.

Asteroid belt is explained as the leftover “ring stain” of the once out-flying ice-rock mixture fragments (driven by the expansion of the ice-evap-line). The cold-KBO of Kuiper belt is explained as the “ring stain” of the current out-flying methane-ice mixture fragments (driven by the expansion of methane-evap-line, or the solar wind stop line). Using the normalized radial probability function r^2 * |R(n,l=n-1)|^2 = [r/rn * exp(1 - r/rn)]^(2*n), we calculated out that (at the normalized probability ≥ 0.1), Asteroid belt at {1,8//6} = {0,48//6} has a probability peak at n = 48, with the peak range = 2.7 ±0.6 AU, and Kuiper belt at {3,1//6} = {0,192//6} has a probability peak at n = 192, with the peak range = 43 ±5 AU. Using θ-dimension probability formula [sin(θ)]^[2(n-1)] ≥ 0.01, we calculated out that the n=48 belt has the collective orbits’ inclination range < 17.8 degree, and b=192 belt has the collective orbits’ inclination range < 8.9 degree. These calculated results fit to the Asteroid belt’s and the cold-KBO’s experimental data perfectly. Then we proposed a new concept: “Eigen quantum number n’ ” is the maximum n’ that can describe one orbit space’s > 90% mass in a single |nLL> = |n’,n’-1,n’-1> QM state. So n=48 and n=192 are the Eigen description for Asteroid belt and the cold-KBO. Using the Eigen n, the four undiscovered {3,n=2..5//6} belts (if they did not form planets) ’s r ± Δr and Δθ’ ranges are also predicted. Using the Eigen n, the Solar {N=1..4,n//6} region’s r-dimensional mass distribution was described by r^2*|R(n,l)|^2 either at each n shell level, or at each N super-shell level, or at the level of treating all N super-shells as a single entity. The evolution of r-dimensional mass distribution in Solar system (driven by the expansion of rock-evap-line and ice-evap-line) is discussed. The result suggested that any sub-Eigen n’ description for an Eigen QM state will be a low resolution and more broad description, and any above Eigen n’ description for an Eigen QM state will be a high resolution but needs many linearly combined QM states.
Category: Astrophysics

[2198] viXra:1909.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-13 00:13:12

Definition Of Motion (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 25 Pages.

Definition Of Motion (I) Paper Hypotheses 1-Planets data are created relative to each other 2-Mercury & Pluto Motions define the distance between them 3-Mercury & Pluto Motions define Saturn Orbital Distance 4-Solar System is one building and each planet is a point in it 5-Solar system moves one unified motion as a train moves with all carriages
Category: Astrophysics

[2197] viXra:1909.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 07:25:15

Graphene Astronomy Detectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology have demonstrated a detector made from graphene that could revolutionize the sensors used in next-generation space telescopes. [31] "Experiments of hot dense plasma are challenging enough that we should not rule out the possibility of error," Nagayama said. "And the science impact is enormous—this obligates us to continue examining the experiment's validity." [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29]
Category: Astrophysics

[2196] viXra:1909.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 05:41:29

Black Hole Ringing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Now, physicists from MIT and elsewhere have "heard" the ringing of an infant black hole for the first time, and found that the pattern of this ringing does, in fact, predict the black hole's mass and spin—more evidence that Einstein was right all along. [10] Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been spotted for the first time by the LIGO and Virgo detectors. [9] Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8]
Category: Astrophysics

[2195] viXra:1909.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 23:17:38

Solar System Motion Analysis (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Mercury Motion causes to connect and bind all solar planets motions to produce one unified motion
Category: Astrophysics

[2194] viXra:1909.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 00:27:08

Atoms Race Toward Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

According to the team, their study is the first unambiguous confirmation that quasar emissions fuelled by interstellar material trapped in the sphere of influence of supermassive black holes. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2193] viXra:1909.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-11 00:48:51

Solution to Solar Model Problems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

"Experiments of hot dense plasma are challenging enough that we should not rule out the possibility of error," Nagayama said. "And the science impact is enormous—this obligates us to continue examining the experiment's validity." [30] The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2192] viXra:1909.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 13:43:26

First Stars in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

Astronomers are closing in on a signal that has been travelling across the Universe for 12 billion years, bringing them nearer to understanding the life and death of the very earliest stars. [47] Collisions between neutron stars are fascinating cosmic events that lead to the formation of numerous chemical elements. [46] Physicists from ITMO University have developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

[2191] viXra:1909.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-07 12:31:10

Using Total Axial Angular Momentum to Determine the Age of Exoplanets, or Why Do Planets Spin at Different Energies?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages.

: Some ideas are presented to try and fit total axial angular momentum into the picture of gyro-chrono-logy, or "spin", "age", "study". The total axial angular momentums are calculated for specific bodies and made into a dimensionless number called William's Number. The William's number cutoff is arbitrarily set at 1 * 10^3. Graphs with explanations are provided, along with a chart with the predicted ages of the old stars in our system and others. The purpose of this paper is to finally give reason as to why some objects in our solar system have more spin energy (a calculated abstraction) than others, and to explain why they spin in the first place. Dimensionless number is total axial angular momentum divided by 1 * 10^31, with the kg *m^2*s^-1 removed. This paper is subject to revision as the new field of gyrochronology is developed.
Category: Astrophysics

[2190] viXra:1909.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-07 20:02:20

Solar System Motion Analysis (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 38 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses Hypothesis No. (1) "Solar System has One Unified Motion- i.e. All Planets Move Together In One Unified Motion" This motion is similar to a train motion –as the train moves with all carriages together The Solar System moves With All Planets Together One Unified General Motion. Although the Planets Velocities are different from each other – that can't disprove the hypothesis – where we see simply in any machine of gears how the gears move with different velocities but all gears together produce one general cooperative motion. Hypothesis No. (2) Energy is transported Through the Solar system Resulting of Solar System Energy Transportation (1)Planets data is created (2)Planets Motions became one unified motion
Category: Astrophysics

[2189] viXra:1909.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 08:08:46

Black Hole Movies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

By the time an international group of scientists stunned the world with the first ever image of a black hole, they were already planning a sequel: a movie showing how massive clouds of gas are forever sucked into the void. [22] We now understand that massive stars and black holes typically segregate into a disk," said Ákos Szölgyén of Eötvös University, Hungary, who led the study that has been published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[2188] viXra:1909.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 12:02:18

Solar Planets Move Together In One Unified Motion (As A Train Motion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 25 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Solar Planets Move In One General Motion (As A Train Motion) The Hypothesis Explanation -Solar Group Is Similar to One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Building (or solar group is similar to one machine and each planet is a gear in it) -Planets Motions is done As One Unified Motion -As a train moves with all its carriages – similar to that – solar group moves one unified motion with all planets together -Although Planets Velocities Are Different from each other – that – can't disprove this theory –because – as in any machine of gears – the different velocities of gears consist together the machine one general motion This paper tries to prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[2187] viXra:1909.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-05 14:01:38

Why Does Earth Moon Orbit Regress? (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Earth Moon Orbit Regression Is A Solar System General Motion General Motion Definition It's a motion done by all planets together- as a train motion done by all carriages– so if we see carriage no. 3 moves, that doesn't mean this carriage moves individually – on the contrary – all carriages move together but we observe only carriage no. 3 (i.e. A conclusion depends on incorrect observational results) This hypothesis can explain the following data Data Metonic Cycle Period 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (Sidereal Days) = 235 x 29.53 days (Lunar Synodic Month) = 20 x 346.6 days (Nodal Year) Saros Cycle Period 6585.321 days = 241 x 27.32 days (Lunar Sidereal Month) = 19 x 346.6 days (Nodal Year) = 223 x 29.53 days (Lunar Synodic Month) Why Earth & Moon Motions are in harmony with the Moon orbit regression? Based on what reason these three cycles are in harmony perfectly as the data shows? Because these three cycles are found from ONE MOTION – i.e. Earth & Moon motions with the moon orbit regression all these cycles are created from ONE MOTION only
Category: Astrophysics

[2186] viXra:1909.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-03 16:46:12

Why Does Earth Moon Orbit Regress?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 23 Pages.

Why does Earth Moon Orbit regress? Earth Moon regresses yearly 19 degrees which means 1.44 degrees per month (Lunar nodes are moving west by about 19° per year) Paper Hypotheses 1.Moon Orbit Regression proves that "Energy is Transported from Point to another through the solar system" 2.Moon Orbit Regression Energy is transported from Pluto to Uranus to Mercury to Earth Moon Orbit 3.Moon Orbit Regression is A Solar Group General Motion. i.e. -Solar Group is one building and each planet is a part of it. or Solar Group is one machine and each planet is a gear of it. -Based on that – Solar Planet Motion is not individual or independent motion – on the contrary – all solar planets move together as a train moves with all its carriages (although solar planets move by different velocities from each other – but they together consist one general motion) The paper tries to prove these facts
Category: Astrophysics

[2185] viXra:1909.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 15:50:05

Mass Is Distributed Through Solar System

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis 1-Planet Mass Is Not A Planet Property But Distributed Based On Solar System Geometrical Rules 2-Mass Distribution Proves That Solar Group Is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building- And The Energy Is Transported Through The Solar Group To Create The Planet Matter And Orbital Distance. 3-Saturn Is Solar System Central Point (i.e. Saturn Is Solar System Motor) 4-Mass Distribution aims To create Different Rates Of Time Between The Solar Planets Motions.
Category: Astrophysics

[2184] viXra:1909.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 18:16:59

The Proposed Age of Beta Pictoris b

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: two handwritten pages of calculations/printouts

Beta Pictoris b is proposed to be ~250 million years old according to its total axial angular momentum with reference to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. Its host Beta Pictoris is okay at ~12 million years old as currently believed by astronomers, but this can change if it does not match observations. Unfortunately for the status quo it means one star is ~20.8 times more evolved than the other, so they could not have formed at the same time or in the same vicinity of each other. Explanation is provided with calculations and a graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[2183] viXra:1909.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 05:47:01

Predictions for Elementary Particles and Explanations for Data About Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Galaxy Formation

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 60 pages

We suggest descriptions for new elementary particles, dark matter, and dark energy. We use those descriptions to explain data regarding dark matter effects, dark energy effects, and galaxy formation. Our mathematics-based modeling, descriptions, and explanations embrace and augment traditional physics theory modeling.
Category: Astrophysics

[2182] viXra:1908.0637 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-31 07:50:07

Uranus Day Period

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Uranus Day Period =17.2 Hours This Value Depends On Pluto Orbital Inclination 17.2 Degrees i.e. Pluto Energy is transported to Uranus – This Process proves Energy Transportation through the solar group- Based on that Pluto Data (Energy) is seen in Uranus Data (Energy) but with different unit – where units change is one of Energy Transportation Geometrical Features Why Energy Transportation needs to change the units? To provide the required flexibility for Energy Transportation process Shortly… Uranus Day Period (17.2 hours) is resulted directly from Pluto Orbital Inclination (17.2 degrees) This hypothesis should be a direct application on my theory of Energy Transportation Through the Solar Group – and If we can prove this hypothesis – that will support the theory proves strongly (Please review "Energy Transportation Through The Solar Group")
Category: Astrophysics

[2181] viXra:1908.0618 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 16:34:25

Solar Planet Motion Depends on Light Motion (Ii)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis Solar Planets Motions Concept 1 Second Of Light Motion Causes 1 Solar Day Of Planet Motion i.e. Planet Motion depends on Light Motion Or Planet is a result of light Motion Where Planet & light Motion Interactions depends on this concept 1 Second Of Light Motion Causes 1 Solar Day Of Planet Motion Which this paper tries to prove This paper completes the discussion in the previous one Solar Planet Motion Depends On Light Motion
Category: Astrophysics

[2180] viXra:1908.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 09:23:52

Solution to the Worst-Ever Prediction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 76 Pages.

The physicist has already been invited to present and explain his approach in scientific conferences, which reflects the interest shown by the community. [47] Collisions between neutron stars are fascinating cosmic events that lead to the formation of numerous chemical elements. [46] Physicists from ITMO University have developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Astrophysics

[2179] viXra:1908.0603 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 16:52:12

Solar Planet Motion Depends On Light Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 19 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis -Solar Planet Motion Depends On Light Motion That means -Planet motion at least is a double motions – i.e. light and planet moves together Or -In more clear words – Plant motion is resulted from light motion – That Means -Light motion produces energy which planet uses for its motion – so planet motion is done depending on light motion How to understand that?? -Is there a light beam moves with each planet?? NO -The solar group is one machine (one train) – and there's one light beam moves and causes by his motion to move the whole solar group (the train) – So -Solar Planets motions are NOT several motions – on the contrary – it's only one motion – all solar planets move together in ONE Motion as a train (planets = Train carriages) – but for solar planets not all planets move by the same velocity that doesn't disprove the theory – the motion is one but the gears (Planets) move with different velocities This paper tries to prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[2178] viXra:1908.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-28 08:41:38

Is the 2737 Phenomenon a real one? (II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (I) 2737 is A Real Astronomical Phenomenon (II) 2737 cycle depends on Pluto Motion Concept (III) 2737 Cycle is effected by Uranus Motion Pluto Motion Concept (Revision) -Light with velocity 1.16 mkm/sec travels for 1 second only -This light motion energy causes a planet to move for 1 solar day -(Specifically) Light Motion for 1 second causes Pluto to move 1 solar day -Pluto motion for 1 solar day causes Solar Planets Creation Process -Pluto moves -during a solar day- a distance = 406000 km -That's why Pluto Motion Daily =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total Based on this description … A = (light motion for 1 second) /(Pluto motion for 1 solar day) Conclusion The Rate (A=2.8571) Controls Solar Group Basic Data
Category: Astrophysics

[2177] viXra:1908.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-27 06:44:04

Planet Diameter & Orbital Distance Relationship (A Theoretical Analysis)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) There's A Relationship Between Planet Orbital Distance And Its Diameter. (2) -Human vision and realization process effects on the universe around -The Matter is created as an effect of human mind on the universe around – Matter has no real existence. i.e. -Matter is created based on Human Vision (And Realization Process)- which depends on the distance – that explains why there's a relationship between planet diameter and orbital distance. -There's no a proved relationship between planet orbital distance and its mass (In Planets Data) because the mass can't be measured by a vision -That explains Planet diameter and orbital distance relationship reason -That makes many of physics laws around us are rooted in human mind knowledge and realization process which explains why Planets move according to physics laws and not simply in chaos. Shortly -Human mind is a player in solar group geometry and without discovering of its geometrical role –the solar group geometry will be obscure forever
Category: Astrophysics

[2176] viXra:1908.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-25 12:20:59

An Addition to the Volume Principle of Life Formation in Stellar Metamorphosis, Plus Last Universal Common Ancestor

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 hand written note

Some calculations are done to hypothesize what the minimum volume of a star is needed to begin the formation of life. This paper builds on the previous volume principle of life formation. To form life, vast volumes of material is needed to increase the statistical likelihood of molecules mixing in ways that resemble complex proteins, sugars, and long chain hydrocarbons which branch such as phospholipids. This is of course far before any feedback and self-regulating mechanisms spring up, this is just to address the simple act of mixing elements and combining/recombining them in large scales. There is to date no other theory that connects young stars directly to the formation of life, this paper's goal is to help alleviate this vacuum, and places reasoning to the last universal common ancestor issue raised by academics and researchers.
Category: Astrophysics

[2175] viXra:1908.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-25 15:12:21

Energy Transportation Through The Solar Group

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 28 Pages.

This paper analyzes and tries to prove the previous paper concepts Light Velocity Effect On Solar System Geometry In that paper I have claimed: 1.The Solar Group is one Geometrical building and Each Planet is a part of It 2.i.e. solar planets are connected with each other as a train carriages– means– the planets motions is one general motion done by the whole machine (the train) How that can be possible? 3.Planet matter is created of Energy (E=mc2 supports that) 4.Planet Orbital Distance is created of Energy (Space = Energy "My Hypothesis) That means 5.Solar Group is one Energy transports from one planet to another creating the planet matter and orbital distance – and causes planet motion configurations Main Conclusion The previous description provides a basic conclusion which is: "Energy Must Be Transported Through The Solar Group Which Creates Planets Matters And Orbital Distances" This is the main idea shortly… In this paper we try to analyze this idea (concept) as deeply as possible In this analysis process we have many points to deal with First of all we need to (1)Prove The Energy Transportation Process ….and (2)Discover Energy Transportation Process Features and Concepts But, because Energy Transportation Process is So complex one – I need to summarize its features in questions to follow the argument in clear gradually progress Paper Main Questions 1-What Does Mean "Energy Is Transported From Point To Another Through The Solar Group"? (will be discussed in Point No. 3) 2-How Can We Be Sure That The Energy Is Transported From Any Point To Another? (Point No. 4) 3-What Are The Energy Transportation Basic Concepts & Features? (Point No. 5) 4-Can Planets Axial Tilts And Orbital Inclinations Values Prove Energy Transportation Process? (Point No. 6) 5-Can Planets Diameters Values Prove Energy Transportation Process? (Point No. 7) 6-Can Planets Masses Values Prove Energy Transportation Process? (Point No. 8) 7-Can Planets Velocities Values Prove Energy Transportation Process? (Point No. 9) 8-Can Planets Orbital Distances Values Prove Energy Transportation Process? (Point No. 10) 9-Does Pluto Earth Relationship prove Energy Transportation Process? (Point No. 11)
Category: Astrophysics

[2174] viXra:1908.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-23 16:43:27

Light Velocity Effect On Solar System Geometry (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 22 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis -Space = Energy -Space is created by light motion i.e. -Light motion can create a distance If -Light creates a new distance by its motion – we may see this distance as a period of time But -If the light pass through a distance found already and not new one – we may see this distance as a distance and not period of time -This idea supports 2 basic claim which are -1st / Time and Distance Values can be equivalent in higher velocity -2nd/ Space is Energy and be created by light motion
Category: Astrophysics

[2173] viXra:1908.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 07:55:03

Star Collisions Measuring in the Lab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Collisions between neutron stars are fascinating cosmic events that lead to the formation of numerous chemical elements. [46] Physicists from ITMO University have developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42]
Category: Astrophysics

[2172] viXra:1908.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 12:37:04

Heavyweight Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

"In particular, our scheme predicts the existence of superheavy gravitinos, which-unlike the usual candidates and unlike the previously considered light gravitinos-would also interact strongly and electromagnetically with ordinary matter," says Hermann Nicolai. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[2171] viXra:1908.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 14:50:58

Predictions for Elementary Particles and Explanations for Astrophysics Data

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 59 pages

We suggest descriptions for new elementary particles, dark matter, and dark energy. We use those descriptions to explain data regarding dark matter effects, dark energy effects, and galaxy evolution. We use mathematics-based modeling that can feature objects and de-emphasize motion. The modeling, descriptions, and explanations embrace and augment traditional physics theory modeling.
Category: Astrophysics

[2170] viXra:1908.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 12:04:00

Black Holes with Tabletop Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A research team from Osaka University, Nihon University and Chuo University has proposed a novel theoretical framework whose experiment could be performed in a laboratory to better understand the physics of black holes. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[2169] viXra:1908.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 18:05:24

Light Velocity Effect On Solar System Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 21 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (I) Light Velocity 1-There are 2 light velocities work in the solar system. Which are light known velocity (= 0.3mkm/sec) and light supposed velocity (=1.16 mkm/sec) 2-Light supposed velocity (1.16 mkm/sec) creates the distance by its motion (where Space = Energy) – 3-Planet Matter is created from the distance energy – that explains the relationship between Planet Matter (diameter or mass) with its orbital distance 4-Planet Matter is created from distance energy (Space =Energy) by relativistic effects help (specifically based on length contraction effect the distance energy give a birth for a matter) 5-Matter is relative to Light known velocity (0.3mkm/sec), (equation E=mc2 supports that). That's why our 5 senses (material senses) can't discover or realize any other light velocity than the known one (0.3mkm/sec) – and that's why the light known velocity (0.3mkm/sec) is the highest in our universe (Matter Universe) 6-Means… the light supposed velocity (1.16mkm/sec) is always around us but we can neither discover nor realize it because our senses are limited to the known one (0.3 mkm/sec) 7-Light known velocity (0.3mkm/sec) is produced from the original one (1.16 mkm/sec) (II) Energy Transportation 8-The Solar Group is created from one energy- this energy (light with supposed velocity 1.16 mkm/sec) creates Planets matters, orbital distances and the light known velocity (0.3mkm/sec) 9-The solar group is one trajectory of energy – and each planet is a point on this same trajectory – 10-That means the Energy is transported from point to another point through the solar system – and that explains Planets Data Dependency where all solar planets data is created relative to each other because they are created from one source (one energy) 11-Energy Transportation process should be a crucial proof for this theory –in this paper we should follow energy transportation process details to prove it. Primary Conclusion All Solar Planets Data Is Controlled By One Equation Only Because all planets data is created relative to each – where all data is created from the same source (the same energy) – i.e. All data is relative to each other and one Equation only controls all of them – i.e. (If I know this Equation and I know just Earth Diameter – as example-, based on this Equation I can conclude Uranus diameter, Mars axial tilt or even Pluto mass…. Any other data I can conclude this equation) In this Paper we follow the Energy Transportation process to prove it's a fact Also the paper tries to prove all previous hypotheses
Category: Astrophysics

[2168] viXra:1908.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-19 07:18:13

Black Hole Swallowing Neutron Star

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists, including from The Australian National University (ANU), say they have detected a black hole swallowing a neutron star for the first time. [10] Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been spotted for the first time by the LIGO and Virgo detectors. [9] Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8]
Category: Astrophysics

[2167] viXra:1908.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-19 10:27:26

Precession Cycle Effect

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

Earth orbital distance =149.6 mkm – the light (0.3mkm/sec) needs around 500 seconds to pass this distance… Why? Paper Hypotheses Because (1)Solar Group is one Trajectory of Energy – through which the Energy transports from point to another (2)Pluto sends The Energy To Earth (3)Pluto motion depends on a period =500 seconds – using by light beam with velocity =1.16 mkm/sec (4)Earth motion depends on a period =500 seconds – using by light beam with velocity =0.3 mkm/sec (5)The period 500 seconds is sent with Pluto energy to Earth (6)The sending energy causes Pluto and Earth data harmony The paper tries to prove these facts
Category: Astrophysics

[2166] viXra:1908.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 00:57:26

Lab-Based Dark Energy Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

An experiment to test a popular theory of dark energy has found no evidence of new forces, placing strong constraints on related theories. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2165] viXra:1908.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 04:45:45

Merging Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In a new paper based on Ilustris simulated images of merger galaxies, the astronomers present a way to help identify when imaged systems are mergers. [11] Scientists, including from The Australian National University (ANU), say they have detected a black hole swallowing a neutron star for the first time. [10] Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been spotted for the first time by the LIGO and Virgo detectors. [9]
Category: Astrophysics

[2164] viXra:1908.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-17 07:14:23

Black Hole - Neutron Star Merger Spotted

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been spotted for the first time by the LIGO and Virgo detectors. [9] Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7]
Category: Astrophysics

[2163] viXra:1908.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-17 11:00:41

Matter Creation Principle (Part V)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Paper Main Idea: -Light with velocity 1.16 mkm/sec travels for 1 second only -This light motion energy causes a planet to move for 1 solar day -(Specifically) Light Motion for 1 second causes Pluto to move 1 solar day -Pluto motion for 1 solar day causes Solar Planets Creation Process -Pluto moves -during a solar day- a distance = 406000 km -That's why Pluto Motion Daily =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total Based on this description … (light motion for 1 second =1.16mkm) / (Pluto motion for 1 solar day =0.406mkm) = A Conclusion The Rate (A=2.8571) Controls Solar Group Basic Data
Category: Astrophysics

[2162] viXra:1908.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 08:41:57

Spallation Vacuum Innovation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A new generation of neutron sources is providing scientists with unprecedented power to probe the structure and properties of materials ranging from biomolecules through to superconductors. [14] Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[2161] viXra:1908.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 09:22:30

Superfluid Layers Within Neutron Star

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

New insights into the inner structure of rapidly-rotating neutron stars have been gleaned by astronomers in Australia and Canada, who have studied the time evolution of a glitch – a sudden increase in the rate of stellar rotation. [10] Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been spotted for the first time by the LIGO and Virgo detectors. [9] Astrophysicists at Frankfurt, the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, and Nijmegen, collaborating in the project BlackHoleCam, answer this question by computing the first images of feeding non-Einsteinian black holes: it is presently hard to tell them apart from standard black holes. [8]
Category: Astrophysics

[2160] viXra:1908.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-17 03:45:40

Space Curvature and Shnoll Effect

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

Experimental results obtained during 1954–2014 by Simon E. Shnoll show that the fine structure of distributions of amplitude fluctuations in different processes depends on the position of the Earth with respect to other celestial bodies. The phenomenon includes all processes from biochemical reactions to alpha-decay of nucleons, from the noise of electric networks to random number generators. Until now this phenomenon has not been explained. This article discloses that the cause of the Shnoll effect is the curvature of space which depends on the Earth’s position in cosmic space.
Category: Astrophysics

[2159] viXra:1908.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 10:43:17

Matter Creation Principle (Part IV)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

Let's remember our main argument in this papers series "Matter Creation Principle" I have claimed the following: (1)Light with velocity 1.16 mkm/sec travels for 1 second period only (2)Light Motion for 1Second causes Planet to move for 1 solar day (3)Based on Planet motion for 1 solar day – Solar Planets are created… (4)Specifically – Pluto motion for 1 solar day is a result of light motion for 1 second period (light velocity =1.16 mkm/sec) and based on Pluto motion for 1 solar day – the planets diameters are created that's why Pluto Motion Distance Daily = 406000 km= Planets Diameters Total But (5)We have discovered that Earth Moon Orbit defines solar Planets diameters Where a.Apogee Radius = Solar Planets Diameters Total b.Perigee Radius = Outer Planets Diameters Total c.Apogee–Perigee Distance =inner planets diameters total =Earth Circumference (6)Based on the previous data we have concluded that (1st Conclusion) Pluto and Earth Moon together effect on Solar Planets Diameters Creation process (2nd Conclusion) light beam with velocity 1.16 mkm/sec is sent from Pluto to Earth causes the Earth Axial Tilt (23.45 degrees) Also (7)We have discovered that 2 Jupiter Diameters +1 Saturn Diameter = Solar Planets Diameters Total =406000 km (8)i.e. Jupiter Diameter = 8 Planets Diameters Total (9)These relationships are depended also on light beam velocity 1.16 mkm /sec What we need to do in this paper? The previous claim is a heavy one, so we need to discuss (1st) More Proves & Details (2nd) How does this machine work? Let's start immediately… Please Note Paper Methodology is mentioned in "Matter Creation Principle (Part III)"
Category: Astrophysics

[2158] viXra:1908.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 13:34:56

Energy Fields of the Planets.

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 8 Pages.

The forces of nature are reviewed and analyzed from first principles, without any pre-conceptions. The review is based on the earlier analysis of Energy Fields around conductors, solenoids, permanent magnets and rotating bodies [1][2]. Here we continue the analysis of interactions between Rotational energy fields. The proposals may provide an alternative explanation for the "magnetic" fields of the Planets of our Solar System.
Category: Astrophysics

[2157] viXra:1908.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 08:43:44

Dark Matter Detector Search for Gold

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A method for locating seams of gold and other heavy metals is the unlikely spin-off of Swinburne's involvement in a huge experiment to detect dark matter down a mine in Stawell, Victoria. [28] The key component of the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment is ready to be sealed and lowered nearly 1.5 km underground, where it will search for dark matter. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2156] viXra:1908.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 09:36:08

War Around Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In the summer of 2009, theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde had a brainwave that developed into a radical new idea about gravity and the universe as an ocean of information. Ten years later, the last word about this has not yet been said. [21] An international research team including astronomers from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has combined radio telescopes from five continents to prove the existence of a narrow stream of material, a so-called jet, emerging from the only gravitational wave event involving two neutron stars ever observed. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories-located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US-double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2155] viXra:1908.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 14:56:28

Matter Creation Principle (Part III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

Matter Creation Principle (Part III) Abstract Paper Hypothesis There's a light beam its velocity 1.16 mkm/sec travels from Pluto to Earth Axis which creates the connection between Pluto on one side and Earth with her Moon on the other Side Based on this connection Pluto and the Moon orbit effect on Solar Planets Creation Process This hypothesis depends on Solar System General Principle -Solar group geometrical structure depends on energy of light beam motion (its velocity 1.16 mkm/sec) for one second period -Light motion (1.16 mkm/sec) for 1 second period causes Planet to move for 1 solar day..
Category: Astrophysics

[2154] viXra:1908.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 03:11:48

Predictions for Elementary Particles and Explanations for Data About Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Galaxies

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 57 pages

We suggest descriptions for new elementary particles, dark matter, and dark energy. We use those descriptions to explain data regarding dark matter effects, dark energy effects, and galaxy evolution. We use mathematics-based models that feature objects and, originally, de-emphasize motion. The models, descriptions, and explanations add to traditional physics, provide clarity regarding aspects of nature for which people point to possible inadequacies in traditional physics models, and embrace traditional physics models in realms for which people have validated traditional physics models.
Category: Astrophysics

[2153] viXra:1908.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 05:44:59

A `constant Lagrangian' RMW-RSS Quantified Fit of the Galaxy Rotation Curves of the Complete Sparc Database of 175 LTG Galaxies.

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas
Comments: 69 Pages.

In this paper I categorize and analyze the `constant Lagrangian' model fits I made of the complete SPARC database of 175 LTG galaxies. The difference with the previous papers is the application of the RMWRSS (Root Mean Weighted Residual Sum of Squares) method to quantify the quality of the fit, using a continuous curve. Of the 175 galaxies, 77 allowed a single fit rotation curve, so about 44 percent. Another 18 galaxies could almost be plotted on a single fit. Then 13 galaxies could be fitted really nice on crossing dual curves. The reason for the appearance of this dual curve, in its two versions, could be given and related to the galactic constitution and dynamics. From then on, the fitting got more and more complex. So I got a 44 percent positive rate for a direct fit of the measured rotation curves on the prime model. This result rules out stochastic coincidence as an explanation of those fits.
Category: Astrophysics

[2152] viXra:1908.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-11 07:39:23

Matter Creation Principle (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Paper Hypotheses (1) Pluto Motion For One Solar Day depends On energy of light motion for 1 second (light velocity= 1.16 mkm /sec) (2) Earth Moon is Created relative to Light Energy (i.e. relative to light velocity) (3) Pluto and Earth Moon are basic players in Solar Planets Diameters Creation Process The paper tries to prove these hypotheses
Category: Astrophysics

[2151] viXra:1908.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 10:26:38

Matter Creation Principle

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 5 Pages.

Matter Creation Principle The Matter is Created of Space Energy based on Lorentz length contraction phenomenon. Principle Explanation: -The matter is created of Energy as Equation E=mc2 tells us -Space = Energy (My Hypothesis) -Lorentz length contraction phenomenon (as relativistic effect) causes to concentrate the energy because the length contraction decreases the volume with the same energy content… -The matter is created of energy based on quantized measurements – as we have seen in double production experiment – Gamma rays 1.2 Mev can produce electron and positron… but Gamma Rays 1 Mev can't because the matter production depends on quantized measurements -So the Space Energy is concentrated by Length contraction effect but this concentrated Energy can't produce Matter unless the energy reach to the required quantum – Based on this concept the solar planets are created depending on Energy of Pluto Motion Distance for 1 day – This paper tries to prove this idea
Category: Astrophysics

[2150] viXra:1908.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 12:42:04

Mathematics of the Cosmos

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 10 Pages.

The forces of nature are reviewed and analyzed from first principles, without any pre-conceptions. The review is based on the earlier analysis of Energy Fields around conductors, solenoids, permanent magnets and rotating bodies [1]. Here we continue the analysis of interactions between Potential energy fields, Orbital energy fields and Rotational energy fields. The proposals may provide an explanation for the forces within the cosmos - including the so-called ‘fifth’ force.
Category: Astrophysics

[2149] viXra:1908.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 03:12:11

Spiral Galaxies Without Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

We think that the "morphogenic field" Kepler was seeking really does exist, and is actually the effect of the intertwining of information and entropy. After four long centuries, it seems Kepler has finally been vindicated. [31] Vast interstellar events where clouds of charged matter hurtle into each other and spew out high-energy particles have now been reproduced in the lab with high fidelity. [30] The current detection suggests that many other such events will be detected in the future and will continue to shed light on this cosmic mystery. [29]
Category: Astrophysics

[2148] viXra:1908.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 17:59:58

Solar System Energy Trajectory

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

Solar Group Creation And Motion (A description which this paper tries to prove) 1-The Solar System Is created of one energy only - this one energy travels through the solar group from point to another point – creating the planet matter (because E=mc2) and planet orbital distance (because Space = Energy- My Hypothesis). 2-The Solar System Main Energy starts from Jupiter and travels to Pluto (from this energy Neptune orbital circumference is created consuming 16% of the total energy) 3-Neptune reflects the rest of energy toward the inner planets into 2 equal trajectories of energy 4-The Energy is sent from Neptune (and Pluto) to Mercury 5-Energy is sent from Mercury to Saturn 6-Pluto Motion specifically for 1 solar day depends on light motion for 1 second (where this moving light velocity =1.16 mkm/sec – my hypothesis) – that means – 1 second of light motion causes Pluto to move 1 solar day 7-Solar group is created based on Pluto motion for 1 solar day (solar planets diameters total = 406000km= Pluto motion for 1 solar day) 8-Planets motions energies accumulations with 2 other factor effects – lead to produce the sun light beams… these 2 factors are a.The sun rate of time is different from Earth one b.Jupiter Energy Interaction with the planets velocities total 9-i.e. Planets Motions energies total produce the sun rays based on changing the sun rate of time and the interaction with Jupiter energy 10-The produce light beam will be 0.3 mkm/second but the original one is 1.16 mkm/sec – for that – the value 0.3 will multiply with 4……(0.3x4 =1.2 mkm/sec from this value the original light beam 1.16 mkm/sec is produced) (Why it multiplies with 4 - because earth has a cycle of 4 years – 1461 days) 11-The final product will be 1.16 mkm/sec moves for 1 second only to repeat the cycle for tomorrow…
Category: Astrophysics

[2147] viXra:1908.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 01:36:29

Black Holes Nursery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Gravitational wave researchers at the University of Birmingham have developed a new model that could help astronomers track down the origin of heavy black hole systems in the Universe. [24] Data from ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has revealed how supermassive black holes shape their host galaxies with powerful winds that sweep away interstellar matter. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2146] viXra:1908.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-08 07:37:36

Dark Matter Older than Big-Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

The study, published August 7 in Physical Review Letters, presents a new idea of how dark matter was born and how to identify it with astronomical observations. [28] The key component of the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment is ready to be sealed and lowered nearly 1.5 km underground, where it will search for dark matter. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2145] viXra:1908.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 11:19:32

Next-Generation Dark Matter Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The key component of the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment is ready to be sealed and lowered nearly 1.5 km underground, where it will search for dark matter. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2144] viXra:1908.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 12:37:39

Astrophysical Shock in Laboratory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Vast interstellar events where clouds of charged matter hurtle into each other and spew out high-energy particles have now been reproduced in the lab with high fidelity. [30] The current detection suggests that many other such events will be detected in the future and will continue to shed light on this cosmic mystery. [29] In this week's Chaos, Tamás Kovács delivers an alternative method for stability analysis of exoplanetary bodies using only the observed time series data to deduce dynamical measurements and quantify the unpredictability of exoplanet systems. [28] Now experiments led by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in the Princeton Center for Heliophysics have for the first time reproduced the process behind the source of such shocks. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[2143] viXra:1908.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 21:36:05

Solar System Motion Principle

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 20 Pages.

How the Solar Group is Created? Let's summarize it in following (The Next Story is hypothesis which we try to prove in this paper) (Part I) 1-A light beam with velocity 1.16 mkm travels for 1 second Based on this light energy Pluto is created and moves for one complete day (light motion for one second causes planet motion for one complete solar day) 2-Based on Pluto motion for one solar day – the solar group is created A simplified proof Pluto Motion Daily =406000 Km = Solar Planets Diameters Total i.e. Energy of Pluto Motion for one solar day (406000km) is used to produce planets diameters (at first) and based on these diameters, the planets distances, masses and other data are created…. So Based on Pluto motion for one solar day the solar group is created and move 3-All planets revolve around the sun in the same direction i.e. the velocities summation is possible (Part II) 4-Planets Motions Energies are accumulated with help of other factors to produce light velocity i.e. Planets Motions Mechanical waves will be accumulated and transformed into light waves (sun rays are produced by planets motions energies accumulation) 5-The produced light continuous for one solar day for us – but it's just one second period relative to the original light beam (because light motion for 1 second causes plant motion for 1 day) 6-The produced light (0.3mkm/sec) needs to multiply with 4 (0.3x 4= 1.2 from which 1.16mkm/sec is produced) – why multiply with 4? Because Earth has a cycle (365 days +365 days +365 days +366 days =1461 days) – and light production process depends on the different rates of time between Earth and the sun (1: 365) 7-The new light beam (1.16mkm/sec) will do the same job for tomorrow (means …. A light beam with velocity 1.16 mkm travels for 1 second….. the cycle is repeating daily) 8-The solar group geometrical structure depends on the solar day as a time period 9-So the solar group original light is 1.16 mkm/sec – how the known light velocity 0.3mkm/sec is created? Based on the Equation (1.16 mkm/sec – 0.3 mkm/sec) /0.3 mkm/sec = A Where A = (1.16 mkm / 0.406mkm) Please review Solar System Geometry (Summarized Discussion Part 4) Where we found that the rate A controls the basic Data in the solar group
Category: Astrophysics

[2142] viXra:1908.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-06 10:23:12

Solar System Geometry (Summarized Discussion Part 4)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 18 Pages.

Abstract Solar System General Principle Solar System Geometrical Structure depends On Energy Of Light Motion For 1 Second Period Paper Hypotheses Hypothesis No.1 Solar group geometrical structure depends on energy of light motion for 1 second period Hypothesis No.2 1 second period of light motion causes the planet to move for a solar day period Hypotheses Explanation -The whole solar group depends on energy = light beam motion for 1 second only – that means – planets masses, diameters, orbital distances and all other data all of them are created depending the energy of 1 second motion done by light beam -Light motion for one 1 second period provides energy enough to move the planet for a period = 1 solar day i.e. -The Solar Group Building Unit Depends On The Solar Day Period 1- Introduction -The solar group building depends on energy of 1 second of light motion – this 1 second motion of light will be seen on the planet as a motion continuous for 1 complete solar day -That means the solar group building unit is the second for the light beam motion. -The hypothesis tells us that 1 second of light motion = 1 day of planet motion So -Based on any planet motion for one day the solar group is created? -Solar group is consisted of 9 planets – let's use their diameters as example- solar planets diameters total = 2 Jupiter diameters + 1 Saturn diameter = 406000km -What planet moves daily 406000 km ? Pluto -So 1 second motion of light beam is seen in Pluto motion in one complete solar day -And based on Pluto motion for 1 solar day the solar group is created! Can that be possible? -Of course yes for 2 reasons (1)because Jupiter sends its energy to Pluto – where this energy is the solar group main energy – and from this energy Neptune orbital circumference is created and the rest of energy Neptune reflected to the inner planets as we have discussed before and we'll review the details of this process in this paper. (2)Also because 86400 mkm (solar group main energy) = (71)2x 17.2 mkm and we know that 17.2mkm =17.2 degrees where Pluto orbital inclination =17.2 degrees –(71 is the length contraction effect rate As we have discussed) that means the energy is concentrated in Pluto Orbital Inclination (means Energy is concentrated in Pluto data) That makes the conclusion somehow correct – in fact – based on Pluto motion for 1 solar day the solar group is created We will prove that in point no. 4 of this paper – But now we need to know the light beam….! We have supposed that the motion is done in double (light motion with planet motion) Now the planet is Pluto moves for one solar day – we need to know the light beam who moves for 1 second I have supposed Jupiter energy is in light beam form its velocity =1.16mkm/sec So The light travels 1.16 million during 1 second And Pluto moves 0.406 mkm during 1 solar day And the rate A= (1.16/0.406)=2.85714 Based on this rate the solar group is created … The paper tries to prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[2141] viXra:1908.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 06:21:38

Warm Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Detailed new maps of the distribution of hydrogen gas absorption could be used to support-or exclude-this warm dark matter possibility (see the figure), and shed light on this mysterious cosmic component. [28] Dr. Wojciech Hellwing, coordinator of the project and Research Fellow at the Centre for Theoretical Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, discusses the project's findings so far. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2140] viXra:1908.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 08:18:25

Dark Energy or Modified Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Dr. Wojciech Hellwing, coordinator of the project and Research Fellow at the Centre for Theoretical Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, discusses the project's findings so far. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[2139] viXra:1908.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 22:26:13

Solar System Geometry (Summarized Discussion - Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

Paper Hypothesis The Sun Rays Is Produced By Planets Motions Energies Accumulations The paper tries to prove this fact Solar Group Alternative Description 1-The solar group is one trajectory of Energy and each planet is a point on this same trajectory …i.e. 2-The Solar Group is One Building and each planet is a part of this same building- 3-Also The solar group is similar to a train and each planet is a carriage of it. 4-Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in it 5-Also, The solar group can be similar to one machine, each planet is a gear in it 6-Planet moves with all other planets together as a train moves with all carriages – Description Basic Concept Planets cooperation and integration is the reason of their existence and motions. How to understand that? WE know that the matter is created of Energy (E=mc2) – but How The Space Is Created? I suppose the Space is created of Energy also… (Space = Energy) So the matter and space both are created from the same energy.. Can that be possible? Energy has different forms (sun rays – nuclear interactions – oil- food ..etc) Different forms for same content, i.e. it's possible to create matter & space of energy Another Example In double slit experiment (Young Experiment) – the light coherence produced bright and dark fringes –regardless the experiment explanation – the experiment tells "when one input is used (light)–outputs can be in 2 different forms (bright and dark fringes)" The Solar Group Creation I suppose the solar group is one energy creates the planet matter and orbital distance – so this same energy passes through the whole group to create all solar planets and their orbital distances from the same energy where this energy creates all planets data complementary to each other because all of them are created from the same source. Shortly The solar group is one thread – as one necklace – all solar planets and their distances are created from one energy to be complementary to each other- and that's why the planets data analysis shows the solar planets dependency.
Category: Astrophysics

[2138] viXra:1908.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-01 07:33:47

Gamma-Ray Bursts from Space Decoded

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The current detection suggests that many other such events will be detected in the future and will continue to shed light on this cosmic mystery. [29] In this week's Chaos, Tamás Kovács delivers an alternative method for stability analysis of exoplanetary bodies using only the observed time series data to deduce dynamical measurements and quantify the unpredictability of exoplanet systems. [28] Now experiments led by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in the Princeton Center for Heliophysics have for the first time reproduced the process behind the source of such shocks. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[2137] viXra:1908.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-01 09:42:11

Flight by Light Mission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Mission accomplished: the Planetary Society announced Wednesday that its LightSail 2 spacecraft, which was launched last month, had successfully raised its orbit using only the power of photons from the Sun. [30] The current detection suggests that many other such events will be detected in the future and will continue to shed light on this cosmic mystery. [29] In this week's Chaos, Tamás Kovács delivers an alternative method for stability analysis of exoplanetary bodies using only the observed time series data to deduce dynamical measurements and quantify the unpredictability of exoplanet systems. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2136] viXra:1908.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-01 17:56:58

Solar System Geometry (Summarized Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 26 Pages.

The Solar Group Geometrical Basic Features: 1-The Solar Group is One Trajectory of Energy and Each Planet is A point on it 2-The sun light is produced by accumulation of planets motions energies and transformation the mechanical waves into light waves 3-Solar Planets Data are created relative to each other 4-There Are relativistic effects in the solar group 5-The unit definition is relative and can change according to the observer situation This paper discusses and tries to prove the previous features
Category: Astrophysics

[2135] viXra:1907.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 07:47:54

Earth Moon Orbit Triangle Analysis (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Earth Moon Orbit Triangle Analysis (Revised) Abstract The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure Proves The Following Conclusions: Primary Conclusions (1)Solar Group Can't be created neither by Big Bang Theory Nor Sun Gravity Concept. (2)The Solar Group is created of Only One Energy travels through the group (3)This one Energy creates planets matters (E=mc2 supports that) and planets orbital distances (because Space = Energy –my hypothesis) (4)Solar Group can be similar to one train and each planet is a carriage of it. (5)Solar Group can be similar to one machine and each planet is a gear in it (6)Solar Group can be similar to one building and each planet is a part of it (7)So, when a planet moves – means - this planet moves as a carriage in one train –all solar planets move together in one general motion Paper Basic Conclusion: Energy must be Transported from Jupiter to Earth Moon Orbit The paper tries to prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[2134] viXra:1907.0612 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 07:14:25

Astrophysical Shocks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Now experiments led by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in the Princeton Center for Heliophysics have for the first time reproduced the process behind the source of such shocks. [27] A merger between galaxies can trigger can intense radiation from bursts star formation and from the accretion of gas onto the two supermassive black holes at their centers. [26] However, a surprising new discovery from a Caltech researcher suggests that the Schrödinger Equation—the fundamental equation of quantum mechanics—is remarkably useful in describing the long-term evolution of certain astronomical structures. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2133] viXra:1907.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 11:40:23

Moon Orbit Triangle Analysis

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

The moon motion 4 basic points (perigee- apogee- average- total solar eclipse) are defined based on Pythagoras Rule which can't be explained by gravity forces effect – Based on that The Moon Orbit Geometry proves the claim "The Solar Group is created by one energy travels from point to another point through the solar group" Specifically – The moon orbit geometry proves that "The Energy Must Be Transported From Jupiter To Earth Moon Orbit"
Category: Astrophysics

[2132] viXra:1907.0600 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 02:51:22

Exoplanet Stability Analysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In this week's Chaos, Tamás Kovács delivers an alternative method for stability analysis of exoplanetary bodies using only the observed time series data to deduce dynamical measurements and quantify the unpredictability of exoplanet systems. [28] Now experiments led by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in the Princeton Center for Heliophysics have for the first time reproduced the process behind the source of such shocks. [27] A merger between galaxies can trigger can intense radiation from bursts star formation and from the accretion of gas onto the two supermassive black holes at their centers. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[2131] viXra:1907.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 06:43:33

Stellar Metamorphosis: "Terraforming"? Mars

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 2 Pages. made possible by DARE (Daniel Archer Research Enterprise)

SpaceX wants to terraform Mars. Trying to make Mars more like Earth is akin to reverse engineering the natural evolution of Mars as per Stellar Metamorphosis (GTSM). Is it possible to turn back time and reverse engineer Mars? Is it a good idea to even attempt it?
Category: Astrophysics

[2130] viXra:1907.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 08:44:24

Discovery How Planets Form

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers at Dartmouth College have discovered a planet orbiting one of the brightest young stars known, according to a study published in the journal The Astrophysical Journal Letters. [37] Princeton University students are building the device, called a cubic satellite, or CubeSat, as a testbed for a miniaturized rocket thruster with unique capabilities being developed at PPPL. [36] A research team led by Osaka University showed how multiple overlapping laser beams are better at accelerating electrons to incredibly fast speeds, as compared with a single laser. [35]
Category: Astrophysics

[2129] viXra:1907.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-27 16:28:01

Accretion and Ablation During Stellar Evolution: How Old is Mercury?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

As stars accrete material in their interiors to form "planets", they ablate their thick atmospheres. This means accretion and ablation happen simultaneously during stellar evolution. Much more material is ablated than accreted at first during the process of planet formation, though eventually all material is ablated over time. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2128] viXra:1907.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 17:15:14

A Summary Of My Research -Part 3- (Relativistic Effects Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 21 Pages.

Abstract Research 2nd Hypothesis There Are Relativistic Effects In The Solar Group I claim we can't observe the higher velocity which causes these relativistic effects, but we can prove its existence by discovering its relativistic effects The solar group relativistic effects are proved by the following proves: 1-The repeated using of 1.0725 as a rate between solar planets data 2-Time & Distance Equivalence 3-Planets Velocities Total 4-Earth Moon Orbital Geometrical Rules 5-Earth Moon Motion 6-Earth Moon Motion Effects On Our Vision 7-Energy has different forms Please Note This study is (Part 3) of the same series – please review A Summary Of My Research A Summary Of My Research -Part 2- (Matter Creation Discussion)
Category: Astrophysics

[2127] viXra:1907.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-26 20:57:41

Planet Motion Trajectory is NOT An Ellipse

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 3 Pages.

Planet Motion Trajectory is NOT An Ellipse Main Idea I- Why The Moon Motion Is An Elliptical (or Circular) Trajectory? -Earth moves daily a distance =2.58 mkm -Earth motion direction is straight trajectory approximately declines by 0.9856 degrees daily to complete 360 degrees during 365.25 day completing a full revolution around the sun -The moon has to move by this same data to save his connection with Earth (otherwise The Moon and Earth will be separated from each other) Shortly -Earth moves in straight trajectory with decline 0.985 degrees – the moon motion trajectory can't be a circular or an elliptical trajectory otherwise he will loss the Earth and will separate from her Let's explain more clearly -Earth Motion Trajectory is a straight line approximately (daily) because Earth motion declines only 0.985 degrees from the horizontal…. The moon can't move in any circular or elliptical trajectory around Earth –because if he does that earth and moon will be separated from each other! -But we see the moon moves in elliptical trajectory during the month, revolving around Earth a complete revolution! How to understand that Because It's A Wrong Vision -The Moon Motion effects On Our Vision and forces us to see any planet motion trajectory as an ellipse -The moon himself doesn't move in any elliptical trajectory but the moon motion effects negatively on our vision and forces us to see the moon motion trajectory as an elliptical trajectory… Conclusion Solar Planet Motion Trajectory Is Not An Ellipse – But We See It As An Ellipse Because Of The Moon Motion Effects On Our Vision
Category: Astrophysics

[2126] viXra:1907.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-27 02:49:25

Mini Satellite Space Exploration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Princeton University students are building the device, called a cubic satellite, or CubeSat, as a testbed for a miniaturized rocket thruster with unique capabilities being developed at PPPL. [36] A research team led by Osaka University showed how multiple overlapping laser beams are better at accelerating electrons to incredibly fast speeds, as compared with a single laser. [35] In a major step toward developing portable scanners that can rapidly measure molecules in pharmaceuticals or classify tissue in patients' skin, researchers have created an imaging system that uses lasers small and efficient enough to fit on a microchip. [34]
Category: Astrophysics

[2125] viXra:1907.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-25 16:42:22

A Summary Of My Research -Part 2- (Matter Creation Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

We complete our discussion in the previous paper A Summary Of My Research Paper Hypothesis Solar Planet Matter is Created Based On The Following Features: A-Planet Matter Can't Be Created by Any Random process B-Planet Matter Can't Be Created Independently From Other Planets Matters (Planet Diameter and Mass supports this claim) C-There's a direct relationship between planet diameter and orbital distance
Category: Astrophysics

[2124] viXra:1907.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 09:34:15

Black Holes Shape Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Data from ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has revealed how supermassive black holes shape their host galaxies with powerful winds that sweep away interstellar matter. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2123] viXra:1907.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 20:37:29

A Summary Of My Research

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 19 Pages.

Research Summary I- Research Main Questions 1-How Planet Diameter Is Created? (= How The Matter Is Created?) 2-How Planet orbital distance is defined (= What's The Space?) 3-Is There A Relationship Between Planet Diameter And Orbital Distance? (i.e. Does Space effect on Matter Creation Process?) II- Research Methodology I use the planets data analysis to discover the concepts on which they are created? (I use NASA Planetary Fact Sheet as the only source for Planets Data) III- Research Hypothesis (A) Research Primary Hypothesis (have no proves) -The Matter is created of Energy (E=mc2 supports this idea) -The Space is Energy (my Hypothesis) (B) Research Main Hypothesis (have proves) 1-The Solar Group is One Building And Each Planet is A Part Of It 2-There Are Relativistic Effects In The Solar Group 3-Mars Orbital Distance is Changed Through Solar Group History
Category: Astrophysics

[2122] viXra:1907.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-23 17:35:59

Jupiter Orbital Distance Proves "We See Wrongly the Solar Group"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

This paper tries to prove the following hypothesis: Hypothesis No. (1) -Jupiter Is The Solar Group Central Point -Jupiter Orbital Distance contradicts the solar group current description Hypothesis No. (2) -Solar Planet Motion Trajectory Can't Be An Ellipse -Earth Moon motion effects on our vision and force us to see Planet Motion Trajectory as an ellipse (which is a wrong vision)
Category: Astrophysics

[2121] viXra:1907.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 05:05:43

Modern Physics and a Few Tensions.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 10 Pages. For further research.

Some of our cosmic observations are giving us hints of a New Physics.
Category: Astrophysics

[2120] viXra:1907.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-24 05:37:21

Neutron Imaging for Science Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Coupled with SNS, the world's most powerful pulsed accelerator-based neutron source, VENUS will be the only open research facility platform in the US to provide time-of-flight neutron imaging capabilities to users from academia and industry. [13] A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[2119] viXra:1907.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-22 20:13:50

Why Saturn Diameter =120536 Km? (Part 1)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

A Solar Group Suggested Description: 1-The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same building- i.e. Each Planet is created to be a complementary to the other planets and No solar planet is created or move independently 2-The solar group can be similar to one trajectory of Energy and each planet is a point on this same trajectory. 3-Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. 4-Also, The solar group can be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine works as one group.. that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move. How to understand that? WE know that the matter is created of Energy (E=mc2) – but How The Space Is Created? I suppose that the Space is created of Energy also… (Space = Energy) So the matter and space both are created from the same energy.. Can that be possible? The Energy has different forms (sun rays – nuclear interactions – oil- food ..etc) Different forms for the same content…. So it's possible to create matter and space of the same energy… I have another example to support that… In double slit experiment (Young Experiment) – the light coherence produced bright and dark fringes –regardless the theoretical explanation – the experiment tells "when one input is used(light)– outputs can be in 2 different forms (bright and dark fringes)" The Solar Group Creation I suppose the solar group is one energy creates the planet matter and orbital distance – so this same energy passes through the whole group to create all solar planets and their orbital distances from the same energy where this energy creates all planets data depending on each other because all of them are created from the same source. Shortly The solar group is one thread – as one necklace – all solar planets and their distances are created from one energy to be complementary to each other- and that's why the planets data analysis show the solar planets dependency.
Category: Astrophysics

[2118] viXra:1907.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 11:08:36

The Allais Effect – Coincidence Between Newtonian and Lesagian Gravity?

Authors: Raymond H Gallucci
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper reviews the alleged Allais Effect, i.e., anomalous behavior of pendulums or gravimeters sometimes observed during a total solar eclipse. With the Moon in a direct line between the Earth and Sun, the potential for an additional gravitational perturbation is examined as a possible contributor to the effect. Both a classical Newtonian “attractive” gravitational approach and one based on a “pushing” gravitational concept first introduced around Newton’s time by Fatio and LeSage are examined. Results indicate that both yield surprisingly equivalent results – a possible explanation, or part of one; or merely a coincidence?
Category: Astrophysics

[2117] viXra:1907.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 20:14:16

Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 Km? (Part No.3)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

This Paper discusses and proves the following hypothesis: Light Is An Essential Player In The Matter Creation Process
Category: Astrophysics

[2116] viXra:1907.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 04:00:40

Resolving the Discrepancy Between Direct and Inverse Cosmic Distance Ladder Through a New Cosmological Model

Authors: Vincenzo Peluso
Comments: 32 Pages.

A new cosmological model is presented, which derives from a new physics within a theory of everything. It introduces, beyond radiation and baryonic matter, a unique and new ingredient, which is the substance of the universe, and which can be assimilated to the cold dark matter of the standard cosmology. The new model, although profoundly different from the ΛCDM model, exhibits the same metric and an almost identical distance scale. So it shares the same chronology and the same theory of nucleosynthesis, but solves the problem of the horizon, the fatness of space and the homogeneity of the distribution of matter in a natural way, without having to resort to an additional theory like that of inflation and without dark energy. Eventually it resolves the tension between the direct and the inverse cosmic distance ladder.
Category: Astrophysics

[2115] viXra:1907.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 08:20:15

Largest Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Most of the remaining components needed to fully assemble an underground dark matter-search experiment called LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) arrived at the project's South Dakota home during a rush of deliveries in June. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[2114] viXra:1907.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 09:22:34

X-Ray Telescope Study Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A long-awaited German-Russian telescope to survey the X-ray sky in unprecedented detail was successfully launched from Kazakhstan's Baikonur Cosmodrome on 13 July. [28] Most of the remaining components needed to fully assemble an underground dark matter-search experiment called LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) arrived at the project's South Dakota home during a rush of deliveries in June. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2113] viXra:1907.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:32:52

Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 km (Part 2)? (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 24 Pages.

This Paper discusses the following hypothesis: ("2A" are needed for "1B") The Previous Rule Controls The Solar Planets Basic Data Hypothesis Explanation It tells – all basic solar planets data are created based on the previous rule – we need 2 Equal Values to interact with 1 different Value… Example (No. 1) Solar Planets Diameters Total = 2 Jupiter Diameters + 1 Saturn Diameter How To Understand The Previous Idea: Solar Group Is One Trajectory of Energy – Each Planet Is A Point On It a.The Planet Matter (Mass) is Created of Energy (E=mc2 supports that) b.The Planet Orbital Distance (Space) is Created of Energy (Hypothesis) Solar Group can be similar to one machine each plant is a gear in it (or one body and each planet is a member of this same body) The Solar Group is Created from only One Energy The Solar Planets and their orbital distances are created depending on Each Other The basic solar planets data are created based on this rule ("2A" for "1B")
Category: Astrophysics

[2112] viXra:1907.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 02:38:19

Miniature Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of physicists and astronomers from Northwestern University is poised to lead gravitational-wave astronomy into its next evolution. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories — located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US – double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2111] viXra:1907.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 03:03:03

Mystery of Universe Expansion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Astronomers have made a new measurement of how fast the universe is expanding, using an entirely different kind of star than previous endeavors. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2110] viXra:1907.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 06:07:57

Dark Energy

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma
Comments: 15 Pages.

In This Manuscript We Described The Dramatic And Strange Behavior Of Particle And Matter Comes Under Dark Energy The Strange Behavior Is Holding Properties To Interchange Their Conditions, And Varies Qualities Of Interchange Of Particle And Matter And Interchange With Mathematical Quantities, Then We Discussed That At Least 10Th Order Dark Energy Is Required To Free And Stable Existence in Universe Then We Shows The Higher Order Dark Energy Of 11th Order , Then There is Description of Cosmic Rays Shower of E10+2.n And E11+2.n Orders At Two Ground Bases (i) 1.38*(10)^(-24) And (ii) 3.3300504*(10)^(-61) ,Then Their Is Discussion About Contraction And Expansion Of Normal Matter Field By The Dark Energy At 14th And 15th Level. Then We Used The Kirchhoff’s Radiation Law To Unite With The Universe Dark Energy And Dark Energy Generator’s Absorption And Emitting Property, Then The Stable State Of Systems For Uniting With The Universal Dark Energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[2109] viXra:1907.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 06:04:19

The Conscious Readiness Potential Ratio Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a SuSy multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum. However, Libet did not Notice because he (or his sucessors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII !
Category: Astrophysics

[2108] viXra:1907.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 10:04:55

Astronomers Are Trying to Find When and Where They Went Wrong Concerning Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages. 5 screen shots of wikipedia statistics

Using basic Wikipedia page view statistics, it is apparent astronomers are trying to figure out where they went wrong. As well, it is apparent that 2017 was the year for maximum acceptance of the nebular hypothesis, it is now on a downward slide. This is due to it not being a useful hypothesis in explaining any current observation by Kepler, TESS or any space/ground based exoplanet (evolving star) hunter. The replacement theory, stellar metamorphosis, is used to explain to the astronomers why they have gone so wrong for so long.
Category: Astrophysics

[2107] viXra:1907.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 16:42:16

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Simon Marius Rule of Brown Dwarf Companions

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 screenshot, 1 illustration of Simon Marius

Every brown dwarf discovered to date has at least 4 large companions orbiting it as can be inferred from circumstantial and direct evidence afforded by the General Theory. These companions can be old moons, dead moons, ones with life like Earth, or less evolved than Earth. This rule is to give insight to how populated our galaxy is, and where attention should be given for astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[2106] viXra:1907.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 12:35:02

Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 km (Part 2)? (Light Velocity Effect On The Matter Creation)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

Jupiter Diameter Analysis supports the following hypothesis: The Sun Rays are produced by Planets Motions Energies Total i.e. The Solar Planets Motions Mechanical Waves Are Transferred Into Light Waves From Which The Sun Rays Are Produced. Conclusion The Sun Rays Aren't Produced By Any Nuclear Interactions
Category: Astrophysics

[2105] viXra:1907.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 01:41:39

Merging Laboratory Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

For the first time, a high-performance computer will make it possible to simulate gravitational waves, magnetic fields and neutrino physics of neutron stars simultaneously. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[2104] viXra:1907.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-09 08:14:36

Light-Sensing Distant Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have developed an ultra-sensitive light-detecting system that could enable astronomers to view galaxies, stars and planetary systems in superb detail. [25] On October 16, 2017, an international group of astronomers and physicists excitedly reported the first simultaneous detection of light and gravitational waves from the same source—a merger of two neutron stars. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[2103] viXra:1907.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-09 20:38:14

Stellar Metamorphosis: How Massive is GJ 3470 b's Atmosphere?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Using the dead star mass limit of ~2.59 Earth masses, the total mass of GJ 3470's atmosphere should be >~11.14 Earth masses. This means the total mass of the atmosphere is probably >~81% of the total mass of the star. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2102] viXra:1907.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-08 10:49:10

Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 km? (Observation vs Data Analysis-II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

Paper Main Conclusion There's One Equation Only Controls All Solar Planets Data This paper discusses the following hypothesis: 1-There's A Relationship Between Jupiter & Saturn Diameters. 2-Jupiter & Saturn Diameters Relationship effects On The Solar Planets Diameters Creation. 3-Jupiter & Saturn Diameters Relationship effects On Earth Moon Orbit Creation. 4-Jupiter & Saturn Diameters Relationship is effected by Mercury Motion 5-Jupiter & Saturn Diameters Relationship shows and proves the Solar Group Main Energy Direction.
Category: Astrophysics

[2101] viXra:1907.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-06 14:24:57

Stellar Metamorphosis: Proxima Centauri, Luyten's Star, Trappist-1 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 7 Pages. diagram and handwritten calculations provided

Total axial angular momentum can be higher for an older star even though it is less massive, as this relays the fact that it sits on a higher transformation curve. A diagram is presented with calculations that give possible locations for Proxima Centauri, Luyten's Star and Trappist-1 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[2100] viXra:1907.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-04 17:26:13

Observation vs Data Analysis As Astrophysics Research Method (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

We have 2 basic arguments: 1st Argument -Planet Data Analysis Should Be Considered The Astrophysics Research Basic Method. -The Observational Results Without Data Analysis Deceives The Researcher And Causes Imaginary Concepts Creation 2nd Argument 1-The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same building- i.e. Each Planet is created to be a complementary to the other planets and No solar planet is created or move independently 2-Also, The solar group can be similar to one trajectory of Energy and each planet is a point on it. 3-Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. All solar planets and their orbital distances are created by the same energy (by the same blood all body members are created) 4-Also, The solar group be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine job depends on the gears different tasks.. and that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move.
Category: Astrophysics

[2099] viXra:1907.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-03 08:42:22

Artificial Gravity Breaks Free

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Artificial Gravity Breaks Free "The point of our work is to try to get more people to think that maybe artificial gravity isn't so crazy," she said. "Maybe it has a place outside of science fiction." [21] Scientists at the University of Glasgow and collaborators have now developed a multimaterial coating design for the mirrors used in gravitational wave detectors. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories-located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US-double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2098] viXra:1907.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-03 09:32:35

Black Hole on Galaxy's Star Turn

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The role of an excited black hole in the death of an exotic 'jellyfish' galaxy will be presented today (3 July) by Callum Bellhouse of the University of Birmingham at the RAS National Astronomy Meeting in Lancaster. [28] Previous attempts to measure the mass of the NGC 4395 black hole yielded results ranging from 1000-400,000 solar masses. [27] US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[2097] viXra:1907.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-03 02:09:27

Tracking Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2096] viXra:1907.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-01 20:46:47

Stellar Metamorphosis: Titanium

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Titanium is discussed and connected from young to old stars. Titanium's role in stellar evolution is still not completely worked out, but it is essential to create a foundational understanding of the element for future generations.
Category: Astrophysics

[2095] viXra:1907.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-02 03:14:34

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory Applied to Stellar Gravitation, and the Mass-Luminosity Relation (MLR)

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory is applied to model gravitational effects of an individual star or a binary-star system, including that of the sun which is the only star of our solar system. The basic UEG theory was originally developed to model elementary particles, as a substitute for the standard model of particle physics. The UEG theory is extended in this paper (a) to model the gravitational force due to light radiation from an individual star, which determines its energy output due to nuclear fusion in the star, as well as (b) to model the gravitational force between two nearby stars, which determines the orbital dynamics in a binary-star system. The mass-luminosity relation (MLR) derived separately from each of the above two models are compared and studied together with the MLR currently available from measured orbital data for binary stars, as well as from an existing energy-source model for stellar nuclear fusion (Eddington's model). The current MLR data uses conventional Newtonian gravity, where the gravitational force is produced only due to the gravitational mass of the star, which is assumed to be equal to the inertial mass as per the principle of equivalence. This Newtonian gravitational model is modified by including the new UEG effect due to the light radiation of a star, in order to establish the actual MLR which can be significantly different from the currently available MLR. The new UEG theory is applied to an individual isolated star (for modeling the force for stellar nuclear fusion), which is spherically symmetric about its own center, in a fundamentally different manner from its application to a binary-star system (for modeling orbital motion of a binary-star), which is not a spherically-symmetric structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[2094] viXra:1907.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-02 03:19:44

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory Applied to Spiral Galaxies

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 10 Pages.

The unified electro-gravity (UEG) theory, which has been successfully used for modeling elementary particles, as well as single and binary stars, is extended in this paper to model gravitation in spiral galaxies. A new UEG model would explain the ``flat rotation curves'' commonly observed in the spiral galaxies. The UEG theory is developed in a fundamentally different manner for a spiral galaxy, as compared to prior applications of the UEG theory to the elementary particle and single stars. This is because the spiral galaxy, unlike the elementary particles or single stars, is not spherically symmetric. The UEG constant $\gamma$, required in the new model to support the galaxies' flat rotation speeds, is estimated using measured data from a galaxy survey, as well as for a selected galaxy for illustration. The estimates are compared with the $\gamma$ derived from a UEG model of elementary particles. The UEG model for the galaxy is shown to explain the empirical Tuly-Fisher Relationship (TFR), is consistent with the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and is also independently supported by measured trends of galaxy thickness with surface brightness and rotation speed.
Category: Astrophysics

[2093] viXra:1907.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-02 03:28:19

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory Applied to Cosmology

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory is extended for the unique conditions of cosmology, which may support a possible reversal of the current expansionary phase of the universe, explain the current accelerated expansion of the universe without need for any dark energy, and also explain the signatures of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and in the correlation function of galaxy distribution, without any dark matter. UEG effects due to the the CMB radiation in the recent universe, and in the ionized environment before recombination, as well as those due to anticipated star lights in the future universe, are modeled with suitable cosmological assumptions. This may provide a new theoretical paradigm, which can potentially answer some of the most fundamental questions in cosmology today.
Category: Astrophysics

[2092] viXra:1906.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 15:06:11

Stellar Metamorphosis: Maximum Mass of a Dead Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 graph with explanations

The purpose of this paper is to re-interpret stellar evolution from physical observations in accordance with the General Theory. The most massive dead star that has been observed to date is Venus, therefore, Venus's mass is currently the maximum mass for any observable, and confirmed dead star. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2091] viXra:1906.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 10:06:13

Gerges Equations For Solar Group Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

During 2013-2019 – I have studied the solar group geometry and discovered the following 5 Equations: 1-Planet Gravity Equation(Point 2-1) 2-Planet Orbital Distance Equation (Point 2-2) 3-Planet Diameter Equation(Point 2-3) 4-The Sun Rays Production Equation (Point 2-4) 5-Venus Diameter Equation (Point 2-5) 6-An Argument against The Big Bang Theory (Point 2-6)
Category: Astrophysics

[2090] viXra:1906.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 15:53:51

Newton's Gravity Depending on the Topology of Space.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 31 Pages.

Taking into account the fact that gravity is a curvature of 3D space, it can be represented as a conic section. And this leads to the formulation of the law of I. Newton’s law in a general form, depending on the topology of space, which makes it possible to theoretically derive the speeds of the stars in galaxies. The theoretical derivation of the Hubble–Lemaître law is also given, and the relativistic form of the law of I. Newton is derived (in a generalized form).
Category: Astrophysics

[2089] viXra:1906.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 21:06:26

Direction Of Energy Through The Solar Group

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

-The Solar Group Main Energy is sent from Jupiter to Pluto – This energy sending is continued for 2 sequence solar days -Neptune used Jupiter Sent Energy consuming 16% of this total energy and the rest of Energy Neptune reflected it toward the inner planets into 2 Energy Trajectories. o 1st Trajectory is sent to Earth (will be discussed Point No.4) o 2nd Trajectory is sent to Mercury -The 1st Trajectory of Energy is reached to Earth (with 86400mkm) – Where Earth reflected this energy into 2 new parts o Part 1 the energy is sent from Earth to Venus o Part 2 the energy is sent from Earth to (Jupiter & Uranus) -The total energy (90000mkm) proves that all energy gathered together on one point only and no contradiction is found… This explanation shows that the energy passes in cycle through the solar group The previous idea supports my claim: -The Solar Group is One Trajectory Of Energy and each planet is appoint on this same energy trajectory….. or -The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same geometrical structure (building)- i.e. Each planet data is created to be suitable for the required task of this planet in the whole building …..and -No solar planet can be found or move independently a.Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. All solar planets and their orbital distances are created by the same energy (by the same blood all body members are created) b.Or, The solar group be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine job depends on the gears different tasks.. and that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move.
Category: Astrophysics

[2088] viXra:1906.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 21:11:36

Stellar Metamorphosis: Stellar Axial Angular Momentum During Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. some hand written calculations included

A new branch to the general theory is described. The star's total axial angular momentum decreases as it evolves. Angular momentum is mathematically described as L = I*W. L is angular momentum, I is the moment of inertia, W is the angular velocity. As well, for future reference the moment of inertia factor will change for the Sun as it is a homogeneous body. Its moment of inertia factor is probably very close to .4, not .070 as purported by the dogma. The math is shown for I= 2/5Mr^2, and W = 2Pi rad/86,400 seconds, for the Earth. Plus a few additional notes are added to compare Mars to Venus to Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[2087] viXra:1906.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 07:17:35

Noise-Reducing Gravitational Wave Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Glasgow and collaborators have now developed a multimaterial coating design for the mirrors used in gravitational wave detectors. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories-located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US-double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2086] viXra:1906.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 12:22:08

Earth Velocity Proves "The Unit Definition Is Relative"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

This Paper tries To Prove The Following Hypothesis: Paper Hypothesis -The Solar Group is Created from One Energy. -This One Energy passes through the solar group – to create the planet diameter (matter) and orbital distance (Space)- So the Matter and Space are created from the same Energy to be complementary to each other -Because The Same Energy passes through the solar group – one thread- the similar values are seen in different units – and so – the different units are found for the same values because the energy is changed from one form to another –relative to the observer… so the energy is the same but the form is changed and that caused to change the used unit The Hypothesis Explanation -Imagine a light beam comes from the sun – it lights our room – and then – this same light beam moves inside a solar cell and produces some electric current – so where's the light beam? It lights the room AND produces the electric current…. The same energy (number) does 2 jobs – and be seen in 2 different units. (Note Please – the light beam energy –which lights our room – equal the energy which produces the eclectic current – 2 Equal Values but 2 different units)
Category: Astrophysics

[2085] viXra:1906.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 15:57:47

Stellar Metamorphosis: Differential Rotation in Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Differential rotation is when a portion of a star rotates faster than another. With young stars like the Sun, this is more pronounced, with the equatorial angular velocity being higher than the polar angular velocity. The angular velocity remains differential between the poles and equator when the star is young, and then equalizes as the star evolves. This means the oldest stars will not have differential rotation (as well as no global magnetic activity), and the youngest will have the most pronounced. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2084] viXra:1906.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 20:33:18

The Unit Definition Is Relative

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

This Paper provides a new claim as following: 1- The Unit Definition Is Relative that means Value as – one kilometer - one hour - one degree or one liter…etc- all such values and units are defined based on the observer position and situation That means What we see as a time value can work in another place as a distance value And What we see as a degree value can work in another place as a distance value 2- The Energy Different Types Depend On This Same Concept. Why Energy has different types? The energy gives energy whatever its form (oil- wood- electricity – magnetism – nuclear….etc) The result of all these forms are similar approximately – so why there are different types for the energy? Because of the observer position and situation This paper tries to discuss and prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[2083] viXra:1906.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 21:05:35

Uranus Is Perpendicular on Earth Moon Orbit

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 22 Pages.

1-Uranus Is Perpendicular On Earth Moon Orbit 2-The Sun Also Is Perpendicular On Earth Moon Orbit (The Sun And Uranus Are On The Same Horizontal Level) 3-The Rest Planets Are Found On Stair Steps Relative To Each Other – (Graduated Horizontal Levels). 4-The Solar Planets revolve around the perpendicular line from the Sun to Earth. 5-The Solar Planets doesn't revolve around the sun herself.
Category: Astrophysics

[2082] viXra:1906.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 21:06:48

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Phases of Sillimanite, Andalusite and Kyanite in Uranus's Atmosphere, and Thoughts on Ocean World Stage Beginnings

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The phases of sillimanite, andalusite and kyanite are placed in reference to the deep atmosphere of Uranus. This is to show that Uranus has the temperatures and pressures that can form rocks and minerals exactly like the Earth. As well some thoughts as to how we can pin point the exact moment in time the Earth moved into its own ocean world stages of evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[2081] viXra:1906.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 07:25:23

Primordial Relic Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Previous attempts to measure the mass of the NGC 4395 black hole yielded results ranging from 1000-400,000 solar masses. [27] US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2080] viXra:1906.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 16:29:50

The Solar Group Is One Body

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Solar Group Is One Body The Claim Explanation & Features 1-The Solar Group is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building ….Or 2-The Solar group is One Trajectory of Energy And Each Planet Is A Point On This Same Energy Trajectory…. Or 3-The Solar Group Is One Machine And Each Planet Is A Gear In It… Or 4-The Solar Group Is A Great River And Each Planet Is A Canal of this same river 5-The solar group has One Great Job which is divided into integrated tasks for each planet has one task which should be integrated and cooperated with other planets tasks to perform the General One Great Job…. i.e. 6-Each Planet Data (Diameter- Mass- Orbital Distance -…. etc) is created to be suitable for this planet required task in the whole building and No Solar Planet Single Data Can Be Created Independently That leads to this paper main hypothesis, let's refer to it in following… A Hypothesis:- "The Solar Planet Data Is Created Based On Geometrical And Physical Reasons" The previous hypothesis provides us 3 results: 1-The Solar Group Is One Building 2-The Solar Planets Motions Harmony Is Found Based On The Planet Construction & Formulation (Planet Data) And Not By The Gravity Forces 3-Any Planet Data Can Be Deduced From The Other Planets Data Analysis
Category: Astrophysics

[2079] viXra:1906.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 19:57:13

Planet Data Geometrical Significance

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

Planet Data Geometrical Significance This paper tries to answer a simple question Why Saturn diameter =120536 km?... of course not only Saturn…! Why Jupiter diameter = 142984 km?.... or Why Earth circumference = 40080 km? ………. Why the moon circumference = 10921 km? Why Earth axial tilt =23.4 degrees? Why Venus Orbital inclination =3.4 degrees? Shortly How The Planet Data Is Created? I would to answer the questions just directly… but because the questions are still unclear? We need to see deeply as possible what does such question mean? Let's try with the first 2 questions together … Why Saturn Diameter = 120536 km? and Why Jupiter Diameter = 142984km? For answer we need to provide the Data in groups then we'll discuss it Data (1st Group) 1-Jupiter Diameter = 2 Jupiter Circumferences – 2 Saturn Circumference. 2-Jupiter Diameter = 8 Solar Planets Diameters Total 3-Saturn Diameter + 2 Jupiter Diameters = the solar planets diameters total 4-Saturn Diameter + 2 Jupiter Diameters = Earth Moon Distance (Apogee Radius) 5-Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance (Total Solar Eclipse Radius). Data (2nd Group) (A) Saturn Diameter = Venus Diameter x π2 (Error 0.8%) (Venus Circumference)2= Saturn Orbital Distance (Error 1%) But we know that Saturn Orbital Distance = 1433.5million km= Saturn Uranus Distance = Mars Orbital Circumference = Pluto Eccentricity Distance = (Neptune Orbital Distance/π) = Mercury Jupiter distance x 2 (B) Mercury Day = 176 solar days (minus 5040 seconds) During 5040 seconds -Mercury moves a distance = 2 x Saturn Diameter -Mars moves a distance = Saturn Diameter -Saturn moves a distance = Neptune Diameter -Pluto moves a distance = Pluto diameter x π2 Note Please -2 Saturn diameter x 5040 = 1205 mkm (Mars Saturn Distance) -Data (3rd Group) -Jupiter Diameter x 5040 = 720.7 mkm (Mercury Jupiter Distance) -Jupiter Diameter = 1 million km / 7 (Note Please: Mercury Orbital Inclination = 7 degrees but Mercury orbital circumference =360 mkm = 360 degrees i.e. 1million km = 1 degree) -The Sin Diameter = Jupiter Diameter x π2 (Error 1.3%) Let's add the required Data for question no.3 (Why Earth Circumference = 40080 km) Data (4th Group) If Earth diameter = 12756 km, is considered to be = 1 So the following is correct Earth Circumference = Π Solar Inner Planets diameter total = Π Moon motion free space (from perigee to apogee) =Π (the free space without the moon diameter) Moon Perigee orbit radius = 9 Π Solar outer planets diameters total = 9 Π Moon orbit apogee radius =10 Π All solar planets diameters total =10 Π 2 Jupiter diameter + Saturn diameter =10 Π Saturn Circumference = 9.5Π = Moon orbit radius at total solar eclipse Jupiter Circumference =11 Π The Sun diameter =11 Π2 Let's Start our discussion immediately Discussion The previous Data is just example of many similar Data- Simply- Earth Circumference = 40080 km – but 40080 km is NOT mere number – There are many relationships and geometrical interactions are created based on this same number 40080 km (Earth Circumference)….. WHY? Let's ask the simpler question… How Earth Circumference is Created? No one knows! Let's make this discussion is so short as possible….. We have 2 visions in fighting The current theory tells us that the Planet is created independently in its Data – that means Earth Circumference is created without any effect from any planet Diameter on Earth Diameter Creation Process… i.e. this vision tells us that Solar Planet Behavior Is Individually I provide another vision The solar group is one building- The solar planets are components in this same building (members of the same body) i.e. Solar Planets Behavior Are Integrating And Cooperating Behavior It's The machine behavior- or the body behavior (all planets cooperate and integrate to do this same behavior) That's why There's One Equation Only controls all solar planets data This paper tries to prove basically this hypothesis So the paper contains the following -The Hypothesis Proves(Point No. 3) -How to analyze the planet Data (Point No. 4) -The Theoretical basics behind solar planets data Equation (Point No. 5)
Category: Astrophysics

[2078] viXra:1906.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 11:17:14

Dark Matter is Lighter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Dark matter could be much "lighter," or lower in mass and slighter in energy, than previously thought. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2077] viXra:1906.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 01:51:13

Detect new Candidate for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Two theoretical physicists at the University of California, Davis have a new candidate for dark matter, and a possible way to detect it. [22] Dark matter could be much "lighter," or lower in mass and slighter in energy, than previously thought. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2076] viXra:1906.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 20:19:42

Stellar Metamorphosis: The New Gyrochronology

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Gyrochronology can be used to measure the age of a low mass, or highly evolved star. Depending on how fast the star is spinning, we can also determine how fast it lost its mass from earlier stages of evolution, which in turn tells us if it was orbiting very close to another host. This is all in accordance with the general theory, meaning the oldest, most highly evolved and/or dead stars will barely spin at all. Examples are provided with hand written notes.
Category: Astrophysics

[2075] viXra:1906.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 01:39:10

100th Anniversary of General Relativity

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 2 Pages. Record of blog post

On this historic day of the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the confirmation of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity with the solar eclipse of May 29th, 1919, I feel it is important to share my thoughts on this controversial topic, despite seemingly jumping in the proverbial deep end of classical physics! The trick in this theory is separating fact from fiction. I propose that gravity cannot distort space (& definitely not time!) as Einstein proposed since I concur with Gauss’ Law of Gravity (mathematician), who states that not only is gravity irrotational but it is also is a conservative force. Yes, indeed general relativity is obviously correct in many respects, but the vexed question of exactly WHAT Einstein’s field equations relate to in real life terms still remains a subject of debate.
Category: Astrophysics

[2074] viXra:1906.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 20:49:14

Stellar Metamorphosis: Stellar Shrapnel Exclusion Zones on the WT Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Exclusion zones are outlined and explanation is provided as to why this is important to the development of 21st century astrophysics. The zones are in line with the general theory and can be used in a dynamic fashion. These basic astrophysical facts are up for revision and refinement. In short, ring material from Saturn could be pieces of the Earth's ancient oceans.
Category: Astrophysics

[2073] viXra:1906.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 03:31:45

Simulation of Black Hole Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

An international team has constructed the most detailed, highest resolution simulation of a black hole to date. [22] Physicists in Israel have shown that radiation from an analogue black hole has a thermal spectrum. This allows them to assign the "black hole" a temperature, providing indirect experimental evidence for the existence of Hawking radiation. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2072] viXra:1906.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 06:30:17

Super Quasars

Authors: Владимир Пастушенко
Comments: 41 Pages.

Super quasars
Category: Astrophysics

[2071] viXra:1906.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 09:18:42

On the Origins and Histories of the Martian Moons

Authors: Alex Soumbatov-Gur
Comments: 42 Pages.

The moons are confirmed to be ejected parts of Mars’ crust. After explosive throwing out as cone-like rocks they plastically evolved with density decays and materials transformations. Their expansion evolutions were accompanied by global ruptures and small scale rock ejections with concurrent crater formations. The scenario reconciles orbital and physical parameters of the moons. It coherently explains dozens of their properties including spectra, appearances, size differences, crater locations, fracture symmetries, orbits, evolution trends, geologic activity, Phobos’ grooves, mechanism of their origin, etc. The ejective approach is also discussed in the context of observational data on near-Earth asteroids, main belt asteroids Steins, Vesta, and Mars. The approach incorporates known fission mechanism of formation of miniature asteroids, logically accounts for its outliers, and naturally explains formations of small celestial bodies of various sizes.
Category: Astrophysics

[2070] viXra:1906.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 14:21:43

Stellar Metamorphosis: A Pongola-like Glaciation on Uranus

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

If Uranus is on a similar transformation curve as Earth was, then it is just beginning its own Pongola glaciation. Diagrams and explanation are provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2069] viXra:1906.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 18:49:00

Special Theory Of Relativity (Questions For Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper provides many difficult questions concerning Special Theory of Relativity To explain that the theory needs extension. In fact – the theory is so hard to be understood – and I try to prove that this theory is a correct theory but it's just a part of a general one which is NOT GR ! Let's define the discussion content in following Discussion Content 1-Special Theory of Relativity Hypothesis 2-The Relativistic Effects (Length Contraction As Example) 3-Matter Creation (Preferred Reference of Frame) 4-The Relative Concept 5-A New Relativistic Feature (My Conclusion)
Category: Astrophysics

[2068] viXra:1905.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 22:37:49

Using Stellar Metamorphosis to Avoid Astronomical Pigeonholing

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

As exoplanet data is collected, astronomers need to use a theory that can guard them against the pitfalls of pigeonholing the discoveries.
Category: Astrophysics

[2067] viXra:1905.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 12:38:19

Thermal Spectrum of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists in Israel have shown that radiation from an analogue black hole has a thermal spectrum. This allows them to assign the "black hole" a temperature, providing indirect experimental evidence for the existence of Hawking radiation. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2066] viXra:1905.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 09:19:07

Cosmic-Ray Proton Spectrum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

Recent advances in the observation of high-energy radiations, including X-rays and gamma-rays, have unveiled many high-energy aspects of the universe. [46] Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: Astrophysics

[2065] viXra:1905.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 15:08:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Carbonaceous Meteorite Fingerprints Using D/H Ratios

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the General Theory stars can impact other older stars to create interstellar shrapnel. The shrapnel can have its formation age determined by measuring its D/H ratio.
Category: Astrophysics

[2064] viXra:1905.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 16:47:51

Mars Orbital Distance Is Changed Through History

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

I- The Paper Claim: -The Solar Planets Order was (Pluto – Mercury – Mars ……..etc) But -Mars Ancient Orbital Distance was 84 millions km, found after Mercury Immediately…. -Pluto was before Mercury in order and nearer to the sun (or may Pluto was the Mercury Moon) -This order I suggest based on the rule "Greater Diameter Needs Greater Orbital Distance". (This Rule Is Discussed In This Paper Introduction) Then -Mars immigrated and dwelt in its new point with orbital distance = 227.9 mkm. -Mars Immigration was process has a great effect on the solar group especially on Pluto (the smallest planet). And As a result of it, Pluto also immigrated and dwelt in its new point with orbital distance =5870 mkm -The Planet diameter and orbital distance rule is (A Greater Diameter needs A Greater Orbital Distance) is disturbed by Mars and Pluto Immigration. -Mars is Exceptional Planet in different arguments because of its immigration.. I- The Claim Explanation: How to prove this fact? -The Solar Group is One Body (Building) – If this is a fact- So, Each Planet Data is created based on the other planets data –i.e. if Mars changed his orbital distance through the solar group history – This Change should be Registered in the solar planets data- i.e. -Mars Immigration Argument Is Another Proof For The Claim ….… "The Solar Group Is One Body and Each Planet is A Member Of It", Or "The Solar Group Is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building"…
Category: Astrophysics

[2063] viXra:1905.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 19:25:21

Stellar Metamorphosis: Transformation Curves on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". Some aspects to transformation curves are explained on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[2062] viXra:1905.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 19:53:17

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using the Deuterium to Hydrogen Ratio to Determine the Ages of Hydrous Rocks and Hydrocarbons

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis the D/H ratio can be used to determine the formation ages of rocks, minerals and hydrocarbons that contain hydrogen. Explanation is provided of how this can be done and why it is important.
Category: Astrophysics

[2061] viXra:1905.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:16:01

Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 5 Pages.

Research Main Conclusion: The Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity This conclusion is produced by the Following Questions Analysis: Special Theory Of Relativity Tells Us "If a particle moves by high velocity (Approximately) relative to an observer – the observer will see relativistic effects effected on this particle – (The relativistic effects are Length Contraction - Time Dilation - Mass Increase) The Questions 1-Are These Relativistic Effects Occurred For The Particle Nature Or For Our Vision Only? (to see something wrong as in the mirage) 2-If these effects are occurred for the Particle Nature – Why the Particle Nature Changes As Result Of The Light Velocity Motion? 3-Is The Particle Nature A Real Nature Or Found Because Of The Observer Effect On This Particle? This Paper discusses these questions and The Conclusion Proves which are: 1-The Relativistic Effects Analysis 2-A Quantized Experiment 3-The Solar Planet Moves According To A Physical Law (and Not in Chaos) 4-The Moon Angular Diameter 5-The Human Body Contains Electromagnetic Waves This paper contains 2 points only – Point No.2 (Research Methodology) and Point No. 3 (Research Conclusion Proves) Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2060] viXra:1905.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:21:49

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory5

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

1.all the masses in the universe volume 2.the volume of space all the masses in the universe take 3.the actual volume the masses take from space playing with those 3 would who use what is time and distance and velocity if the volume of masses and the actual volume of space all the masses take are constant we could say that they both behave with each other against the volume of space all the masses in the universe take so the actual volume of space all the masses take is time velocity is the volume of masses and the distance is the volume of space all the masses in the universe take
Category: Astrophysics

[2059] viXra:1905.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 20:55:41

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Saturn and Jupiter to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. Includes EA (Earth Age) in case total Earth age changes

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as 4.5 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Saturn and Jupiter are.
Category: Astrophysics

[2058] viXra:1905.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:04:06

The Great Filter And The Fermi Paradox

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 4 pages, giving a possible solution to the Great Filter and the Fermi Paradox.

This paper tries to give answers to the questions “What is the Great Filter?” and “When will it arrive?”. Through the answers that we obtain to those questions, it is possible to reckon an objectival explanation to the famous Fermi paradox: “Where is everybody?”. The goal of this theory is to give a solution using only the facts we can see and evaluate, finding a logical path that could give a full solution, and to raise awareness to the notion that we have of technological developement.
Category: Astrophysics

[2057] viXra:1905.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 19:57:50

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Neptune and Uranus to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Neptune and Uranus are. It was previously predicted that Neptune and Uranus are 2 and 2.1 billion years old respectively via the General Theory, by using a simple graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[2056] viXra:1905.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 09:43:07

Black Holes Axion as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

One possibility is that it's an exotic hypothetical kind of particle known as an axion, and a team of astronomers are using none other than black holes to try to get a glimpse into this strange new cosmic critter. [28] Leslie Rosenberg, a physicist with the University of Washington has published a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describing the current state of research that involves investigating the possibility that axions are what make up dark matter. [27] Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[2055] viXra:1905.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 15:25:09

Electric Fields on the Moon

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 16 Pages.

With the primitive-virtual negative (PVN) charge of the Moon, which generates the inherent electric field of the moon, lunar electrical environment can be understood naturally why the electric charge accumulations should be on the surface and above the moon in the circumstance of space plasma, such as solar wind plasma, UV radiation, etc. Especially, the lunar dust levitation and the horizontal transport on the dayside surface of the moon are discussed, which are crucial elements to understand the glowing effect above the horizon and the streamers at the terminator of the moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[2054] viXra:1905.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 08:11:18

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Mars to Determine it's Age

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the general theory Mars is a dead star. We can figure out how old it is by measuring its atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratio against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Mars is.
Category: Astrophysics

[2053] viXra:1905.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:31:16

The Results of the Study Planck Point

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 7 Pages. Подход к исследованию дан в книге "Планковская физика", ISBN 5-85106-028-5

The approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave access to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. At the same time, the parameters of the Planck point are the limiting constants of the properties of the center of the core of the Universe. The numerical agreement of the constants allowed us to further make their symbolic agreement using two dimensional units - the Planck radius and the Planck time.
Category: Astrophysics

[2052] viXra:1905.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:29:31

Imaging a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2051] viXra:1905.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:04:52

Stellar Metamorphosis: Dead Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis dead stars are made of rocks, minerals and metal. Though, just because a star is dead does not mean it is the same age as other dead stars. A good analogy would be a fossilized brontosaurus skull is vastly older than a fossilized mammoth skull, which in turn is magnitudes older than the people that were buried due to dying of the black plague from 1346-1353. There are different levels of being dead for a star, recently dead, mature, ancient and archaic. A simple graph is used to explain the levels of "dead".
Category: Astrophysics

[2050] viXra:1905.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:00:49

Stellar Metamorphosis: Venus's Age with D/H Ratios Factored as Opposed to Earth and Other Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. Dedicated to James Hutton, the Geologist.

It has been recently researched that Venus's D/H ratio is on the order of 100-150 times higher than the Earth. As a general rule of thumb, as the D/H ratio increases, the object increases in age. The youngest stars have D/H ratios of lower than 1* 10-5 (1D/100,000H), the ocean world/Earth aged stars 1* 10-4 to 1.6 *10-4 (1D/10,000H to 1H/6,250H respectively), and the old/dead stars and stellar remains 1* 10-3, (1D/1000H). Venus's is 1.6 * 10-2 to 2.5 * 10-2, (1D/62.5H) to 1D/40H). What this tells us is that Venus, according to the general theory is at least 100 to 156 times older than the Earth, because its deuterium ratios are 100 to 156 times higher. This is subject to change as more information is gathered, but places Venus in the class of extraordinarily old objects, which has never been done before.
Category: Astrophysics

[2049] viXra:1905.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:05:38

Stellar Metamorphosis: Flipping the pH Scale to Apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The pH scale just needs to be spun 180 degrees to apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The star when it is in younger gas giant stages will have a much more basic atmosphere. As the gas giant evolves and loses its atmosphere, it will become more acidic. So what this means is that to start life, you start with a more basic atmosphere, to sustain life it needs to be more towards a pH of 7. The oceans on Earth have a pH of about 8.2, so we're still good. They were much more basic though earlier in Earth's evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[2048] viXra:1905.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 02:08:57

Exploring Extra Dimensions by the Help of Dnas of the Egg Cell and the Earth

Authors: Alireza Sepehri
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

In this research, we introduce two natural telescope for detecting events of extra dimensions. First, we will show that missing genes which are needed for keepping the animals alive, could be existed in extra dimensions. These genes could act like the receiver or sender of radio waves and transmit information from extra dimensions into our universe. These genes could lead to some changes in radiated waves of egg cells and missing some electrons. Thus, by considering evolutions of egg cells, we can obtain some information about biological events interior of extra dimensions. For example, if we put a fertilized egg and a non-fertilized egg interior of an inductor and produce a magnetic field, we can observe that non-fertilized egg obtains some properties of fertilized egg. It seems that sperms are teleported via extra dimensions into non-fertilized eggs. However, this system can only send us a report of biological events and for considering cosmological events, we need to a bigger object. We show that earth has a system similar to the DNAs in egg cell however with the cosmological size and can communicate with objects in extra dimensions. This DNA-like shell is located interior of the earth's core and leads to the emergence of high temperature. Exchanging information between the earth's DNA like shell and objects in extra dimensions leads to the production of some extra matters around the core, unstability interior of the earth's layers and the emergence of some earthquakes. Also, DNA-like object interior of the core has a direct effect on the water, ions and charged particles around the earth. In fact, this object induced some properties into water in clouds via extra dimensions and for this reason, water of rain is very different from normal water. For example, water of rain can communicate with DNA of plants very better of other waters.
Category: Astrophysics

[2047] viXra:1905.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 09:13:05

ATLAS Constraints Supersymmetric Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Both results place strong constraints on important supersymmetric scenarios, which will guide future ATLAS searches. Further, they provide an example how novel reconstruction techniques can help improve the sensitivity of new physics searches at the LHC. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2046] viXra:1905.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 06:51:24

Supermassive Black Holes Hunt

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

It is believed that the formation and growth of most galaxies across the history of the universe has been fueled by supermassive black holes growing together with their host galaxy as they collect matter to attain millions of solar masses. [27] Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2045] viXra:1905.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 09:06:47

Dark Matter Direct Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

In a recent study, a team of researchers has presented new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons, using a new prototype detector developed as part of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) project. [29] As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[2044] viXra:1905.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 10:20:09

Space Telescope Photo of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2043] viXra:1905.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 13:35:29

Stellar Metamorphosis: Aluminum

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain aluminum and it is a main building block of the crusts of highly evolved stars like the Earth. A conceptual bridge is built using aluminum as an important element in the evolution of a star, into its life hosting stages and beyond. Water, hydroxides, iron, hydrogen are all included in this bridge paper.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[672] viXra:1907.0544 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-03 16:44:48

Accretion and Ablation During Stellar Evolution: How Old is Mercury? V.2

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages. some handwritten calculations and notes included

As stars accrete material in their interiors to form "planets", they ablate their thick atmospheres. This means accretion and ablation happen simultaneously during stellar evolution. Much more material is ablated than accreted at first during the process of planet formation, though eventually all material is ablated over time. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[671] viXra:1907.0370 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-24 05:48:02

Resolving the Discrepancy Between Direct and Inverse Cosmic Distance Ladder Through a New Cosmological Model

Authors: Vincenzo Peluso
Comments: 33 Pages.

A new cosmological model is presented, which derives from a new physics within a theory of everything. It introduces, beyond radiation and baryonic matter, a unique and new ingredient, which is the substance of the universe, and which can be assimilated to the cold dark matter of the standard cosmology. The new model, although profoundly different from the ΛCDM model, exhibits the same metric and an almost identical distance scale. So it shares the same chronology and the same theory of nucleosynthesis, but solves the problem of the horizon, the flatness of space and the homogeneity of the distribution of matter in a natural way, without having to resort to an additional theory like that of inflation and without dark energy. Eventually it resolves the tension between the direct and the inverse cosmic distance ladder.
Category: Astrophysics

[670] viXra:1907.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-14 05:48:42

The Conscious Readiness Potential Ratio Multiverse with Transactional Interpretation of J. Cramer.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 19 Pages.

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a SuSy multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum. However, Libet did not Notice, because he (or his successors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII , as a base for the total number of SuSy Universes. At the same time John Cramer proposed a parallel Transactional Interpretation (T.I.) a so calle “Handshake system” responsible for entanglement processes.
Category: Astrophysics

[669] viXra:1907.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-17 04:13:28

The Conscious Readiness Potential Ratio Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a SuSy multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum. However, Libet did not Notice, because he (or his successors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII , as a base for the total number of SuSy Universes.
Category: Astrophysics

[668] viXra:1906.0572 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-08 20:51:22

Stellar Metamorphosis: Maximum Mass and Density of a Dead Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. updated with K2-229b

The purpose of this paper is to re-interpret stellar evolution from physical observations in accordance with the General Theory. The maximum density of a dead star is, 8.9 ± 2.1 g cm−3, and the maximum mass is 0.0082 ± 0.0014 Jupiter masses. This is important as it sets an upper bound for dead stars, for the maximum size object a star can make, and allows us to reinterpret the interiors of gas giants as they evolve into life hosting worlds.
Category: Astrophysics

[667] viXra:1906.0563 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-09 17:45:04

Newton's Gravity Depending on the Topology of Space.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 34 Pages.

Taking into account the fact that gravity is a curvature of 3D space, it can be represented as a conic section. And this leads to the formulation of the law of I. Newton’s law in a general form, depending on the topology of space, which makes it possible to theoretically derive the speeds of the stars in galaxies. The theoretical derivation of the Hubble–Lemaître law is also given, and the relativistic form of the law of I. Newton is derived (in a generalized form). Explained relation between galaxies speeds with distance to it, on the basis of the A. Einstein's STR.
Category: Astrophysics

[666] viXra:1906.0529 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-29 20:14:05

Stellar Metamorphosis: Stellar Axial Angular Momentum During Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 11 pages of handwritten notes and calculations, 1 graph

A new branch to the general theory is described. The star's total axial angular momentum decreases as it evolves. Angular momentum is mathematically described as L = I*W. L is angular momentum, I is the moment of inertia, W is the angular velocity. As well, for future reference the moment of inertia factor will change for the Sun as it is a homogeneous body. Its moment of inertia factor is probably very close to .4, not .070 as purported by the dogma. The math is shown for I= 2/5Mr^2, and W = 2Pi rad/86,400 seconds, for the Earth. Plus a few additional notes are added to compare Mars to Venus to Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[665] viXra:1906.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-16 12:48:21

The New Gyrochronology, Version 2

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 9 Pages.

Gyrochronology can be used to measure the age of a low mass, or highly evolved star. Depending on how fast the star is spinning, we can also determine how fast it lost its mass from earlier stages of evolution, which in turn tells us if it was orbiting very close to another host. This is all in accordance with the general theory, meaning the oldest, most highly evolved and/or dead stars will barely spin at all. Examples are provided with hand written notes to prove that I did not steal the idea from anybody, as it is a natural consequence of realizing stars are young hot planets, and planets are very old, slowly spinning stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[664] viXra:1905.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-22 06:22:15

The Great Filter And The Fermi Paradox

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 6 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to seek an explanation to the following questions: “What is the Great Filter?” and “When it will arrive?”. Creating a theoretical model capable to provide an objectively valuable solution over those issues, it is also possible to hypothesize a valid solution for the Fermi paradox: “Where is everybody?”. The ultimate aim of this theory is to give a solution using only the facts we can see and evaluate, finding a logical path that could give a full solution, and to raise awareness to the notion that we have of technological developement.
Category: Astrophysics

[663] viXra:1905.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-27 13:49:43

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Mars to Determine it's Age

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. replacing because I had Mercury written in Mars' spot.

In the general theory Mars is a dead star. We can figure out how old it is by measuring its atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratio against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Mars is.
Category: Astrophysics