Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[462] viXra:1407.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-16 21:27:40

The Revolution of Matter

Authors: James Conor O'Brien
Comments: 71 Pages.

John A. Wheeler proposed a universe where a single electron travels along a myriad of worldlines back and forth over the history of spacetime, repeatedly bouncing off the initial and final boundaries; this follows from the Feynman-Stückelberg Interpretation where an antiparticle of positive energy moves backward in time. The problem with Wheeler' s grand idea is the lack of observable positrons; it requires an equal number of antiparticles moving backwards in time from the end of the universe, and obviously this isn't the case or the universe would be exploding all the time. A solution might be found if all the positrons are converted into electrons at the moment of the big bang, and only electrons, or fermionic matter in general and not antimatter, evolve from the big bang, and it also requires there is no final boundary. It is this modified version that this paper addresses. As I attempt to show, Wheeler' s grand idea, the Hartle-Hawking no boundary proposal, and Berry's Geometric Phase are all directly related. It is proposed in accordance with the Feynman-Stückelberg Interpretation that out of the quantum vacuum the anti - particles of virtual pairs travel backwards along the axis of Time to reflect off the boundaries of a quantum potential of a scalar field at the start of the universe. It is proposed, via a mechanism that has its foundation in the Wick Rotation, the virtual particles undergo a quantal adiabatic, geometric phase reflection; and as a consequence of the Pauli Exclusion principle this shift in phase nonholonomically conflates virtual particles under Lorentz Invariance into real particles. It is proposed that this model is consistent with the Hartle - Hawking state; leads directly to Guth's Inflationary model; and finally the results are shown consistent with the Sakharov conditions for the Big Bang.
Category: Astrophysics

[461] viXra:1407.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-09 22:20:24

Structural Unification of Newton, Einstein, and Rational Gravity

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 6 pages.

If there were no electromagnetic interaction in the Solar system then no heavy bodies like Earth or Sun would exist and elementary particles would miss collision with each other due to the sparse population of particles. The solar system would be a tiny ``spiral galaxy'' or ``elliptical galaxy'' because of the structuring nature of Newton's gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[460] viXra:1406.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-27 18:57:06

Coronal Heating Problem

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 7 Pages.

Abstract: Sun's corona appears much hotter than its surface. Temperature of coronal region, which is farther from the surface by more than eight times the radius of sun, is estimated to be over 1 million degrees Kelvin while temperature of sun’s surface is only about 6000 degrees Kelvin. (Temperature at the center of sun is estimated at about 15 million degrees Kelvin). Earth, with average matter-density of 5515 Kg/m^3 and mean radius of 6360 km, has an atmosphere that extends to about 700 km (about 11% of radius). Beyond this distance there is no perceptible concentration of 3D matter-particles. On the other hand, sun with average matter-density of 1408 kg/m^3 and mean radius of 696000 km is determined to have an atmosphere that extends to its coronal region at a distance of about eight times its mean radius (about 800% of radius). It is absurd to think that sun can sustain concentration of matter-particles at this distance, with sufficient matter-density that can heat up to the estimated temperature of coronal region. As contemporary physical theories are unable to explain any logical mechanism that can produce this difference, it is considered as ‘coronal heating problem’ in physics. Alternative concept, presented in book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ has a logical mechanism that can produce observed radiation from coronal region (which is far beyond the limit of its atmosphere).
Category: Astrophysics

[459] viXra:1406.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-24 22:00:18

Why Exponential Disk?

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 6 pages. 2 figures.

Galaxies demonstrate spectacular structure and ordinary spiral galaxies are simply an exponential disk. A rational structure has at least one net of orthogonal Darwin curves, and the exponential disk has infinite nets. This paper proves that the nets of Darwin curves of exponential disk define an intrinsic vector field in the disk plane. Finally, a proposition is given that the vector field should connect to the phenomenon of constant rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[458] viXra:1406.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-22 13:49:27

Planetary Cores

Authors: Florentino Muñiz Ania
Comments: 4 Pages.

English (traslation): The current model of the structure of the planets at issue in this article. Arguing that probably your inner core is composed of hydrogen (like the stars), and temperature Hartree. It is also proposed that the age of the planets is the same as that of the stars. And while they generate electromagnetic radiation, the planets would generate matter. Spanish (original): Se cuestiona en éste artículo el actual modelo de la estructura de los planetas. Argumentando que probablemente su núcleo interno esté compuesto por hidrógeno (al igual que las estrellas), y a la temperatura de Hartree. Se propone asimismo que la antigüedad de los planetas es la misma que la de las estrellas. Y que mientras éstas generan radiación electromagnética, los planetas generarían materia.
Category: Astrophysics

[457] viXra:1406.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-22 03:17:08

The Insoluble and Illogical Dark Matter Paradox

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper discards the very idea of dark matter and reveals the illogical and inconsistent consensus hypothesis of gravity. Astrophysicists hypothesized dark matter because of discrepancies between the mass of large astronomical objects determined from their gravitational effects and the mass calculated from the "luminous matter" they contain: stars, gas, and dust. Dark matter was first postulated by Jan Oort in 1932 to account for the orbital velocities of stars in the Milky Way and by Fritz Zwicky in 1933 to account for evidence of "missing mass" in the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters. Subsequently, many other observations have indicated the presence of dark matter in the universe, including the rotational speeds of galaxies by Vera Rubin.
Category: Astrophysics

[456] viXra:1406.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-21 13:13:12

The Graviton in an Equilibrium Universe and the Holographic Principle

Authors: David Harding
Comments: 11 Pages.

This study concludes that the universe is necessarily in equilibrium, that all black holes weigh the same per meter, exibit the same force, and that the universe “sees” a specific value as the Graviton, the quintessence of existence. This virtual particle is equal to the Schwarzschild /de Broglie product of any mass or particle whatsoever. The relation confirms that the source of all things is the Planck Interaction, and also, that all particles and all masses should be defined by their Schwarzschild radii, as well as by their de Broglie radii. Further we conclude that the universe is indeed holographic (as described above), yet with the appearance that it is also a finite black hole, and we being observers within it, exist within a predefined space, as governed by the natural constants. It was noted, that we can only observe matter that has not fallen into smaller event horizons. As such, this state includes us as observers. We can observe all matter within our defined space (the universal event horizon), but beyond this space (either larger or smaller) we can observe nothing.
Category: Astrophysics

[455] viXra:1406.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-16 07:41:22

Establishment Dogma Versus Stellar Metamorphosis: New and Old Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In establishment dogma, a star is classified as a Population I (young) or a Population II (old) star. This is based on Big Bang Creationism. Stellar metamorphosis offers a replacement understanding.
Category: Astrophysics

[454] viXra:1406.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-15 18:33:23

Establishment Dogma Versus Stellar Metamorphosis: Kepler-138c

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

It is explained in simple terms the differences between establishment dogma’s interpretation of stellar structure versus Stellar Metamorphosis of Kepler-138c
Category: Astrophysics

[453] viXra:1406.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-15 10:21:57

Sterile Neutrino and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[452] viXra:1406.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-13 05:01:45

Galaxy Formation and Evolution According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages. 26

New astronomical discoveries have recently questioned about our current standard model based understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The distribution of dark matter point sources around galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies, the so called “Red Nugget” galaxies and strange behaviour of dwarf galaxies concentrated into layers at both sides of spiral galaxies are examples of this standard model deviation. Reason to search for possible solutions, which I present here, based on the Quantum FFF Theory. ( Function Follows Form in sub quantum stringy particle physics)
Category: Astrophysics

[451] viXra:1406.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-09 20:07:13

Is it Really True that the Universe Experiences Accelerating Expansion?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 2 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

According to Standard Model cosmology, the universe experiences accelerating expansion, which creates the need for dark energy models. But I read other possible theories, for example Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model which suggests that there are large structures (void) which introduce inhomogeneity in the Universe. See for instance: http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.2044.
Category: Astrophysics

[450] viXra:1406.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-09 20:08:12

Is it Possible to Describe Solar System (Planetary Orbits) Using Self-Organized Criticality Theory?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article has not been submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome.

Abstract This article summarizes a discussion in researchgate.net. My hypothesis is that SOC can be used to explain the origin of the solar system too, especially planetary orbits, alas so far I do not find any equation yet which is based on SOC and can be used to derive numerical predictions of planetary orbit distances in solar systems. We know that planetary orbit distances in solar systems can be explained by many models such as Titius-Bode law, wave mechanics, wave equation and Lane-Emdeen equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[449] viXra:1406.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-01 15:20:31

A Pictorial Representation of Current Constraints on Condensed Dark Matter

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks
Comments: 3 Pages. This paper is intended fro internet distribution only.

This document provides a graph representing the current constraints on Compact Ultra-Dense Objects (CUDOs). It is intended to be updated as new constraints are published or found.
Category: Astrophysics

[448] viXra:1406.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-01 02:25:45

Redshift of the 21 cm Line from Taurus A near Occultation by the Sun

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 6 Pages.

The 21-centimeter absorption line from the direction of Taurus A showed a shift in frequency when the source passed near Sun. The observed redshift can be explained by an energy loss of electromagnetic waves, when the electric component accelerates unbound electrons in the thin plasma surrounding the sun. A reexamination of the recorded radio signals corroborates the predicted redshift of electromagnetic waves. This allows to determine the number of free electrons in the corona.
Category: Astrophysics

[447] viXra:1405.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-30 14:20:58

Pioneer 6 Anomalous Redshift near the Sun

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 7 Pages.

Not only spectral lines in the optical range, even radio signals with significantly lower frequencies are red shifted when they the corona close to the sun. A possible explanation is the energy loss of electromagnetic waves, when the electric component accelerates unbound electrons in the thin plasma surrounding the sun. A reexamination of the radio signals that were recorded, when Pioneer 6 was occulted by the sun, corroborates the predicted redshift of electromagnetic waves. This allows to determine the number of free electrons in the neighborhood of the sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[446] viXra:1405.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-29 12:55:30

Movement Principles of Ufo

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 43 Pages. Reviews of Modern Physics Submitted 29May2014

In this article are the 5 tables for calculating the average translational velocities of all milisecond pulsars and others fast spinning bodies and shift the center of gravity due to the rotation. Corrections theory ideal spining circle for real bodies. Extreme values for neutron stars. Summary values for neutron stars. A new perspective on neutronization and nuclear fusion. Consent theory with the real Universe. From well-functioning theory for milisecond pulsars are derived estimates for raelisation new mode of transport on the principle rotation. Keywords: stars: kinematics, pulsars: general, stellar dynamics, , stars: neutron, PACS number: 97.60.Gb, 97.60.Jd,
Category: Astrophysics

[445] viXra:1405.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-28 10:58:23

Holographic Wormhole Drive: Philosophical Breakthrough in FTL 'Warp-Drive' Technology

Authors: Richard L. Amoroso
Comments: 41 Pages.

Skeptics say Faster than light (FTL) space travel is the stuff of Science Fiction, could take 1,000 years and require a Jupiter size mass-energy source to operate superluminal warp drive spaceships. The author solves this problem in a radical new approach called the “Holographic Wormhole Drive” resulting in the possibility of warpdrive technologies in the near term. The Alcubierre warp drive metric (considered most advanced ) derived from Einstein’s General Relativity field equations by Miguel Alcubierre, in 1994 stretches space in a wave. Space ahead of a ship contracts & space behind expands, inhabitants of the warp-bubble travel along what astrophysicists call a ‘freefall’ geodesic, not moving locally inside the bubble at FTL velocities. But this model requires a negative mass-energy the size of Jupiter to operate. Amoroso uses a new spacetime transformation to cover the domain wall of the warp bubble with an array of mini-wormholes allowing an incursive oscillator to manipulate Alcubierre’s alpha and beta functions with minimal external energy input, i.e. the inherent infinite energy of the spacetime vacuum is used instead by a method of ‘ballistic’ spacetime programming. In "The Immanent Implementation of FTL Warp-Drive Technologies", from his book "Orbiting the Moons of Pluto, Amoroso solves major problems facing the Alcubierre metric based on principles of Holographic Anthropic Cosmology from another volume: "The Holographic Anthropic Multiverse". His solution is a 'Holographic Figure-Ground Effect' where the 'local' free-fall Warp Bubble separates from the holographic background by covering the domain wall of the free-fall warp-bubble with a system of mini-wormholes by 'programming mirror symmetry parameters of the spacetime vacuum'. Manipulating this figure-ground effect becomes the 'Warp speed factor'. Utilizing a higher dimensional (HD) polarized Vacuum and associated operationally completed forms of Quantum Field Theory the need for 'infinite exotic energy' is ameliorated by cyclically 'borrowing' inherent vacuum energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[444] viXra:1405.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-28 07:33:33

Et si L’espace était à L’origine Des Lois de la Physique ?

Authors: Jerrari Khalid
Comments: 14 Pages.

J'ai mené une réflexion qui vise à comprendre l’influence de l’espace sur les lois de la cosmologie. Selon mes travaux, l’espace est une substance qui serait à l’origine de la gravitation universelle, de la « matière noire » et de l’expansion de l’univers. J’expose dans ce document une théorie qui unifie toutes ces lois à l’aide des propriétés spécifiques de l’espace. Tout d’abord, l’invariance de la vitesse de la lumière me conduit à introduire la notion d’espace propre qui traduit que tout corps matériel forme un couple « masse/volume d’espace ». De plus, selon ma théorie, la présence d’un corps dans l’espace engendre une action de l’espace qui se manifeste sous forme d’une tension spatiale. Dans cette publication, j’exprime la gravitation universelle, l’expansion de l’univers et « la matière noire » sous forme d’une accélération universelle qui dérive de cette tension.
Category: Astrophysics

[443] viXra:1405.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-27 18:23:15

Deep Physics from Small Bodies : Macroscopic Dark Matter in the Solar System

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks
Comments: 1 Page. Poster Paper presented at the The Eighth Harvard-Smithsonian Conference on Theoretical Astrophysics

Nuggets of condensed strange quark matter are a viable theory for macroscopic Dark Matter (DM), consistent with astrophysical constraints despite their non-negligible cross sections, due to their very small cross section to mass ratios. This presentation describes the observable consequences of the nugget theory developed by Ariel Zhitnitsky and his collegues, which predicts a stable nugget mass (MQ) in the range 10^5 kg < MQ < 4 × 10^10 kg. Unlike most experimental DM work, which can only set upper bounds to the DM density, in this case there is positive evidence for condensed Quark matter as the source of DM.
Category: Astrophysics

[442] viXra:1405.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-22 12:52:51

Limb Redshift of the Fraunhofer Lines in the Solar Spectrum

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 9 Pages.

Near the limb of the solar disk, the positions of the Fraunhofer lines are shifted toward the red end of the spectrum, compared with their positions at the center of the disk. A possible explanation for this limb effect is the energy loss of the light, when it accelerates unbound electrons in the chromosphere. An even larger redshift is expected when light travels a longer distance in the chromosphere close to solar limb. This difference should be easily detectable during the next solar eclipse.
Category: Astrophysics

[441] viXra:1405.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-20 06:57:13

The Mond External Field Effect on the Dynamics of the Globular Clusters: General Considerations and Application to NGC 2419

Authors: Kamran Derakhshani
Comments: 8 pages, 8 figures, 1 table. Journal-ref: The Astrophysical Journal, 783:48, 2014 March 1. Erratum: 785:166, 2014 April 20

In this paper, we investigate the external field effect in the context of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) on the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of globular clusters (GCs). Using N-MODY, which is an N-body simulation code with a MOND potential solver, we show that the general effect of the external field for diffuse clusters, which obey MOND in most of their parts, is that it pushes the dynamics towards the Newtonian regime. On the other hand, for more compact clusters, which are essentially Newtonian in their inner parts, the external field is effective mainly in the outer parts of compact clusters. As a case study, we then choose the remote Galactic GC NGC 2419. By varying the cluster mass, half-light radius, and mass-to-light ratio we aim to find a model that will reproduce the observational data most effectively, using N-MODY. We find that even if we take the Galactic external field into account, a Newtonian Plummer sphere represents the observational data better than MOND to an order of magnitude in terms of the total χ2 of surface brightness and velocity dispersion.
Category: Astrophysics

[440] viXra:1405.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-18 13:54:42

How to Understand Hoyle's Steady State Universe

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since Big Bang Cosmology is creationism pseudoscience, the only real alternative to understanding all of existence is the steady state model of Fred Hoyle, Hermann Bondi and Thomas Gold. The author struggled with trying to understand how a perfect cosmological principle could be true, in which the universe looks the same in both space and time in all directions, but has finally made a common sense conclusion that can be shared with the reader.
Category: Astrophysics

[439] viXra:1405.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-13 05:24:03

Dual Star Ejection in Open Star Clusters by the Central Star.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 26 Pages. 26

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a result, a NEW paradigm splitting, (with Gamma Ray Bursts) accelerating and pairing Black Hole seems to be able to accelerate itself by a -Zero Point Energy driven-self created plasma tails, to form dumbbell systems, called Herbig Haro (HH) systems, as the start of Bok globules and new star formation in between these dual- or multiple black holes, kept apart by Birkeland current related particle jets. As a consequence, Herbig Haro systems are supposed to be the origin of Open star cluster, created by the dual production of Baby Stars out of the continuous growing an instable rotating central HH star. Several examples of such pairing and splitting into HH objects and Bok globules is observed inside the Carina nebula. These small black holes inside the Carina nebula are supposed to be remnants of Supernovas or even at a smaller scale remnants of comets or former Starspots like our own Black hole based Sunspots. This is also reason to suppose that what we observe here at a small scale should have happened directly after the Big bang and the origin of the so called Fractal shaped Lyman Alpha Forest.. As a consequence, this phenomenon is an extra support for the Quantum FFF theory based Big Bang model as the splitting process of a former Big Crunch black hole into a symmetric raspberry shaped multiverse. The recent observation of bipolar butterfly shaped planetary nebula aligned with the plane of the milky way, should be a direct result of the way Herbig Haro objects are created by pairing and receding dual black hole systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[438] viXra:1405.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-11 07:24:36

The Hubble Constant H0 is not Constant, But Proportional to the Density of Free Electrons

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 10 Pages. also available in german language

If electromagnetic radiation is transmitted from A to B, the total received amplitude is calculated from the sum of secondary waves of the Fresnel zones. Whenever the electromagnetic wave packet crosses a thin plasma, the free electrons are accelerated and therefore radiate undirec­ted energy which is taken from the wave packet. In dense plasma, this frequency reduction has already been proven. The wave packet does not change its direction, but its frequency will be reduced. The Hubble constant is replaced by H0 = c w ne. The correct relationship between distance and redshift is D = z/(w ne). The redshift is no scattering effect and does not depend on ω and λ. The measured values of dispersion measure (radio astronomy) and redshift (optical astronomy) depend on each other: z = w∙DM
Category: Astrophysics

[437] viXra:1405.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-08 20:26:49

Two-Parameter Model of Barred Galaxies and its Testification

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 21 pages. 7 figures. Concluding paper of my 14 year research in galaxy structure and physics.

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with the traditional galactic dynamic is presented which predicts the exponential disk of ordinary spiral galaxies and constant rotation curves uniquely.
Category: Astrophysics

[436] viXra:1405.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2014-05-03 14:18:30

Why an Indirect Observation of Low-Frequency Gravitational Waves by Dint of the Ground-Based Laser Interferometers is Possible?

Authors: Prygunov A. I.
Comments: 7 Pages.

The noise sources of gravitational wave detectors for ground-based laser interferometers by example of LIGO were analyzed. As shown the low-frequency gravitational waves (GW) cause to changes in the detectors’ dynamic properties, which manifested as the Q-factor’s changes of low-frequency seismic component in a detectors’ integral noise that leads to the possibility of indirect GW’s observation in the frequency range (~ 100 Hz) of a detectors’ extreme sensitivity. The experimental estimation of GW’s properties by results of indirect observation is presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[435] viXra:1404.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-27 12:44:13

Newton and the Galactic Rotation Curve

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 3 pages

The galactic rotation curve will not decrease towards the edge of a galaxy, because the nearby masses of stars will cause additional gravity within the galactic plane.
Category: Astrophysics

[434] viXra:1404.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-24 09:25:16

Why All Accepted Stellar Evolution Models are Wrong

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is explained in simple terms why all accepted stellar evolution models are wrong. Stars are assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium or LTE to make the stellar equations work. This is wrong, as LTE means no net transfer of energy or mass, yet all stars radiate. All accepted stellar evolution models contradict the first law of thermodynamics.
Category: Astrophysics

[433] viXra:1404.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-19 19:35:24

Pick One

Authors: Suomy Nona
Comments: 575 Pages. viXra:1402.0070

The following equations were found by a comprehensive search using a GPU, trying every combination of constants that could be equal to the Universal Gravity constant. Because of limitations of measuring constants, all of these equations are more or less correct. The reader is invited to pick an equation as a favorite. Which one, if any, is the most correct?
Category: Astrophysics

[432] viXra:1404.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-16 04:33:01

Orbit Radius and Speed of the Sun Around the Center of Gravity of the Solar System

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 10 Pages. The article is ready for publication

The start of the 22-year cycle begins with a well-established dipole field component aligned along the solar rotational axis. The field lines tend to be held by the highly conductive solar plasma of the solar surface. The solar dipole field, through similar processes, reverses again at the end of the 22-year cycle. The new solar cycle by definition begins with the sun in the middle latitudes (around 30 ° north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude - Spörer's law ) arises first sunspots. These spots have opposite magnetic polarity than the spots above the solar cycle. Around the center of gravity of the Solar System v Sun = 377,64404380671797815401286112528 m/s and RSun orbit = 0,41727286425040580889702383164445e+11 m = 0,27892571139733008616111218692781 AU. Keywords: center of mass, angular momentum, solar cycle, orbit radius of the Sun around the center of gravity of the Solar
Category: Astrophysics

[431] viXra:1404.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-12 06:47:10

The Distance of Planets Has Relativistic Reasons!

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 28 Pages.

Relativity is everywhere; it’s also in the Solar System. And, as an example, here we give proof that the distance of a planet from the Sun unquestionably depends on a pretty relativistic formula!
Category: Astrophysics

[430] viXra:1404.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-08 03:37:36

CMB Radiation

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: Various types of irrational inflationary models of universe were introduced to oppose possible accumulation of all material bodies at a point due to gravitational attraction between them. As no logical mechanism could produce inflationary universe and maintain its stable state, diverse assumptions including big bang origin of universe were proposed. As no known origin to CMBR was readily available, it was accepted as a proof to these assumed theories. However, CMBR has a logical reason and definite mechanisms of production. These are not linked to big bang creation or inflationary state of universe but to its steady state of existence.
Category: Astrophysics

[429] viXra:1404.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-03 09:25:54

The "Like-Likes-Like" Principle in Dusty Plasmas

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 5 Pages.

The strength of the body force exerted on dusty plasmas by the electric force (due to the charge separation in Debye cells) is calculated, and the implications are considered.
Category: Astrophysics

[428] viXra:1404.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-03 04:41:56

General Relativistic Predictions are Incompatible with Solar Planetary Recessions

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 4 Pages. Comments are Welcome. Paper to be sent to a Peer-Review Journal as a research note.

It is generally assumed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is silent on the issue of planetary recession such as has been measured recently. In this short note, we demonstrate that the GTR is not silent on this matter, it does make a clear predictions albeit, predictions that is contrary with experience and for this task, we use the same solution that was and has been used triumphantly to explain the perihelion precession of the planet Mercury. From a pure stand-point of binary logic, we expect this solution to stand-up to all its predictions for both the precession of perihelion precession and as-well the expansion of orbits. At any rate imaginable, this apparent contradiction presents an interesting state of affairs for the GTR.
Category: Astrophysics

[427] viXra:1404.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-01 09:15:40

Inside Stars (Second Edition, Expanded with New Chapters)

Authors: Larissa Borissova, Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 170 Pages.

This book announces a mathematical theory of the internal constitution of stars, and the sources of stellar energy according to the General Theory of Relativity. This is an alternative to the conventional theory of gaseous stars which was introduced in the 1920’s on the basis of classical mechanics and thermodynamics. In contrast, the common consideration of a star and its field according to the General Theory of Relativity, that presented in this book, comes to the model of liquid stars. Such a star is homogeneous inside, with a tiny core (about a few kilometres in the radius) in the centre. The core is selected from the main mass of the star by the collapse surface with the radius according to the star’s mass. Despite almost all mass of the star is located outside the core (the core is not a black hole), the force of gravity approaches to infinity on the surface of the core due to the inner space breaking of the star’s field therein. The super-strong force of gravity is sufficient for the transfer of the necessary kinetic energy to the lightweight atomic nuclei of the stellar substance, so that the process of thermonuclear fusion begins. The energy produced by the thermonuclear fusion is that energy which the stars shine: the tiny core of each star is its luminous “inner sun”, while the produced stellar energy is then transferred to the physical surface of the star due to the thermal conductivity. A new classification of stars is introduced according to the space breaking of their fields: the regular stars (in the range from the dwarfs to the super-giants), Wolf-Rayet stars, neutron stars (and pulsars), and black holes are considered. The introduced liquidmodel matches with the new observational evidences for the state of condensed matter inside stars; in particular, that the Sun consists of the high temperature liquid metallic hydrogen.
Category: Astrophysics

[426] viXra:1404.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-01 11:52:07

Proposal for the Origin of Unexpected Large B-Modes Found in the Bicep2 Measurements.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

According to Quantum FFF (Function Follows Form ) theory, our universe is part of a raspberry shaped Multiverse and super symmetric with a nearby copy anti matter universe, entangled down to each quantum. The raspberry multiverse is supposed to be a cyclic one with the start of an exploding a central Higgs dark matter-dark energy based nucleus into 8 or 12 CPT symmetric universal bubble by a Fractal evaporation based inflation epoch. As a consequence, each universe has its own “navel cord” of the original main splitting and evaporating primary Big Bang black hole nucleus. It seems to be possible to discriminate three chains of such splitting black holes in so called Large Quasar Groups (LQGs). I also suggest that three very large LQGs could be located at the start of three Lyman Alpha Forrest Fractal systems in each of three universe. Each navel cord is suppose to split continuously into smaller secondary nuclei or Large Quasar Groups ( LQGs) leaving a so called Fractal based Lyman Alpha forest behind. This Lyman Alpha forest we observe today very clearly by the distribution of galaxy clusters. The inflation epoch is supposed to end if the black hole splitting and evaporation stops due to lack of black hole nuclei Higgs content able to split. It is generally accepted that the end of the inflation epoch can be observed in the Planck CMB ( Cosmic Microwave Background) and that gravitational waves are the origin of electric and magnetic structure called respectively E-modes and B-Modes. However according to Quantum FFF theory the E and B-Modes are the result of so called Birkeland –Alfven current circuits produced between paring black holes as the origin of primordial Herbig Haro objects, (see former essays) which is also proposed to be the origin of the unexpected large B-Modes found in the BICEP2 measurements. Not the gravity ripples but the Birkeland Alfven circuits are the direct origin of the unexpected large B-Modes.
Category: Astrophysics

[425] viXra:1403.0972 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-30 06:25:58

Galactic Rotation Anomaly

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

Orbital speeds of stars, far from center of a galaxy, are found roughly constant, instead of reductions predicted by current gravitational theories (applied on galactic and cosmological scales). This is called the anomalous rotation of galaxies. This article intends to show that constant angular speeds of all macro bodies in a galaxy are natural phenomenon and there is no mystery about it.
Category: Astrophysics

[424] viXra:1403.0927 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 15:39:18

The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world is expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z)^4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
Category: Astrophysics

[423] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 10:20:35

Flat Gravity of Habble's Law Added to Gravity of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 7 Pages. This is pre print before the contributions to a review journal

Flat gravity caused by the recession of the space was covered in a short distance by gravity according to the inverse square law. It is similar to what was not able to find transverse Doppler effect in the speed of sound. However, it caused the gravity anomalies such as Galaxy rotation problem and Pioneer anomaly or Earth flyby anomaly. It is simple and can calculate the physical quantity from Hubble constant and the gravitational mass. The gravity acts regardless of the distance with the gravity source in a gravisphere. This flat gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming influence of the dark matter and the plasma. There are the evidence that whole space recession in the same isotropy is appears in the free-fall motion of all things.
Category: Astrophysics

[422] viXra:1403.0923 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-24 09:55:20

Stellar Metamorphosis: Replacing the Big Bang's Model for Determining the Age of Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since the Big Bang Model is a philosophically unsound construct violating cause and effect and laws of thermodynamics any deduction of the ages of stars based on it is also philosophically unsound. A seminal understanding is offered via stellar metamorphosis to replace it.
Category: Astrophysics

[421] viXra:1403.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-20 09:46:46

Stellar Metamorphosis Versus Establishment Dogma: The Location of Accretion

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations, 3 references

It is explained in easy to understand language and pictures the main differences between GTSM’s (The General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis) location for accretion and the establishment’s location for accretion.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[200] viXra:1407.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-20 19:25:19

Structural Unification of Newton, Einstein, and Rational Gravity

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 7 pages

If there were no electromagnetic interaction in the Solar system from the beginning then no heavy bodies like Earth or Sun would have existed and elementary particles would miss collision with each other due to the sparse population of particles. The solar system would have been a tiny ``spiral galaxy'' or ``elliptical galaxy'' because of the structuring nature of Newton's gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[199] viXra:1406.0133 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-24 19:11:49

The Graviton in an Equilibrium Universe and the Holographic Principle

Authors: David Harding
Comments: 11 Pages.

This study concludes that the universe is necessarily in equilibrium, that all black holes weigh the same per meter, exibit the same force, and that the universe “sees” a specific value as the Graviton, the quintessence of existence. This virtual particle is equal to the Schwarzschild /de Broglie product of any mass or particle whatsoever. The relation confirms that the source of all things is the Planck Interaction, and also, that all particles and all masses should be defined by their Schwarzschild radii, as well as by their de Broglie radii. Further we conclude that the universe is indeed holographic (as described above), yet with the appearance that it is also a finite black hole, and we being observers within it, exist within a predefined space, as governed by the natural constants. It was noted, that we can only observe matter that has not fallen into smaller event horizons. As such, this state includes us as observers. We can observe all matter within our defined space (the universal event horizon), but beyond this space (either larger or smaller) we can observe nothing.
Category: Astrophysics

[198] viXra:1405.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-16 03:38:59

Dual Star Ejection in Open Star Clusters by the Central Star.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 31 Pages. 31

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a result, a NEW paradigm splitting, (with Gamma Ray Bursts) accelerating and pairing Dark Matter Black Hole seems to be able to accelerate itself by a -Zero Point Energy driven-self created plasma tails, to form dumbbell systems, called Herbig Haro (HH) systems, as the start of Bok globules and new star formation in between these dual- or multiple black holes, kept apart by Birkeland current related particle jets. As a consequence, Herbig Haro systems are supposed to be the origin of Open star cluster, created by the dual production of Baby Stars out of the continuous growing an instable rotating central HH star. Several examples of such pairing and splitting into HH objects and Bok globules is observed inside the Carina nebula. These small black holes inside the Carina nebula are supposed to be remnants of Supernovas or even at a smaller scale remnants of comets or former Starspots like our own Black hole based Sunspots. This is also reason to suppose that what we observe here at a small scale should have happened directly after the Big bang and the origin of the so called Fractal shaped Lyman Alpha Forest.. As a consequence, this phenomenon is an extra support for the Quantum FFF theory based Big Bang model as the splitting process of a former Big Crunch black hole into a symmetric raspberry shaped multiverse. The recent observation of bipolar butterfly shaped planetary nebula aligned with the plane of the milky way, should be a direct result of the way Herbig Haro objects are created by pairing and receding dual black hole systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[197] viXra:1405.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-14 10:11:20

Dual Star Ejection in Open Star Clusters by the Central Star.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages. 30

According to Quantum FFF Theory, the FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a result, a NEW paradigm splitting, (with Gamma Ray Bursts) accelerating and pairing Black Hole seems to be able to accelerate itself by a -Zero Point Energy driven-self created plasma tails, to form dumbbell systems, called Herbig Haro (HH) systems, as the start of Bok globules and new star formation in between these dual- or multiple black holes, kept apart by Birkeland current related particle jets. As a consequence, Herbig Haro systems are supposed to be the origin of Open star cluster, created by the dual production of Baby Stars out of the continuous growing an instable rotating central HH star. Several examples of such pairing and splitting into HH objects and Bok globules is observed inside the Carina nebula. These small black holes inside the Carina nebula are supposed to be remnants of Supernovas or even at a smaller scale remnants of comets or former Starspots like our own Black hole based Sunspots. This is also reason to suppose that what we observe here at a small scale should have happened directly after the Big bang and the origin of the so called Fractal shaped Lyman Alpha Forest.. As a consequence, this phenomenon is an extra support for the Quantum FFF theory based Big Bang model as the splitting process of a former Big Crunch black hole into a symmetric raspberry shaped multiverse. The recent observation of bipolar butterfly shaped planetary nebula aligned with the plane of the milky way, should be a direct result of the way Herbig Haro objects are created by pairing and receding dual black hole systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[196] viXra:1405.0209 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-30 14:25:09

The Hubble Constant H0 is not Constant, But Proportional to the Density of Free Electrons

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 12 Pages.

If electromagnetic radiation is transmitted from A to B, the total received amplitude is calculated from the sum of secondary waves of the Fresnel zones. Whenever the electromagnetic wave packet crosses a thin plasma, the free electrons are accelerated and therefore radiate undirec­ted energy which is taken from the wave packet. In dense plasma, this frequency reduction has already been proven5. The wave packet does not change its direction, but its frequency will be reduced. The Hubble constant is replaced by H0 = c w ne. The correct relationship between distance and redshift is D = z/(w ne). The redshift is no scattering effect and does not depend on ω and λ. The measured values of dispersion measure (radio astronomy) and redshift (optical astronomy) depend on each other: z = w∙DM
Category: Astrophysics

[195] viXra:1405.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-12 18:19:18

Two-Parameter Model of Barred Galaxies and its Testification

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 20 pages. 7 figures. All replacements by now are because of new gravity.

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the kinematic phenomenon of constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with Poisson's equation is presented which verifies the phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[194] viXra:1405.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-10 12:49:27

Two-Parameter Model of Barred Galaxies and its Testification

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 21 pages. 7 figures. Version 3 has correct circular speed and relevant text.

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with the traditional galactic dynamic is presented which suggests that the exponential disk of ordinary spiral galaxies may match the kinematic phenomenon of constant rotation curves.
Category: Astrophysics

[193] viXra:1405.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-17 11:07:00

Two-Parameter Model of Barred Galaxies and its Testification

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 21 pages. 7 figures. The second version has added an important formula (56).

Natural structure is unique and galaxies are natural structure. In our previous work, we showed that rational structure is unique. In this paper, the unique two-parameter rational structure is used to model barred galaxies. The model fits to galaxy images satisfactorily and the prediction on galaxy arms is consistent with observation. Today the accepted theory applied to galaxies is Newton's universal gravity which, however, fails to galactic observation generally. Accordingly, dark matter was introduced but has never been observed. A simple glimpse of the images of edge-on spiral galaxies suggests that Newton's concept of action at a distance should be rejected. It is hard to imagine that the stars far away from the galaxy center suffer an instant force from the center. In our previous work we suggested a new universal gravity which generalizes Newton's one and is uniquely determined by rational structure. The new gravity results from local curvature of Darwin surfaces and simply explains the constant rotation curves. In this paper, a preliminary study on the new gravity with the traditional galactic dynamic is presented which predicts the exponential disk of ordinary spiral galaxies and constant rotation curves uniquely.
Category: Astrophysics

[192] viXra:1404.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-11 07:40:17

The "Like-Likes-Like" Principle in Dusty Plasmas

Authors: Charles L. Chandler
Comments: 6 Pages.

The strength of the body force exerted on dusty plasmas by the electric force (due to the charge separation in Debye cells) is calculated, and the implications are considered.
Category: Astrophysics

[191] viXra:1404.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-09 06:45:33

Proposal for the Origin of Unexpected Large B-Modes Found in the Bicep2 Measurements.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages. 25

According to Quantum FFF (Function Follows Form ) theory, our universe is part of a raspberry shaped Multiverse with super (Charge Parity) symmetric entangled universes down to each quantum. The raspberry multiverse is supposed to be a cyclic one, starting with an exploding central new physics Big Bang black hole and ending with a Big Crunch black hole.. The Big Bang Black hole can shortly be described as Higgs particle dark matter/ dark energy based nucleus of 8 or 12 CPT symmetric universal bubbles, evaporating and splitting by a Fractal inflation epoch, leaving a so called Lyman Alpha forest of galaxy seeds behind. Galaxy seeds are supposed to be represented by Quasars and large Quasar groups ( LQGs) but also by CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) hotspots and B-Modes. The inflation epoch is supposed to end in the CMB if the black hole splitting and evaporation stops due to lack of black hole particle content, able to split and form local Quasars or LQGs. It is generally accepted that the end of the inflation epoch can be observed in the Planck CMB ( Cosmic Microwave Background) and that gravitational waves are the origin of electric and magnetic structure called respectively E-modes and B-Modes. However according to Quantum FFF theory the E and B-Modes could also be the result of so called Birkeland –Alfven current circuits produced between paring black holes as the origin of primordial Herbig Haro objects, which could be he origin of the unexpected large B-Modes found in the BICEP2 measurements. Not the gravity ripples but the Birkeland Alfven circuits are the direct origin of the unexpected large B-Modes. The fact that the B-Modes are unexpected large ( about 10- times larger than expected ) is reason to support this hypothesis, and support for future research on B-Modes. I realize that “new paradigm dark matter black holes” are not only presented by knots of B-Mode polarization but also as Cometary knots and much larger Stellar Anchor black holes (dual bow shocks) in Planetary nebula like the Helix nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[190] viXra:1404.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-02 03:37:50

Proposal for the Origin of Unexpected Large B-Modes Found in the Bicep2 Measurements.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

According to Quantum FFF (Function Follows Form ) theory, our universe is part of a raspberry shaped Multiverse with super (Charge Parity) symmetric entangled universes down to each quantum. The raspberry multiverse is supposed to be a cyclic one, starting with an exploding central new physics Big Bang black hole and ending with a Big Crunch black hole.. The Big Bang Black hole can shortly be described as Higgs particle dark matter/ dark energy based nucleus of 8 or 12 CPT symmetric universal bubbles, evaporating and splitting by a Fractal inflation epoch leaving a so called Lyman Alpha forest of galaxy seeds behind. Galaxy seeds are supposed to be represented by Quasars and large Quasar groups ( LQGs) but also by CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) hotspots and B-Modes. The inflation epoch is supposed to end in the CMB if the black hole splitting and evaporation stops due to lack of black hole particle content, able to split and form local Quasars or LQGs. It is generally accepted that the end of the inflation epoch can be observed in the Planck CMB ( Cosmic Microwave Background) and that gravitational waves are the origin of electric and magnetic structure called respectively E-modes and B-Modes. However according to Quantum FFF theory the E and B-Modes could also be the result of so called Birkeland –Alfven current circuits produced between paring black holes as the origin of primordial Herbig Haro objects, which could be he origin of the unexpected large B-Modes found in the BICEP2 measurements. Not the gravity ripples but the Birkeland Alfven circuits are the direct origin of the unexpected large B-Modes. The fact that the B-Modes are unexpected large ( about 10-20 times larger than expected: r=0,2 to 0,01) is reason to support this hypothesis, and support for future research on B-Modes.
Category: Astrophysics

[189] viXra:1403.0972 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-30 09:57:09

Galactic Rotation Anomaly

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 3 Pages.

Orbital speeds of stars, far from center of a galaxy, are found roughly constant, instead of reductions predicted by current gravitational theories (applied on galactic and cosmological scales). This is called the anomalous rotation of galaxies. This article intends to show that constant angular speeds of all macro bodies in a galaxy are natural phenomenon and there is no mystery about it.
Category: Astrophysics

[188] viXra:1403.0927 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-06 02:57:05

The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 9 Pages.

The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world is expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z)^4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.
Category: Astrophysics

[187] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-22 10:34:14

Discovery of Flat Gravity Based on Hubble's Law Added to Newtonian Gravity

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 11 Pages.

We know space expanding from the Hubble's law which Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason formulated first in 1929, and nearly 100 years passed, but Flat gravity caused by the expanding universe was covered in a short distance by Newtonian gravity according to inverse square law. It caused gravity anomalies such as the pioneer anomaly that a cause of the blue-shift indicating the slowdown to the sun direction is unclear as planetary probe pioneer 10-11 leaves the sun and the issue of galactic rotation curve which forms flat velocity distribution without rotational speed decreasing in galactic considerable penumbra known as physical unsolved problem. If expanding universe is premised, clause of the expansion that divided recession rate v=H0D in strain constant V0 is added, and Newtonian potential -GM/r(1) premising steady state cosmology be changes to -GM/r(1+v/V0). The clause of this expansion becomes constant G0=GH0/V0 which distance D and 1/r canceled and total gravitational mass of the universe M0=c3/(2GH0) which can be observed affects specific potential constant which multiplied gravitational mass for the observation and becomes -(G/r+G0)M. Flat gravity based on Hubble's law added to Newtonian gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[186] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-26 12:07:20

Discovery of Flat Gravity Based on Hubble's Law Added to Newtonian Gravity

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 9 Pages.

We know space expanding from the Hubble's law which Edwin Hubble and Milton Humason formulated first in 1929, and nearly 100 years passed, but Flat gravity caused by the expanding universe was covered in a short distance by Newtonian gravity according to inverse square law. It caused gravity anomalies such as the pioneer anomaly that a cause of the blue-shift indicating the slowdown to the sun direction is unclear as planetary probe pioneer 10-11 leaves the sun and the issue of galactic rotation curve which forms flat velocity distribution without rotational speed decreasing in galactic considerable penumbra known as physical unsolved problem. If expanding universe is premised, clause of the expansion that divided recession rate v=H0D in strain constant V0 is added, and Newtonian potential -GM/r(1) premising steady state cosmology be changes to -GM/r(1+v/V0). The clause of this expansion becomes constant G0=GH0/V0 which distance D and 1/r canceled and total gravitational mass of the universe M0=c3/(2GH0) which can be observed affects specific potential constant which multiplied gravitational mass for the observation and becomes -(G/r+G0)M. Flat gravity based on Hubble's law added to Newtonian gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[185] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-25 14:21:43

Flat Gravity of Hubble's Law Added to Gravity of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 7 Pages.

Flat gravity caused by the recession of the space was covered in a short distance by gravity according to the inverse square law. It is similar to what was not able to find transverse Doppler effect in the speed of sound. However, it caused the gravity anomalies such as Galaxy rotation problem and Pioneer anomaly or Earth flyby anomaly. It is simple and can calculate the physical quantity from Hubble constant and the gravitational mass. The gravity acts regardless of the distance with the gravity source in a gravisphere. This flat gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming influence of the dark matter and the plasma. There are the evidence that whole space recession in the same isotropy is appears in the free-fall motion of all things.
Category: Astrophysics

[184] viXra:1403.0926 [pdf] replaced on 2014-03-24 14:46:46

Flat Gravity of Hubble's Law Added to Gravity of the Inverse Square Law

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 7 Pages. This is pre print before the contributions to a review journal

Flat gravity caused by the recession of the space was covered in a short distance by gravity according to the inverse square law. It is similar to what was not able to find transverse Doppler effect in the speed of sound. However, it caused the gravity anomalies such as Galaxy rotation problem and Pioneer anomaly or Earth flyby anomaly. It is simple and can calculate the physical quantity from Hubble constant and the gravitational mass. The gravity acts regardless of the distance with the gravity source in a gravisphere. This flat gravity accords with the value of the gravity anomaly without assuming influence of the dark matter and the plasma. There are the evidence that whole space recession in the same isotropy is appears in the free-fall motion of all things.
Category: Astrophysics