Astrophysics

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(5) - 0709(1) - 0711(1)
2008 - 0803(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0806(1) - 0807(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)
2009 - 0907(2) - 0908(6) - 0909(5) - 0910(2) - 0911(6) - 0912(2)
2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(8) - 1003(6) - 1004(2) - 1005(6) - 1006(4) - 1008(6) - 1009(3) - 1010(2) - 1011(3) - 1012(3)
2011 - 1101(7) - 1102(3) - 1103(7) - 1104(4) - 1105(4) - 1106(6) - 1107(4) - 1108(3) - 1109(1) - 1110(2) - 1111(5) - 1112(3)
2012 - 1201(5) - 1203(2) - 1204(6) - 1205(21) - 1206(8) - 1207(5) - 1208(3) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(6) - 1212(11)
2013 - 1301(12) - 1302(4) - 1303(19) - 1304(7) - 1305(11) - 1306(11) - 1307(4) - 1308(14) - 1309(14) - 1310(53) - 1311(17) - 1312(16)
2014 - 1401(12) - 1402(11) - 1403(14) - 1404(10) - 1405(12) - 1406(12) - 1407(3) - 1408(8) - 1409(6) - 1410(12) - 1411(28) - 1412(6)
2015 - 1501(14) - 1502(16) - 1503(28) - 1504(24) - 1505(15) - 1506(14) - 1507(12) - 1508(24) - 1509(16) - 1510(29) - 1511(12) - 1512(26)
2016 - 1601(22) - 1602(37) - 1603(23) - 1604(17) - 1605(20) - 1606(23) - 1607(37) - 1608(25) - 1609(35) - 1610(25) - 1611(37) - 1612(4)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1049] viXra:1612.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 14:09:38

Co-Decaying Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

There isn't as much dark matter around today as there used to be. According to one of the most popular models of dark matter, the universe contained much more dark matter early on when the temperature was hotter. As the universe cooled, the dark matter annihilated away, at least up until a point when thermal equilibrium was reached and the annihilations ceased, resulting in the number of dark matter particles in the universe "freezing out" and remaining roughly constant. [21] Much of the universe is made of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1048] viXra:1612.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:22:10

Object Moving Towards the Observer Might Appear to Have Infinite Velocity and Hit Without Giving Any Warning.

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 4 Pages. apparent velocities might be faster than light

The apparent velocity of an object moving towards or away from the observer will be different from its actual velocity. To get the apparent velocity, actual velocity will have to be multiplied by a factor called scale factor. For an object moving away from an observer at considerable speed compared to that of light, scale factor is given by1/1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of the moving object and c = velocity of light in vacuum. So, apparent velocity = Actual velocity/(1+z).But when the object is moving towards an observer, it appears to move faster than actual velocity. This is because Scale factor for objects approaching the observer=1/ (1-z). Most important thing is that the velocity of the object appears to be faster than the velocity of light in vacuum, for all values of z > 0.5.Also, it appears to be approaching at infinite speed for z =1.
Category: Astrophysics

[1047] viXra:1612.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 05:00:50

Democratic Free Will and Telepathy in the Instant Entangled Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 16 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. However I would propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas. Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”. Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all instant entangled ideas of copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally. If I are able to “Tap into” those instant entanglement connections” sent out by other people, then even telepathic effects (mind reading) could be explained.
Category: Astrophysics

[1046] viXra:1612.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 04:23:32

Quantum Property of Empty Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

By studying the light emitted from an extraordinarily dense and strongly magnetized neutron star using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers may have found the first observational indications of a strange quantum effect, first predicted in the 1930s. The polarization of the observed light suggests that the empty space around the neutron star is subject to a quantum effect known as vacuum birefringence. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1045] viXra:1611.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:58:45

Unknown Source of Positrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of researchers known as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Collaboration has found evidence of a possible unknown source of positrons making their way through the universe to Earth. [9] Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1044] viXra:1611.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 13:25:47

Pioneer Anomaly Re-visited

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 7 Pages.

This mysterious effect has been given considerable thought as to its nature. Some have thought that the effect is due to unknown spacecraft effects, such as gas leaks or anisotropic thermal radiation. Others hold out for some fundamental physics that might alter the theory of gravitation. Recently, a complete analysis of rediscovered spacecraft data provides a credible story for spacecraft engineering being the cause. However, more fundamental physics has not been absolutely ruled out. This paper will relook at the anomaly from a fundamental perspective by applying a recently published physical theory to the Pioneer anomaly, and will show that a new theory can explain the effect.
Category: Astrophysics

[1043] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 17:30:03

Hawking Radiation Addition to Theory Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12; UK English; Freelance scientist.

_ABSTRACT_ __Hawking Radiation -Addition to theory__ http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[1042] viXra:1611.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 11:37:49

Dark Force of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1041] viXra:1611.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 07:54:18

High-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1040] viXra:1611.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:24:49

The 1600 Kelvin Gap in Astrophysics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 screenshots

In the accepted astronomy literature, and collected, publicly disbursed data there is a large temperature gap in the young stars which host older stars. It is apparent that specific data is ignored so that accepted models and theories do not receive unwanted attention by critical eyes. A prediction is therefore made concerning the presence of evolved stars (planets/exoplanets) around younger stars between the temperature range 540 – 2100 Kelvin, of which no public exoplanet data exists.
Category: Astrophysics

[1039] viXra:1611.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:55:08

16 Psyche in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The asteroid 16 Psyche is claimed to be a protoplanet that did not continue its formation process in the “early solar system”. This is false. The asteroid is a piece of the core of a dead star according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1038] viXra:1611.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 06:26:29

Rest of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Much of the universe is made of of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1037] viXra:1611.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 12:35:52

Mysterious Dark Photon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1036] viXra:1611.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 08:56:03

Computing the Mystery of Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1035] viXra:1611.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 09:38:36

Hexagonal Storm on Saturn

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn.
Category: Astrophysics

[1034] viXra:1611.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 06:11:32

Magnetic Reconnection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1033] viXra:1611.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 08:33:01

X-ray Pulsars Propeller Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1032] viXra:1611.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 07:50:24

Saturn Hexagon Storm \\ Шестиугольный шторм на Сатурне

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages. in Russian

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn. \\ На северном полюсе Сатурна уже более 30 лет существует гигантский шторм в форме шестиугольника, каждая сторона которого больше диаметра Земли. Этот шестиугольник не перемещается на планете, вращается и сохраняет свою форму. Это явление до сих пор не имеет объяснения. Ниже предлагается математическая модель такого шторма, аналогичная математической модели океанского водоворота (предложенной автором ранее). При этом показывается, что источником энергии, позволяющей шторму длительное время вращаться, является гравитационное поле Сатурна.
Category: Astrophysics

[1031] viXra:1611.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 10:52:29

Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1030] viXra:1611.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 06:07:51

New Theory of Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1029] viXra:1611.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 11:26:03

Unusual Origins of High-Energy Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

High above the surface, Earth's magnetic field constantly deflects incoming supersonic particles from the sun. These particles are disturbed in regions just outside of Earth's magnetic field-and some are reflected into a turbulent region called the foreshock. New observations from NASA's THEMIS mission show that this turbulent region can accelerate electrons up to speeds approaching the speed of light. Such extremely fast particles have been observed in near-Earth space and many other places in the universe, but the mechanisms that accelerate them have not yet been concretely understood. [8] The scientists analyze the magnetic field strengths and show that, even in the least massive fragment the field is not strong enough to inhibit gravitational collapse. In fact, they find indications that gravity, as it pulls material inward, drags the magnetic field lines along. [7] Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars-small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1028] viXra:1611.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 09:51:51

Are Quazars White Holes?

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on the mechanistic interpretation of J. Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept, which allows for transitions between distant regions of space, it was suggested that a quasar is a cosmological object, i.e. a white hole, where gravitational forces are replaced with dynamic ones with together the balance of electric and magnetic forces. Thus, a schematic model of a typical quasar was proposed. Its parameters (calculated on the basis of this model) are consistent with the observational data on quasars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1027] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 04:58:29

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[1026] viXra:1611.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 09:16:55

Dark Matter and Intergalactic Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A correlation between the cosmic microwave background and hydrogen absorption lines may reveal a connection between dark matter and intergalactic gas clouds. [19] Currently, one of the strongest candidates for dark matter is weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS, although so far this hypothetical particle has not yet been directly detected. Now in a new study, physicists have proposed that dark matter is not a WIMP, and further, it is not any particle that is so far known or theorized to exist. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1025] viXra:1611.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 01:20:31

Relativistic Time Correction on Movement of Distant Galaxies Makes the Present Age of the Universe as 28.2 Billion Years

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 5 Pages. It changes the age of the universe from 14.1 to 28.2 billion years.

The relativistic approach gives us the apparent time of the events happening on a fast moving object away from us. It is called scale factor. It is given by Scale factor = 1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of moving object and c= speed of light in vacuum. This paper aims to illustrate that the above relativistic time correction when applied to Hubble’s law, gives us the age of the universe as 2/H0 and not 1/H0, where H0 is the present Hubble constant. This makes the age of the universe to a value double that of the present estimate. That is from 14.1 billion light years to 28.2 billion light years. Linear expansion of the universe is assumed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1024] viXra:1611.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:14:33

On the Secular Recession of Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon

Authors: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., Tsoka, W.
Comments: 13 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., & Tsoka, W., (2015), ‘On the Secular Recession of the Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon’, Astrophys. & Space Sci., Jun. 2, Vol. 358(1): pp.1-12. (doi:10.1007/s10509-015-2394-4)

We here apply the ASTG-model to the observed anomalous secular trend in the mean Sun-(Earth-Moon) and Earth-Moon distances. For the recession of the Earth-Moon system, in agreement with observation, we obtain a recession of about 11.20 ± 0.20 cm/yr. The ASTG-model predicts orbital drift as being a result of the orbital inclination and the Solar mass loss rate. The Newtonian gravitational constant G is assumed to be absolute time constant. Standish (2005); Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004) reported for the Earth-Moon system, an orbital recession from the Sun of about (15.00 ± 4.00) cm/yr; while Williams et al. (2004); Williams and Boggs (2009); Williams et al. (2014) report for the Moon, an orbital recession of about 38.00 mm/yr from the Earth. The predictions of the ASTG-model for the Earth-Moon system agrees very well with those the findings of Standish (2005); Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004). The lost orbital angular momen-tum for the Earth-Moon system – which we here hypothesize to be gained as spin by the two body Earth-Moon system; this lost angular momentum accounts very well for the observed lunar drift, therefore, one can safely safely say that the ASTG-model does to a reasonable degree of accuracy predict the observed lunar drift of about 38.00 mm/yr from the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1023] viXra:1611.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:18:07

On the Secular Recession of the Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon (II)

Authors: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., Tsoka, W.
Comments: 4 Pages. Work in Progress

We here apply – albeit, with improved assumptions compared to our earlier work (Nyambuya et al., Astron. & Astro-phys. S. Sci. 358(1) : pp.1 − 12, 2015); the ASTG-model to the observed secular trend in the mean Sun-(Earth-Moon) and Earth-Moon distances thereby providing an alternative explanation as to what the cause of this secular trend may be. For the semi-major axis rate of the Earth-Moon system, we now obtain a new value of about +3.00 cm/yr while in the earlier work we obtained a value of about 5.00 cm/yr. This new value of +3.00 cm/yr is closer to that of of Standish (2005)'s measurement of (7.00 ± 2.00) cm/yr. Our present value accounts for only 43% of Standish (2005)'s measurement. The other 57% can be accounted for by invoking the hypothesis that the θ-component of the angular momentum maybe non-zero. In the end, it can be said that the ASTG-model predicts orbital drift as being a result of the orbital inclination and the Solar mass loss rate. The Newtonian gravitational constant G is assumed to be an absolute time constant
Category: Astrophysics

[1022] viXra:1611.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 10:27:17

Dark Matter in a Hidden Sector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Currently, one of the strongest candidates for dark matter is weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS, although so far this hypothetical particle has not yet been directly detected. Now in a new study, physicists have proposed that dark matter is not a WIMP, and further, it is not any particle that is so far known or theorized to exist. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1021] viXra:1611.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 02:40:49

Calculating Axion Masses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1020] viXra:1611.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 06:47:12

Bright and Dark Sides of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Since dark matter is the main component of these galaxies—and thus the main determinant of galactic rotation—this finding implies that the distribution of conventional matter in the disk specifies the density profile of the surrounding dark matter halo. [18] A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [17] A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1019] viXra:1611.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 09:05:21

Active Galactic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In the 1970s, astronomers became aware of a compact radio source at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy – which they named Sagittarius A. After many decades of observation and mounting evidence, it was theorized that the source of these radio emissions was in fact a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Since that time, astronomers have come to theorize that SMBHs at the heart of every large galaxy in the Universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1018] viXra:1611.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 12:53:06

Dark Matter Depending on Gravitational Field in Solar System

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 9 Pages.

For last two years I have published several papers about DM on galaxies and cluster of galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original hypothesis which states that DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal law. As consequence this hypothesis, gravitational field is calculated through a Bernoulli differential equation which gives rightly DM density named Bernoulli profile. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters which are supposed to be valid for every gravitational system. Parameters A&B come form calculus made in paper [7] Abarca, M.2016. Specifically were calculated in M31 galaxy from rotation curve data for radius bigger than 40 kpc and lower than 200 kpc. In this region gravitational field is lower than 10^-11 m/s^2. Whereas inside Solar System gravitational field is billions of times bigger. However if it is supposed that DM generation mechanism is Universal then the same parameters should be right to study Dark matter density inside Solar System. It is remarkable the fact that through the same method I have published successful results for cluster of galaxies scale and galaxy scale. Unfortunately there is not experimental measures for DM inside Solar System yet so it is not possible for now check theoretical results published in this paper. The main results this paper are DM enclosed by spherical coronas defined by radius of Sun and planetary orbits. Through mass of Earth as unit of mass, results are the following ones: DM up to Mercury orbit is 71,61 MEARTH , up to Venus orbit is 75.57 MEARTH , up to Earth orbit is 77.33 MEARTH , up to Mars orbit is 79.32 MEARTH , up to Jupiter orbit is 83.76 MEARTH , up to Saturn orbit is 85.37 MEARTH , up to Uranus orbit is 86.85 MEARTH , up to Neptune orbit is 87.63 MEARTH , up to Pluto orbit is 88.056 MEARTH
Category: Astrophysics

[1017] viXra:1611.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:24:31

Observed Dual Higgs Mass 124-126 Gev and the Chirality of the Vacuum Lattice.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 9 Pages. 9

Observed dual LHC signals of 124-126 GeV Higgs The chirality of our material universal vacuum lattice formed by the massless Axion/Higgs oscillating dark energy field, is supposed to be the origin of these different masses. According to Quantum FFF Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1016] viXra:1611.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:28:35

Emergent Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [17] A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1015] viXra:1611.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 08:29:10

9 Series of Evidences of Periodical Bursts of Young Stars and Planets

Authors: GP Zhang
Comments: 12 Pages.

Fred Hoyle, the famous British astronomer, had the idea that matters explode from the Sun form planets. This paper develops this idea into the theory of periodical bursts of young stars and planets, provides 9 series of evidences to prove the theory, and explains many facts of the solar system and exoplanetary systems with the theory simplly, self-consistently, and systematically. First, the ratio of semi-major axes and stellar radius of three young exoplanets (V830 Tau b, K2-33 b and GJ674 b) increases with age, because they were born from the burst of their parent star and were pushed away by the strong stellar wind (Table 1). Second, there are many exoplanets and candidates with the ratio less than 5, such as K2-92 b, WASP-103 b and PTFO 8-8695 b. They are in the range of the contracting prostar and there were no enough nebular matters left in the range to accrete into planets. So they were born from the burst of their parent star (Table 2). Third, there is a law of semimajor axis of planets in multi-planet systems, such as Kepler-90’s system with 7 planets and HD 10180’s system with 6 planets. The law is similiar to Bode’s law in the solar system and it means that the planets were born from periodical bursts of their parent star in their youth (Table 3). Fourth, the jovian planets have density, composition and internal energy source similiar to the Sun, which mean they were once parts of the Sun (Table 4). Fifth, different classes of meteorites formed from very high temperature which cannot be reached with energy from accretion. They were once parts of the Sun. They were burst out from the Sun and they cooled down from the very high temperature. Sixth, Mars had widespread liquid water 3.7 billion years ago. Terrestrial and lunar rocks in early time recorded solar wind 10 million times stronger than it is now. These evidences proved that the terrestrial planets then were much nearer to the Sun than they are now. Seventh, satellites of the terrestrial planets, Moon, Phobos and Deimos, have lower density than the terrestrial planets and there is a law of their density. They were burst from the boundary between the core and the mantle of their parent planet in their youth (Table 5). Eighth, Galilean satellites have different ages, of their surface and as a whole, which proved they were born from periodical bursts of Jupiter (Table 6). Ninth, there is a law of semimajor axis of satellites and rings of the jovian planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[1014] viXra:1611.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 08:18:47

Muon Telescope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope, the largest and most sensitive cosmic ray monitor recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays that indicated a crack in the Earth's magnetic shield. The burst occurred when a giant cloud of plasma ejected from the solar corona struck Earth at a very high speed causing massive compression of the Earth's magnetosphere and triggering a severe geomagnetic storm. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1013] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:03:57

Igid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages. 27

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes, with a different functions like masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Zparticles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1012] viXra:1611.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 13:59:32

Supercomputer Profile of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1011] viXra:1611.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 02:06:21

Cause of Radiation Belts of the Earth Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Hypothesis of the Cause of an Internal Radiation Belt of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cover of a Kernel and Its Contents is Made.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the cause of an internal radiation belt of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cover of a kernel and its contents is made.
Category: Astrophysics

[1010] viXra:1611.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 06:28:13

Electric Dark Matter Black Holes in the Moon (Orientale Basin)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

The multiple cliff-ringed lava plains on the moon are breath taking and how they came to be has puzzled scientists and even philosophers. However, multi-cliff ringed basins are also found in many different locations on other worlds. So, what created the basins? The suggestion of Quantum FFF Theory is that the double charged static electric fields assumed to be active concentric around new physics black holes should be the origin of circular cliff formation after the impact of a special comet which is only based on one nuclear black hole. Many comets however seem to be created around more than one new physics black hole as we may have observed in comets like 67P C-G and Shoemaker Levy 9. The resulting lava plains of such crashed comets are supposed to be represented by less circular gravity variations or less circular cliffed plains. Recent discussions around the foundation of black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about the nature of black holes and adjacent subjects.
Category: Astrophysics

[1009] viXra:1610.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 10:52:13

The Value of the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper presents a derivation of the value of the cosmological constant. The approach was based on the Einstein’s gravitational field equations and the Hubble’s law. The value of the cosmological constant Λ was found to be: Λ=(Ho^2)/3 , here Ho is the Hubble constant.
Category: Astrophysics

[1008] viXra:1610.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 12:53:01

FRB 150418 Confirms Predictions Made by New Tired Light

Authors: Lyndon Ashmore
Comments: 4 Pages.

For the first time, in April 2015, both the Dispersion Measure (DM) of a fast radio burst, FRB 150418, and the redshift of the host galaxy were measured. This gave the opportunity to test the New Tired Light Theory and its predictions. DM in mainstream physics is found from the time delay between the arrival of different frequencies from a short, sharp cosmological source (FRB or pulsar). DM is related to the mean free electron density along the path, n, and the distance from source to observer, d, by the formula DM=nd. New Tired Light (NTL) is an alternative cosmological theory to the Big Bang. In NTL the universe is static and redshifts are caused by photons of light interacting with the electrons in the plasma of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Energy is transferred from the photon to the recoiling electron on absorption and re-emission resulting in a reduction in frequency of the photon and an increase in the wavelength. The redshift distance relation is z=exp(Hd⁄c) -1 where c is the speed of light and H the Hubble constant. In NTL the Hubble constant is derived in terms of, n, the plank constant, h,and m and r the rest mass and classical radius of the electron giving H=(2nhr⁄m). Making, d, the subject of both equations from DM and NTL gives us the SI equation DM=(mc⁄2hr)LN(1+z). Substituting the measured redshift, z, and values for m,c,h and r as well as converting from SI units to those used in radio astronomy (pc cm^-3 ) gives a predicted DM of DM=949 pc cm^-3. This compares well with the observed DM of FRB 150418 of 776.2 pc cm -3 – a difference of just 22%. It is noted that a DM is produced for all electron number densities whilst in NTL redshifts only occur in the sparsely populated plasma of the IGM since in dense plasma, strong electromagnetic forces reduce or even prevent the electrons from recoiling. Consequently it is possible to have a DM but no redshift if the plasma density is too high. It is possible that denser plasma along the path may have resulted in the predicted DM being a little higher than the measured one - though the agreement is close and gives strong support to NTL.
Category: Astrophysics

[1007] viXra:1610.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:13:47

Rotating and Gravitationally Collapsing Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned in a simple principle of stellar evolution that for a star to increase in rotational velocity, it cannot experience solar wind or significant flaring events. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1006] viXra:1610.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:31:25

Fusion as Thermodynamically Open System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A thought to consider when developing a fusion reactor is mentioned. Maybe fusion is not a closed system, with internal feedback, but completely open as a result of another process.
Category: Astrophysics

[1005] viXra:1610.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:47:16

Stellar Age Location Theory vs. Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

In the accepted sciences, the ages of stars and their companions can be determined by their location in specific areas. This is false for simple reasons. Explanation in provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1004] viXra:1610.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 11:58:21

Fuzzy Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The idea is called "FDM", for "fuzzy dark matter". It posits that an extremely light boson, one almost exactly massless in fact, could be responsible for the scale of galaxy halos we observe in the universe. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1003] viXra:1610.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 16:30:44

Mass Continuum Principle in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned in a simple principle of stellar evolution that the masses of stars are not stepped, but continuous. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1002] viXra:1610.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 07:45:42

Cosmic Microwave Background 3D Print

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers have created a 3D printed cosmic microwave background-a map of the oldest light in the universe-and provided the files for download. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1001] viXra:1610.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 14:15:40

Future of Dark Matter Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1000] viXra:1610.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 07:40:42

Latest Dark Matter Searches

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[999] viXra:1610.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 02:38:49

Dark Energy Supernova Analysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[998] viXra:1610.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 08:29:26

The Speed of a Black Hole to Attract a Celestial Body

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 6 Pages.

The speed of a black hole to attract a celestial body thanks to its universal gravity and many other parameters described in article
Category: Astrophysics

[997] viXra:1610.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 19:35:06

The Cooling Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 picture

According to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics stars will cool indefinitely. Explanation is provided below.
Category: Astrophysics

[996] viXra:1610.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 16:02:25

Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Average Particles

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[995] viXra:1610.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 09:32:59

Dynamics of Satellite Rotation (Revisiting the Results of J.wisdom, et Al. (1984)).

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 15 Pages. AMS Subject Classification: 70F15, 70F07 (Celestial mechanics); Keywords: Beletskii’s equation, satellite rotation, Abel ODE, gradient catastrophe.

The main motivation of the current research is the analytical exploring of the dynamics of satellite rotation during the motion on the elliptic orbit around the planet. We should discuss the revisited results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984). By elegant change of variables (considering the true anomaly f as the independent variable), the governing equation of satellite rotation is presented in a form of the Abel ODE of the 2-nd type, a kind of generalization of Riccati ODE. We should also note that for the reason of a special character of the solutions of Riccati-type ODE, there exists a possibility for sudden jumping of the magnitude of a solution at some moment of time-parameter. In physical sense, such the jumping of the Riccati-type solutions of the governing ODE could be associated with the effect of sudden acceleration/deceleration of the satellite rotation around the chosen principle axis at definite moment of parametric time. It means that there exists not only a chaotic regime of rotation of satellite (according to the results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984)), but a kind of gradient catastrophe Arnold 1992 could occur during the process of satellite rotation. We should especially note that if gradient catastrophe could occur, it does not mean that it must occur: such a possibility depends on the initial conditions. Besides, the asymptotical solutions have been obtained, manifesting a quasi-periodic character of the solution even at a strong simplifying assumptions e → 0, p = 1, which reduces the governing equation of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984) to a kind of the Beletskii’s equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[994] viXra:1610.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 17:18:20

Decreasing Plasma Instabilities in Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided to explain that plasma instabilities decrease as stars age and cool.
Category: Astrophysics

[993] viXra:1610.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 18:07:07

Interpreting Disks Alongside Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is used to explain that disks cannot be used to determine the ages of stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[992] viXra:1610.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 08:27:06

Understanding Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[991] viXra:1610.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 12:02:26

Dark Matter and the Dynamics of Galaxies: a Newtonian Approach

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I propose a correction to the well-known Newtonian gravitational potential, a correction which explains the form of the radial velocities as a function of the discoid galaxies radii. The main scope of this work is to find a correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential which has to fulfil two major conditions: a) to take into account the entire amount of the experimental data; b) the resulting potential to be a consequence of condition a) from a physical perspective. As a result, the corrected form of the Newtonian gravitational potential was found to belong to a physical cause and this cause can be the existence of the dark matter, evenly distributed within galaxies. This distribution makes dark matter to act as a binder for ordinary matter, so that the discoid galaxies not rotate as a fluid (as standard Newtonian theory states), but as some rigid frames (as the observational data state).
Category: Astrophysics

[990] viXra:1610.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 07:48:35

The Blue Shift Paradox

Authors: Eran Sinbar, Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s equation E=mc^2, matter and anti-matter annihilate into photonic radiation energy. Photons have unique characteristics since they are massless and they travel at the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. No other particle shares these unique characteristics. We claim that this unique behavior is due to the fact that photons do not apply gravitational effects on space-time, meaning, although photons will be forced to move in a curved line if space-time is curved they will not curve space time by themselves or apply gravity forces and time dilation . In order to prove our claims we suggest a thought experiment that leads to a blue shift paradox which happens after annihilating 2 symmetrical in size and mass, matter and anti- matter (A&B) in the center of a hollow particles spherical shell . The only way to explain this paradox is to conclude that anti-matter imposes anti–gravity and therefore matter and anti-matter together impose zero gravity. Furthermore, this proves that the photonic energy from the annihilation phase has also zero gravity effect on space-time.
Category: Astrophysics

[989] viXra:1610.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 07:39:12

Magnetar for Axion Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[988] viXra:1610.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 10:07:20

Computational Geometry Provides Indirect Evidence of Dark Matter Location in Cosmic Structures

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Shela Ramanna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The elusive dark matter is the best candidate in order to explain gravitational effects such as, for example, the motion of stars in galaxies. We introduce a novel method for the measurement of information in cosmic images called maximal nucleus clustering (MNC) i.e., nucleus clustering’s Rényi entropy derived from strong proximities in feature-based Voronoï tessellations. MNC is a novel, fast and inexpensive image-analysis technique, independent from other detectable signals. It permits the assessment of changes in gradient orientation into zones of two-dimensional cosmic images that generally are not taken into account by other techniques. In order to evaluate the potential applications of MNC, we looked for the presence of MNC’s distinctive hallmarks in the plane surface of astronomic images. We found that Rényi entropy is higher in MNC areas of cosmic images than in the surrounding regions, and that these patterns are correlated with cosmic zones containing a lesser amount of dark energy. Therefore, computational geometry provides a bridge made of affine connexions and proximities between features of a two-dimensional pictures and physical features of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[987] viXra:1610.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 16:15:40

Using External Galactic Forces as an Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Scott S Neal
Comments: 13 Pages. 13 pgs.

It has been over 30 years since the first Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model was proposed as a way of describing Dark Matter, but as yet, there have been no experimental results that support CDM. CDM depends on the discovery of new non-baryonic particles not defined in the Standard Model as the source of the needed mass. Recently, final results from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, have failed to find any traces of these non-baryonic particles, and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has not detected any strong evidence of supersymmetry particles. With the lack of supporting experimental results for CDM or supersymmetry, it is time to examine other solutions that might explain Dark Matter without requiring any new particles to be detected. The current concept of Dark Matter assumes the undiscovered particles add an additional gravitational mass to the galaxy. Another solution to the galaxy rotation problem would be to assume there is some external force pressing in on the galaxies holding them together. This research shows how external gravitational forces on the galaxies can duplicate the galaxy rotation curves that have been observed, without any Dark Matter. It also offers an explanation for the acceleration constant a_0, that results from the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theory of galaxy dynamics. The results show that a model using an external galactic force is a valid approach to explain the effect known as Dark Matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[986] viXra:1610.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 10:52:52

Proof for HST WFC3 Uvis and ir Channel Njy Measurements Are Wrong

Authors: B. Ravi Sankar
Comments: 7 Pages. This is related Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 camera.

The context of the paper is related to the flux density of the order of nJy reported in recent papers. The aim is to prove that the reported flux density of the order of nJy is wrong. A new table for both IR and UVIS channel of the HST/WFC3 is created of the order of flux density mJy. This table should be used as a template for future projects related to HST/WFC3. Any new measurements below mJy (reported in the table) should be rejected for obvious reasons reported in this paper. Due to the advent of algorithms and digital computing technology, these errors are possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[985] viXra:1610.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-03 07:44:35

Planet Formation Theories in the Age of Statistically Insignificant Data

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Planet formation theories were invented before any statistically significant data was obtained. This is made apparent because before the 1980’s, there was only one solar system, our own. This issue will be addressed in simple terms.
Category: Astrophysics

[984] viXra:1609.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 07:45:49

Laws of Orbital Semimajor Axes and Periods, and Their Application in 5-Planet Systems

Authors: G. P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in 5-planet systems, and prove the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20, Kepler-102, Kepler-122, Kepler-154, Kepler-238, Kepler-55, Kepler-84, and HIP 41378’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. Point out the possible mistakes in papers about Kepler-186.
Category: Astrophysics

[983] viXra:1609.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 03:32:35

Dark Energy: a Partial, Preponderant or Complete Illusion Evidenced by the Redshift Anomaly Which Occurs Due to Non Doppler Redshifts Caused by Strengthening Gravitational Wells

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: Pages. Correction: when I refer to "doppler affect", I am also referring to the cosmological redshift

The redshift anomaly is key to understanding dark energy. Unfortunately anomalous redshifts have largely been ignored and require further study. "If we find in observation that the Hubble redshift relationship is subject to notable exceptions, which certainly appears to be the case, it is to be hoped that they would attract careful scrutiny. Just one such exception, reasonably verified, would suffice to cast doubt upon the reliability of redshift/distance theory, with far reaching consequences for astrophysics" (Ratcliffe H., 2010, Journal of Cosmology). This paper will explain the cause of the redshift anomaly and then apply the newfound knowledge to the galaxies in the observable universe. NGC 7603 is one example of a redshift anomaly with a discordant redshift system. The objects in the system that have high-z values are in the process of gaining/accreting mass at a high rate relative to their companions at time of observation which causes the anomaly. Applying this knowledge to galactic objects, as matter condenses, the gravity well will "deepen" or strengthen which has the effect of red shifting photons in accordance with the gravity well's rate of strengthening. Thus the observed redshift of any galaxy isn't solely based on the Doppler effect but also the rate of change of the galaxy's gravitational well. The further the look back time, the younger the galaxy is, the faster its mass is increasing, the faster its gravity well is strengthening, the higher the z-value observed will be. The implications of this interpretation is dark energy is either non existent or is overestimated when the proposed phenomenon isn't taken into account when measuring z-values. It is also plausible the universe is static or contracting while still retaining higher redshifts the further we look due to the nature of the look back time. Conversely, when an object is in the process of losing mass, its gravity well shallows which blue shifts photons. Numerous observations that support the hypothesis are provided in the paper. Several tests to prove the hypothesis are described also.
Category: Astrophysics

[982] viXra:1609.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 12:05:28

Stellar Evolution and Planet Formation are Mass Loss Phenomenon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A logical proof is provided to prove that planet formation is a mass loss phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[981] viXra:1609.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 18:58:44

Laws of Orbital Semimajor Axes and Periods of Exoplanets, and Their Application

Authors: G.P. Zhang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in extrasolar multi-planets systems, and discover the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20 and Kepler-102’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. The strong stellar wind near the stars pushed them away to their present orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[980] viXra:1609.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 13:33:58

Killer Electrons in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

New findings by a UCLA-led international team of researchers answer a fundamental question about our space environment and will help scientists develop methods to protect valuable telecommunication and navigation satellites. [12] A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[979] viXra:1609.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 08:41:24

New Physics Elements in the Quantum Function Follows Form Model.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 18 Pages. 18

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. In Quantum Function Follows FormModel, the Higgs is interpreted as a massless transformer particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merge with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots. What are the main differences with the standard model? 1, A Fermion repelling- and producing electric dark matter black hole. 2, An electric dark matter black hole splitting Big Bang with a 12x distant symmetric instant entangled raspberry multiverse result, each with copy Lyman Alpha forests. 3, Fermions are real propeller shaped rigid convertible strings with dual spin and also instant multiverse entanglement ( Charge Parity symmetric) . 4, The vacuum is a dense tetrahedral shaped lattice with dual oscillating massless Higgs particles ( dark energy). 5, All particles have consciousness by their instant entanglement relation between 12 copy universes, however, humans have about 500 m.sec retardation to veto an act. ( Benjamin Libet)
Category: Astrophysics

[978] viXra:1609.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 20:12:14

Why Young Stars are So Big and a Hypothesis for CMEs

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that since stars are not hot enough to engage fusion reactions, it is reasoned that electrostatic pressure from extremely ionized stars makes them really large.
Category: Astrophysics

[977] viXra:1609.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 01:59:35

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Reason of the Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of the Earth the Hypothesis of the Reason of a Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cloak and Bark is Made

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the reason of a polarity reversal of magnetic field of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cloak and bark is made
Category: Astrophysics

[976] viXra:1609.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 08:34:28

Universe Has no Direction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[975] viXra:1609.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 21:14:36

Lithium Abundance to Determine Future Size of Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new idea is presented to try and predict the future size of stars as they cool and solidify into solid worlds many billions of years into their metamorphosis, by utilizing the abundances of lithium.
Category: Astrophysics

[974] viXra:1609.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 06:34:03

Космологическое красное смещение.The Cosmological Red Shift.

Authors: Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich
Comments: 6 Pages.

Аннотация: В статье изложен другой взгляд на наличие фраунгоферовых линий в спектрах, что в корне меняет представление о межгалактическом космологическом красном смещении. Ключевые слова: спектр, излучение, галактики, красное Abstract: the article outlines a different view of the existence of Fraunhofer's lines in the spectra that radically changes the picture of the intergalactic cosmological redshift. Key words: spectrum, radiation, galaxy, red
Category: Astrophysics

[973] viXra:1609.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 22:01:54

The Observer Effect

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 26 Pages.

This paper discusses how an observer, when properly defined, can lead to a different interpretation of the universe by providing a way to connect General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. First, this was used to investigate the mass of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the result suggests that dark matter does not exist. Then, Hubble's Law was examined, and we were led to the same conclusion, i.e., dark energy does not exist. Finally, the linkage of quantum mechanics and relativity provides another explanation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and casts doubt on the Big Bang theory. All of these observations and conclusions were made possible by examining the philosophical foundation provided by a better understanding of how intelligent life forms make sense of the physical world. First, we discuss the intelligent life forms that are responsible for all observations and theories related to the universe. With this new understanding of ourselves, from a physics perspective, a philosophy emerges that alters our understanding of space and time. A theory is developed on this philosophical foundation that provides a way to connect the background dependence of quantum mechanics and the background independence of general relativity.
Category: Astrophysics

[972] viXra:1609.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 19:10:20

Supernovae Are Young Stars that Have Popped

Authors: Baz J. Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Images taken from http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2016/g11/

This paper proposes that Supernovae are the remnants of young stars that have expanded and ‘popped’.
Category: Astrophysics

[971] viXra:1609.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:59:00

Redshift Anomalies Are Key to Understanding Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Black Holes and the Unobservable Universe.

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: Pages.

A galaxy's redshift is not related to the Hubble velocity alone. Numerous redshift anomalies have been detected which suggest this. This papers goal is to explain the nature of these redshifts. Redshift anomalies in Quasars with a high-z, binary galaxies with a mass gaining companion with a discordant high-z, and the furthest galaxies with high-z values all have a similar trait, their mass is increasing at a high rate at time of observation. This paper proposes that when an objects gravity well is in the process of strengthening (by gaining mass), the light observed during its gravity well strengthening phase is redshifted accordingly. I provide numerous observations of objects that are closer than their high z values places them under current interpretation that support the hypothesis. The greater the look back time, the younger the galaxy, the younger the galaxy when observed, the faster its gravity well is strengthening. The faster a gravity well is figuratively deepening, the further photons will be stretched that traverse and depart the morphing gravity well. The implications of this phenomenon have one of three outcomes for the nature of the observable universe. A. the universe is not expanding as fast as estimated. B. the universe is static (redshifts will still appear higher the farther we look). C. the universe is contracting (the redshifts still appear higher the farther we look). The redshift anomaly can help us understand dark matter also. Z total = the affects of (change in GW well of the observable universe) + (change in GW of Milky Way) + (change in GW of observed galaxy) + (Velocity of observed galaxy). The paper contains numerous tests that may prove the hypothesis presented. To not even glance at these redshift anomalies because they don't agree with today's model of measuring expansion is just preventing advancement in the field, halting future discoveries. Correction: (Obs. 2) Here, object 2 (z=0.243) and Object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining mass from their surroundings. Object 3 (z=0.391) has a higher z than object 2 (z=0.243) because object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining a higher rate of mass relative to its own size than object 2 (still both are gaining mass from the bridge). Object 1 (z=0.057) has a higher z value than NGC 7603 (z=0.029), which may mean object 1 (z=0.057) is gaining mass from NGC 7603 (z=0.029) through the arm connecting them.
Category: Astrophysics

[970] viXra:1609.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 20:14:01

1Determining the Ages of Stars Mathematically Using Luminosity

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars exhibit exponential decay. A simple mathematical relationship based off luminosity as compared to the Sun is given so that stars can have their ages determined. This paper is up for continued revision, as it only serves as a starting point to develop stellar metamorphosis in a mathematical sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[969] viXra:1609.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 07:42:26

Determining the Ages of Stars Mathematically Using Luminosity

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars exhibit exponential decay. A simple mathematical relationship based off luminosity as compared to the Sun is given so that stars can have their ages determined. This paper is up for continued revision, as it only serves as a starting point to develop stellar metamorphosis in a mathematical sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[968] viXra:1609.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 11:49:19

Dark Matter as Power of Gravitational Field for MW VS M31. Two Similar Laws

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 24 Pages.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about non baryonic dark matter nature, which was published by the author in [1] Abarca,M.2014. [3] Abarca,M.2015. [8] Abarca,M.2016. [ 11] Abarca,M.2016 and others papers. It was postulated that non baryonic dark matter density depend on E, gravitational field, through a power of E as a Universal law. In order to check this theory in this paper will be studied DM density in halo region of MW and M31. Throughout the paper, DM refers to Non Baryonic DM. Briefly will be described paper procedure. In third chapter are introduced rotation curves of MW, [5] Huang,Y.2016, and M31, [13] Sofue, Y.2015. It is fitted a power regression for velocity depending on radius in halo of both galaxies. Formula is v = a• R^b. In fourth chapter it is deduced mathematically a DM density profile for MW & M31 in halo region. This new profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression velocity depending on radius. In fifth chapter is found a new DM density as power of E, which is mathematically equivalent to Direct DM density. Its formula is DM density = A• E^B. Where A & B are coefficients which depend on a & b, coefficients of velocity power regression in rotation curve. Also are calculated A&B for MW and M31. Finally it is explained that hypothesis of DM depending on gravitational field as Universal law allows enlarge dominion DM as power E for radius inside disc and radius bigger than dominion measures. In sixth chapter, according theory of DM generated by gravitational field, is defined galactic halo as region where own gravitational field dominates over neighbour gravitational field. Through this criterion is found halo MW = 310 kpc and halo M31 = 460 kpc. The seventh is a crucial chapter, because it is successfully compared DM as power E in MW & M31. Both formulas are compared and relative differences throughout dominion of E are below 14 %. Agreement of both functions is the main evidence about DM power E as Universal law. In eighth chapter is compared DM density as power E with NFW profile given by author of rotation curve in his paper. [5] Huang,Y.2016. NFW density is bigger than DM power E throughout all dominion, and relative differences oscillate between 34% and 13%. Such remarkable differences will be properly justified. In ninth chapter is calculated total mass through NFW profile and dynamical method. Mass through NFW profile is bigger than through dynamical method. Difference might be explained by the same reason given in previous chapter. In tenth chapter is calculated Local DM density through DM power E profile, which gives 0,16 GeV/cm^3 and is compared with same magnitude given by [5] Huang,Y.2016, which is 0,32 GeV/cm^3. It is defended that there is not contradiction between both data because the first profile gives Non Baryonic DM only, whereas experimental data measure Baryonic and non Baryonic DM. It is concluded three main ideas which will be properly justified in following pages. The first one is that there are strong evidences about that fraction of Baryonic DM vs Non Baryonic DM inside bulge and galactic disc is bigger than the same fraction inside halo. The second one is DM generated by gravitational field theory leads rightly a new definition for halo radius. According this theory are calculated halo radius MW equal to 310 kpc and halo radius M31 equal to 460 kpc. The third one is that there are strong evidences that non baryonic DM density is generated by gravitational field as a Universal law. Main reason to support this hypothesis is got in chapter seventh.
Category: Astrophysics

[967] viXra:1609.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-14 13:47:05

Dark Matter with Supermaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Superconducting aluminum or superfluid helium could be used to detect superlight dark matter particles. [14] Technological advances are ushering in a new era of understanding in the search for fundamental physical particles-including dark matter-scientists will tell a public event. [13] The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved the detector's sensitivity. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[966] viXra:1609.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 16:48:59

Some of the Consequences of the Entropic Relativistic Dark Matter

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

The objective of this article is to draw some important consequences of the theory of the entropic relativistic dark matter (GEST) which the weak fields approximation (SWFA) is a model. There will be shown the derivation of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship, the derivation of a new form of frequency shift, the intrinsic shift, and the distribution curve of the dark mass (matter). These theoretical extensions may help to understand the inexplicable experimental errors in the calculation of the Hubble constant and the problem of the creation and the stabilization of galactic disks. Moreover, since the exposed dark matter field is probably the BEHHGK field, the implications of the calculation of the distribution curve goes far beyond the field of astrophysics.
Category: Astrophysics

[965] viXra:1609.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 22:13:24

7 Evidences of Periodic Bursts of Stars and Planets in Their Youth

Authors: Guiping Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Based on the idea of Fred Hoyle that matter burst from the Sun formed planets, raise the theory of periodic bursts of stars and planets in their youth and provide a simple self-consistent model to explain many facts of the solar system and other planetary systems. Prove the theory with 7 evidences. First, the recently confirmed hot Jupiter V 830 Tau b orbiting a 2-Myr-old solar-mass T Tauri star was born from the burst of the star. Second, the similarity and differences of the architectures of the planetary system of Kepler-90 and the solar system was explained systematically. Third, the composition and low mean densities of the jovian planets which are similar to that of the Sun mean that they were once parts of the Sun. Fourth, parent bodies of meteorites from asteroids cooled down and solidified without or with differentiation from the temperature of the photosphere of the Sun. Fifth, widespread liquid water and valley networks on Mars about 3.7 Ga ago mean Mars was at the present orbit of the Earth or closer to the Sun at that time. Sixth, ancient rocks of the Earth and the Moon recorded solar wind 10 million times stronger than it is now. Seventh, regular satellites were products of bursts of planets in their youth.
Category: Astrophysics

[964] viXra:1609.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 20:55:54

Dynamic Universe Model: Sita Software Simplified

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 220 Pages. Book3 of Dynamic Universe Model... ISBN 978-3-639-36469-9

With this Book, we have provided a CD or downloadable software in the e-book which has the simplified version of SITA software. Otherwise anyone can contact the author at snp.gupta@gmail.com Anyone with very limited knowledge in Physics and Microsoft Excel can try hands on with this software. This SITA software is developed for the singularity free solution to N-body problem – Dynamic Universe Model; which is, inter body collision free and dynamically stable. Basically this is a “how to go about” for using the SITA software. SITA solution can be used in many places like presently unsolved applications like Pioneer anomaly at the Solar system level, Missing mass due to Star circular velocities and Galaxy disk formation at Galaxy level etc. This is the third book, after the earlier books, 1) “Dynamic Universe Model- a singularity free N-body problem solution” (ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1), and 2) Dynamic Universe Model- SITA singularity free software (978-3-639-33501-9) Here in this book a subset of SITA (Simulation of Inter-intra-Galaxy Tautness and Attraction forces) computer implementation Excel program software about 3000 equations are explained with usage out of all the 21000 equations used in the second book. Provision for a lot of modifications exists in the SITA program to tune to individual needs. This book is prepared in such a way it can be read independently of the first two books.
Category: Astrophysics

[963] viXra:1609.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 15:56:10

Dynamic Universe Model :sita Singularity Free Software

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 268 Pages. This is Book2 is published in Germany ISBN 978-3-639-33501-9

In this monograph,all the equations of SITA software are explained for the singularity free solution to N-body problem – Dynamic Universe Model; which is, inter body collision free and dynamically stable are presented. SITA solution can be used in many places like presently unsolved applications like Pioneer anomaly at the Solar system level, Missing mass due to Star circular velocities and Galaxy disk formation at Galaxy level etc. This is the second book, after the earlier book, “Dynamic Universe Model- a singularity free N-body problem solution” (ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1). Here SITA (Simulation of Inter-intra-Galaxy Tautness and Attraction forces) computer implementation Excel program software and its methodology and all the 21000 equations used there are explained in detail. One COPY OF SITA COPYRIGHTED SOFTWARE WILL SENT FREE OF COST BY CONTACTING THE AUTHOR AT ‘snp.gupta@gmail.com’ Provision for a lot of modifications exists in the program to tune to individual needs. This book is prepared in such a way it can be read independently of the first book
Category: Astrophysics

[962] viXra:1609.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 19:13:01

Dynamic Universe Model: a Singularity Free N-Body Problem Solution

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 120 Pages. This Book was published in Germany ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1

The failure to arrive at a singularity free solution for a general N-body problem for nearly 300 years has led people to treat this case of N-body simulations as being very turbulent. But I would like to reiterate and say that there is no reason for chaos here in Dynamic Universe Model. I am able to say this confidently after having worked on this Model for the last 18 years and creating 100,000 simulations using this SITA algorithm. The trick here is to follow the law of Newtonian Gravitation fully without any deviation to calculate the Universal Gravitational force (UGF) on each mass. Other N-body simulations either deviated from this law or did not calculate UGF. Apprehensions abound in any new field. As pointed earlier, my work in the last 18 years has given me enough confidence and I can say that the solution proposed hereunder will work almost in any physical situation and explain all the anomalies which arose due to the earlier theories. I can prove the working of the algorithm to any technical team. Many people asked me the reason for selecting 133 masses. There are many reasons for this ‘why133 masses?’ question. It was in the beginning of the 1990’s that the Dynamic Universal Model project began. The common man had minimal access to computers during this period in India. Processor 8088 prevailed. PC with two floppy drives was becoming redundant and was being slowly replaced by the hard drive. This resulted in limitations to data handling capacity. Computers used to take a few hours to calculate something like 50 iterations. Today, these iterations can be done in 8 to 10 minutes with a five – year old laptop. The Milkyway, our Galaxy has 1011 Stars approximately with number of planets being an additional 10 times. Estimated number of dwarf planets would be 1000 times the number of planets, say about to 1015. Chunks of planets and asteroids may be a million times the number of planets, say about 1018. All these figures are on the lower side. Hence, about 1019 masses and their positional data is required to simulate a Galaxy. The total number of masses required to simulate would be about 1025 to 1028. Is there any Super computer on Earth, which can handle such huge amount of data, today? Do we have all such data to feed the computer? May be 133 masses are too less a number to begin a simulation. However, even 3 body problem is not simple to solve directly with the usual differential equations method. Even if we create a simulation with a million or 10 million masses, it will approximately be 1020 less than what is required for simulating the universe. My resources being limited and having no access to higher computers, the best I can do is testing this SITA algorithm of Dynamic Universe model for the various situations within the available resources and time. I have carried out this work out of my own interest and have not sought any Government or University funding for the same. I came up with the Dynamic Universe Model after 18 years after much effort and hard work. The Model uses Newtonian Gravitation for calculating the resultant Universal Gravitational force on every mass. No special assumptions have been made for arriving at the Model. In those days I did not think of lower side at all like N=2,3 4..etc. What I was aiming is to accommodate as many numbers of masses as possible. I did not take it in the way of mathematical induction process, i.e., if it is true for n=2, and n=3, then test for n and n+1. I have no way of testing that approach. People asked me why I worked with only 133 masses. The SITA simulations can be done with higher number of masses on any Supercomputer provided funds and resources are available. I have successfully tested the SITA solution for 2, 3, 4, 133, 25000 point masses. I am sure we can arrive at the same results when tried with higher masses also. Now I can say, this Dynamic Universe model is no more a fantasy, but it is reality …………..
Category: Astrophysics

[961] viXra:1609.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 14:07:25

The Electrodynamic Algorithms of Core of Stars and Black Holes

Authors: Alexandris G Nikos
Comments: 7 Pages.

The prediction of the magnetic field of Sgr A* by the algorithm of a star's core rotation is presented in my book “Modified Hawking field” 2010 .In the present article we can see the way .We can calculate the electrodynamic parameters of the nucleus of stars and black holes like Sgr A*
Category: Astrophysics

[960] viXra:1609.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 12:45:24

Blue and Red Shifted Galaxies Are Resulted Due to Frequency Shifting in Electromagnetic Radiation Near Gravitating Masses in Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 11 Pages.

According to General theory of relativity the frequency shift in electro-magnetic (EM) radiation close to a gravitating mass happens in one direction only, but in accordance with Dynamic Universe Model this frequency shift happens on both the sides of spectrum. Here we will derive the results using general Physics and Mathematics that changes the frequency of electromagnetic radiation passing near a moving gravitating mass. The frequency of the radiation will increase (Red shifted) when the relative movement of the gravitating body is in opposite direction to EM radiation and the frequency will reduce when in same direction (Blue shifted).
Category: Astrophysics

[959] viXra:1609.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 07:59:30

On Existence of Gravitational Repulsion Forces

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 10 Pages.

The article substantiates a new standpoint on origin and nature of the forces causing an accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this standpoint the Newton’s gravitational theory describing only pairwise interactions and recognizing only attraction forces needs a generalization. Such a generalization made in the article on the basis of energodynamics as a unified theory of transport and the transformation processes of all forms of energy. Herein the existence of gravitational repulsion forces in the non-baryonic matter of the Universe is substantiated, which makes superfluous introducing the dark energy as a hypothetical medium under negative pressure. At the same time the generalized theory of gravitation predicts existence of strong and weak gravitation, zones of stable and unstable gravitational equilibrium, standing and running gravitational waves, as well as huge stores of free gravitational energy available and ready to be used. The latest results of astronomical observations are also presented as verifying the concept proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

[958] viXra:1609.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 08:31:43

Great Age Cosmology #3

Authors: Allen Graycek
Comments: 3 Pages.

Extending from galaxies are huge halos of gas and dust, much larger than previously thought. Mass estimates of these halos indicate a mass about equal to the galaxy’s stars. Material type verifies these halos to be the exudate of the galaxy’s supernovae (SNs). It is known stars that explode give considerable force and speed to the gas and dust they blow off. The rate of SNs when searched for was found to be very low. Simple calculations using this data results in a very great age for a Milky Way size galaxy and provides answers to current research on mysteries such as dark matter. It is known it takes trillions of years for stars to cool down, and once cool they would emit millions of times less heat, and no light. They might be IR detectable within a few light years from us.
Category: Astrophysics

[957] viXra:1609.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 10:12:32

Dwarf Galaxies with Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries of dwarf galaxies has to do with dark matter, which is why scientists are so fascinated by them. [17] Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[956] viXra:1609.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 03:46:54

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. How the Mother Earth "BECAME POPULATED" "Settling" of Earth Began with Poles. the General Cold Snap is Inevitable.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

"Settling" of Earth began with poles. The general cold snap is inevitable.
Category: Astrophysics

[955] viXra:1609.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 03:42:13

Two New Dark Matter Density Profiles for Milky Way Halo Got from Rotation Curve

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of Milky Way, MW hereafter, and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. The first is called direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in halo rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. In fact this function got by power regression has a correlation coefficient of 0,85. The second one, DM density as power of E, E is gravitational field, has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, where it has been used to study DM in several galaxies. It is called as power of E because DM density depend on E as a power function. Hypothesis which is the basis of theory is that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside MW halo. These data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. In addition it is got a power regression for rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b getting a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,85. In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression function got in chapter three. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that a power regression function for rotation curve is mathematically equivalent that DM density depend on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of rotation curve). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 44 kpc ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 2% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. The seventh is a short chapter where is compared direct DM density got with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Relative differences between both density profiles are under 25% inside main part of halo dominion. In addition it is explained why NFW profile is bigger than direct DM throughout dominion. Eighth chapter, called Masses in Milky Way, is dedicated to calculate masses through dynamical method and NFW profile. In addition both methods are compared at different radius. Results show that relative differences of masses are under 20% inside main part of radius dominion. In ninth chapter is compared DM density as power E in MW with DM density as power E in M31, which was published in [ 11] Abarca,M.2016. Results show that at a specific E, both DM densities are very similar. Relative differences are under 15 % inside main part of dominion. This fact support strongly author hypothesis about DM as power of E as Universal law. In tenth chapter, it is introduced a new definition for halo radius. According theory DM generated by gravitational field, it is right to definite halo as region where gravitational field dominate over gravitational field of galactic neighbour. So it is calculated that halo radius for MW is 292 kpc and halo radius for M31 is 478 kpc. Also are calculated total masses which belong these new radius and it is calculated new ratio baryonic mass vs total mass. Such ratio is 18% for MW and 8 % for M31.
Category: Astrophysics

[954] viXra:1609.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-05 20:51:13

The Radiometric Dating Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stellar evolution is planet formation, a star is a young planet and a planet is an ancient star, they are the same objects. Therefore a complete reinterpretation of isotopic abundances of radioactive elements needs to be done. A simple principle is presented to guide future physicists away from the false nebular hypothesis and all of its modern variants, and towards a new theory of stellar evolution/planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[953] viXra:1609.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 19:18:52

The Cementation Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustration

In stellar metamorphosis the majority of the cementation of rocks and minerals in the newly forming crust occurs during the transition of early stage ocean worlds and worlds with exposed rocky surfaces similar to the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[952] viXra:1609.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-04 01:49:32

Does Dark Matter Replaces Ether?

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 8 Pages.

Substantiates the concept, according to which all forms of matter in the universe formed from a single "protomatter", which was previously called ether, and now - dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[951] viXra:1609.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 09:36:01

Two New Dark Matter Density Profiles for M31 Halo Got from Rotation Curve

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 20 Pages. Direct DM density profile has been calculated directly from rotation curve of M31

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. The first is called direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. In fact galactic rotation curve inside M31 halo has a power regression of velocity depending on radius with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,95 inside halo region. The second one, called Bernoulli profile has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, and others papers quoted in bibliography, where it has been used to study DM in several galaxies. It is called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. In addition A& B are similar for different galaxies on condition that galaxies are similar and giants, not dwarfs. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside M31 halo. These data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. In addition it is got a power regression for rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b getting a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,95. In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression function got in chapter three. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that a power regression function for rotation curve is mathematically equivalent that DM density depend on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of rotation curve). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc then ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. The seventh is a short chapter where is compared direct DM density got with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Relative differences between both density profiles are under 25% inside main part of halo dominion. In addition it is shown that NFW profile is bigger than direct DM through all dominion. In eighth chapter is got a Bernoulli differential equation for gravitational field. Hypothesis to state this equation is that DM density is a power function of gravitational field i.e. DM density = A• E^B. Solution for E allows to get Bernoulli density profile. In ninth chapter is demonstrated that Bernoulli profile is mathematically equivalent to direct DM profile. In tenth chapter has been got masses for M31 by direct DM and NFW profiles at different radius. Through whole dominion masses got by NFW are bigger than direct DM profile although relative difference between both profiles are under 25 %. In conclusion chapter will be pointed reason, which in author opinion, explain that NFW profile gives bigger values than direct DM profile.
Category: Astrophysics

[950] viXra:1609.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 08:21:52

X-ray Signal not from Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A mysterious X-ray signal from clusters of galaxies recently caused some excitement among astronomers: Does it perhaps originate from dark matter, which makes up around 80 percent of the matter in the universe, but which scientists have not yet been able to detect? In order to help answering this question, physicists at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg checked an alternative explanation. [15] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[949] viXra:1608.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 15:54:41

Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks, Charles F. Radley
Comments: Pages.

The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.
Category: Astrophysics

[948] viXra:1608.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 09:38:18

Hot Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[947] viXra:1608.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 12:27:16

The Energy Loss and Decai of Photons at Cosmological Distances

Authors: Pereverzev Vladimir
Comments: 10 Pages.

To date, accumulated a large number of observational data, which showed a loss of energy and decay photons at cosmological and intergalactic distances. This is evidenced by the folloving observational data: 1. Reduction of diameter of the elliptical galaxies with increase distance to them. The mass and age of the stellar population of galaxies with increasing distances to them do not change. In spiral galaxies with increasing distances to them are no longer observed portion of the spiral arms with low luminosity. The spiral arms seen as wispy at large distances. Spiral galaxies observed as irregular, anemic, diffuse at large distances. However, the diameter of spiral galaxies, for certain parts of the most striking, is not changed to the large distances. 2. The gradual reduction of the size structure of radio galaxies (their radio - emitting parts) at distances from z = 0 to z = 3. At distances greater then z = 3 radio-emitting structures are not observed. 3. With the increase in the distance to quasars have redused the length of jets. So, on z=1-2 jets length of about 100 kpc, and on z=4 - about 10 kpc. Although other parameters do not change or change slightly. 4. Reduced number of spiral galaxies with a bar, where increasing the distance to them. 5. The detection of very faint dwarf galaxies, in which the ratio of the mass-luminosity reaches 1000. Thet is, the stars in the shell of these galaxies are not observed. The reason for this is the loss of energy and decay of photons, because photons in the flow of a small power lose energy and decompose faster then photons in a higher power flows. 6. Powerful streams of photons from a gamma-ray bursts (GRB) raise the temperature of microwave background radiation. This fact confirms the reduction of photon energy loss in the power flovs. 8. Metallicity of galaxies decreases with increasing distances to the galaxies. However, if the flow of photons from the galaxy coincides with a stream of photons from the gamma-ray basts in this case does not decrease metallicity of galaxies. 9.Statistical analisis shows relationship thet galaxies with increasing their mass and luminosity deccreases the ratio of the mass-luminosity. This is due to a higher concentration of stars within the effective radius and visible radius of the massive (large) galaxies compared to galaxies of smaller mass. Terefore, the critical density of photons when they cease to be observed,move to the center of galaxies, if the mass of galaxies is reduced. The opening energy loss and decay of photons require an adjustment of the quantum and classical electrodinamics. Also, it would require to retarn to the model of a stationary universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[946] viXra:1608.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 14:42:26

The Failed Hypothesis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 105 Pages.

We – LIVING IN A STRANGE AND wonderful universe (WHOSE age, size, violence, and beauty require extraordinary imagination to appreciate) still discovering the fundamental laws of nature – regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit of the new picture of reality that is emerging as a result. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community (who can trace the roots of modern astronomy back to the ancient Greeks. Around 340 B. C) as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. who can work out the distances to nine different galaxies -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[945] viXra:1608.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:05:24

The Temperature Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper it is explained that stars’ surfaces cool as they evolve, therefore leading to a general principle of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[944] viXra:1608.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:39:44

The Crust Solidification Principle of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained another principle of foundational structure of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[943] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 04:19:30

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving an explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[942] viXra:1608.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 01:17:34

Dark Matter Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[941] viXra:1608.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 04:35:33

Fast Radio Bursts and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[940] viXra:1608.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 07:23:46

God Seems to Plays Dice with Dual Entangled Pinball Machines in a Super Symmetric (Susy) Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

In a SUSY (Super symmetric ) multiverse, God seems to plays dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us humans make decisions. Intelligent beings are lucky to became more time ( 0.5 sec.) to veto actions initiated by one of the other universes. As a result: the creation of "democratic free will" In Quantum FFF Theory it is assumed that each quantum is instant entangled with one or more dual Charge Parity (anti) symmetric copy particles present in opposing multiverse bubbles embedded in the so called raspberry shaped multiverse. Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. In addition, I found recently support for a multiverse related quantum experiment done by Giulia Rubino and Philip Walther of Institute for Quantum Optics Vienna as a strong indication, that not only for humans but also for “ dead” quanta a possible multiverse relation could be postulated. As a result we may say, that God seems to plays dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines (universal bubbles like ours) to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us make more or less conscious decisions.
Category: Astrophysics

[939] viXra:1608.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 12:02:20

Dynamic Universe Model Solves “Faster Than Light Neutrinos” Riddle

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. Additional supplimentary files are there

There are many instances that reported Superluminal neutrinos. Dynamic Universe Model explains the how and why of “Faster than Light Neutrinos” without any modification in its theory. Various instances like Astronomical jets, Gravitational catapult, MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy Neutrinos travelling faster than speed of light were recorded. There were 76 theoretical experiments conducted and their results are reported in this paper. These experiments were done between 2009 to 2011. Dynamic Universe Model theory was tested in explaining many anomalies in Physics. Dynamic Universe Model’s many predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[938] viXra:1608.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 19:38:38

The Sun is a Planet

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Masses, orbits and definitions of stars change as they evolve with us.
Category: Astrophysics

[937] viXra:1608.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 08:15:20

Neutrinos and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Three distinguished particle physicists have joined the lab over the past months to pursue research on two particularly mysterious forms of matter: neutrinos and dark matter. [10] New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave, which could explain why matter persists over antimatter. [9] Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Astrophysics

[936] viXra:1608.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-18 07:41:01

Three-body

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 1 Page.

The three-body problem Author:LeiGuanji contact:gaimotuanti@sina.com Abstract:The three-body problem maybe could be solved by studying the move orbit of the mass center.So I finished this paper to describe it. Background:There is many three-body system in our universe,but we don't have a theory to describe them. The context and purpose of the study:I want to describe the move of three-body's mass center. Results:Describing the motion of the three-body. The main findings:the motion of the three-body's mass center is law-abiding. Conclusions:the mass center is moving on a cone-curve. Brief summary and potential implications: maybe it will explain many three-body's moving in our universe. Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article For Research Article:The three-body problem,mass center,star's orbit. Abstract:The three-body problem is a very inportant question.We can't solve it used common math ways because we only study the move of star but not study the move of mass center.I want to describe the motion of mass center in this paper. Introduction:I want to explain the motion of the star by the motion of the mass center. Methods:math analyse,determent analyse,go to the 5-dimension space-time to observe Discussion and Results:   We all make a mistake of three-body problem:we only want to know the equation of the three stars,but not pay attention to the moving of the centre of mass.(we only discuss the star's movement in this paper)   The three stars A,B,C make up a triangle ABC,that define a plane surface ABC. 1、one star is moving   If there is a star A is moving and the other two star isn't moving,so there is a fix line segment BC.   If A has a speed not perpendicular to BC.Using the simple math inference,we could know that the centre of mass υ is moving on a ellipse orbit and the focus point of the ellipse K isn't moving. (A doesn't between BC if A on BC line) In the framework of the planar and circular Restricted Three-Body Problem, we consider an asteroid that orbits the Sun in quasi-satellite motion with a planet.[1] 2:there is two stars moving   If there is a star A is static,and other two star B and C all have a speed.We can see that the centre of mass of AB υ1 is moving on a ellipse orbit O1. The centre of mass of AC υ2 is moving on another ellipse orbit O2.If we make O1 and O2,we can get the orbit of the ABC's centre of mass.We could find that it is on a ellipse surface.(A doesn't between BC if A is on BC line) The case of the planar circular photogravitational restricted three-body problem where the more massive primary is an emitter of radiation is numerically investigated. A thorough numerical analysis takes place in the configuration(x,y)and the(x,C)space in which we classify initial conditions of orbits into three main categories: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) collisional. Our results reveal that the radiation pressure factor has a huge impact on the character of orbits. Interpreting the collisional motion as leaking in the phase space we related our results to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. We successfully located the escape as well as the collisional basins and we managed to correlate them with the corresponding escape and collision times. We hope our contribution to be useful for a further understanding of the escape and collision properties of motion in this interesting version of the restricted three-body problem.[2] 3:ABC is all moving(A doesn't between BC if A on the BC line.B doesn't between AC if B is on the AC line .C doesn't between AB if C is on theAB line)   We could find that the centre of mass of AB,AC and BC are all moving on a ellipse orbit.So the ABC's centre of mass is moving on a ellipse shape. 4:other If a star is between another two stars when it is on their line.We could know that it doesn't moving on a ellipse orbit but moving on a odd orbit,we also can resolve its orbit into three orbits.We could find a point on the orbits are a part of a ellipse like a point on the cone spiral is a part of a circle. The presence of mean-motion resonances (MMRs) in exoplanetary systems is a new exciting field of celestial mechanics which motivates us to consider this work to study the dynamical behaviour of exoplanetary systems by time evolution of the orbital elements of the planets. Mainly, we study the influence of planetary perturbations on semimajor axis and eccentricity. We identify (r 1):rMMR terms in the expression of disturbing function and obtain the perturbations from the truncated disturbing function. Using the expansion of the disturbing function of three-body problem and an analytical approach, we solve the equations of motion. The solution which is obtained analytically is compared with that of obtained by numerical method to validate our analytical result. In this work, we consider three exoplanetary systems namely Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11. We have plotted the evolution of the resonant angles and found that they librate around constant value. In view of this, our opinion is that two planets of each system Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11 are in 2:1, 4:3 and 5:4 mean motion.[3]   If we have those conclusions,we could get the analytical solution of the three-body problem.I think now I can give this question to human being to solve. Conclusions:The mass center of the three-body moving on a complex but law-abiding motion. Acknowledgements Thanks to all kind lives. References: [1]On the co-orbital motion in the Planar Restricted Three-Body Problem: the Quasi-satellite motion revisited Alexandre Pousse, Philippe Robutel, Alain Vienne arXiv:1603.06543 [2]、Astrophysics and Space Science November 2015,360:1 First online:01 October 2015 Euaggelos E. Zotos: Unveiling the influence of the radiation pressure in nature of orbits in the photogravitational restricted three-body problem [3]、Orbital Dynamics of Exoplanetary Systems Kepler-62, HD 200964 and Kepler-11 Rajib Mia, Badam Singh Kushvah Volume 459Issue 3July 01, 2016
Category: Astrophysics

[935] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 00:31:50

Black-Holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint regard to black-holes’ innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[934] viXra:1608.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-14 15:34:21

On a Global Relative Rotation of the Universe Around Earth Induced by it's Spin and the Outlines for a New Mechanism for Magnetic Fields Generation

Authors: Mutasim A. Ahmed
Comments: 18 Pages.

Although relative motion, in the special theory of relativity, can have true and verifiable results, at least for a particular observer, but we ignored it in the case of the rotation of Earth around it's own axis, my aim is to find a "resultant inertial rotation" ( resulting from the curved path due to gravity , and a circular path of an observer due to rotation, that is to claim that if the curvature of the observers circular path is same as the curvature produced by gravity, the motion will be perfectly inertial, otherwise there will be a resultant inertial motion, and for this "resultant inertial rotation" an observer can claim the state of rest while the whole observable Universe will be rotating relatively in the opposite direction, this relative Universal rotation will be displayed in conformity with the circular motion laws. I was able to find an equation to describe this type of rotation, and for very distant objects where Earth's orbit around Sun dwarfs to zero, so using this equation, and assuming that the secular aberration of light of distant cosmic objects, due to Sun's movement with it's peculiar velocity around the Galactic center, we assumed that will allow us to observe a component of the tangential velocity due to this Universal rotation, along our line of sight. It will be possible for us to explain the Hubble phenomenon, and predict a blue-shift on the other side of the sky mostly behind the zone of avoidance, hence we predict two points one with maximum red-shift and the other opposite to it with a maximum blue-shift, these two points will coincide with the CMB dipole, also we can show that the Hubble constant isn't a constant, and it's value depends on the aberration angle, therefore we can show that the great attractor, the Virgo in-fall, the CMB dipole, the dark energy, and the fingers of God theories and the likes are based on illusions, all the CMB anomalies detected by WMAP spacecraft and Planck, can be explained with ease, and the pioneer effect can also be explained, and the annual and diurnal variation of the effect can be accounted for naturally due to the dependence of the effect on the aberration angle, due to Earth's daily rotation and due to annual revolution of Earth around the Sun. Also it is possible using this rotation to find a universal mechanism for magnetic field generation, which can be applied for all cosmic objects from asteroids to magnetars and even galaxies, by simply assuming an excess in the positive charge due to protons over the negative one in deep space, therefore we will have a solenoid mechanism for magnetic field generation, but we will give only the outlines so other investigators can develop it further.
Category: Astrophysics

[933] viXra:1608.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 02:49:32

Fermi Expands Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Three studies published earlier this year, using six or more years of data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, have broadened the mission's dark matter hunt using some novel approaches. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[932] viXra:1608.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 05:50:31

Quelques Conséquences de la Matière Noire Entropique Relativiste

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

L'objectif de cet article est de tirer quelques conséquences importantes de la théorie de la matière noire entropique relativiste (GEST) dont l'approximation des champs faibles (SWFA) est un modèle. Il y sera exposé la dérivation de la relation de Tully-Fisher, la dérivation d'une nouvelle forme de décalage de fréquence, le décalage intrinsèque, et la courbe de distribution de la masse (matière) noire. Ces extensions théoriques permettront peut-être de comprendre les erreurs expérimentales inexplicables dans le calcul de la constante de Hubble et le problème de la création et de la stabilisation des disques galactiques. De plus, puisque le champ de matière noire exposé est probablement le champ BEHHGK, les implications du calcul de la courbe de distribution dépasse largement le domaine de l'astrophysique.
Category: Astrophysics

[931] viXra:1608.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 19:42:52

Kic 8462852 Intrinsic Variability

Authors: Fernando Martínez Isla
Comments: 5 Pages.

The light curve of KIC 8462852 in dips around day 1520 and 1570 shows features matching accurately its rotational period. Therefore the probable explication of this mysterious variability must be some phenomenon of the star itself. Intrinsic variability.
Category: Astrophysics

[930] viXra:1608.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 07:01:39

Modified Equations of Newtonian Dynamics (MEND) vs Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND)

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 6 Pages.

Asking the question: What if the Newtonian gravitational constant G, is inherently comprised of segmented values? Modified Equations of Newtonian Dynamics (MEND) as an alternative to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND), by postulating the Newtonian constant of gravitation G, as an aggregate of constants. A mechanism by which the galactic rotation curves could be explained by utilizing the segmented values of G. The sacrosanct doctrine of non-variability of G is preserved. The view is taken that the author of (MoND), Dr. Milgrom unwittingly stumbled upon the segmented values of the Newtonian constant of gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[929] viXra:1608.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 21:18:01

Plasma, Cosmic Noise, Heterodynes and Harmonics

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two parallel electromagnetic waves intermixing in a plasma will produce a new single wave that contains all the frequency attributes of the two original waves, plus sum and difference frequencies. To retain all the original attributes requires that the two mixing waves have the same polarity, are coplanar and collinear. The perfect alignment occurs in vacuum tubes and semi-conductor devices used to produce heterodynes. Any deviation from the perfect alignment will change the EM wave intermix process such that both EM waves are altered and they will continue on in their original direction of propagation.
Category: Astrophysics

[928] viXra:1608.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 10:06:19

The Charge Separation Principle of Stellar Birth According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The clouds that birth stars have to be completely ionized and have charge separation so that birthing can take place.
Category: Astrophysics

[927] viXra:1608.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 06:33:27

Quark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[926] viXra:1608.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 19:51:24

The Crust Ossification Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that in highly evolved rocky stars such as Earth, Venus or Mars, the crust thickens and hardens as it cools down from earlier stages of evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[925] viXra:1608.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 07:18:43

Thermodynamically Open Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that stars are thermodynamically open systems in their interface with outer space. Matter and energy can be exchanged freely.
Category: Astrophysics

[924] viXra:1608.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 08:41:21

Theory of Periodical Bursts of the Sun and the Planets

Authors: G.-P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Raise the theory of periodical bursts of the Sun and the planets. Point out that the Jovian planets, main-belt asteroids, and the terrestrial planets originated from periodical bursts of the Sun from 4.8 billion to 4.4 billion years ago. A large amount of objects from the last burst of the Sun caused the Late Heavy Bombardment. Point out that planets also burst periodically and their bursts gave birth to their regular satellites, and the rings of Jovian planets. Many facts of the solar system were systematically explained with the theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[923] viXra:1607.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 15:20:42

A Subatomic Replica of Our Solar System. Macrocosmos and Microcosmos. As Above! So Below! }

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we show that each planet and sun (star) has a mathematical subatomic twin. These planetary twin particles have exactly the same mathematical properties as their substantially larger twin planet or sun. From a planet's twin particle we get the planet's escape velocity, its solar deflection, and its red shift. If we arrange these solar system twin particles with their relative distances as our real solar system then they will, based on Newton's law of gravitation have the same orbital velocities as the true solar system. In other words, we have created a subatomic world that follows the laws of modern physics, thus becoming a replica of the Macrocosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[922] viXra:1607.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 15:44:54

The Vortex Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that a star/planet or star system in a disk configuration cannot be formed in a vortex according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[921] viXra:1607.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 08:57:24

Combining Physics Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Among the intriguing issues in plasma physics are those surrounding X-ray pulsars—collapsed stars that orbit around a cosmic companion and beam light at regular intervals, like lighthouses in the sky. Physicists want to know the strength of the magnetic field and density of the plasma that surrounds these pulsars, which can be millions of times greater than the density of plasma in stars like the sun. [12] In a lovely demonstration of light's quantum effects, physicists in the UK have just mixed a molecule with light at room temperature for the first time ever. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[920] viXra:1607.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-30 01:44:34

Star Forming Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

The scientists analyze the magnetic field strengths and show that, even in the least massive fragment the field is not strong enough to inhibit gravitational collapse. In fact, they find indications that gravity, as it pulls material inward, drags the magnetic field lines along. [7] Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars -- small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[919] viXra:1607.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 21:03:02

Stellar Age Delineation of Host and Companions

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that a companion star can not have its age determined simply by determining the age of its host.
Category: Astrophysics

[918] viXra:1607.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 05:07:54

Effective Field Theories

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Until now, theoretical physicists have used models based on a simple, abstract description of the interaction between dark matter and ordinary particles, such as the Effective Field Theories (EFTs). [14] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] “Call it the sound of dark matter,” says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it’s not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter’s deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron’s army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[917] viXra:1607.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 17:43:54

The Chemical Complexity Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper a simple principle is presented to connect the principle of biostellar evolution with the astrochemical principle in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[916] viXra:1607.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:37:48

Design and Prototyping of Life Support and Agriculture for Extended Space Habitation and Travel

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 16 Pages.

An experimental design is presented for a modular, reconfigurable multi-function platform that can be constructed in near-orbit or deep-space, for use in life support and emergency repair/reconstruction tasks within extended long-distance and long-duration space missions. This design is based upon a series of predecessor designs and deployments originating in applications ranging from emergency services to environmental monitoring and testing labs. The novelty in this “PodAtrium” architecture is the emphasis upon multi-functionality for structural components as well as internal apparatus including furnishings that are composed of basic elements that can be disassembled and reassembled as necessary and as demanded by the needs of a crew operating in isolation from any support craft or stationary habitation such as an exoplanetary base. Attention in the present phase of research and development has been upon the use of structural elements within a PodAtrium complex that can serve alternatively for a hydroponics-based greenhouse, a fuel-cell based power plant, and an asteroid mining operation, each of which could conceivably fulfill important roles at different times in the lifespan operations for a long-distance interstellar space vehicle with human crew onboard.
Category: Astrophysics

[915] viXra:1607.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 11:50:38

An Elementary Particle Pulsation Hypothesis Elucidates Real Nature of the Dark Energy.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 7 Pages.

An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis elucidates real nature of the dark energy. The Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle.  The complete table of contents. From the beginning, was filled with dark energy throughout the universe. Dark energy ripples formed cosmic large-scale structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[914] viXra:1607.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:22:58

The Gravichemical Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning stars ability to provide activation energy requirements for chemical reactions to take place during stellar evolution according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[913] viXra:1607.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 11:25:11

The Principle of Star Water Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning water formation on evolving stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[912] viXra:1607.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 17:00:55

A New Dark Matter Density Profile as Power of Gravitational Field for Coma Cluster

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 17 Pages.

For last two years I have published eight papers about DM on galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original profile called Bernoulli profile and check its results with other standard DM profiles such as NFW, Burket or Pseudo-Isothemal. Results on every galaxy checked have been successful. The importance these works is that Bernoulli profile is supported by an original hypothesis about Dark matter nature. This hypothesis stated that dark matter is generated locally by gravitational field according an unknown quantum mechanism. Now , in this paper Dark matter density in Coma cluster will be studied with the same method. Briefly is going to be explained the structure of this paper. Firstly are presented data Coma Cluster, which come from recent papers published in 2016. They are two couples of radius and mass enclosed by its sphere. Radius considered are R = 1.314 Mpc and Virial radius = 3.1 Mpc With only two couple of data is fitted NFW profile for Dark matter density in Coma cluster within an interval radius 1.314 Mpc to 3.1 Mpc. As DM through NFW profile gives an excessive amount of DM within halo up to 14 Mpc it has been introduced Bernoulli profile which is an original DM density profile developed by author, used successfully in several galaxies to study DM. According Chernin,A. 2013. Firstly are introduced concepts of gravitating mass, dark energy or anti gravitating mass and matter mass apart from its formula MG (R) = MM (R) + MDE (R) .Because at cluster halo scale dark energy are not negligible, so it has been considered Dark energy effect to calculate gravitating mass within Coma cluster halo up to 14 Mpc. Result got of gravitating mass within cluster halo up to 14 Mpc through DM calculated with Bernoulli profile differ only 8% regarding gravitating mass got by Diferio A. & Geller M.J. 1997 whereas gravitating mass got with NFW differ more than 600%.
Category: Astrophysics

[911] viXra:1607.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-21 07:21:58

LUX Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The LUX Dark Matter Experiment operates a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. It's location helps shield the detector from background radiation that could confound a dark matter signal. [18] To address this problem, physicists are working on developing ever more sensitive dark matter detectors. In a new paper, researchers have proposed a new type of dark matter detector made of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with zero resistance at ultracold temperatures—that may offer the highest sensitivity yet for detecting "superlight" dark matter. Superlight dark matter has a mass at the low end of the range of 1 keV (1000 electron volts) to 10 GeV, or in other words, up to a million times lighter than the proton. [17] Physicists believe that such dark matter is composed of (as yet undefined) elementary particles that stick together thanks to gravitational force. In a study recently published in EPJ C, scientists from the CRESST-II research project use the so-called phonon-light technique to detect dark matter. [16] A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15] Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[910] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 09:49:33

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. Comments welcome

The idea of ‘gravitational wave’ (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses a number of unsolved questions, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[909] viXra:1607.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:11:49

Dark Matter, the Correction to Newton's Law in a Disk

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 8 Pages.

The dark matter problem refers to the discrepancy between the galactic mass estimated from luminosity measurements of galaxies with a given mass-to-luminosity ratio and the galactic mass measured from the rotational speed of stars using the Newton’s law. Newton’s law fails when applied to a star in a spiral galaxy. The problem stems from the fact that Newton’s law is applicable to masses represented as points by their barycenter. As galactic spirals have shapes similar to a disk, we shall correct Newton’s law accordingly. We found that the Newton’s force exerted by the interior mass of a disk on an adjacent mass shall be multiplied by the coefficient η_disk estimated to be 7.44±0.83 at a 99% confidence level. The corrective coefficient for the gravitational force exerted by a homogeneous sphere at it’s surface is 1.00±0.01 at a 99% confidence level, meaning that Newton’s law is not modified for a spherical geometry. This result was proved long time ago by Newton in the shell theorem.
Category: Astrophysics

[908] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 04:22:35

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages. Research Note nr.RIC-MPM-160708

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[907] viXra:1607.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 11:25:48

Black Holes as Gates of Upper Universe for our Soul after the Death

Authors: Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir
Comments: 10 Pages.

This is the main issue of the present theory to relate the death of a human body to the so-called black holes. In this theory it is assumed that black holes are the gates to the upper universe, having tunnel-like path in singularity region,R_sc і, of imaginary or extra dimension. As a consequence of equation of motion for the Soul (the quantum end state of human’s body) in non-physical dimension of space-time, each individual’s Soul must cross through its specific black hole with imaginary singularity-radius of 2GMі/(c^2⁄α^(2D-8) ) when it leaves the physical body. Overall, the main objective of this article is to derive new equation for Black Hole’s singularity in which an individual Soul crosses through so tiny white tunnel, which is hidden into black hole’s singularity, to enter into other world.
Category: Astrophysics

[906] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-18 09:23:38

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 11 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s Principled Special Theory of Relativity states that a moving object will experience time running slower than a stationary object. I.e., it will experience dilated time. This has been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second, the question then becomes: Whose second? The Constructive Theory of Relativity defined here shows that light emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s second, not per Earth second. Light from celestial objects does not arrive at any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s velocity through space and its proximity to any gravitational mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[905] viXra:1607.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 15:40:52

The Principle of Young Galaxy Radiance

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 pictures

In stellar metamorphosis young galaxies can be spotted by observing bi-polar outflows in the radio frequencies. Galaxies are born all over the universe at any given time, the radio image on the second page provided by the MeerKAT shows a picture of them growing, many hundreds of them in one image.
Category: Astrophysics

[904] viXra:1607.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 13:58:58

Host and Companion Delineation in Celestial Systems

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the majority of transiting astrons such as KELT 17b around KELT-17, documentation accepted in online archives such as ArXiv still references the incorrect concepts concerning the perceived separation of planet and star. A reasonable correction for semantic purposes is provided, utilizing stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[903] viXra:1607.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 14:37:29

The Mass Independence and Dependence Principles of Stellar Formation and Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the recent paper, “KELT-17b: A Hot-Jupiter Transiting an A-Star in a Misaligned Orbit Detected with Doppler Tomography”, it is referenced that, “a sample of well characterized planets around massive stars is necessary to understand the mass-dependence of planet properties.” Two principles are provided to explain that mass-dependence attributed to formation processes is moot. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[902] viXra:1607.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 04:39:47

Neutrino Decoherence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[901] viXra:1607.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 12:49:26

Dark Energy Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

An international team of astronomers has created the largest ever three-dimensional map of distant galaxies in a bid to help them understand one of the most mysterious forces in the universe. [6] For years, physicists have attempted to explain dark energy - a mysterious influence that pushes space apart faster than gravity can pull the things in it together. But physics isn’t always about figuring out what things are. A lot of it is figuring out what things cause. And in a recent paper, a group of physicists asked this very question about dark energy, and found that in some cases, it might cause time to go forward. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[900] viXra:1607.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 18:50:41

Inside the Cosmic Dispersive Prism

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages.

The universe has the characteristics of a dispersive prism with areas having different indexes of refraction. A material with a varying index of refraction can have areas that produce magnification, reflection, refraction and alter other characteristics of electromagnetic waves over distance. Radio astronomers have identified that electromagnetic waves have to travel through extensive regions of plasma. The interaction of electromagnetic waves in a plasma can produce heterodyne products. These products can mimic redshift, blueshift and produce a prodigious amount of radio noise which can be referred to as cosmic static.
Category: Astrophysics

[899] viXra:1607.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 01:49:51

Physical Bases of Divine Creation of the Universe Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v., Nikitina N. N. the Description of Process of Creation of the First Day of the World and the List of Exclusive Hypotheses in the Field of the Cosmology and Astrophysics Concerni

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V., Nikitina N. N.
Comments: 1 Page.

The description of process of creation of the first day of the world and the list of exclusive hypotheses in the field of the cosmology and astrophysics concerning the Divine Universe
Category: Astrophysics

[898] viXra:1607.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-11 02:16:50

Yes there Will be Light! Nikitina N. N., Nikitin V. N. the Description of Process of Creation of the First Day of the World and the List of Exclusive Hypotheses in the Field of the Cosmology and Astrophysics Concerning the Divine Universe.

Authors: Nikitina N. N., Nikitin V. N.
Comments: 1 Page.

The description of process of creation of the first day of the world and the list of exclusive hypotheses in the field of the cosmology and astrophysics concerning the Divine Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[897] viXra:1607.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 16:24:14

The Astrophysical Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of human knowledge is presented to explain the structures that create life.
Category: Astrophysics

[896] viXra:1607.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 18:13:28

Core Before Crust Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar metamorphosis is presented to reposition the timeline of large solid structure formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[895] viXra:1607.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 20:39:15

The Principle of Planet Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A fundamental principle of nature is as follows concerning planet formation and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[894] viXra:1607.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 12:26:15

Quantum Thread Theory

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 15 Pages.

There is a high tension finest-filament-thread particle field in space .
Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing).
A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual thread lengths are approximately one Ångström).
Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web. If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a finest filament thread particle field)
The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"
The particle field threads have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is. If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'
Category: Astrophysics

[893] viXra:1607.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 17:11:47

The Singular Gravitationally Collapsing Object Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, a gravitationally collapsing object remains singular, and does not spawn multiple objects. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[892] viXra:1607.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 17:18:20

The Actual Size of Protoplanets in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, young stars are planets in their plasmatic state, meaning they are protoplanets. Establishment science has protoplanets as being smaller than the Moon, which is incorrect. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[891] viXra:1607.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 16:40:42

The Coherency Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar evolution is presented to clarify the idea of stars ejecting remains as they are born and evolve.
Category: Astrophysics

[890] viXra:1607.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 04:25:55

Gravitational Wave of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Gravitational waves communicate information in a wholly different medium than any type of radiation. What that means is that astronomers could use them to study things that were fundamentally invisible before. Black holes and dark matter come to mind as the most prominent examples of parts of the universe that are, at least, difficult to see with light. So, it can hardly be surprising, the controversy now swirling around the idea that the gravitational waves detected earlier this year, marking a watershed confirmation of Einstein's general relativity, could turn out to contain information on both of those topics. [1] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[889] viXra:1607.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 11:13:46

The Principle of Electromagnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that stars are electromagnetohydrodynamic structures when they are young, not hydrostatic as per nuclear models. A simple principle is given.
Category: Astrophysics

[888] viXra:1607.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 12:37:50

Pulse Detection Algorithms for SETI@home

Authors: Eric J. Korpela, Eric M. Heien, Dan Werthimer
Comments: 8 Pages. Korpela, E. J., Heien, E. M., and Werthimer, D., “Pulse Detection Algorithms for Use in SETI@home,” Bull. AAS 32, 1492 (Dec. 2000)

We describe the pulse detection algorithms used by the most recent versions of SETI@home. The first is a modified folding algorithm with an optimal threshold function. It is designed to efficiently search for repeating pulses over a 15+ octave period range with constant false alarm rate per period searched. This algorithm is potentially useful for other applications where detection of faint pulsed emission is desired (i.e. pulsar searches). The second is a triplet detector, which searches for sets of three evenly spaced pulses that exceed a power threshold. It is useful for detecting pulsed emission that has total duration less than the searched exposure. We describe the first results of the use of these algorithms in SETI@home and discuss the pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI) environment of the Arecibo observatory.
Category: Astrophysics

[887] viXra:1607.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 07:34:18

The Principle of Thermodynamic Phase Aging

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of stellar evolution is presented to clarify the age differences between rocky and plasmatic stars according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[886] viXra:1606.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 09:47:35

The Principle of Multiple Nebulas in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that the solar system formed from multiple nebulas, not a singular one. Explanation is given.
Category: Astrophysics

[885] viXra:1606.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 09:48:56

The Solar System Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

According to the Principle of Multiple nebulas inside of stellar metamorphosis theory, a new principle of solar systems is presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[884] viXra:1606.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 12:41:38

The Pressure and Time Principle of Rock/Mineral Formation in Outer Space

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of rock and mineral formation in outer space is presented according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[883] viXra:1606.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 10:07:47

Dark Matter Density on Big Galaxies Depend on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 28 Pages.

This paper contain results from six previous paper I have published for different galaxies about dark matter density depending on gravitational field. Galaxies studied are NGC 2841, NGC 7331, NGC 3992, M31. All of them are big galaxies bigger than Milky Way. In addition Milky Way was studied with data coming from two authors. Also were studied two intermediate galaxies M33 (Triangulum galaxy) and NGC 3198 Each paper studied dark matter density depending on gravitational field on each galaxy. Rotation curve and dark matter density function depending on radius were taken from paper published by prestigious astrophysics and I got dark matter density depending on gravitational field through a mathematical method. I found that Dark matter density depend on gravitational field according a power function DM density = A•E^B, where A and B are parameters which depend on each galaxy. In this paper are gathered eight different functions belonging to eight different galactic data set and they are tabulated and plotted in order to compare all of them. Conclusion got is that dark matter density depending on gravitational field is very similar on big galaxies whereas DM density is a great deal bigger on intermediate galaxies. The less massive galaxy is the higher DM density is. Results got for big and intermediate galaxies are consistent with author hypothesis which state that dark matter is generated by the own gravitational field.
Category: Astrophysics

[882] viXra:1606.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 17:00:22

The Principles of Volume and Surface Area in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that stars’ volume and surface area increase during stellar birthing then decrease during stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis, so two principles are provided to further clarify stellar evolution/planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[881] viXra:1606.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 15:44:14

The Plasma to Rock and Metal Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A principle of matter evolution is presented to further explain the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[880] viXra:1606.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 13:21:14

The Phase Transition Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of thermodynamic phases is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[879] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 04:27:02

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 2 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained qualitatively by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[878] viXra:1606.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 10:21:36

Science in Crisis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 228 Pages.

Abstract: General public regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[877] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 18:38:28

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 4 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravity Wave waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the Sun mass orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics

[876] viXra:1606.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 01:46:35

Supermassive Black Holes Jets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. [15] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[875] viXra:1606.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 14:41:19

LIGO find Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

When an astronomical observatory detected two black holes colliding in deep space, scientists celebrated confirmation of Einstein's prediction of gravitational waves. A team of astrophysicists wondered something else: Had the experiment found the "dark matter" that makes up most of the mass of the universe? [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[874] viXra:1606.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 15:42:27

The Stellar Foundation Structure Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

As stars evolve into stable rocky life hosting structures it is required to define the process of foundation structure formation with a simple principle according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[873] viXra:1606.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-17 22:27:04

The Laws of Hot Jupiters

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Five laws of hot Jupiters are given definition so that the reader can properly examine the validity and accuracy of establishment sciences’ claims according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[872] viXra:1606.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-16 11:55:45

Newton's Shell Theorem and the Deformation of Interacting Galaxies

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 3 Pages.

SUMMARY: On behalf of gravitational effects galaxies are usually considered as spheres. Is it correct to apply Newton's Shell Theorem to galaxies? Will interacting galaxies act like Newtonian spheres? There are exact astronomical observations to be compared with theoretic considerations. Newton's gravitation law is confirmed by a lot of observations of interacting galaxies, but there are severe objections against the validity of the Shell Theorem on behalf of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[871] viXra:1606.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 17:15:14

The Brightness Principle in Galaxy Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to connect stellar metamorphosis to galaxy growth and evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[870] viXra:1606.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 21:09:32

Magneton Theory Commentary Universe Mysteries -- 10. Photon Trajectory Bend Experiment

Authors: Huang Weixiong
Comments: 4 Pages.

Photon、dark matter、electromagnet wave conduction medium、cosmic dust, between them inner link is a urgent research major issues. Photon characteristics research is bear brunt. In 1919, British scientist Eddington organized a total solar eclipse big observation. Observed data confirm that photon trajectory is arc. From then on, opened the relativity era. Magneton Theory think, photon trajectory bend is photon spin and environmental magnet field combined action result. According to Magneton Theory, conceived a new experiment. This experimental results exact simple proved following conclusions: 1. In most cases, photon trajectory is arc. 2. Photon trajectory curvature radius inversely proportional to beam frequency. 3. Under special conditions, photon trajectory is straight line. 4. Photon trajectory bend has nothing to do with gravity. This experiment would prompt world to re-examine the relativity. This experiment will also open physical theory new era.
Category: Astrophysics

[869] viXra:1606.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-12 08:39:26

Gravitational Theory of Time

Authors: LeiGuanji
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is many experments to prove the relation between gravitation and time,and the entropy and time have a very close relation,so the gravitation maybe could be explained by entropy.And there is too many theories of gravitation like string theory.But we can't get any prediction which could be observed by experments. I have wrote that:"Only the physical quantity which we have (and will) observed by experments have the really physical significance[1]" in my another paqer “Some views of time trials for fundamental constants”.If we can't prove the string theory is right.It must be wrong,so we need a new theory about gravitation. The context and purpose of the study:I want to make up a new theory about gravitation which could be proved (even maybe it will be proved that it is wrong) by experments.The theory of relativity tell us that the pace of time's increasing and the gravitation have some very big relation.But the thermodynamics tell us that the time and entropy have very close relation.So maybe the gravitation have some effects about entropy.Now we observed many effects about dark mass,maybe them could be explained by entropy.I have finished this paper to explain the relation between the gravitation and time(entropy).We could get theose conclusions: 1,the quasar maybe could decay in one hundred years. 2,The expanansion of universe is speeding up and the vaccum energy is lower than zero point nergy. 3,the dark mass is around the galaxy. 4,the planck constant will change by the gravity.
Category: Astrophysics

[868] viXra:1606.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-07 17:38:15

The Principle of Heat Evolution in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle is presented to explain stellar evolution/planet formation in reference to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[867] viXra:1606.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 13:11:40

The Accretion Principle of Planet Formation and Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided to explain accretion in astrophysics according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[866] viXra:1606.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 13:55:31

The Death of the Nebular Hypothesis and Replacement with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is referenced that the nebular hypothesis was never actually invented to explain planet formation. It was used to try and place entire galaxies as local phenomenon (birthing solar systems) and keep the Milky Way as the entire universe. In this paper it is shown that not only is that hypothesis incorrect, but that it is effectively replaced as a means of planet formation and stellar evolution by the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[865] viXra:1606.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-01 11:54:19

A New Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way Which Depends on Gravitational Field

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 19 Pages. 19 pgs.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about dark matter nature, which was published by the author in previous papers. It was postulated it that dark matter density is a function which depend on E, gravitational field. Also were proposed several experimental test to check that theory. In this work has been calculated a new function for DM density for Milky Way. Reader could think, why disturb me with a new DM density profile, called Bernoulli profile in this paper, whose values have relative differences with NFW dark matter density profile below 15%? The reason is clear. This DM profile has been got starting from hypothesis that DM is generated by the own gravitational field. Therefore if DM Bernoulli profile fits perfectly to NFW DM density profile then it is possible conclude that observational data supports author´s hypothesis about DM nature. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [2] Abarca,M.2015. Dark matter density function depending on gravitational field as Universal law. [3] Abarca,M.2015. A new dark matter density profile for NGC 3198 galaxy to demonstrate that dark matter is generated by gravitational field. [4] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M33 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field. [5] Abarca, M.2016.A New Dark Matter Density Profile for M31 Galaxy to Demonstrate that Dark Matter is Generated by Gravitational Field and finally [7] Abarca, M.2016 A new Dark Matter Density Profile for Milky Way. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data about rotational velocity depending on radius inside Milky Way galaxy. These data come from [8] Huang,Y.2016. In fourth chapter, it has been calculated and tabulated gravitational field through Virial theorem, which is a direct calculus having velocity data depending on radius. In this paper, dominion of gravitational E extends from 26 kpc to 100 kpc. In fifth epigraphs it has been tabulated data of NFW DM density profile published by [8] Huang, Y.2016. for Milky Way. In sixth epigraph has been fitted data of NFW DM density profile as power of gravitational field, E, with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,999. Particularly formula found is DM density = A• E^B .Where A= 5.1085837 •10^-7 and B= 1.568156686 being regression coefficient r= 0.9886366654 into I.S. of units. In seventh epigraph it has been compared DM density as power of E and NFW profiles. Tables and plots show clearly that relative differences between both profiles are below 16% inside main part of dominion. In eighth epigraph it is considered derivative of gravitational field in halo region (26 to 100 kpc) where density of baryonic matter is negligible regarding DM density. As consequence M´(r)= 4Pi•r ^2•D.M Density and considering that Density of D.M = A•E^B then. M´(r) = 4Pi • r ^2 •A•E^B. If M´(r) is replaced on derivative of E (r) then it is got a Bernoulli differential equation whose solution allows to get a new DM density profile through formula of D.M = A•E^B. In ninth epigraph Bernoulli and NFW DM density profiles have been compared. Its relative differences are below 18% for radius lower than 70 kpc. This is a superb result, especially if it is considered that NFW profile come from calculus got through experimental data with important errors. In tenth epigraph are introduced a study of ancient and recent measures of local dark matter also it is calculated local dark matter through power of E formula. Finally it is concluded that the new one value of local dark matter is similar to local dark matter values published currently.
Category: Astrophysics

[864] viXra:1605.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-31 14:22:53

Nikolai Kozyrev Was Right

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

Simple calculation shows early cosmological thoughts of Nikolai Kozyrev (1908-1983) basically correct. A prediction about revolution speeds of Pistol star, Eta Carinae, Mira, Alpha Herculis, 119 Tauri and VY Canis Majoris has been made.
Category: Astrophysics

[863] viXra:1605.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-31 07:39:14

The Principle of Atmospheric Thinning

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new principle of science is presented to explain what happens to stars as they evolve.
Category: Astrophysics

[862] viXra:1605.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 10:04:38

Loop Quantum Gravity and Event Horizon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In principle, nothing that enters a black hole can leave the black hole. This has considerably complicated the study of these mysterious bodies, which generations of physicists have debated since 1916, when their existence was hypothesized as a direct consequence of Einstein's Theory of Relativity. There is, however, some consensus in the scientific community regarding black hole entropy—a measure of the inner disorder of a physical system—because its absence would violate the second law of thermodynamics. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[861] viXra:1605.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 11:55:33

Dark Matter is Made of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

"These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[860] viXra:1605.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 03:56:44

Circular Galactic Formation

Authors: Ivar Nielsen
Comments: 2 Pages.

The standing cosmological understanding of the galactic formation is insufficient. Both the Standard Model and the ideas derived from the Einsteinian hypothesis are inconsistent, contradictive and lacks natural logics. The linear cosmological model with the Big Bang almost demands skills of a mathemagician and all kinds of metaphysical speculations thrives in both areas. The natural and universal process of formation is cyclical, circuital and spherical and the formational process is governed by the electromagnetic forces and qualities, building everything together, dissolving it and re-building everything in eternity.
Category: Astrophysics

[859] viXra:1605.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 02:16:32

Shouldn't be at Mars of Secrets from us Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Atmosphere and Water of Mars Have Once Been Forced Out by an Unknown Comet to His Internal Area!

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The atmosphere and water of Mars have once been forced out by an unknown comet to his internal area!
Category: Astrophysics

[858] viXra:1605.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:57:25

Planetesimals in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned that the accepted notions of planetesimal formation are philosophically backwards. A simple correction of reasoning is provided via stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[436] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 18:14:53

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 2 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-positron & Proton-antiproton Event Horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[435] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-28 18:36:58

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to theory, Seeing within the electron-positron & proton-antiproton event horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[434] viXra:1611.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-23 09:42:58

Hexagonal Storm on Saturn \\ Шестиугольный шторм на Сатурне

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn. \\ На северном полюсе Сатурна уже более 30 лет существует гигантский шторм в форме шестиугольника, каждая сторона которого больше диаметра Земли. Этот шестиугольник не перемещается на планете, вращается и сохраняет свою форму. Это явление до сих пор не имеет объяснения. Ниже предлагается математическая модель такого шторма, аналогичная математической модели океанского водоворота (предложенной автором ранее). При этом показывается, что источником энергии, позволяющей шторму длительное время вращаться, является гравитационное поле Сатурна.
Category: Astrophysics

[433] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-28 11:07:56

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages. 30

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[432] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-16 11:17:25

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[431] viXra:1611.0187 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 12:42:02

Pioneer Anomaly as a Mass Accretion Phenomenon

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2015): Oct. 11, ‘Pioneer Anomaly as a Mass Accretion Phenomenon’, Oct. 10, Vol. 6(10) Article 18, PSTJ, pp.1015 − 1022. (ISBN: 1518674054; EAN13: 9781518674051)

We consider a possible scenario that we strongly believe has never been considered before in the quest to understand the origins of the Pioneer Anomaly (PA). If our investigation is anything to go by, then, perhaps we have made an omission in our application of Newton's second to the spacecrafts. That is – in the region 20 − 70 AU (and perhaps beyond), there may very well be an Interplanetary Medium (IPM) through which the spacecrafts ac-crete mass as they swim through it. If this simple idea is correct description of physical and natural reality, then, we find that the accretion rate of the spacecrafts required to account for the PA is ∼ 6.00 × 10 −4 kgyr −1. Additionally, we find that in-order to explain the non-existence of the PA in the region (1 − 20 AU), the IPM must have an opacity that is two orders of magnitude larger than the average Interstellar Medium (ISM). In the perhaps very narrow margin of the likelihood that the our suggested idea has anything at all to do with reality, then, the present findings suggest that opacity, which is a frequency dependent quantity, it may very well have a density dependence as-well.
Category: Astrophysics

[430] viXra:1611.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 14:36:23

Dark Matter in Solar System

Authors: Manuel abarca hernandez
Comments: 9 Pages. II version has calculated DM up to Eris orbit and up to Proxima Centauri distance

For last two years I have published several papers about DM on galaxies and cluster of galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original hypothesis which states that DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal law. As consequence this hypothesis, gravitational field is calculated through a Bernoulli differential equation which gives rightly DM density named Bernoulli profile. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters which are supposed to be valid for every gravitational system. Parameters A&B come from calculus made in paper [7] Abarca, M.2016. Specifically were calculated in M31 galaxy from rotation curve data for radius bigger than 40 kpc and lower than 200 kpc. In this region gravitational field is lower than 10^-11 m/s^2. Whereas inside Solar System gravitational field is billions of times bigger. However if it is supposed that DM generation mechanism is Universal then the same parameters should be right to study Dark matter density inside Solar System. It is remarkable the fact that through the same method I have published successful results for cluster of galaxies scale and galaxy scale. Unfortunately there is not experimental measures for DM inside Solar System yet so it is not possible for now check theoretical results published in this paper. The main results this paper are DM enclosed by spherical coronas defined by radius of Sun and planetary orbits. Through mass of Earth as unit of mass, results are the following ones: DM up to Mercury orbit is 71,8 MEARTH , up to Venus orbit is 75.76 MEARTH , up to Earth orbit is 77.5 MEARTH , up to Mars orbit is 79.5 MEARTH , up to Jupiter orbit is 83.96 MEARTH , up to Saturn orbit is 85.56 MEARTH , up to Uranus orbit is 87.04 MEARTH , up to Neptune orbit is 87.82 MEARTH , up to Pluto orbit is 88.25 MEARTH, up to Eris orbit is 88.98 MEARTH, up to half distance to Proxima Centauri is 92.33 MEARTH and up to Proxima Centauri distance is 92.39 MEARTH
Category: Astrophysics

[429] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-03 08:01:36

Rigid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages. 27

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes. These shapes permit the particles to have different functions like different masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Z particles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[428] viXra:1611.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-02 04:56:30

Electric Dark Matter Black Holes in the Moon (Orientale Basin)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

The multiple cliff-ringed lava plains on the moon are breath taking and how they came to be has puzzled scientists and even philosophers. However, multi-cliff ringed basins are also found in many different locations on other worlds. So, what created the basins? The suggestion of Quantum FFF Theory is that the double charged static electric fields assumed to be active concentric around new physics black holes should be the origin of circular cliff formation after the impact of a special comet which is only based on one nuclear black hole. Many comets however seem to be created around more than one new physics black hole as we may have observed in comets like 67P C-G and Shoemaker Levy 9. The resulting lava plains of such crashed comets are supposed to be represented by less circular gravity variations or less circular cliffed plains. Recent discussions around the foundation of black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about the nature of black holes and adjacent subjects.
Category: Astrophysics

[427] viXra:1610.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-22 06:43:23

Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Sphere Packed Average Particles

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[426] viXra:1609.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-17 17:23:45

Dark Matter as Power of Gravitational Field for MW VS M31. Two Similar Laws.

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 27 Pages. V2-Two new chapters with DM density formulas through dimensionless variables power.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about non baryonic dark matter nature, which was published by the author in [1] Abarca,M.2014. [3] Abarca,M.2015. [8] Abarca,M.2016. [ 11] Abarca,M.2016 and others papers. It was postulated that non baryonic dark matter density depend on E, gravitational field, through a power of E as a Universal law. In order to check this theory in this paper will be studied DM density in halo region of MW and M31. Throughout the paper, DM refers to Non Baryonic DM. Briefly will be described paper procedure. In third chapter are introduced rotation curves of MW, [5] Huang,Y.2016, and M31, [13] Sofue, Y.2015. It is fitted a power regression for velocity depending on radius in halo of both galaxies. Formula is v = a• R^b. In fourth chapter it is deduced mathematically a DM density profile for MW & M31 in halo region. This new profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression velocity depending on radius. In fifth chapter is found a new DM density as power of E, which is mathematically equivalent to Direct DM density. Its formula is DM density = A• E^B. Where A & B are coefficients which depend on a & b, coefficients of velocity power regression in rotation curve. Also are calculated A&B for MW and M31. Finally it is explained that hypothesis of DM depending on gravitational field as Universal law allows enlarge dominion DM as power E for radius inside disc and radius bigger than dominion measures. In sixth chapter, according theory of DM generated by gravitational field, is defined galactic halo as region where own gravitational field dominates over neighbour gravitational field. Through this criterion is found halo MW = 310 kpc and halo M31 = 460 kpc. The seventh is a crucial chapter, because it is successfully compared DM as power E in MW & M31. Both formulas are compared and relative differences throughout dominion of E are below 14 %. Agreement of both functions is the main evidence about DM power E as Universal law. In eighth chapter is compared DM density as power E with NFW profile given by author of rotation curve in his paper. [5] Huang,Y.2016. NFW density is bigger than DM power E throughout all dominion, and relative differences oscillate between 34% and 13%. Such remarkable differences will be properly justified. In ninth chapter is calculated total mass through NFW profile and dynamical method. Mass through NFW profile is bigger than through dynamical method. Difference might be explained by the same reason given in previous chapter. In tenth chapter is calculated Local DM density through DM power E profile, which gives 0,16 GeV/cm^3 and is compared with same magnitude given by [5] Huang,Y.2016, which is 0,32 GeV/cm^3. It is defended that there is not contradiction between both data because the first profile gives Non Baryonic DM only, whereas experimental data measure Baryonic and non Baryonic DM. In eleventh chapter is developed a mathematical procedure to change physics magnitudes as power into dimensionless power variables. This change has been possible thanks a new parameter Rs called scale radius. So it is defined x = radius/ Rs being x dimensionless. This way velocity v = c• x^d. As a consequence Direct DM is changed into a new dimensionless power and similarly happen to DM as power of E, where E is changed by a new dimensionless variable. In twelfth chapter is made use of new formulas to Milky Way data. New results have being checked and it has been shown that they are identical to got in previous chapters. It is concluded three main ideas which will be properly justified in following pages. The first one is that there are strong evidences about that fraction of Baryonic DM vs Non Baryonic DM inside bulge and galactic disc is bigger than the same fraction inside halo. The second one is DM generated by gravitational field theory leads rightly a new definition for halo radius. According this theory are calculated halo radius MW equal to 310 kpc and halo radius M31 equal to 460 kpc. The third one is that there are strong evidences that non baryonic DM density is generated by gravitational field as a Universal law. Main reason to support this hypothesis is got in chapter seventh.
Category: Astrophysics

[425] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-28 00:49:38

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a new explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[424] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-27 09:57:16

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a new explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[423] viXra:1608.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-25 08:42:40

God Seems to Play Dice with Dual Entangled Pinball Machines in a Supersymmetric (Susy) Multiverse

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

In a SUSY (Supersymmetric ) multiverse, God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us humans make decisions. Intelligent beings are lucky to became more time ( 0.5 sec.) to veto actions initiated by one of the other universes. As a result: The creation of a "democratic veto related free will" of each individual human! In Quantum FFF Theory it is assumed that each quantum is instant entangled with one or more dual Charge Parity (anti) symmetric copy particles present in opposing multiverse bubbles embedded in the so called raspberry shaped multiverse. Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. In addition, I found recently support for a multiverse related quantum experiment done by Giulia Rubino and Philip Walther of Institute for Quantum Optics Vienna as a strong indication, that not only for humans but also for “ dead” quanta a possible multiverse relation could be postulated. As a result we may say, that God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines (universal bubbles like ours) to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us make more or less conscious decisions.
Category: Astrophysics

[422] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-10 09:17:46

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[421] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-29 09:13:36

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[420] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-19 09:18:47

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[419] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-19 02:12:23

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[418] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-17 07:55:42

Black-Holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint regard to black-holes’ innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[417] viXra:1608.0111 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-21 12:06:09

Quelques Conséquences de la Matière Noire Entropique Relativiste

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

L'objectif de cet article est de tirer quelques conséquences importantes de la théorie de la matière noire entropique relativiste (GEST) dont l'approximation des champs faibles (SWFA) est un modèle. Il y sera exposé la dérivation de la relation de Tully-Fisher, la dérivation d'une nouvelle forme de décalage de fréquence, le décalage intrinsèque, et la courbe de distribution de la masse (matière) noire. Ces extensions théoriques permettront peut-être de comprendre les erreurs expérimentales inexplicables dans le calcul de la constante de Hubble et le problème de la création et de la stabilisation des disques galactiques. De plus, puisque le champ de matière noire exposé est probablement le champ BEHHGK, les implications du calcul de la courbe de distribution dépasse largement le domaine de l'astrophysique.
Category: Astrophysics

[416] viXra:1608.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-18 15:48:23

Kic 8462852 Intrinsic Variability

Authors: Fernando Martinez Isla
Comments: 5 Pages.

The light curve of KIC 8462852 in dips around day 1519 and 1568 shows features matching clearly the rotational period of the star. Changes in brightness (unevenly distributed around its surface in these two cases) are shown modulated by the rotational period. Therefore the probable explication of this mysterious variability must be some phenomenon of the star itself instead of occultations by external objects.
Category: Astrophysics

[415] viXra:1608.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-28 11:35:49

Plasma, Cosmic Noise, Heterodynes and Harmonics

Authors: Frank H.Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages.

The bulk of the electromagnetic (EM) waves produced and propagating throughout the universe are created in plasmas that are within the influence of a magnetic field. Every naturally produced EM wave will have multiple frequencies impressed upon their waveform during their initial creation and interactions within a plasma. The interaction of non-aligned electromagnetic waves within a plasma is not discussed in the literature and this interaction is the probable cause for cosmic and radio noise. Cyclotron particle motion in plasma tubes will produce helical electromagnetic waveforms. These waveforms will present a variety of characteristics at a receiving site depending upon the radius of the helical waveform, distance and viewing angle relative to the center of the helix. Incorrect conclusions can be made not knowing an electromagnetic waveform is helical with a radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[414] viXra:1608.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-08 23:21:37

Theory of Periodical Bursts of the Sun and the Planets

Authors: G.-P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Raise the theory of periodical bursts of the Sun and the planets. Point out that the Jovian planets, main-belt asteroids, and the terrestrial planets originated from periodical bursts of the Sun from 4.8 billion to 4.4 billion years ago. A large amount of objects from the last burst of the Sun caused the Late Heavy Bombardment. Point out that planets also burst periodically and their bursts gave birth to their regular satellites, and the rings of Jovian planets. Many facts of the solar system were systematically explained with the theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[413] viXra:1607.0556 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-03 08:11:01

A Subatomic Replica of Our Solar System. Macrocosmos and Microcosmos. As Above! So Below!

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we show that each planet and sun (star) has a mathematical subatomic twin. Each planetary twin particle has exactly the same mathematical properties as its substantially larger twin planet or Sun. From a planet's twin particle we get the planet's escape velocity, its solar deflection, and its red shift. If we arrange these solar system twin particles with their relative distances as our real solar system then they will, based on Newton's law of gravitation, have the same orbital velocities as the true solar system. In other words, we have created a subatomic world that in many respects is a replica of the Macrocosmos.
Category: Astrophysics

[412] viXra:1607.0427 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-25 11:50:59

A New Dark Matter Density Profile as Power of Gravitational Field for Coma Cluster

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 18 Pages. In V2 DM has been got by analitical integration instead numerical. Calculus and observation differ 6% instead 8 %.

For last two years I have published eight papers about DM on galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original profile called Bernoulli profile and check its results with other standard DM profiles such as NFW, Burket or Pseudo-Isothemal. Results on every galaxy checked have been successful. The importance these works is that Bernoulli profile is supported by an original hypothesis about Dark matter nature. This hypothesis stated that dark matter is generated locally by gravitational field, E, according an unknown quantum mechanism. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters. Now , in this paper Dark matter density in Coma cluster will be studied with the same method. Briefly is going to be explained the structure of this paper. Firstly are presented data Coma Cluster, which come from recent papers published in 2016. They are two couples of radius and mass enclosed by its sphere. Radius considered are R500 = 1.314 Mpc and Virial radius = 3.1 Mpc With only two couple of data is fitted NFW profile for Dark matter density in Coma cluster within an interval radius 1.314 Mpc to 3.1 Mpc. NFW profile is an intermediate processes to get A & B parameters of formula DM density = A•E^B. Finally it is got a Bernoulli differential equation for E whose solution gives DM density Bernoulli profile and whose dominion extend up to 14 Mpc. As it is known DM through NFW profile gives an excessive amount of DM within halo up to 14 Mpc. This is the reason why I have tried with Bernoulli profile. According Chernin,A. 2013. At cluster scale is needed to consider dark energy, gravitating mass and matter mass. This formula relates three masses. MG (R) = MM (R) + MDE (R) .Dark energy is a negative quantity. So gravitating mass, which is the mass measured by observation is lower than mass matter which is baryonic mass plus dark matter. Result got as gravitating mass within cluster halo up to 14 Mpc through DM calculated with Bernoulli profile is 2.25• 10 ^15 Solar masses and differ only 6% regarding gravitating mass got by Geller M.J. & Diaferio A. 1999 whereas gravitating mass got with NFW differ more than 600%.
Category: Astrophysics

[411] viXra:1607.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-19 14:46:09

The Evolution of the System of Gravitating Bodies

Authors: Kiryan D.G., Kiryan G.V.
Comments: 20 Pages. 9 Figures, 3 Tables, Russian

A natural physical approach to the analysis of the structure of closed gravitating systems has been formulated in the scope of classical mechanics. The approach relies on the interrelation between densities of nested spheres inscribed in the circular orbits of the system bodies. An empirical law has been defined for the evolution of closed gravitating systems differing in mass, time scale and distance from the ground-based Observer. The gravitating systems undergo modifications and evolve from their initial state, namely, a gas-and-dust formation of almost constant density over the entire volume, to a certain terminal phase of the process when the system structure becomes similar to the planetary system (like the Solar system) where almost all the gravitating mass is concentrated in the vicinity of the system center of gravity. Using the proposed method of nested spheres, it is possible to reveal for the gravitating system the character of radial distribution of matter density in the system symmetry plane, quantitatively evaluate the density of medium containing the gravitating system under consideration, and assess the current phase of the system evolution. The research results have led us to a conclusion that introduction into the scientific practice of such an entity as "dark matter" has no physical background since it is based on a wrong interpretation of an "unordinary" distribution of star orbital velocities in galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[410] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-31 07:23:38

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 4 Pages. Text expanded for clarity; comments welcome.

The hypothesis of gravitational wave, suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses outstanding challenges, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[409] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-30 04:48:36

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 3 Pages. One reference added.

The idea of gravitational wave (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses outstanding challenges, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[408] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-22 08:32:13

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. One reference added and text expanded.

The idea of gravitational wave (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses outstanding challenges, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[407] viXra:1607.0377 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 10:39:34

Gravitational Wave Miracles?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 2 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

The idea of ‘gravitational wave’ (GW), suggested by Albert Einstein in 1916, still poses a number of unsolved questions, which have to be resolved by the theoretical physics community as soon as possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[406] viXra:1607.0373 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-11 22:58:14

Dark Matter, the Correction to Newton's Law in a Disk

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 8 Pages. Accepted for publication in Progress in Physics

The dark matter problem in the context of spiral galaxies refers to the discrepancy between the galactic mass estimated from luminosity measurements of galaxies with a given mass-to-luminosity ratio and the galactic mass measured from the rotational speed of stars using the Newton’s law. Newton’s law fails when applied to a star in a spiral galaxy. The problem stems from the fact that Newton’s law is applicable to masses represented as points by their barycenter. As spiral galaxies have shapes similar to a disk, we shall correct Newton’s law accordingly. We found that the Newton’s force exerted by the interior mass of a disk on an adjacent mass shall be multiplied by the coefficient ηdisk estimated to be 7.44±0.83 at a 99% confidence level. The corrective coefficient for the gravitational force exerted by a homogeneous sphere at it’s surface is 1.00±0.01 at a 99% confidence level, meaning that Newton’s law is not modified for a spherical geometry. This result was proven a long time ago by Newton in the shell theorem.
Category: Astrophysics

[405] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-21 04:20:06

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages.

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[404] viXra:1607.0365 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-19 09:11:02

Visualizing the Event Horizon of a Black Hole

Authors: Stefano Sello
Comments: 5 Pages.

The “Event Horizon Telescope”, EHT, is a radio-telescope planetary network, and its goal is to reach a sufficiently high spatial resolution to obtain real images of Sgr A*, a supermassive black hole located at the core of our galaxy. Waiting for real observational data, now we can analyze predicted EHT data obtained from a simulations to "see" the event horizon and the neighborhood of Sgr A*. In this brief research note we suggest a method to improve the capabilities of our current image analyses, using a proper isometric pesudo-3D projection analysis. In fact, the details obtained are impressive and this first result suggests that the pseudo-3D isometric projection analysis could be a useful tool to better study the main properties of the surroundings of the event horizon of a black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[403] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-03 10:26:58

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 5 Pages.

While it seems clear that nothing can exceed the speed of light as it would be measured at a stationary point in an imaginary empty universe devoid of gravitational influences, it also seems clear that there are mathematical versus logic problems with a constant speed of light in our real universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[402] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-08 09:46:18

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 8 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s Principled Special Theory of Relativity states that a moving object will experience time running slower than a stationary object. I.e., it will experience dilated time. This has been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second, the question then becomes: Whose second? The Constructive Theory defined here shows that light emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s second, not per Earth second. Light from celestial objects does not arrive at any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s velocity through space and its proximity to any gravitational mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[401] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-01 08:58:13

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 11 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s Principled Special Theory of Relativity states that a moving object will experience time running slower than a stationary object. I.e., it will experience dilated time. This has been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second, the question then becomes: Whose second? The Constructive Theory of Relativity defined here shows that light emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s second, not per Earth second. Light from celestial objects does not arrive at any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s velocity through space and its proximity to any gravitational mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[400] viXra:1607.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-25 10:22:05

Time Dilated Light

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 11 Pages.

Albert Einstein’s Principled Special Theory of Relativity states that a moving object will experience time running slower than a stationary object. I.e., it will experience dilated time. This has been confirmed many times with atomic clocks. If the speed of light is defined as 299,792 kilometers per second, the question then becomes: Whose second? The Constructive Theory of Relativity defined here shows that light emitted by a distant time-dilated object will arrive at the earth at 299,792 kilometers per the object’s second, not per Earth second. Light from celestial objects does not arrive at any “universal speed of light,” but arrives at widely varied velocities depending upon the emitting object’s velocity through space and its proximity to any gravitational mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[399] viXra:1606.0279 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-13 17:45:51

Dark Matter Density on Big Galaxies Depend on Gravitational Field as Universal Law

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 29 Pages. V2 contain calculus of Coma Cluster mass trhough DM density as power of E law

This paper contain results from six previous paper I have published for different galaxies about dark matter density depending on gravitational field. Galaxies studied are NGC 2841, NGC 7331, NGC 3992, M31. All of them are big galaxies bigger than Milky Way. In addition Milky Way was studied with data coming from two authors. Also were studied two intermediate galaxies M33 (Triangulum galaxy) and NGC 3198 Each paper studied dark matter density depending on gravitational field on each galaxy. Rotation curve and dark matter density function depending on radius were taken from paper published by prestigious astrophysics and I got dark matter density depending on gravitational field through a mathematical method. I found that Dark matter density depend on gravitational field according a power function DM density = A•E^B, where A and B are parameters which depend on each galaxy. In this paper are gathered eight different functions belonging to eight different galactic data set and they are tabulated and plotted in order to compare all of them. Conclusion got is that dark matter density depending on gravitational field is very similar on big galaxies whereas DM density is a great deal bigger on intermediate galaxies. The less massive galaxy is the higher DM density is. Results got for big and intermediate galaxies are consistent with author hypothesis which state that dark matter is generated by the own gravitational field. This second version paper include an estimation of total mass in Coma Cluster got through DM density as power of E which is very close to mass calculated by cosmological standard model CDM and NFW profile in a paper published in 2015 by prestigious researchers. This calculus is a test overcome to consider DM density as power of gravitational field as Universal law because that law was got for big galaxies and it has been used to calculated total dark matter inside a galaxy cluster which is 100 times bigger and it contains thousand of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[398] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-19 21:39:15

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 8 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[397] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 12:06:16

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 7 Pages. One reference added.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[396] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-24 15:12:11

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages. One reference added and text expanded. Comments welcomed.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[395] viXra:1606.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 06:32:02

GW150914: Are Cows Spherical?

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Text expanded, typos corrected.

I argue that vacuum spacetime with T^ab = 0 is highly exaggerated approximation, like the famous 'spherical cow'. If you are a cowboy and wish only to count the number of cows in your herd, you may of course think of them as 'spherical objects'. But imagine the following situation: as you walk in your grassland, you notice that the grass on a loan has been hardly pressed to the ground, as if some heavy object has passed through your grassland. Would you say that some brand new spherical cows have rolled over the grass? That will be just like GW150914, the alleged discovery of gravitational waves and black holes in vacuum spacetime. Details at my website http://chakalov.net .
Category: Astrophysics

[394] viXra:1606.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-22 05:53:17

An Explanation for Galaxy Rotation Rates Without Requiring Dark Matter

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

The rotation rates of stars in observed Galaxies are almost the same regardless of the distance from the galactic center and can currently only be explained by invoking a huge halo of invisible dark matter filling the space occupied by the galaxy. By realizing that space-time itself is an energy field that can flow, the rotation of galaxies can be explained by space-time also being consumed by the black hole at the center of a galaxy.
Category: Astrophysics

[393] viXra:1606.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-21 14:31:02

Detected Gravitational Waves Were not Generated by Colliding Black Holes

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages. none

The detail analysis of Gravitational Waves waveforms detected by LIGO observatory shows that the waves could not have been generated by colliding Black Holes. Most likely they were generated by colliding collapsed stars (“gravistars’ or “collapstars”, G-stars for short), which do not have Event Horizons. This is shown by using a simple model of a Sun mass G-star orbiting a G-star with a mass of 100 Suns. The evaluation is based on the comparison of two different metrics, the Schwarzschild metric, and the new metric derived by the author earlier, which provide the orbital frequencies as functions of a distance from the main G-star center.
Category: Astrophysics