[6] **viXra:1409.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 04:57:48*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A three-page letter published in Astrophysics and Space Science

This letter points out that the values of ‘critical-acceleration’ of MOND, and the ‘accelerated-expansion’ of the universe are just two of the fourteen strikingly equal values of accelerations recurring in different physical situations. Alternative expressions for the cosmological red-shift, the ‘critical-acceleration’ of MOND and Newton’s law of universal gravitation are also presented.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5] **viXra:1409.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 05:04:01*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page paper

This letter presents some new expressions for gravity without the big G and proposes their possible wave-theoretical-explanation. This attempt leads to some insight that: (i) We need the proportionality-constant G because we measure masses and distances in our arbitrarily-chosen units of kg. and meters; but if we measure ‘mass’ as a fraction of ‘total-mass of the universe’ M0 and measure distances as a fraction of ‘radius-of-the-universe’R0 then there is no need for the proportionality-constant G. However, large uncertainties in the M0 and R0 limit the general application of this relation presently. (ii) The strength of gravity would be different if the total-mass of the universe were different. Then this possibility is supported with the help of wave-theory. (iii) This understanding of G leads to an insight that Planck’s-length, Planck-mass and Planck’s unit of time are geometric-mean-values of astrophysical quantities like: total-mass of the universe and the smallest-possible-mass h H0 / c^2. (iv) There appears a law followed by various systems-of-matter, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe; that their ratio Mass / Radius^2 remains constant. This law seems to be more fundamental than the fundamental-forces because it is obeyed irrespective of the case, whether the system is bound by strong-force, electric-force, or gravitational-force.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[4] **viXra:1409.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-16 00:40:53*

**Authors:** Yuri Heymann

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

By differentiating the standard formula for the luminosity distance with respect to time, we find
that the equation is inconsistent with light propagation. Therefore, a new defnition of the luminosity distance is provided for an expanding Universe. From supernovae observations, using this defnition we find that the Hubble parameter is a constant of physics equal to Ho = 63.2 km/s/Mpc.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[3] **viXra:1409.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 20:38:08*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Considering the subject of black hole cosmology as a key branch of the quantum gravity, many fundamental issues of theoretical and observational cosmology can be understood.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1409.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 03:54:54*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two page priliminary note

In a paper titled: Explanation of the anomalous Doppler observations in Pioneer-10 and 11 Renshaw, C. (Aerospace Conference, 1999, Proceedings IEEE, Vol-2) finds that: “The value of the anomalous shift is shown to equal the difference between the calculated values for Newtonian and Special Relativistic Doppler expressions. The anomalous signals seem to indicate a preference for the Newtonian values.” This value of anomalous acceleration (8.0 x 10-8 cm/s2) is now known to equal H0 c, the value of accelerated expansion of the universe. It implies that if we use Newtonian formula for Doppler shift, then there is a possibility of vanishing the ‘accelerated expansion’ of the universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1409.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-04 15:20:09*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 14 Pages; 6Tables; 25 References

In a previous series of papers relating to the Combined Gravitational Action (CGA), we have exclusively studied orbital motion without spin. In the present paper we apply CGA to any self-rotating material body, i.e., an axially spinning massive object, which itself may be locally seen as a gravito-rotational source because it is capable of generating the gravito-rotational (field) acceleration, which seems to be unknown to previously existing theories of gravity. The consequences of such an acceleration are very interesting, particularly for Compact Stellar Objects and Sun.

**Category:** Astrophysics